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Contents

Introduction

Three-phase power
Phase power
Total true power
The power triangle

Power measurement
One wattmeter
Two wattmeter method
Three wattmeters
Power factor measurement

Summary

Answers

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Introduction

When a load is connected to a three phase supply, it draws power from that
supply. The value of the load power is important in determining the actual
size of the load which the source is capable of supplying, the size of the
cables connecting the source to the load and the type and size of the
protection used to protect both the load and the source.

In this section we will examine some of the concepts relating to three phase
power, the methods used to minimise reactive power at the source and the
means of measuring true three phase power and determining the power factor
of a three phase load.

At the end of this section you should be able to:


explain the purposes for measuring power, energy, power factor and
maximum demand of a.c. power systems and loads
explain the difference between true power, apparent power and
reactive power and the units in which these quantities are measured in
a three phase system
draw the power triangle to show the relationships between true
power, apparent power and reactive power in a three phase system
describe the methods used to measure three phase power , energy,
power factor and demand
determine how the power factor of a three phase installation can be
improved
using manufacturers catalogues, select measurement equipment for a
particular installation.

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Three-phase power

Power in a three-phase circuit is calculated in much the same way as single-


phase power. The main difference is that three-phase power refers to the
total power of a three-phase load, whereas single-phase power refers to only
one part of a three-phase load, or to the total load if it is supplied from a
single-phase source.

Phase power
The power developed, used and/or consumed in a phase is determined using
the equations already covered in this module. Look at the basic three-phase
circuit in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Basic three-phase circuit

In the circuit drawn in Figure 1 we can see that there are three independent
loads, supplied from a three-phase source. The power used by each section
of the load is calculated by using one of the following equations.

The equations for each phase are therefore the same, except that when we
are dealing with a specific phase subscripts identifying that phase are used.
For example, the equations for A phase would be written as:

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Example 1

Determine the phase powers consumed by a three-phase star connected load


consisting of inductors having an impedance of 24 with a power factor of
0.8 lagging, when supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source.

Solution

Step 1 Determine the phase voltage. As the load is star connected, use the
following equation:

Rearrange to find Vphase:

B C
Similarly, V and V are also 240 V.

Step 2 Determine the phase current using Ohms law.

B C
By similar calculation, I and I are also 10 A.

Step 3 Determine the phase power using the equation.

Therefore:

P C VC I C cos C
240 10 0. 8
1920 W

As you can see from Example 1, if the load is balanced the values for
voltage, current and power have the same magnitude for each phase.

Student exercise 1

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1 Determine the phase powers consumed by a three-phase star connected load consisting
of heaters having an impedance of 50 if it is supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50
Hz source.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 Determine the phase powers consumed by a three-phase delta connected motor, whose
winding impedance is 12 with a power factor of 0.7 lagging, if it is supplied from a
three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

Total true power


Total power in any circuit is determined by simply adding together the
powers used by the load.

With true power there is no phase separation. This means that total true
power for a three-phase load is the numerical sum of the three individual
phase powers. This can be written as:

where PA, PB and PC are the three-phase powers.

This equation is valid for any type of load, balanced or unbalanced.

How the equation works for balanced loads is demonstrated in Example 2,


while Example 3 deals with unbalanced loads.

Example 2

Determine the total power consumed by a three-phase star connected load


where each phase of the load consists of inductors having an impedance of
10 with a power factor of 0.6 lagging, if it is supplied from a three-phase
415 V, 50 Hz source.

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Step 1 Determine the phase voltage. As the load is star connected, use the
following equation:

Rearrange to find Vphase

Therefore:

Step 2 Determine the phase current using Ohms law.

Step 3 Determine the phase power using the equation.

Step 4 Determine the total power.

Example 3

Determine the total power consumed by a three-phase star connected load


supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source. The load consists of a
20 resistor (A phase), a 15 impedance with a power factor of 0.7
(B phase) and a 25 impedance with a power factor of 0.9 (C phase).

