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Page 1


internal combustion

EI & Master Propulsion- 2016/2017 - X Tauzia -


Page 2 3


1. Introduction p. 6
2. Technology p. 17
3. characteristics Sizes p. 45
4. Applications p. 112
5. Air supply and exhaust p. 194
6. Eating p. 250
7. Fuel supply p. 298
8. Combustion p. 342
9. Exhaust emissions p. 378
10. Cooling p. 440
11. Friction and Lubrication p. 458
12. Electronic management p. 475
13. References p. 480
14. Exercises p. 482
15. Companies and laboratories p. 491


This document is deliberately incomplete, there is a support

for taking notes. During the oral presentation, explanations and data
Additional will be presented.
Moreover, it is only an introduction to the motors
Internal combustion. References are available in different
chapters and at the end of the document for a deepening. Some are
accessible on the education server.
Finally, despite the care taken in drafting it probably survives
errors; Thank you to the students to report to help future

page 3 5
P = 370 kilowatts
= 42%

P = 0.37 kW
= 12%

1. Introduction


Historical Perspective

the different types of engines

Theoretical cycles

page 4 Introduction 7

Motor: one seeks to produce mechanical work by converting

energy initially in another form

Historically: Animal, watermills, to wind energy use

Natural, renewable, solar origin

combustion Machines: uses the chemical energy contained in fuels

fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) or produced from biomass (renewable)

Steam engine (papin) Internal combustion engine (Otto)

Doc: visite.artsetmetiers.free.fr Docs: wikipedia Doc. wired.com

Introduction 8

Electric motors: uses electrical energy to be produced, usually

from a mechanical work of varying origin, renewable or not
(hydraulic, combustion engine, nuclear reactor ...)

Docs. Wikipedia, cprmotor.com

Electric motor (Davenport) early nineteenth

page 5 Introduction 9

Nuclear energy
chemical Energy Sun


currents Cycle
wind marine some water
Fuel cell
Electrolysis Seebeck effect

Wind turbine Turbine

Electric energy Engine motor motor water
electric combustion combustion
internal external


Mechanical energy
Propulsion machinery

Introduction 10

Combustion engines: In most cases, a fluid undergoes

a after operations cyclic (cycle
thermodynamic engine)
If combustion takes place within the fluid that undergoes
cycle internal combustion (piston engines, turbines
TAG gas, turbojet ..)
Otherwise: external combustion engine (eg, engine
Stirling, Ericsson, Rankine cycles, Hirn, etc ..)

This course covers the internal combustion reciprocating piston engines (Internal combustion
engines, reciprocating engines, piston engines). It excludes TAG.

Engines "rotary piston" (rotary engine) type Wankel not

explicitly addressed but are close to reciprocating engines. There is a
very large number of internal combustion engines "exotic", some in the form of
Plans, others have actually been built. They have generally not exceeded the
stage of prototype or small series.

Doc Enciclopedia Britannica, mit.edu, Wikipedia, absoluteastronomy.com; reviews.carreview.com

Supplements hot air engines (external heat):
Motor wankel: www.mazda.com/mazdaspirit/rotary /
Exotic engines: G. Descombes "unconventional engines" Engineering Techniques
Animations engines: www.animatedengines.com/index.shtml

page 6 Theoretical cycles 11

Initially Beau de Rochas (Fra) also called Otto:

Doc. Grc.nasa.gov

Cycles of calculation: www.lyceeaubry.fr/articles/7-cycle-beau-de-rochas-feuille-de-calcul


Theoretical cycles 12
Diesel Cycle:
Rochas ditto Beau except combustion isobaric

Doc. wikipedia

page 7 Theoretical cycles 13

Sabath mixed cycle:

Rochas ditto Beau except: constant volume combustion and isobaric

Doc. wikipedia

Different types of engines 14

Petrol or diesel?

