Você está na página 1de 4

Skiptomaincontent|Skiptomainmenu|Skiptothispage'ssubmenu|Skiptosearch

ChemSystems
News
Online
Careers
Clients
Methodology
Industry

Login:

NeedHelp?|AdvancedSearch|SearchGuide

Home|About|News

PERPProgramPhosphateandNPKFertilizers
INTRODUCTION
Phosphatehasbeenusedasafertilizerforcenturies.EuropeansandChinesefarmersappliedphosphatesinthe
formofbones,whereasthePeruviansusedguano,whichisawordderivedfromQuechuaIncaslanguage
whichreferstobirdsdroppings.
Nonetheless, it was not until the 18th century, when it was discovered that calcium dihydrogenphosphate or
superphosphate as it was named, is the main component of bones. Not long after that discovery, it was
concludedthatphosphateandnottheorganicmatterofbones,isthesubstancethathasthefertilizingproperty.

Inthe19thcentury,theproductionofsolublephosphatesbytreatingasubstratecontaininginsolublephosphates
withacidwasamajorbreakthrough,andtogetherwithfindingsoflargedepositsofmineralphosphatestriggered
thefastdevelopmentofthecommercialphosphatefertilizerindustry.Phosphatefertilizerderivedfrommineral
phosphateorphosphaterock,displacedphosphatesourcesfromguanoandboneswhicharelesseconomicalasa
resultofalowercontentofphosphatepertonoffertilizer.Phosphaterockreferstorockthatcontainsapatite
whichismainlycalciumphosphate.Phosphaterockmaycontainothermetalphosphatesandhalogenswhich
canhaveanimpactinfertilizerproduction.

Inthelate1800s,superphosphatesderivedfromphosphaterockweredominatingthefertilizerindustry.Then,
around1920,ammonizationofphosphoricacidgaverisetotheproductionofmultinutrientfertilizers.Inthe
1930s, the nitrophosphate process, which involves the acidulation of phosphate rock with nitric acid, was
commercializedinNorway.

Whilephosphoricacidisalargecommoditythisislargelyduetoitsconsumptioninfertilizersproduction.This
isillustratedbythefactthat,currently,over80percentofglobalphosphoricacidproductionistransformedinto
phosphate fertilizers. The major phosphate fertilizers are ammonium phosphates and triple superphosphate,
whichrepresentabout65percentofphosphatefertilizersproduced.

Phosphorus,togetherwithnitrogenandpotassium,isakeynutrienttosustainlife,beingpresentinmoleculesin
cells.Although,phosphoruscanbepresentinsoil,tobeusefulithastobeinaformthatiseasilyabsorbedby
theplant.

Phosphatefertilizers provide phosphorus in the monovalent or divalent phosphateformwhichissolubleoris


convertibleintoasolublephosphatedependingonsoilconditions.TypeofcationspresentandpHaresomeof
themainsoilcharacteristicsinfluencingthephosphorusuptake.

TECHNOLOGY
Thissectionincludesanoverviewofthechemistryandthechemicalprocessesinvolvedintheproductionofthe
major(mononutrient)phosphatefertilizers.Theoverviewcoversalsotheproductionofmultinutrientfertilizers
suchasammoniumphosphateandNPKs.

Triplesuperphosphate(TSP)
Singlesuperphosphate
Ammoniumphosphates
Nitrophosphatefertilizers
Fertilizergranulation

COMMERCIALTECHNOLOGY
This report provides an overview of the general technology for the production of phosphate fertilizers.
Phosphate technology is quite mature and while there are arguably no major differences in the commercial
technologies employed, Nexant has analyzed the different technology configurations employed by key
producersand/orlicensorprovidersintheindustry.Specifically,configurationsbythecompanieslistedbelow
havebeenreviewed.

Incro
ESPINDESA
GPN
JacobsEngineering
Yara

TECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTS
Technologyforphosphatefertilizerproductionisquitematureandthechemistryoftheprocesshasnotchanged
for many years. Nonetheless, a number of patents have been awarded and applied for, which Nexant has
reviewed. A summary is given and intended to highlight novel processes that involve the production of
fertilizers with other nutrients, the utilization of a different feedstock other than phosphate rock and the
productionofafertilizerwithadifferentformofphosphate.

PROCESSECONOMICS
Diammonium phosphate (DAP) is the most consumed phosphate fertilizer globally and therefore the report
includes a comparison of costs of production of (DAP) in major producing and consuming regions. i.e., on
China,MiddleEast,U.S.,WestEuropebases.

In addition, costs of production comparison between two different routes to produce NPK fertilizers, i.e., the
sulfur(slurrygranulation)routeandthenitrophosphateroute),isgivenonaChinaandWestEuropebases.

Thecostsofproductiontablesgiveninthisreportincludeabreakdownofthecostofproductionintermsofraw
materials,utilitiesconsumed(electricalenergy,coolingwater,fueletc.),directandallocatedfixedcosts,byunit
consumptionandpermetrictonandannually,aswellascontributionofdepreciationtoarriveatacostestimate.
Capital costs are broken down according to inside battery limits (ISBL), outside battery limits (OSBL), other
projectcosts,andworkingcapital.

COMMERCIALMARKETREVIEW
Abriefoverviewofcommercialapplicationsofammoniumphosphates,superphosphates,andNPKfertilizersis
given.

Globalconsumptionofammoniumphosphates(MAPandDAP)andTSPisgivenfor2010andforecastto2016.

The figure below shows the global consumption of phosphate fertilizers (MAP, DAP and TSP) by regional
breakdown.AsiaPacific,thelargestfertilizerconsumer,accountedfor62percentofglobalconsumption.

GlobalTotalDAP,MAP,andTSPConsumptionbyRegion
+Clickimagetoenlarge

Aregionalmarket(supply,demand,trade)reviewforphosphatefertilizers,namelymonoammoniumphosphate
(MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP) for North America, Western Europe,
andAsiaPacificregionsisgiven,includingaforecasttimeframeto2016.

These reports are for the exclusive use of the purchasing company or its subsidiaries, from Nexant, Inc., 44
South Broadway, White Plains, New York 106014425 U.S.A. For further information about these reports
contactthefollowing:NewYork:HeidiJunkerColeman,GlobalProgramsSupportManager,phone:+1914
6090381email:hcoleman@nexant.com London: Dr. Alexander Coker, PERP Program Manager, phone:
+442079501570email:acoker@nexant.com

DownloadTableofContents

Clickheretoorderyourcopyofthisreport

ClickheretoseeallPERPreports

WeregularlysendoutanemailwhenweplacenewitemsonourNewspages.Clickhere
ifyouwouldliketobeaddedtoChemSystems'mailinglist.
2013Nexant,Inc.

PERPProgram1,4Butanediol/Tetrahydrofuran(BDO/THF)
PERPProgramDimethylCarbonate
PERPProgramBenzene/Toluene
PERPProgramSolarGradePolysilicon

Seeallnewsarticles