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com Volume 4 Issue 2 October 2016


International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research ISSN: 2347-1697
COMMODITY MARKET ANALYSIS
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GOLD
Financial
Paper ID IJIFR/V4/ E2/ 014 Page No. 5166-5175 Subject Area
Analysis
Keywords Risk, Diversified Portfolio, Margin, Safety, Commodity Market

1st Michelle Jenita Pinto Student MFA -II


Department of M.Com. Financial Analysis
2nd Delphina Jovita Jyoti Nivas College Autonomous, PG Centre,
Bangalore-Karnatka
Head of Department
3rd Dr. B. Percy Bose Department of M.Com. Financial Analysis
Jyoti Nivas College Autonomous,PG Centre,
Bangalore-Karnatka

Abstract
The commodities markets are one of the fastest growing areas in the
investment world. A commodity market is an exchange for buying and
selling of commodities for future delivery. Commodity trading in India
started much before it started in many other countries. However, years of
foreign rule, draughts and periods of scarcity and government policies,
caused the commodity trading in India to diminish. Commodity trading
was however restarted in India recently, but a lot more developments and
initiatives needs to be taken in this avenue. Investing on commodities offers
protection against risk, diversified portfolio, trading on lower margin and
safety. The study focuses on understanding the concepts and mechanism of
commodity trading with special reference to Gold. It also aims to analyze
the factors that influence the prices of gold and analyze the gold trend in the
commodity market.

I. INTRODUCTION
Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. These raw
commodities are traded on regulated commodities exchanges, in which they are bought and
sold in standardized contracts. The commodities market consists of the trading of forward
contracts or futures contracts; forward contracts are contractual agreements to buy/sell any
commodity bet there in two entities; futures contracts are market agreements to buy/sell
very specific commodities bet there in two entities over a recognized commodities

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5166
CopyrightIJIFR 2016
.
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

exchange. It is a physical virtual market place for buying and selling of raw or primary
products. For investors' purposes there are currently about 50 major commodity markets
worldwide that facilitate investment trade in nearly 100 primary commodities. Commodities
are split into two types: hard and soft commodities. Hard commodities are typically natural
resistless that must be mined or extracted (gold, rubber, oil, etc.), whereas soft commodities
are agricultural products or livestock (corn, wheat, coffee, sugar, soybeans, pork, etc.)
1.1 GOLD
Gold is a natural resource available all over the world but not in abundant. In science it has
atomic number 79 and symbolized as AU. It is highly Precious metal and is invested in
coins, jewels, bars, certificates, accounts etc. It is attracted by all the human beings as
source of prestigious thing or the source of investment to make maximum returns. In India
gold has become very prestigious metal from the ancient days itself, it stands for its unique
property and it is treated a asset and core wealth by the people According to the investors
owning gold is very much safe because all over the globe gold is same there is no difference
in production and people think it will help in difficult situation as there is high liquidity
power. Investing in gold is safe because it doesnt include the crop rotation fluctuation in
the market. All over the world gold is accepted and traded as a commodity.
1.2 FEATURES OF GOLD
It can be source of investment
It is treated as safe haven
It is an asset diversifier
It has high liquidity power
It acts an insurance
1.3 GOLD AS AN INVESTMENT AVENUE
Investing in gold is booming from the past two decades. The investors will invest in this to
protect themselves from the political, economical, inflation, social disaster. However it is
subjected to risk in the market especially in futures contracts and derivatives. Even the
government will invest in this product to secure from the inflation and gold has become
more like currency rather than commodity.
1.4 INVESTMENT SOURCES
1. Gold Bars
2. Gold Coins
3. Gold Exchange Traded Products(ETPs)
4. Gold Certificates
5. Gold Accounts
6. Gold Mining companies
7. Derivatives
1.5 FACTORS AFFECTING GOLD PRICE
The major factors impacting the gold price can be summarized as under:
Demand for the product

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5167
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

Inflation rate
Value of dollar
Gold reserve
Monetary policy
Speculation in the market
Supply of the product
Growth in demand for exchange traded paper backed products