For the fuel supply and combustion several solutions:

Ignition controlled (by an electrical spark, spark ignition, SI) for engines
"Essence" (but also gas) and compression ignition (spontaneous ignition when
the temperature and pressure are sufficient, compression ignition, CI) in Diesel
Manufacture of an air / fuel mixture outside the cylinder and admission of this
mixture (as in most of the spark-ignition engines carburettor or
external injection) or fresh air intake and introduction of fuel directly into
the combustion chamber (Case all diesel and petrol injection engines
direct IDE or GDI) or mixed (dual fuel, reserved for stationary engines)
The difference between the two engine types is narrowing

page 8 summary 15

A motor is a machine that produces work from

an energy initially in another form
The internal combustion engine with reciprocating piston (MCI) appeared the
late nineteenth century and gradually replaced the steam engine
It uses the chemical energy contained in the fuel
Now it is among many other machines to
to move from one form of energy to another, some of which can
be competing and / or complementary
MCI based on two cycles Theoretical: Beau de Rochas and Diesel
MCI can be classified according to their type of ignition: Ignition
controlled ( "essence") and compression ignition ( "diesel")

QCM 16

True False
Piston engines are always internal combustion
Internal combustion engines are always piston
Internal combustion engines still reject heat
Steam engines are internal combustion engines

The Seebeck effect allows

directly convert heat into electricity
directly convert chemical energy into electricity
Converting work directly into electricity

In a beautiful Rochas cycle, the following steps are adiabatic:

Heat Rejection
In a Diesel cycle, the following steps are adiabatic:
Heat Rejection

page 9 17

2. Technology

The main organs


Different types of engines

Powertrains 18

The main organs

In practice, the volume changes are

obtained with a plunger (piston) and rising
down in a cylinder (cylinder).
This reciprocation is converted into
rotational movement via
a connecting rod (connecting rod) and a
crank or crankshaft (crankshaft).
The intake and exhaust operations
take place by opening at the right time
valves (valves), controlled by a shaft
cam (camshaft).

Doc motoculture-jardin.com
page 10 Powertrains 19

Rods - Pistons

Doc. Gazoline.net

The pistons are usually made of light alloy and the steel rods
seal the chamber is provided by segments (ring)

Powertrains 20


Doc. Auto-innovations.com

page 11 Powertrains 21

Pistons, rings
Doc. Enginebuildermag.com

Doc. Auto-innovations.com, renault, ohsmotorsport, mazda

Powertrains 22
Diesel pistons

Doc. Auto-innovations.com, renault, mazda

page 12 Powertrains 23

the crankshaft

Doc. Bsnindustry.com Doc. Cr4.globalspec.com

Doc. Rectimo-industrie.com
Doc. www.dhidcw.com
Doc. www.forum-auto.com
The crankshaft or crank shaft is usually made of steel and mounted on bearings
fluids (sometimes bearings)
The entire crankshaft + connecting rod + piston is called the moving

Supplements: Files "piston design and the latest innovations," "Operation, architecture and technology of automobile engines
Part I: Basic Principles and moving elements "on www.auto-innovations.com

Powertrains 24

the cylinder head

Doc. Pkoemparts.nl
The cylinder head (cylinder head), located above the rolls, generally includes
dispensing members (valves) and optionally the combustion chamber; she
receives the intake and exhaust ducts; generally light alloy; at
From a certain size there is an independent cylinder per cylinder
sealing between the cylinder head and the cylinder block is provided by the head gasket

Docs. www.mgcontac.free.fr, Wikepedia, www.autorepair.about.com, techno-siences.net

page 13 Powertrains 25

The engine block - the cylinders

Docs. www.pierburginc.com, www.allproducts.com

The engine block or cylinder block (block) is usually cast iron or alloy
The cylinders are machined directly into the block, is reported: one speaks of
removable covers (cylinder liner)

