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Analysis, simulation and implementation of

space vector pulse width modulation inverter

Article January 2006


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4 authors, including:

Faeka Khater
Electronics Research Institute


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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Analysis, Simulation and Implementation of Space Vector Pulse Width

Modulation Inverter
E. Hendawi*, F. Khater* and A. Shaltout**
Electronics Research Institute
Cairo University
F. khater@eri.sci.eg , aashaltout@yahoo.com , esam_hendawi@hotmail.com

Abstract: - This paper presents analysis, simulation and implementation of Space vector pulse width
modulation (SVPWM) inverter. Principles of the SVPWM is introduced and analyzed. Modeling of the
switching intervals and control signal generators are introduced. Implementation and Experimental results of
SVPWM inverter are presented to realize the validity of the SVPWM technique.

Key-Words: - Inverter Pulse width modulation Space vector pulse width modulation

1 Introduction 2 Voltage-Source Pulse Width

The inverters are used to convert the dc voltage Modulation (PWM) Inverter
into ac voltage with controlled voltage and A typical voltage-source converter performs the
frequency. The waveform of the output voltage voltage and frequency conversion in two stages: ac
depends on the switching states of the six switches. to dc as a first stage and dc to ac for the second
Many applications of inverters face three major stage. Although the three phase six-step inverter
requirements and limitations [1-4]. The harmonic offers simple control and low switching loss, lower
contents, the switching frequency, and the best order harmonics are relatively high resulting in high
utilization of dc link voltage. In general, drive distortion of the current wave (unless significant
systems with low harmonic contents are better than filtering is performed). On the other hand, PWM
that with high harmonic contents. High switching inverter offers less harmonic contents than six-step
frequency usually improves the quality of the motor inverter. The basic three-phase voltage-source
currents and consequently the whole performance of converter is shown in Fig. 1
the drive system. However, high switching
frequency leads to more switching losses in the
inverter switches. Also high switching frequency is
limited by the switching capability and dead time of
3 PWM Principle
The dc input to the inverter is chopped by
the switches. The best utilization of the dc link
switching devices in the inverter (bipolar transistors,
voltage depends on the applied technique of
thyristors, Mosfet, IGBT etc). The amplitude and
switching. There are several techniques of switching
harmonic contents of the ac waveform are controlled
the inverter switches such as the six step inverter,
by controlling the duty cycle of the switches. This is
hysterisis current controller, sinusoidal pulse width
the basic of the pulse width modulation PWM
modulation, and space vector pulse width
techniques [1,2].
modulation. Each technique has its own advantages
There are several PWM techniques each has its
and disadvantages. Importance of SVPWM
own advantages and also disadvantages. The basic
technique leads to recent utilization of parallel three
PWM techniques are described briefly in the
phase Inverters using SVPWM technique [5].
following subsections. The considered PWM
This paper presents three main PWM techniques.
techniques are:
Analysis, modeling and implementation of SVPWM
Sinusoidal PWM (most common)
technique are presented due to its more advantages
Hysteresis band current control
than the other techniques. Implementation and
Space-Vector PWM
experimental results verify the inverter analysis and

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Rectifie DC bus Inverter

T1 T3 T5

Power AC
supply motor
T4 T6 T2

Fig. 1 Basic three-phase voltage-source converter.

This results in existence of harmonics in the output
3.1 Sinusoidal PWM voltage causing undesired low-frequency torque and
The most popular PWM approach is the sinusoidal speed pulsations. The switching frequency is not
PWM. In this method a triangular (carrier) wave is constant and very narrow pulses may occur
compared to a sinusoidal wave of the desired depending on the intersection between the carrier
fundamental frequency and the relative levels of the wave and the sine reference.
two signals are used to determine the pulse widths
and control the switching of devices in each phase 3.2 Hysteresis-band current control
leg of the inverter. Therefore, the pulse width is a In hysteresis-band current control the actual
sinusoidal function of the angular position of the current tracks the form of command current within a
reference signal. The basic principle of three phase hysteresis band. In this approach the reference
sinusoidal PWM is shown in Fig. 2. The sinusoidal current wave is compared to the actual current wave
PWM is easy to implement using analog integrators thus producing the current error [6]. When the
and comparators for the generation of the carrier and current error exceeds a predefined hysteresis band,
switching states. However, due to the variation of the upper switch in the half-bridge is turned off and
the sinewave reference values during a PWM period, the lower switch is turned on. As the current error
the relation between reference values and the carrier goes below the hysteresis band, the opposite
wave is not fixed. switching takes place. The principle of hysteresis-
band current control is illustrated in Fig. 3.
Peak to peak current ripple and switching
frequency are related to the width of hysteresis band.
As the width of the hysteresis band increases, the
current ripples increases and the switching frequency
decreases. On the other hand when the hysteresis
band decreases, the current waveform becomes
better having less low order harmonic contents but in
this case the switching frequency increases and
consequently the switching losses. As a result, the
selection of the width of the hysteresis band must be
(a) sine wave and carrier signals carried out to optimize the balance between
harmonic ripples and inverter switching losses.
Hysteresis-band current control is very popular
because it is simple to implement, has fast transient
response, direct limiting of device peak current and
practical insensitivity to machine parameters because
of the elimination of any additional current
controllers. However, PWM frequency is not fixed
which results in non-optimal harmonic ripple in
(b) states of switches of phase a machine current.
Fig. 2 Principle of three phase sinusoidal PWM.