Solution

Step 1 Determine the phase voltage. As the load is star connected, use the
following equation:

Rearrange to find Vphase

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Step 2 Determine the phase current using Ohms law.

Step 3 Determine the phase power using the equation.

Step 4 Determine the total power.

Balanced loads
As Example 1 showed, if the load is balanced the phase powers are equal,
and the simplest way of determining the total power is to calculate one phase
power and multiply it by three. That is:

In star connected loads the following equations apply:

If we substitute the star equations into the total power equation we can write
the often-used equation for total power in a balanced load:

In delta connected loads the following equations apply:

If we substitute the delta equations into the total power equation we can
write the often-used equation for total power in a balanced load:

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As you can see, the total power equation is identical for both types of
balanced loads, either star connected or delta connected. As the phase values
are typically unobtainable, being within the machine or equipment, it is very
important to be able to use line values of voltage and currentthese are the
only values that can be measured at the point of connection.

Example 4

A three-phase delta connected induction motor draws 20 A at a power factor


of 0.8 lagging from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz supply. Determine the
electrical input to the motor.

Solution

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Student exercise 2

1 A three-phase delta connected induction motor draws 20 A at a power factor of 0.8


lagging from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz supply. Determine the electrical input to the
motor.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 An 11 kV transformer supplies a 300 kW balanced load operating at a 0.9 power factor


lagging. Determine the line current supplied by the transformer.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3 Determine the total power consumed by a three-phase delta connected load where each
phase of the load consists of inductors having an impedance of 25 with a power
factor of 0.8 lagging, if it is supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

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The power triangle
As you know there are three types of power in ac circuits: true power,
apparent power and reactive power.

You will remember that these powers can be linked together by means of a
power triangle. As power is the same for three-phase power as for single-
phase, the triangle is the same (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Power triangle for three-phase system

In Figure 2 the horizontal line represents the true power (P), the vertical line
represents the reactive power (Q) and the diagonal line represents the
apparent power (S). The triangle is always drawn this way, regardless of the
load type.

Remember that the triangle must be scaled if it is to be used for solving


problems.

Calculations using the power triangle use the trigonometric relationships of


sine, cosine and tangent, and Pythagoras theorem. The equations commonly
used for calculating each power are:

These equations apply both to the individual phase powers and to the total
power of the three-phase load. Take care when performing calculations with
three-phase power that you keep phase power values separate from the
three-phase values.

Example 5

A three-phase transformer is rated at 50 kVA. If the transformer is fully


loaded, determine the true power and the reactive power for the transformer
if the load it is supplying has a power factor of 0.6 lagging.

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Solution

Step 1 Draw the circuit (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Circuit for example 5

Step 2 Convert the power factor to an angle.

pf = cos

Since the power factor was lagging the phase angle is a negative value
with respect to the voltage.

= 53.13

Step 3 Determine the true power.

Step 4 Determine the reactive power.

The power factor


We have seen that keeping the power factor as close as practicable to unity
has a number of advantages, the most important being that the line current
drawn from the supply will have a minimum value.

The power triangle can also be used to illustrate and/or solve problems
dealing with power factor correction. (If the triangle is used to solve a
problem, remember that it must be drawn to scale). Example 6 gives the two
methods of solving a problem dealing with power factor correction, one
graphical and one analytical.

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Example 6

A three-phase balanced load requires 180 kW of power when operating at a


power factor of 0.6 lagging and connected to a 415 V, 50 Hz three-phase
supply. Determine the kVAr rating and capacitance of a star connected
capacitor bank that would improve the power factor to 0.9 lagging.

Solution 1 - Graphical method

Step 1 Draw the circuit (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Circuit for example 6

Step 2 Determine the original circuit phase angle.

Step 3 Determine the true, apparent and reactive powers for the original
load.

P = 180 kW (given)

Note that you only need P and the angle to construct the power triangle.