Powertrains 26

The engine block - the cylinders

Docs. www.pierburginc.com, www.allproducts.com

page 14 Powertrains 27

The cylinders - the block

Docs. K. Hoag Univ Wisconsin,


Supplements: Folder "operation, architecture and technology of automobile engines Part 2: engine block, cylinders and
bearings "on www.auto-innovations.com

different architectures 28

Arrangement of cylinders
Most engines have multiple cylinders whose cycles are offset
in time (if possible with the same interval but not always!) so
to have a roll spirit to produce continuously work (this is the case from
4 cylinders 4-stroke engines)
The provision varies constraints, particularly of space: in
line, V (2 rods with crank pins), flat (or boxer), etc .. the firing order and
arrangement of cylinders have an influence on the vibration behavior of
the moving assembly (piston + connecting rod + crankshaft).

www.forum-auto.com, directory.oemoffhighway.com, us1.webpublications.com.au, trr.homeunix.org,

page 15 different architectures 29

Balancing of the moving

Account must be taken of the reciprocating (piston) and rotation

The forces and moments applied to the moving element from the
gas pressure in the chamber but also of the inertia
For the best balance of these components have to play on the firing order,
cylinder arrangement (eg V angle); the design of the crankshaft (eg
offset crank pins)
You can also use the balancing shafts driven by the engine for
eliminate or reduce vibration
We can thus move away from the theoretically optimal configurations (eg
engine narrow V)

different architectures thirty

Balancing of the moving

With crankshaft balance weights

Crankshaft with offset crank pins

Doc. Wikimedia, www.e31.net

page 16 different architectures 31

Balancer shafts

Docs. www.histomobile.com, MTZ

different architectures 32

Balancing of the moving

Doc. www.auto-innovations.com

Supplements: www.autozine.org/technical_school/engine/smooth1.htm
Notice Bosch, chapter "Crankshaft of reciprocating piston engine"
H Jeanmart courses, UCL, over 6 www.icampus.ucl.ac.be/claroline/course/index.php?cid=MECA220

page 17 different architectures 33

Exotic architecture: W engine

Doc www.auto-innovations.com
W8 engine (VAG)
Crankshaft with offset crank pins; 2 balancing shafts

Supplements: www.auto-innovations.com, file "VR5, VR6, W8, W12 and W16: audacious engine configurations signed VAG"

Different types of engines 34

2 stroke / 4 stroke?

In conventional engines "4 times" (oven stroke) cycle can be

broken down into 4 piston strokes (2 turns 2 ascents and descents 2):
- Admission (piston down)
- Compression (rising piston)
- Combustion-trigger (piston down)
- Exhaust (rising piston)

These operations can also be performed in one round, two races: Engine
"2 times" (two stroke):
- Compression (end of the climb)
- Combustion-relaxation (early fall) and exhaust and intake (end
the descent and beginning of the climb)
page 18 Different types of engines 35
2-stroke engine

The 2-stroke engines can be more or less complex

a first compression can take place under the piston (sealed casing and volume
reduced), then the fluid is transferred into the combustion chamber via the channel
transfer, between and by a (the) light (s) (ports) opening (s) in the cylinder.
Admission may also be performed using an external compressor (see
scanning (scavenge) is a crucial and delicate stage.
The exhaust can be done by (the) light (s) or valve.

Doc: www.howstuffworks.com, www.mh7precisionengineering.co.uk

Different types of engines 36

2-stroke engine

Advantages :
- High specific power (
the weight and size) because there
a power stroke per round
crank shaft
- Less friction (2 races
cycle instead of 4)
- Simplicity (no valves, less
moving parts): low prices;

- Poor filling
- Bp pollution (scanning)
- Lost oil lubrication

if we try to solve problems,

simplicity is lost
Doc: dieselduck.ca, visual.merriam-webster.com

page 19 Application 37
Diagram P v of a 2-stroke engine
Different types of engines 38

Exotic architectures opposed piston engines

Already used in the past

Engine "2 times"
Fewer parts (no tree
cam or valves)
Balancing "natural"
Compact and lightweight
Multiple configurations: 1 or 2 crankshafts ...
Powered by several companies: EcoMotors, achatespower, pinnacle engines
Doc: wikipedia, eco motors

page 20 Different types of engines 39

Exotic architectures: free-piston engine

Free-piston engines (Free piston

extremely simplified mechanism
(more rod or crankshaft)