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

The phase voltages corresponding to the eight

combinations of switching patterns can be calculated
and then converted into the stator two phase ()
reference frame. This transformation results in six
non-zero voltage vectors and two zero vectors. The
non-zero vectors form the axes of a hexagon
containing six sectors (V1 V6) as shown in Fig. 4
The angle between any adjacent two non-zero
vectors is 60 electrical degrees. The zero vectors are
at the origin and apply a zero voltage vector to the
motor. The envelope of the hexagon formed by the
non-zero vectors is the locus of the maximum output
Fig. 3 Principle of hysteresis-band current control.
The maximum output phase voltage and line-to-line
The current error is not strictly limited and may voltage that can be achieved by applying SVPWM
leave the hysteresis band. There is no interaction are:
between the three phases. These drawbacks limits Vdc
the application of this approach into special Vph max = Vllmax = Vdc
And the r.m.s. output phase voltage and line-to-line
3.3 Space vector pulse width modulation
voltage are:
Space vector PWM refers to a special switching
scheme of the six power semiconductor switches of Vdc Vdc
a three phase power converter [7]. Space vector Vph rms = Vll rms =
6 2
PWM (SVPWM) has become a popular PWM
technique for three-phase voltage-source inverters in
Therefore the dc voltage Vdc for a given motor r.m.s.
applications such as control of induction and
voltage Vph rms is
permanent magnet synchronous motors. The
mentioned drawbacks of the sinusoidal PWM and
hysteresis-band current control are reduced using Vdc 6 * Vph rms
this technique. Instead of using a separate modulator
for each of the three phases (as in the previous
techniques), the complex reference voltage vector s
processed as a whole. Therefore, the interaction
between the three motor phases is considered. It has
been shown, that SVPWM generates less harmonic
distortion in both output voltage and current applied
to the phases of an ac motor and provides a more
efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison
with sinusoidal modulation techniques. SVPWM
provides a constant switching frequency and
therefore the switching frequency can be adjusted
easily. Although SVPWM is more complicated than
sinusoidal PWM and hysterisis band current control,
it may be implemented easily with modern DSP- Fig. 4 Non-zero vectors forming a hexagon and zero
based control systems. vectors.

Practically, only two adjacent non-zero voltage

3.4 Principle of space vector pulse width vectors Vx and Vx+60 and the zero vectors should be
modulation used. Depending on the reference voltages V and
Eight possible combinations of on and off patterns V, the corresponding sector is firstly determined.
may be achieved. The on and off states of the lower The sector identification is carried out using the flow
switches are the inverted states of the upper ones. chart in Fig. 5. The switching patterns in the six
sectors are illustrated in Fig. 6. This is the best

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

choice of three general patterns that will be

reference voltage Vref into its two components V
introduced later in this paper. The procedure of
calculating the time intervals Tk and Tk+1 is and V gives the following result:
discussed as follows:
The non-zero vectors can be represented by the (k 1) k
following equation: v Ts 2 cos 3 cos 3
v . v d Tk (k 1) Tk 1 k
2 3 sin sin
3 3
2 j ( k 1 )
V s* ( k ) vde 3 (1) (k 1) k
3 2 cos 3 cos T
3 k
vd (5)
(k=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 3 sin (k 1) sin k Tk 1
Therefore 3 3

2 Solving the last equation, the time intervals Tk and

Vs* (k ) v d [cos(k 1) j sin(k 1) ] (2) Tk+1 can be calculated as:
3 3 3
k k
k k 3Ts sin 3 cos
2 2 Tk 3 v (6)
Vs* (k 1) v d e 3 v d [cos j sin ] (3) T
3 3 3 3 k 1 2 v d sin (k 1) (k 1) v
3 3
Due to symmetry in the patterns in the six sectors,
the following integration can be carried out for only Since the sum of 2Tk and 2Tk+1 should be less than
half of the pulse width modulation period (Ts/2). or equal to Ts, the inverter has to stay in zero state
for the rest of the period. The period of zero voltage
Ts To To To Ts
2 4 4
Tk Tk 1
2 is
Vs dt V 0 dt Vs* dt Vs* dt V 7 dt
0 0 To To
Tk Tk 1 T0 = Ts 2 (Tk + Tk+1) (7)
4 4 4

Assuming that the reference voltage, the voltage Having determined the time intervals Tk, Tk+1, and
vectors Vk and Vk+1 are constants during each pulse T0, every PWM period, three general patterns can be
width modulation period (Ts) and splitting the applied.

Read V and V

No Yes
V 0

No No
V V / 3 V V / 3

Sector = 5 Sector = 2
Yes Yes

No No
V 0 V 0

Sector = 4 Sector = 3
Yes Yes
Sector = 6 Sector = 1

Fig. 5 Flow chart for determining the sector.