Step 4 Select a suitable scale and convert the values determined in


Step 3 to scaled values. We will use a scale of 5 kW (or kVA, or
kVAr) to 1 mm.

Step 5 Draw the triangle (Figure 5).

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Figure 5: Phasors for example 6

Step 6 Determine the new circuit phase angle.

Step 7 Draw a line at the new phase angle of the circuit onto the original
triangle representing the original load as in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Line for new phase angle for example 6

Step 8 Using Figure 6, measure the distance between the points at which
the original and the new lines representing the apparent power
touch the reactive power side of the triangle. This distance
represents the capacitive VAr added to the circuit.

Convert this value to a real unit using the scale.


30.6 5
Qcap
1
153 kVAr

Step 9 Determine the phase current in the capacitor bank. In star, we have:

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or, as the capacitor bank is star connected, and in star , the phase
current may be calculated using

Rearrange to find Iline

Step 10 Determine the capacitive reactance of each capacitor.

Step 11 Determine the capacitance in each phase of the load.

Solution 2 - Analytical method

Step 1 Draw the circuit for the example as in Figure 4.

Step 2 Determine the original circuit phase angle.

pf = cos

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Step 3 Determine the true, apparent and reactive powers for the original
load.

P = 180 kW (given)

Step 4 Determine the new circuit phase angle.

Step 5 Determine the true, apparent and reactive powers for the new load
including the capacitor bank.

P = 180 kW (given)
P
Snew
cos
180 103

cos(25.8)
180 103

0.9
200 kVA

Step 6 Determine the capacitor bank rating by finding the difference


between the original reactive power and the new reactive power.
Qcap Qold Qnew
240 87
153 kVAr

Step 7 Determine the phase current in the capacitor bank. Remember that
in star

Or, as the capacitor bank is star connected, and in star , the phase
current may be calculated using

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Rearrange to find Iline

Step 8 Determine the phase impedance of each capacitor using Ohms law.

As a capacitor is a pure component, its impedance equals the


capacitive reactance: ie

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Step 9 Determine the capacitance in each phase of the load.

The analytical method looks easier, as there are fewer steps in solving the
problem. The graphical solution, however, allows the principles of power
factor correction to be more easily understood.

The most common three-phase arrangement for connecting capacitor banks


is delta, as this allows for maximum effect on the line current with minimum
current rating of the actual capacitors.

The capacitors may be arranged in delta whether the load is star connected
or delta connected. This is shown in Figures 7(a) for a star load and 7(b) for
a delta load.

(a) star load (b) delta load

Figure 7: Connection of three-phase capacitor banks in delta

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Student exercise 3

A three-phase balanced load requires 750 kW of power when operating at a power


factor of 0.75 lagging. It is connected to a 415 V, 50 Hz three-phase supply. Determine
the kVAr rating and capacitance of a delta connected capacitor bank that would
improve the power factor to

(a) 0.85 lagging

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

(b) 0.95 lagging

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

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Power measurement

There are a number of methods to measure the power used and/or developed
by a load. They all involve a meter called a wattmeter. This meter was
discussed in other resource modules.

Three-phase power is measured using one, two or three wattmeters. The


method which is used, is determined by three factors:
whether the load is balanced or unbalanced
whether the supply system is three wire or four wire
the availability and cost of the wattmeters.

One wattmeter
The one wattmeter method of connection can be used on both three wire and
four wire three-phase systems. It is easiest to look first at the three-phase
four wire system. This is illustrated in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Connection of single analog wattmeter

In this method the voltage coil of the wattmeter is connected between one
phase and neutral. The power measured is phase power.

If the load is balanced, the total power used by the load is three times the
measured value. This is written as

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Example 7

A single wattmeter is used to measure the power consumed by a balanced


load. If the wattmeter is connected to measure the power in the A phase of
the load and the reading is 1500 W, determine the total power in the load.