Considered for the production

difficult Control

Doc: toyota, treehugger.com

Powertrains 40

Nomenclature of an automotive diesel engine

Doc. Renault

page 21 Powertrains 41

Example of main parts of an automobile engine

Doc. Auto.lapresse.ca

Powertrains 42

Key parts of a diesel engine 2 slow time

Doc. Auto.lapresse.ca

page 22 summary 43

The main mechanical components are: pistons, connecting rods, the

crankshaft, the engine block, the cylinders, the cylinder head (s) shaft (s)
cams, valves
The main configurations for the arrangement of cylinders are: in
line, V and flat.
The vibration behavior depends on the architecture and order
ignition. It can be enhanced with balance shafts
There are engines "4 stroke" engines and "2 time"
wherein the ring is made in two piston strokes (instead of 4)

QCM 44
A balance shaft:
Increases performance
Increases performance
Augment Accreditation

In a "4" engine, the camshaft turns:

At the same speed as the crankshaft
At 1a half crankshaft speed
to 2 times the speed of the crankshaft
At 4 times the speed of the crankshaft

In an engine, the segments are:

Located on the crankshaft and the support rods
The axes that connect the piston to the connecting rods
Elastic open rings which seal between the piston and the cylinder
rubber seals

An engine "2 time":

A sometimes valves
Never valves
A still valves
Did not phase intake or exhaust

page 23 45

3. characteristics Sizes

Geometry data

Real Cycles, orders of magnitude



geometric characteristics 46

The piston oscillates between the bottom dead center (BDC,

Bottom Dead Center BDC) and top dead center
(TDC, TDC Top Dead Center)
The volume swept by the piston between the PMB and
TDC: the displacement V (Displacement, swept
V = * A 2 * C / 4, where A is the bore (boron, diameter)
the cylinder and C is the stroke (stroke)
The residual volume of the chamber (above the
piston) at TDC: the dead volume v (clearance
volume, dead volume).
The (V + v) / v: volume ratio, or rate
compression (compression ratio).

If A / C = 1: Square motor; If A / C> 1 super square engine, if C / A> 1: long engine

The geometry has an impact on the maximum speed, the losses to the walls, the
combustion, clutter ...

page 24 geometric characteristics 47

Orders of magnitude

Unit Capacity:

: Modeling,

Gardening, 2 wheels

2 wheels, car

: truck

: Prop. Naval, Prod. Elec.

Compression ratio:

in ignition

by Diesel

geometric characteristics 48

Cyclical changes in the volume


P atm P cy

F = (P -P cy atm) S

Lb = R F B S = a 2/4

F B v
a: bore
c: race
: volume ratio
: report rod / crank )3
it 2 2 m
() () 2 read
V cyl = 8 ()- 1 + 1 - cos + --
2 sin

dV () at2 cos
= c sin 1 + 0.00 180.00 360.00 540.00 720.00
d 8 -2 ()sin 2 angle (deg)

page 25 business cycles 49

Actual operations are not "perfect": losses on admission and

exhaust, fluid inertia, combustion not instantaneous, exchanges
heat with the outside, ...

40 100

rat25 rat10
b b
not not
io io
ss 20 ss
Pre Pre1
0 0.1
0 0.000050.00010.000150.00020.000250.00030.000350.0004 0 0.000050.00010.000150.00020.000250.00030.000350.0004
Volume m3 Volume m3

the cylinder pressure as a function of the crank angle can be measured

with a piezoelectric crystal sensor which may be housed in the plug

business cycles 50

Orders of magnitude

Maximum cycle pressure:

bar in ignition

bar Diesel

Inlet pressure:

: No overeating; no butterfly

Partial load with butterfly (ignition

controlled atmospheric or supercharged below a certain


: Overeating (Diesel, supercharged Spark ignition

beyond a certain load)

Gas temperatures:

admission (not overeating)

the heart of the flame

(Diesel) / (ignition) exhaust

page 26 51

Cycle Energy:

Work: W [J / cycle] ! "# $% & '& () "$ * +, & '(

Couple: C [Nm]
Medium Pressure: PM [Pa] or [bar] cycle [rad] cycle
Load [%] Cyl V [m 3] displacement

Power: P [W] * "$ # -" $!.