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Ts 4 Inverter Model
The inverter is modeled using three functions that
calculate the output phase voltages of the inverter
H depending on the following relations between the dc
voltage (Vdc) and the switching states of the upper
L switches Sa, Sb, and Sc.

Va = (2 Sa Sb Sc) * Vdc / 3 (8)

Vb = (2 Sb Sa Sc) * Vdc / 3 (9)
Vc = (2 Sc Sa Sb) * Vdc / 3 (10)

5 Switching Intervals Generator

The current controllers produce the voltage
references in the d-q rotor reference frame. The
voltage references Vd and Vq are transformed to the
stator two phase () reference frame to give the
reference voltages V and V. These voltage
references are the inputs to the switching intervals
generator that is shown in Fig. 8. This block works
according to equation 6 to produce finally the
switching intervals Tk and Tk+1. The outputs of this
block are supplied to the control signals generator
which is described in the following section.

6 Control Signal Generator

The block of the control signals generator and its
details are illustrated in Fig. 9. The input of the
model is the switching intervals Tk and Tk+1. The off
period T0 is calculated as given in equation 7.


T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4 I

Fig. 6 Switching patterns in the six sectors.

T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4

These patterns are shown in Fig. 7. Comparison

between the three patterns is listed in [8,9]. The II
number of switching states in each pulse width
modulation period Ts is 7, 5, and 4 for patterns I, II, Tk Tk+1 T0 Tk+1 Tk
and III respectively.
However, the total harmonic distortion THD which
is an indication of the harmonic contents and
inverter losses that are the least when applying
pattern I. Therefore, the best choice is pattern I
T0/2 2Tk 2Tk+1 T0/2
which is applied to the drive system in the
simulation and the experimental.
Fig. 7 Three general SVPWM patterns.

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

To generate the control signals, a repeating 7 Inverter Hardware

sequence as shown in Fig. 10a is built. During each An intelligent power module (IPM) PM25RSB120
SVPWM period (Ts), the repeating sequence is is used to implement the inverter. The power
compared with the values of the switching intervals module is advanced hybrid power devices that
T0/4, T0/4 + Tk, and T0/4 + Tk + Tk+1. The outputs of combine high speed, low loss IGBTs with optimized
the three comparators are the control signals of the gate drive and protection circuitry. Highly effective
upper switches of the inverter as shown in Fig. 10b over-current and short-circuit protection is realized
for a certain sector. Depending on the sector through the use of advanced current sense IGBT
number, the control signal generator outputs the chips that allow continuous monitoring of power
suitable control signal to each switch using look up device current. The IGBT power switches in the IPM
tables and multiport switches. are controlled by a low level input signal.

Fig. 8 Switching intervals generator.

Fig. 9 Control signals generator.

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

The active low control input keeps the power Fig. 10 Control signals in a certain section
devices off when it is in the high state and the power and calculate the corresponding pattern and
switches are kept off when the input signals are high. durations Tk , Tk+1 , and To. Over modulation is
IPMs have sophisticated built-in protection circuits detected and corrected if the case Tk + Tk+1
that prevent the power devices from being damaged. exceeds the pulse width modulation period.
A fault output signal is provided to alert the system 4- Output the control signals and wait for the
controller if any of the protection circuits are instantaneous PWM period to complete.
activated. The fault and on/off control signals are
usually transferred to and from the system controller
using isolating interface circuits.

8 Implementation and Experimental

The SVPWM is achieved by applying a software
C program to control the position and speed of a
permanent magnet synchronous motor [10].
Switching patterns in two different sectors of
SVPWM are given in Fig. 11 and inverter output
voltage is illustrated in Fig. 12.
Details of this program explained in the following
1- Read analogue signals from A/D converters
2- Executing the main program until the step of
generating the reference voltages vq and vd.
3- The reference voltages vq and vd are
transformed to the reference voltages v and v.
The reference voltages v and v are utilized to
determine the sector of the vectors from 1 to 6
Fig. 11 Switching patterns in two different sectors of
T0/4 + Tk + Tk+1

T0/4 + Tk


Ts/2 Ts

a- Comparing a repeating sequence with switching

Fig. 12 inverter output voltage

Analysis of space vector pulse width modulation is
T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4 presented. Different patterns are introduced and the
most effective one is selected. Analysis, modeling
b- Control signals and simulation of the switching intervals generators

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

and control signal generators are introduced.

Experimental results and steps of generating
SVPWM patterns using microcomputer are
presented to verify the effectiveness of the analysis
and simulation.

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Drives, Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.
[2] Rashid, M. H., Power Electronics Handbook,
Academic Press, 2001.
[3] Mohan, N., First Course on Power Electronics
and Drives, MNPERE, 2003.
[4] Vas, P., Electrical Machines and Drives a
Space-Vector Theory Approach, Oxford University
Press, 1992.
[5] H. R. Pouya and H. Mokhtari, "Control of
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