Analysis Simulation and Implementation of Space Ve

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Analysis Simulation and Implementation of Space Ve

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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Modulation Inverter

E. Hendawi*, F. Khater* and A. Shaltout**

*

Electronics Research Institute

**

Cairo University

GIZA EGYPT

F. khater@eri.sci.eg , aashaltout@yahoo.com , esam_hendawi@hotmail.com

Abstract: - This paper presents analysis, simulation and implementation of Space vector pulse width

modulation (SVPWM) inverter. Principles of the SVPWM is introduced and analyzed. Modeling of the

switching intervals and control signal generators are introduced. Implementation and Experimental results of

SVPWM inverter are presented to realize the validity of the SVPWM technique.

Key-Words: - Inverter Pulse width modulation Space vector pulse width modulation

The inverters are used to convert the dc voltage Modulation (PWM) Inverter

into ac voltage with controlled voltage and A typical voltage-source converter performs the

frequency. The waveform of the output voltage voltage and frequency conversion in two stages: ac

depends on the switching states of the six switches. to dc as a first stage and dc to ac for the second

Many applications of inverters face three major stage. Although the three phase six-step inverter

requirements and limitations [1-4]. The harmonic offers simple control and low switching loss, lower

contents, the switching frequency, and the best order harmonics are relatively high resulting in high

utilization of dc link voltage. In general, drive distortion of the current wave (unless significant

systems with low harmonic contents are better than filtering is performed). On the other hand, PWM

that with high harmonic contents. High switching inverter offers less harmonic contents than six-step

frequency usually improves the quality of the motor inverter. The basic three-phase voltage-source

currents and consequently the whole performance of converter is shown in Fig. 1

the drive system. However, high switching

frequency leads to more switching losses in the

inverter switches. Also high switching frequency is

limited by the switching capability and dead time of

3 PWM Principle

The dc input to the inverter is chopped by

the switches. The best utilization of the dc link

switching devices in the inverter (bipolar transistors,

voltage depends on the applied technique of

thyristors, Mosfet, IGBT etc). The amplitude and

switching. There are several techniques of switching

harmonic contents of the ac waveform are controlled

the inverter switches such as the six step inverter,

by controlling the duty cycle of the switches. This is

hysterisis current controller, sinusoidal pulse width

the basic of the pulse width modulation PWM

modulation, and space vector pulse width

techniques [1,2].

modulation. Each technique has its own advantages

There are several PWM techniques each has its

and disadvantages. Importance of SVPWM

own advantages and also disadvantages. The basic

technique leads to recent utilization of parallel three

PWM techniques are described briefly in the

phase Inverters using SVPWM technique [5].

following subsections. The considered PWM

This paper presents three main PWM techniques.

techniques are:

Analysis, modeling and implementation of SVPWM

Sinusoidal PWM (most common)

technique are presented due to its more advantages

Hysteresis band current control

than the other techniques. Implementation and

Space-Vector PWM

experimental results verify the inverter analysis and

simulation.

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

T1 T3 T5

L C

Power AC

supply motor

T4 T6 T2

This results in existence of harmonics in the output

3.1 Sinusoidal PWM voltage causing undesired low-frequency torque and

The most popular PWM approach is the sinusoidal speed pulsations. The switching frequency is not

PWM. In this method a triangular (carrier) wave is constant and very narrow pulses may occur

compared to a sinusoidal wave of the desired depending on the intersection between the carrier

fundamental frequency and the relative levels of the wave and the sine reference.

two signals are used to determine the pulse widths

and control the switching of devices in each phase 3.2 Hysteresis-band current control

leg of the inverter. Therefore, the pulse width is a In hysteresis-band current control the actual

sinusoidal function of the angular position of the current tracks the form of command current within a

reference signal. The basic principle of three phase hysteresis band. In this approach the reference

sinusoidal PWM is shown in Fig. 2. The sinusoidal current wave is compared to the actual current wave

PWM is easy to implement using analog integrators thus producing the current error [6]. When the

and comparators for the generation of the carrier and current error exceeds a predefined hysteresis band,

switching states. However, due to the variation of the upper switch in the half-bridge is turned off and

the sinewave reference values during a PWM period, the lower switch is turned on. As the current error

the relation between reference values and the carrier goes below the hysteresis band, the opposite

wave is not fixed. switching takes place. The principle of hysteresis-

band current control is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Peak to peak current ripple and switching

frequency are related to the width of hysteresis band.