Energy / cycle * Cycle / time [rad / s]: Speed

N [degree / s]: Speed

Thermodynamics: shown /) "/ 0 - / 1

Available on the tree: Effective
Mechanical losses: Friction and accessories

Plan and load variables

performances 52

Cycle work, Couple

W =dVP
Work pressure forces (or work indicated) (J): indicated cy cy
thermodynamic concept, little used by engine manufacturers tend to use
Torque notions (Torque) (SI unit: Nm) and medium pressure
Attention to sign conventions: thermo working product (engine) is negative
(because it leaves the system); in the motor is positive account
HP loop (closed valve) is the
compression and relaxation: it is HP loop
consistently positive (corresponding to a
production work): we seek to increase
its area
The BP loop corresponds to operations
intake and exhaust (gas exchange
or transfer). Generally it is
negative (although there are exceptions): these
Operations consuming work, called losses
by pumping (pumping Losses) or working
transfer that works to reduce

BP loop

page 27 performances 53

Cycle work, Couple

Instant torque exerted by the pressure forces on the crankshaft (torque

Instant indicated):
= (P - P ) dVcy
ins_tanEtan cy box d
P atm P cy
) 150
F = (P -P cy atm) S m
Lb = R F S = a the
R B 2/4
u 50
F B v Co 0
0 180 360 540 720
F C -50
angle (deg)

the 4 races ( "4-stroke"), one is driving (or work product

torque) (1 of 2 "2-stroke"). Compression requires bring work
(to provide the couple)

performances 54


In practice using a flywheel (flywheel) and often more cylinders

that shifts over time (preferably at regular intervals, but not always!),
so as to have an instantaneous torque and especially a rotation speed of approximately

s nm
in ^0 3 C =W
mean C =W

the 4 4
pu (* 1
crankshaft angle Doc. www.roadracemotorsports.com
The average torque over the cycle is achieved by:

1 dC
C Avg =
unless stated opposite,
W when it comes to torque it
4-stroke engine: C = cycle
Avg 4 This means couples (on
the cycle)
Engine 2 times: W
C = cycle
Avg 2

page 28 performances 55

Medium pressure

The couple does not compare drivers of different sizes. For this
do we can use the specific torque (reduced engine capacity in Nm / l) or
medium pressure (in fact the work brought back to the engine, in Pa (SI) or
usually in bar)
The average pressure (PM) is the pressure such that: W = PM V

There is thus the mean indicated pressure (PMI Indicated Mean Effective Pressure,
Vdisplacementcy cy

The PM is related to the couple by

4 Couple
PM =
- For a 4-stroke: V

- For a 2 time: 2 Couple

PM =

performances 56

Power - rotation speed

Power (power) (unit: W (SI), usually kW or HP, 1HP = 736 W) is

Product scheme (speed, speed rotation) by the couple:

cycle (N) =J (W) s / rad ()Nm

(C) W (P = )s/

The same power can be obtained with a small pair (small displacement and / or
some fuel added at each cycle) and a high speed or a regime more
slow with higher torque (See "gear ratio" cyclist)

The scheme is limited upwards by friction and inertia coins

movement, in particular the speed of the piston, thus by the race.
The average linear velocity of the piston is:

- ) min / rev (N Race )m(

) s / m (V =
p thirty

The scheme is limited down (idle) by stable operation

(combustion, speed variations, ...)

page 29 performances 57

Indicated and actual variables

It calls indicated (Indicated) the quantities (torque, power) obtained

when considering only the working pressure forces on the piston (Ci,
PMI, Pi)
In reality it does not recover to the level of the shaft (crankshaft) the entire
working pressure forces on the piston. Indeed there are mechanical losses
friction (piston / liner, bearings: Friction Losses) and consumption
by power accessories (Auxilaries) engine: camshaft, water pumps,
oil injection, alternator, air conditioning, ... (see part lubrication / friction)
effective is called (brake) available sizes (measured or inferred from the
measure) on the tree: This, SMEs, Pe
We define the quantities relating to friction and Accessories:

PMF = PMI - SMEs C = CC - PPP = -

f i e f i e

There are standards for measuring performance, which introduce corrections

to overcome the influence of parameters such as pressure conditions
ambient temperature

By default, when you talk about power or torque of an engine it is values

effective; for the mean pressure is always accurate

performances 58

orders of magnitude


: Modeling,

Gardening, 2 wheels

2 wheels, car

: truck

: Prop. Naval, Prod. Elec.