Solution

If the load is unbalanced, the technique is to measure each phase power and
add the three phase values together. This is written as

This method suffers the disadvantage that the connection process is more
tedious than for a balanced load, as the actual connections of the wattmeter
must be changed for each reading.

Example 8

A single wattmeter is used to measure the power used by an unbalanced


three-phase load. If the power measured in A phase, B phase and C phase is
1200 W, 3245 W and 2790 W respectively, determine the total power in the
load.

Solution

A disadvantage of this type of wattmeter connection is that it is not accurate


for varying unbalanced loads.

The three-phase three wire system of supply can also be monitored using a
single wattmeter. Remember that to measure phase power the wattmeter
must be connected between one line and neutral. In the three wire system
there is no neutral. To overcome this, an artificial star point (neutral point) is
created by connecting one end of the voltage coil of the wattmeter to one
line and the other end to two impedances which are in turn connected to the
other two lines. This is illustrated in Figure 9.

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Figure 9: Single analog wattmeter with artificial star point

It is very important that the impedance values of the two impedances used
with the voltage coil to create the artificial star point are the same as that of
the voltage coil of the wattmeter, otherwise inaccurate readings will result.
The easiest way to accomplish this is to use two coils identical to the voltage
coil of the wattmeter. These are obtainable from the manufacturers and
distributors of these meters.

As for the four-wire connection of a single wattmeter, the load may be


balanced or unbalanced.

The total power for the load is determined in the same way as for the four
wire connection. That is, for balanced loads

and for unbalanced loads

Two wattmeter method


This method may only be used on three wire systems. The connection
diagram is shown in Figure 10.

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Figure 10: Connection of analog wattmeters for two wattmeter method

The total power is found by adding the readings of the two meters. This is
written as:

This can be proven mathematically by considering the instantaneous values of


current and voltage to be e1 and i1 for A, e2 and i2 for B with e3 and i3 for C.

Voltage across W1 = e3 e2

Voltage across W2 = e1 - e2

Average power indicated by W1 = i3 (e3 e2)

Average power indicated by W2 = i1 (e1 e2)


W1 +W2 i3 (e3 e2 ) i1 (e1 e2 )
i3e3 i3e2 i1e1 i1e2
i1e1 i3e3 e2 (i3 i1 )
But (i3 i1 ) i2 total zero at node
W1 +W i1e1 i3e3 i2e2

This method of connection is accurate for balanced and unbalanced loads,


but it does give inaccurate readings for loads with low power factors. A
further disadvantage is that phase power cannot be measured.

Example 9

The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the
power used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 10 kW and W2
reads 7 kW, determine the total power in the load.

Solution

As most analog meters deflect in one direction only, for some loads, the
meter will try to deflect backwards due to the phase relationship between
current and voltage within the meter. When this occurs, the voltage coil
connections must be reversed. Some meters provide a reversing switch that
will reverse the connections of the voltage coil in the wattmeter. This will
then allow the meter to indicate the power that the load is consuming. For
the total power calculation, this reversal of the coil will mean that the value
measured by that wattmeter should be regarded as negative. Dont forget to
alter the polarity of the reading in the total power equation.

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Example 10

The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the
power used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 4.5 kW after the
reversing switch is closed and W2 reads 13 kW, determine the total power in
the load.

Solution

Three wattmeters
Like the single wattmeter, this may be used with either three phase three wire
system or three phase four wire systems.

We will look first at the four wire system. The current coil of each wattmeter
is connected in a line and the voltage coil is connected between one line and
neutral. This is shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: Connection of three analog wattmeters

With this method each phase power is measured, and the total power is the
sum of the three readings. This is written as

The main disadvantage of this method is the expense of installing and using
three meters.

Example 11

Three wattmeters are used to measure the power consumed in an unbalanced


three phase load supplied from a three phase four wire source. If the power
measured by W1, W2 and W3is 4700 W, 5200 W and 3750 W respectively,
determine the total power in the load.