As the width of the hysteresis band increases, the

current ripples increases and the switching frequency

decreases. On the other hand when the hysteresis

band decreases, the current waveform becomes

better having less low order harmonic contents but in

this case the switching frequency increases and

consequently the switching losses. As a result, the

selection of the width of the hysteresis band must be

(a) sine wave and carrier signals carried out to optimize the balance between

harmonic ripples and inverter switching losses.

Hysteresis-band current control is very popular

because it is simple to implement, has fast transient

response, direct limiting of device peak current and

practical insensitivity to machine parameters because

of the elimination of any additional current

controllers. However, PWM frequency is not fixed

which results in non-optimal harmonic ripple in

(b) states of switches of phase a machine current.

Fig. 2 Principle of three phase sinusoidal PWM.

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

combinations of switching patterns can be calculated

and then converted into the stator two phase ()

reference frame. This transformation results in six

non-zero voltage vectors and two zero vectors. The

non-zero vectors form the axes of a hexagon

containing six sectors (V1 V6) as shown in Fig. 4

The angle between any adjacent two non-zero

vectors is 60 electrical degrees. The zero vectors are

at the origin and apply a zero voltage vector to the

motor. The envelope of the hexagon formed by the

non-zero vectors is the locus of the maximum output

voltage.

Fig. 3 Principle of hysteresis-band current control.

The maximum output phase voltage and line-to-line

The current error is not strictly limited and may voltage that can be achieved by applying SVPWM

leave the hysteresis band. There is no interaction are:

between the three phases. These drawbacks limits Vdc

the application of this approach into special Vph max = Vllmax = Vdc

3

applications

And the r.m.s. output phase voltage and line-to-line

3.3 Space vector pulse width modulation

voltage are:

Space vector PWM refers to a special switching

scheme of the six power semiconductor switches of Vdc Vdc

a three phase power converter [7]. Space vector Vph rms = Vll rms =

6 2

PWM (SVPWM) has become a popular PWM

technique for three-phase voltage-source inverters in

Therefore the dc voltage Vdc for a given motor r.m.s.

applications such as control of induction and

voltage Vph rms is

permanent magnet synchronous motors. The

mentioned drawbacks of the sinusoidal PWM and

hysteresis-band current control are reduced using Vdc 6 * Vph rms

this technique. Instead of using a separate modulator

for each of the three phases (as in the previous

techniques), the complex reference voltage vector s

processed as a whole. Therefore, the interaction

between the three motor phases is considered. It has

been shown, that SVPWM generates less harmonic

distortion in both output voltage and current applied

to the phases of an ac motor and provides a more

efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison

with sinusoidal modulation techniques. SVPWM

provides a constant switching frequency and

therefore the switching frequency can be adjusted

easily. Although SVPWM is more complicated than

sinusoidal PWM and hysterisis band current control,

it may be implemented easily with modern DSP- Fig. 4 Non-zero vectors forming a hexagon and zero

based control systems. vectors.

3.4 Principle of space vector pulse width vectors Vx and Vx+60 and the zero vectors should be

modulation used. Depending on the reference voltages V and

Eight possible combinations of on and off patterns V, the corresponding sector is firstly determined.

may be achieved. The on and off states of the lower The sector identification is carried out using the flow

switches are the inverted states of the upper ones. chart in Fig. 5. The switching patterns in the six

sectors are illustrated in Fig. 6. This is the best

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

reference voltage Vref into its two components V

introduced later in this paper. The procedure of

calculating the time intervals Tk and Tk+1 is and V gives the following result:

discussed as follows:

The non-zero vectors can be represented by the (k 1) k

following equation: v Ts 2 cos 3 cos 3

v . v d Tk (k 1) Tk 1 k

2 3 sin sin

3 3

2 j ( k 1 )

V s* ( k ) vde 3 (1) (k 1) k

3 2 cos 3 cos T

3 k

vd (5)

(k=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 3 sin (k 1) sin k Tk 1

Therefore 3 3

Vs* (k ) v d [cos(k 1) j sin(k 1) ] (2) Tk+1 can be calculated as:

3 3 3

k k

k k 3Ts sin 3 cos

2 2 Tk 3 v (6)

jk

Vs* (k 1) v d e 3 v d [cos j sin ] (3) T

3 3 3 3 k 1 2 v d sin (k 1) (k 1) v

cos

3 3

Due to symmetry in the patterns in the six sectors,

the following integration can be carried out for only Since the sum of 2Tk and 2Tk+1 should be less than

half of the pulse width modulation period (Ts/2). or equal to Ts, the inverter has to stay in zero state

for the rest of the period. The period of zero voltage

Ts To To To Ts

2 4 4

Tk

4

Tk Tk 1

2 is

*

Vs dt V 0 dt Vs* dt Vs* dt V 7 dt

0 0 To To

Tk

To

Tk Tk 1 T0 = Ts 2 (Tk + Tk+1) (7)

4 4 4

(4)

Assuming that the reference voltage, the voltage Having determined the time intervals Tk, Tk+1, and

vectors Vk and Vk+1 are constants during each pulse T0, every PWM period, three general patterns can be

width modulation period (Ts) and splitting the applied.

Read V and V

No Yes

V 0

No No

V V / 3 V V / 3

Sector = 5 Sector = 2

Yes Yes

No No

V 0 V 0

Sector = 4 Sector = 3

Yes Yes

Sector = 6 Sector = 1

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Ts 4 Inverter Model

The inverter is modeled using three functions that

H

L

calculate the output phase voltages of the inverter

H depending on the following relations between the dc

L

H

voltage (Vdc) and the switching states of the upper

L switches Sa, Sb, and Sc.

Vb = (2 Sb Sa Sc) * Vdc / 3 (9)

Vc = (2 Sc Sa Sb) * Vdc / 3 (10)

The current controllers produce the voltage

references in the d-q rotor reference frame. The

voltage references Vd and Vq are transformed to the

stator two phase () reference frame to give the

reference voltages V and V. These voltage

references are the inputs to the switching intervals

generator that is shown in Fig. 8. This block works

according to equation 6 to produce finally the

switching intervals Tk and Tk+1. The outputs of this

block are supplied to the control signals generator

which is described in the following section.

The block of the control signals generator and its

details are illustrated in Fig. 9. The input of the

model is the switching intervals Tk and Tk+1. The off

period T0 is calculated as given in equation 7.

Ts

T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4

between the three patterns is listed in [8,9]. The II

number of switching states in each pulse width

modulation period Ts is 7, 5, and 4 for patterns I, II, Tk Tk+1 T0 Tk+1 Tk

and III respectively.

However, the total harmonic distortion THD which

is an indication of the harmonic contents and

III

inverter losses that are the least when applying

pattern I. Therefore, the best choice is pattern I

T0/2 2Tk 2Tk+1 T0/2

which is applied to the drive system in the

simulation and the experimental.

Fig. 7 Three general SVPWM patterns.

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

sequence as shown in Fig. 10a is built. During each An intelligent power module (IPM) PM25RSB120

SVPWM period (Ts), the repeating sequence is is used to implement the inverter. The power

compared with the values of the switching intervals module is advanced hybrid power devices that

T0/4, T0/4 + Tk, and T0/4 + Tk + Tk+1. The outputs of combine high speed, low loss IGBTs with optimized

the three comparators are the control signals of the gate drive and protection circuitry. Highly effective

upper switches of the inverter as shown in Fig. 10b over-current and short-circuit protection is realized

for a certain sector. Depending on the sector through the use of advanced current sense IGBT

number, the control signal generator outputs the chips that allow continuous monitoring of power

suitable control signal to each switch using look up device current. The IGBT power switches in the IPM

tables and multiport switches. are controlled by a low level input signal.