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Technical analysts argue that their methods take advantage of market psychology as
illustrated by the quotation from Pring (1991) above. In particular, technical textbooks such
as Murphy (1986) and Pring (1991) outline three principles that guide the behavior of
technical analysts. The first is that market action (prices and transactions volume)
discounts everything. In other words, an assets price history incorporates all relevant
information, so there is no need to forecast or research asset fundamentals. Indeed,
technical purists dont even look at fundamentals, except through the prism of prices, which
reflect fundamentals before those variables are fully observable.
Commodity markets are asset markets where market players buy for use and sell for gain.
Commodity markets are complex because many factors play a role in relation to their costs.
Such factors include the weather, inventories, supply, demand, and technology (Baffes,
2013). Over the recent decade, commodity markets have often been in the spotlight due to a
high amount of volatility in the markets, but as mentioned the interest is not new. Ludwell
Moore (1921) examined the existence of cycles through history, and did find some evidence
of cycles. However, he did not find anything that could predict either the length or depth of
those cycles in commodity markets. As other following studies have shown, commodity
markets have been volatile and appearing to be random. Nevertheless, that has not prevented
the popularization of technical analysis tools that are thought to be able to predict future
movements in commodity prices (Bundgaard, 2013), which is what any procurement
function would like to be able to do as argued above. Consequently, this paper aims at
helping companies at least understand whether they can use technical analysis as a reliable
predictor of future movements or if commodity markets truly do behave in a random
fashion.It is relatively easy to highlight situations where arbitrage cannot be traded away in
commodity markets. First of all, national policies and regulations may create such high
transaction costs for certain commodities (Zapoleon, 1931; Caine, 1958). there may not be
any open market where a commodity is traded. If the commodity is not traded, it is
obviously impossible to trade away arbitrage opportunities. Nevertheless, there are
commodities which are somewhat freely and openly traded across the globe (Baffes &
Haniotis, 2010; Baffes, 2013). By choosing those commodities, and avoiding commodities
that are prone to non-random shocks, e.g. oil and its dependence on OPEC policies, it can
plausibly be considered that arbitrage opportunities should be traded away in the market
data.

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5168
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
When investing for a long and a short term there may be differences in fundamental analysis
and technical analysis. Because calculation of fundamental analysis in commodity market is
difficult this depends upon the supply and demand for the resources. The highlight of the
study is to appropriate use of technical analysis in order to facilitate the investors in decision
making.
3.2 NEED FOR THE STUDY
Commodity markets are where raw or primary products are exchanged. Commodity market
is of two types i.e., Hard (Non-Agricultural) and Soft (Agricultural) commodities here Hard
commodities are typically Nonagricultural or natural resources (Gold, Silver, Copper,
Natural Gas) and Soft Commodities are the agricultural commodities(Coffee, Corn, Wheat,
Sugar). The problem faced by the participants in the market is to predict the price movement
of the commodity and to take the right decision when to entry and exit the market to make a
maximum profit. As Gold Commodities are more sensitive in the market, their price
prediction is rigorous job. Thus, there is a need to study the present scenario of the
performance of the non-agricultural commodities in Indian stock market.
3.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To study and analyze the commodity market of selected non-agricultural product
i.e., Gold
To study the price volatility among commodity market of selected non-agricultural
product i.e., Gold
To identify the co-relationship between Gold price and Dollar exchange rate.
3.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Studying the commodity price movements in the market.
Analysis of the relationship of gold with the exchange rates.
Helps in buying and selling strategy by recognizing the trend reversals in a formerly
stage.
To help investors in decision making.
3.5 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
Research methodology stands a way to systematically resolve the research problem. It is a
scientific way of studying how research is done scientifically approved by the researcher in
reviewing research problem alongside with the reason behind study. It is essential for the
researcher to distinguish not only the research methods and procedures but also the
methodology.
Sample size
The sample consists of one commodity from MCX market, on the basis of the research
objectives. This study is mainly based on the Gold prices in Indian commodity market.
Data Collection
The research is purely based on secondary data.
Secondary Data

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5169
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

Secondary data was collected by referring to following sources:


Alpha Commodities Private Ltd Online publication, BSE websites, Text books & Research
Journals
Study Period
The study includes a period of 5 years covering from 2011-2015.
Source of Data
The main source of data is collected through websites of BSE, MCX to obtain the historical
prices. Also the other relevant data required for the purpose of the study was gathered from
the various websites, publications, magazines and reports prepared by research scholars.
Statistical tools and indicators used
Simple Moving Averages
Moving Average Convergence Divergence
Bollinger Band Width
Relative Strength Index
Correlation
3.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Study is confined only to the commodity market in Indian context.
The study of this analysis was mainly based on historical data.
The study is considered a period of five years (20011-2015).

IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


4.1: SIMPLE MOVING AVERAGES (SMA)
3500.00
3000.00 Bullish
2500.00
2000.00
1500.00
1000.00 Bearish
500.00
0.00
1-Apr-11

1-Oct-11

1-Apr-12

1-Oct-12

1-Apr-13

1-Oct-13

1-Apr-14

1-Oct-14

1-Apr-15

1-Oct-15
1-Jan-11

1-Jan-12

1-Jan-13

1-Jan-14

1-Jan-15
1-Jul-11

1-Jul-12

1-Jul-13

1-Jul-14

1-Jul-15

Monthly Closing SMA

Graph 1: Simple Moving Averages


Interpretation:
The SMA is plotted using last 5 years data of gold. Here 5 months moving average has
been taken to construct the Simple Moving Averages. The 5 years chart of Simple Moving
Averages shows that on many occasions monthly moving average line cuts the 5 months
Simple Moving Averages line from top to bottom which signals bearish market and it is
right time to go out of the market and some time the monthly moving average line cuts the 5
months Simple Moving Averages line from bottom to top which signals bullish market and

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5170
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

it is right time to invest in the market. For example, in December 2015 the Simple Moving
Averages and monthly moving averages are closely equal hence it is not a buying signal to
the investors.
4.2: MOVING AVERAGE CONVERGENCE DIVERGENCE (MACD)
4000.00
Sell Buy
3000.00
2000.00
1000.00
0.00
1-Oct-11

1-Oct-12

1-Oct-13

1-Oct-14

1-Oct-15
1-Jan-11

1-Jan-12

1-Jan-13

1-Jan-14

1-Jan-15
1-Apr-11
1-Jul-11

1-Apr-12
1-Jul-12

1-Apr-13
1-Jul-13

1-Apr-14
1-Jul-14

1-Apr-15
1-Jul-15
EMA 12 days EMA 26 days

Graph 2: Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)

Interpretation:
The Moving Average Convergence Divergence is plotted using last 5years data of
gold. Here, MACD is calculated through Exponential moving average (EMA) 12 and EMA
26 period. If EMA 26 line is above the EMA 12 line then it is bearish signal vice versa if the
EMA 12 line is above the EMA 26 line then it is bullish market signal. The average closing
price of EMA 12 in December 2015 is 2632 which is less than the EMA 26 in December
2015, 2692 thus it is advisable to buy the commodity in the market.
4.3: MOVING AVERAGE CONVERGENCE DIVERGENCE HISTOGRAM

Graph 3: Moving Average Convergence Divergence Histogram

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5171
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

Interpretation:
The histogram is calculated to identify the Convergence and Divergence. If the MACD
Histogram is shrinking in height then it leads to the Convergence then it is potential sell
signal and if the MACD Histogram is increasing in height then it leads to the Divergence
then it is potential Buy signal to the investors. If the MACD crosses the MACD Signal then
it is advisable to buy the commodity or if the MACD signal crosses the MACD line then it
is advisable to sell the commodity. In the year April 2011 the market is in divergence hence
it is to be bought and in the year April 2012 the market is turning to convergence hence it is
to be sold in the market.
4.4: RELATIVE STRENGTH INDEX (RSI)

Graph 4: Relative Strength Index


Interpretation:
The RSI graph shows the overbought and oversold areas. The RSI values from 30 and
below indicates a good opportunity to buy the commodity and the RSI values from 70 and
above indicates a good opportunity to sell the commodity. But as it is clear in above graph
in the year 2015 there is no signal to buy or to sell thus it is recommended to hold the
commodity still for a long term.
4.5: BOLLINGER BAND WIDTH (BBW)

Graph 5: BOLLINGER BAND WIDTH

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5172
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

Interpretation:
The width between Upper and Lower band refers to the volatility of the prices of the
commodity, the higher the width the greater the volatility in this time it is advisable to sell
the commodity and when there is low volatility the investor either buy or retain the
commodity. . If the closing prices touch the Upper Bollinger Band then the commodity is
overbought and if the prices touch the lower Bollinger Band then the commodity is over
sold in the market. It is advisable to buy the commodity when the stocks prices hits the
lower band and to sell when the prices hits the upper band.

4.6: CORRELATION BETWEEN GOLD AND DOLLARS EXCHANGE RATE


H0: There is no significant relationship between gold price and dollar exchange rate.
H1: There is significant relationship between gold price and dollar exchange rate.
Table 1: Correlation between Gold and Dollars Exchange Rate
Gold Dollars
Pearson Correlation 1 -.838**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 60 60
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

From the above table it is found that the correlation value is 0.000 that is below 0.05. So, it
is significant, hence reject null hypothesis (H0) and accept alternative hypothesis (H1).
Inference
As the correlation value is -0.838 it indicates that the inverse relationship exist between the
gold price and dollar exchange rate in India. That shows there inverse effect among
variables where if the dollar price increases then the gold price will decrease and if dollar
price decreases then the gold price will increase.