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Solution

The connection diagram for using three wattmeters in a three-wire system is


given in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Connection of three analog wattmeters using artificial star point

Figure 12 shows how an artificial star point is created by connecting one end
of each of the voltage coils together. It must be stressed that this artificial
star point can only be created with the voltage coils if they are identical. If
they are not identical, they will not develop symmetrical phase voltages, and
the wattmeters will give incorrect readings.

The total power is again the sum of the phase powers measured by the three
wattmeters.

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Student exercise 4

1 A single wattmeter is used to measure the power consumed by a balanced load. If the
wattmeter is connected to measure the power in the B phase of the load and the reading
is 4200 W, determine the total power in the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power
used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 40 kW and W2 reads 27 kW,
determine the total power in the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power
used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 6 kW after the reversing switch is
closed and W2 reads 9.2 kW, determine the total power in the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4 Three wattmeters are used to measure the power consumed in an balanced three phase
load supplied from a three phase three wire source. If the power measured by W1, W2
and W3 is 1500 W, 3650 W and 2740 W respectively, determine the total power in the
load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

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Power factor measurement
An advantage of the two wattmeter method of measuring three phase power
is that it allows the power factor of the load to be determined. The circuit for
the two wattmeter connection is shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13: Two wattmeter connection

The equation for determining the power factor angle or phase angle of the
load is

Note: For this equation to work, W2 must be in the phase immediately before
W1 as shown below:
Phase sequence :
A B C A B C A
b b
W2 W1

Recall that the cosine of the phase angle is the power factor (cos = pf).

Example 13

The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the
power used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 5 kW and W2
reads 7 kW, determine the power factor of the load.

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As mentioned earlier, most analogue meters deflect in one direction only, and
in some meters a reversing switch is provided which will reverse the
connections of the voltage coil in the wattmeter. This allows the meter to
indicate the power the load is consuming. For the power factor calculation,
this reversal of the coil means that the value measured by that wattmeter will
be a negative value. Dont forget to alter the polarity of the reading in the
power factor equation.

If the wattmeter reading of W2 is greater than that of W1 the power factor is


lagging, while if the reading of W1 is greater than that of W2, the power
factor is leading. Typically, however, the nature of the load is used to
determine whether the power factor is leading or lagging. Inductive loads
have a lagging power factor and capacitive loads have a leading power
factor. As capacitors and capacitive loads are mainly used for power factor
correction, for normal distribution and utilisation purposes where wattmeters
are connected the usual power factor for a load is lagging.

If you have Jenneson, refer to section 9.8 Three phase power. See also
Appendix 1 for a description of a power factor meter. Note particularly
Figure A1.4 which clearly shows the same configuration of potential and
current coils used for the two wattmeter method.

If you have Hampson, refer to Energy and Power requirements of ac


systems, on page 204.

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Student exercise 5

1 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power
used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 2.5 kW and W2 reads 12 kW,
determine the power factor of the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power
used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 0 kW and W2 reads 10 kW,
determine the power factor of the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power
used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 10 kW and W2 reads 10 kW,
determine the power factor of the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

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Summary

Phase power is determined using one of the following:

Total power is the power used by the total load. For three phase
loads it is the sum of the three phase powers.

For balanced loads the equations that can be used are

There are three types of powers, apparent power (S), reactive power
(Q) and true power (P).
The three types can be linked by a power triangle in which the
horizontal line represents true power, the vertical line reactive power
and the diagonal line apparent power.
Capacitor banks are used to improve the power factor of an inductive
load. These capacitors are normally connected in parallel with the
load at the supply terminals of the load.
When connecting capacitor banks in three phase systems, the
capacitors are usually connected in delta.
To measure power, a wattmeter is used.
To measure three phase power either one, two or three wattmeters
are used, depending upon the load, the type of supply and the
availability and cost of the wattmeters.
The power factor of the load can be determined when using the two
wattmeter method by the equations

and

Check your progress 15

In questions 1 to 9, place the letter matching your answer in the brackets provided.