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

The active low control input keeps the power Fig. 10 Control signals in a certain section

devices off when it is in the high state and the power and calculate the corresponding pattern and

switches are kept off when the input signals are high. durations Tk , Tk+1 , and To. Over modulation is

IPMs have sophisticated built-in protection circuits detected and corrected if the case Tk + Tk+1

that prevent the power devices from being damaged. exceeds the pulse width modulation period.

A fault output signal is provided to alert the system 4- Output the control signals and wait for the

controller if any of the protection circuits are instantaneous PWM period to complete.

activated. The fault and on/off control signals are

usually transferred to and from the system controller

using isolating interface circuits.

results

The SVPWM is achieved by applying a software

C program to control the position and speed of a

permanent magnet synchronous motor [10].

Switching patterns in two different sectors of

SVPWM are given in Fig. 11 and inverter output

voltage is illustrated in Fig. 12.

Details of this program explained in the following

steps:

1- Read analogue signals from A/D converters

simultaneously

2- Executing the main program until the step of

generating the reference voltages vq and vd.

3- The reference voltages vq and vd are

transformed to the reference voltages v and v.

The reference voltages v and v are utilized to

determine the sector of the vectors from 1 to 6

Fig. 11 Switching patterns in two different sectors of

SVPWM

Ts

Ts/2

T0/4 + Tk + Tk+1

T0/4 + Tk

T0/4

Ts/2 Ts

intervals

Ts

Fig. 12 inverter output voltage

Conclusion

Analysis of space vector pulse width modulation is

T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4 presented. Different patterns are introduced and the

most effective one is selected. Analysis, modeling

b- Control signals and simulation of the switching intervals generators

Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Experimental results and steps of generating

SVPWM patterns using microcomputer are

presented to verify the effectiveness of the analysis

and simulation.

References:

[1] Bose, B. K., Modern Power Electronics and AC

Drives, Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.

[2] Rashid, M. H., Power Electronics Handbook,

Academic Press, 2001.

[3] Mohan, N., First Course on Power Electronics

and Drives, MNPERE, 2003.

[4] Vas, P., Electrical Machines and Drives a

Space-Vector Theory Approach, Oxford University

Press, 1992.

[5] H. R. Pouya and H. Mokhtari, "Control of

Parallel Three-phase Inverters Using Optimal

Control and SVPWM Technique," Proc. of 2009

IEEE International Conference on Industrial

Electronics ISIE, Seoul, Korea, July 2009.

[6] Uddin, M. N., Radwan, T. S., George, G. H., and

Rahman M. A., Performance of Current Controllers

for VSI-Fed IPMSM Drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,

Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 1531- 1538, Nov./Dec. 2000.

[7] Hariram, B., and Marimuthu, N.S., Space

Vector Switching Patterns for Different Applications

a Comparative Analysis, Proc. of 2005 IEEE

International Conference on Industrial Technology

ICIT, pp. 1444 1449, Hong Kong, Dec. 2005.

[8] Hua, B., Zhengming, Z., Shuo, M., Jianzheng, L.,

and Xiaoying, S., Comparison of Three PWM

Strategies SPWM SVPWM and One Cycle control,

The Fifth International Conference on Power

Electronics and Drive Systems PEDS, Volume 2, pp.

1313 1316, Nov. 2003.

[9] Leong, C.Y., Grinberg, R., Makrides, G., and

McMahon, R.A., A Comparison of Losses in Small

(<1 kW) Drives Using Sine and Space Vector Pulse

Width Modulation Schemes, The Sixth IEEE

International Conference on Power Electronics and

Drive Systems PEDS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,

Dec. 2005.

[10] E. Hendawi, Advanced Control of PM

Machines for Servo Applications, Ph.D. Thesis,

Cairo Univ., Jan. 2009.

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