V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Analyzing the commodity market helped to find out the gold price volatility.
Technical analysis was more helpful in decision making about the commodity market
and reduced the errors in forecasting. The various tools in technical analysis were
complicated but it has given the realistic results.
The performance of gold in the year 2015 was in bearish. It has been fluctuating from
Rs.3298 to Rs.2509 by the end of the year.
The overall performance of gold indicates the low returns for short term investment and
the high returns for long term investments.
SMA shows the price fluctuations in the market. The gold price is too sensitive in the
market.
MACD shows the relationship between the MACD histogram and the MACD signal line
which helps in taking decisions regarding the entry period and exit period.

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5173
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

Bollinger band is helpful to analyze the market when they are over bought and over sold
in the market and it is also helpful to analyze the price volatility of the gold prices which
are dependent on their band width.
According to Relative Strength Index when it is above 70 it is advised to sell the
commodity and if it is below 30 it is usually recommended to buy the commodity.
The gold and dollar exchange rate share the inverse relationship where if dollar
increases the prices of gold decreases and if the dollar price decreases then gold prices
increases in the market.

VI. SUGGESTIONS
Gold is a precious metal; its value cannot not be diminished in a shorter time. But
even then there are some investment rules:
Before investing, an investor should have clear and adequate knowledge of stock
market so that they can earn maximum returns.
The commodity i.e., gold is a very complex financial instrument. Thus the traders
must analyze the trend of the market.
Investing for short term gains in current scenario will not be helpful as both
commodity markets are in bearish market, the investor can go for long term
investment to maximize the returns.
The traders should not enter into the market in bullish period they need to wait till
the bearish market ends and then they need to invest when market gives positive
signal to buy the commodity.
Investors should not buy in bulk volume because of high price fluctuations. If the
investors invest in one shot then they cannot buy when the prices goes down. So it is
advisable to buy in small quantities.

VII. CONCLUSION
The analysis emphasized on the commodity market which gave a real time experience in
this field and thereby the study could reflect positive from the investors perspective. The
last five years price movements of gold shows that the investors are satisfied by the
reasonable returns from commodity market. Investors can make substantial returns only if
investments are made in disciplined manner. The blind investments have always let too
many blunders; an investor should always analyze the market by using the analytical tools
for investments purpose. Investors can succeed in their investment only when they are able
to select the right commodity at right time. The investors should closely watch the situation
like market price, economy, returns and risk associated with the commodity before taking
the decision to invest. Thus, by utilizing the investment opportunities available in the
commodity market will help in maximizing the returns. Finally, as per the present trend and
the analysis it can be concluded that, in commodity market there is high possibility of
getting good returns, therefore it can be suggested that the investors can invest in gold
market without any hesitation.

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5174
ISSN: 2347-1697
International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR)
Volume - 4, Issue -2, October 2016
Continuous 38th Edition, Page No: 5166-5175

VIII. REFERENCES
[1] Punithavathy Pandiyan-2013, Security Analysis and Portfolio Management, Himalayan
Publishing House 13th edition.
[2] S.C. Gupta-2014, Fundamentals of Statistics, Himalayan Publishing House 7th edition.
[3] Murphy, John J., 1986, Technical Analysis of the Futures Markets (New York Institute of
Finance, Prentice-Hall, New York, NY).
[4] Moore, H. L., 1921. Generating Cycles of Products and Prices. The Quarterly Journal of
Economics, 35(2), pp. 215-239.
[5] Baffes, J., 2013. Global Economic Prospects: Commodity Market Outlook, Washington
D.C.: The World Bank Development Prospects Group.
[6] Pring, Martin J., 1991, Technical Analysis Explained (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY).
[7] Bundgaard, T., 2013. Commodity Risk Management III - Technical Analysis, Copenhagen:
Kairos Commodities.
[8] http://www.alphacommodities.co.in/
[9] http://www.mcxindia.com/
[10] http://www.nseindia.com/
[11] http://www.investopedia.com/articles/technical/052201.asp
[12] http://money.rediff.com/bse
[13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold

To Cite This Article


[1]
Pinto, J. M., Jovita, D., Bose, P.B. (2016) : Commodity Market Analysis With
[2]
Special Reference To Gold International Journal of Informative & Futuristic
Research (ISSN: 2347-1697), Vol. 4 No. (2), October 2016, pp. 5166-5175, Paper
ID: IJIFR/V4/E2/014.

Michelle Jenita Pinto, Delphina Jovita, Dr. B. Percy Bose ::


Commodity Market Analysis With Special Reference To Gold 5175