1 The minimum number of fixed wattmeters required to measure total power drawn by a
three-phase four-wire unbalanced load is:

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(a)one
(b)three
(c)two
(d) four. ( )

2 A maximum demand indicator measures maximum:


(a)volt amperes for a given time period
(b)volt amperes irrespective of time
(c)power used for a given time period
(d) power used irrespective of a time period. ( )

3 The total power in a three-phase system may be measured using a single fixed
wattmeter, provided the:
(a)load is not balanced
(b)load is balanced
(c)neutral is not connected
(d) load is star connected. ( )

4 When using a wattmeter to measure power in a three-phase star connected system, the
current coil is connected in:
(a)series with the load
(b)parallel with the supply
(c)series with the neutral
(d) parallel with the load. ( )

5 When using a wattmeter to measure power in a three-phase star connected system, the
voltage coil is connected in:
(a)series with the neutral
(b)series with the load
(c)parallel with the load
(d) series with the supply. ( )

6 When measuring balanced three-phase power with the two wattmeter method and both
readings are equal, the power factor is:
(a)unity
(b)zero
(c)0.5 leading
(d) 0.5 lagging. ( )

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7 The power factor of a three-phase load may be determined by the two wattmeter
method provided:
(a)the load is balanced
(b)the power factor is greater than 0.5
(c)the neutral is connected
(d) there is no current in the middle phase. ( )

8 A three-phase wattmeter can be constructed using the concepts of the two wattmeter
method using:
(a)two current coils on a single shaft
(b)two potential coils on a single shaft
(c)fixed potential coils
(d) a current coil and potential coil on a single shaft. ( )

9 Three-phase power factor can be measured using a:


(a)crossed coil meter with coils at 60
(b)VAr modified wattmeter
(c)maximum demand indicator
(d) crossed coil meter with coils at 90. ( )

10 A star connected ac generator develops 11 000 volts per phase. Determine the MVA
rating of the machine if the current per phase is 50 A.

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11 A three-phase alternator delivers a full load of 140 A at a power factor of 0.9 lagging. If
the terminal voltage is 415 V, calculate the:

(a) apparent power

(b) true power.

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32 EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems


NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980
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12 A factory draws a line current of 130 A from a 415V supply at a power factor of
0.6 lag. Determine the:

(a) kVAr rating of a capacitor bank to improve the power factor to 0.866 lag

(b) line current with the capacitor bank connected.

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EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems 33


NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980
13 The power in a three-phase 415 V system is measured by the two wattmeter method
where W1 indicates 30 kW and W2 indicates 20 kW. Calculate the:

(a) total power

(b) power factor

(c) line current.

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14 The power input to a three-phase, 415 V induction motor is measured by the two
wattmeter method where W1 indicates 10 kW and W2 indicates -6 kW (note the minus
sign). Calculate the:

(a) power input

(b) power factor of the motor.

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34 EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems


NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980
Answers

Student exercise 1
1 1152 W

2 10.05 kW

Student exercise 2
1 11.5 kW

2 17.5 A

3 16.53 kW

Student exercise 3
(a) 196 kVAr, 2290 F per phase

(b) 414 kVAr, 8160 F per phase

Student exercise 4
1 12.6 kW

2 67 kW

3 3.2 kW

4 7.89 kW

Student exercise 5
1 0.6 3 1 (unity)

2 0.5

EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems 35


NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980
36 EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems
NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980
Check your progress
1 (b)

2 (c)

3 (b)

4 (a)

5 (c)

6 (a)

7 (a)

8 (b)

9 (d)

10 1.65 MVA

11 (a) 100.632 kVA


(b) 90.75 kW

12 (a) 42.38 kVAR


(b) 90 A

13 (a) 50 kW
(b) 0.945 lag
(c) 73.6 A

14 (a) 4 kW
(b) 0.143

EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems 37


NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980