Gardening, tours

: Bikes, cars

: truck

: Diesel slow

page 30 performances 59

orders of magnitude

Rotation speed (maximum):

(Auto Diesel) (Auto Fuel)

(motorbike), (F1)



(Diesel semi rapid industrial


Average piston speed (maximum):

Vp (m / s) =

: Cheap gasoline and Diesel

: Motor gasoline "normal"

: Sport petrol, F1

performances 60

orders of magnitude
SMEs (maximum):

slightly pushed gasoline:

pushed atmospheric gas:

supercharged gasoline:

Diesel atmo:

Diesel supercharged:


page 31 performances 61
Load, engine field

In practice, in the case of the propulsion, engine must have a speed range for
allow the vehicle to have a variable speed, the latter being most often
linked to the engine speed (by one or more reduction ratio); However
some applications may require a fixed regime (eg electric alternator
frequency imposed).
For a given system, it must also be able to vary the power, so
work per cycle (or couple).
It has an operating range, or more or less extended engine range with
more or less favorable areas, in which we will follow varying paths
depending on the application.
Also known as load (load): it is the ratio between the actual torque and
maximum torque that the engine is capable of delivering, the regime considered (sometimes
further characterized by the position of the accelerator). The load depends on the amount of
fuel burnt at each cycle. The latter is modified by injecting more or less
fuel (Diesel) or admitting more or less of mixture (preparation of the mixture
outside the cylinder) or air (preparation of the mixture inside the cylinder)
(Spark ignition)
For semi-fast and slow industrial engines, the load is usually expressed
percentage of the rated maximum power (MCR: maximum continuous rating)

performances 62

Torque curve engine field iso curves

maximum power
(Quick Engine)

the engine field

zero torque
(vacuum motor)
Regime (r / min)

idle maximum speed

Doc. forums.tdiclub.com

page 32 performances 63
engine field

(Semi fast motor, marine propulsion)

The effective operating range is

generally smaller than on a fast motor
(around a curve P = N the "Act
helix "in marine propulsion and varies
with the sea state, the propeller and
hull or the pitch of the helix)
The charging time taken is longer

performances 64
engine field

(Slow motor; marine propulsion)

page 33 performances 65

Performance curves

In fact the cycle relative magnitudes (C, W, PM) are truly independent
the regime: the torque curve reaches a maximum, set higher or lower
regime in the track following the intended use of the engine
The power curve peaks near the maximum speed: it serves
nowhere to turn faster because the available power decreases.

Doc. PSA myautoworld.com

performances 66

Performance curves

The regime variation range and variation of maximum torque are more or
less important following engine types

On large diesel engines,

duration of continuous use at
low load must be limited,
to avoid fouling

Doc. wartsila, myautoworld.com

page 34 performances 67
Influence of ambient conditions

The temperature and the humidity of the ambient air, the pressure
air, the cooling water temperature
possible influence on performance and yield

Doc. wartsila, diesel man

performances 68

Influence of ambient conditions

The ambient conditions affect

including filling,
cooling, temperatures
and exhaust pressures
cylinder, the speed of
potential turbochargers

Doc. wartsila, myautoworld.com

page 35 returns 69
Energy Conversion Efficiency

Chemical energy of
fuel return Chemical energy to
Combustion exhaust CO, HC, ..
Heat from the
yield combustion
shown gross
Heat exhaust
work indicated and in the cooling
(Thermodynamics, the Gross (or HP)
pressure forces)
Gross (or HP) yield
yield (net) Working pumping
stated net (refilling)
Work indicated (net)

effective Labor and vacillation
mechanical accessories

returns 70

thermodynamic efficiency

The thermodynamic efficiency (or performance cycle, thermodynamic efficiency)

reflects the more or less effective way heat from burning
fuel is converted into work at the piston, the cycle of court:

! & '& () _ 0 ; * <,

23) 45 " "
July 1894: 0) = 85 &> & * # @ 4 =

Some HP calculates the thermodynamic efficiency (or gross) from the work of the
HP only loop
The yield (Indicated efficiency) is the product of the thermal performance
combustion efficiency

page 36 returns 71

thermodynamic efficiency

The thermodynamic efficiency depends in particular:

= 1-
- Volumetric compression ratio (Cf ideal cycle BdR: BdR 1 - )
even compression strokes and effective relaxation (See Atkinson Cycle
- The combustion process: phasing, duration
- Transfer of the work (influenced by the presence of a butterfly admission
for spark ignition engines at part load, overeating, the
losses due inter alia to gas aftertreatment systems
exhaust, ...)
- Thermal losses to the walls (see section on cooling)
It is generally higher in diesel than gasoline (compression rate, more
high working less transfer at partial loads, losses to the walls more
low due to dilution)

returns 72

Docs. Philipozdemir.com, www.daytona-sensors.com, www.niagata-power.com, elsevier

page 37 Application 73
Atkinson cycle
returns 74

Atkinson cycle

page 38 returns 75

Combustion efficiency

combustion efficiency comb describes more or less effective way

the energy contained in the fuel is converted into heat (quality of
more or less complete combustion)

The combustion efficiency is 1 in diesel combustion

For SI engines is often> 95%, except at low speeds

In the absence of data, we can assume that it is equal to 1

Doc. PSA / SIA

returns 76

Combustion efficiency
it can be evaluated by analyzing the exhaust gases and measuring
concentrations of unburned and Incomplete combustion products).

m ech x PCI i
1 - comb= i i
m carbPCI carb

X i: mass concentration of species in the exhaust

PCI i: Calorific species:
CO: 10.1 MJ / kg
H 2: 120 MJ / kg
HC: same fuel
Particles: C solid: 32.8 MJ / kg

page 39 returns 77

mechanical efficiency

The mechanical efficiency (mechanical efficiency) is defined by:

= effective
= e = = e = i f
mca W P PMI C C
indicated i i i

Low: High:

The mechanical losses generally decrease with the load, but remain nonzero.
Their relative share (based on the work product) therefore increases. At the extreme (charge
zero engine "vacuum" for example at idle), it consumes just fuel
maintain the rotation of the motor without producing work. This explains in particular the
automobile consumption in the urban cycle.

See Part-friction lubrication for

characterization and mechanical losses b
ways to reduce lo
Without changing intrinsically friction
(PMF), we can reduce their importance ed
on reducing the cubic capacity ( "down- Re
sizing ") which leads to increase the load
(SMEs) and thus the mechanical efficiency
Doc. michelinchallengebibendum.com

returns 78
overall performance

The overall performance ( Brake thermal efficiency ) is the product of return

combustion, thermodynamic efficiency and mechanical efficiency.
glob comb thermo mca

The breakdown of overall performance sometimes appear a return

gas exchange ( Gas exchange efficiency ).

page 40 returns 79

specific consumption

We can also express the form of performance specific consumption

(CS or CSP) effective ( Brake Specific Fuel Consumption: BSFC ) or Indicated
( CNM ) (unit: g / kWh)
The Csp is often represented in the form of iso-contours in a field (diet,

ignition Diesel

Doc. H.jeanmart, www.ucl.be

returns 80

specific performance and consumption

CSP comparison Gasoline / Diesel Effective Yield (automotive diesel)

(Automotive, supercharged)
Doc. community.dieselschrauber.de, vwortex.com, wartsila
Influence conditions
custom CSP
(Diesel semi-fast)

page 41 returns 81

"Down-sizing" and "rightsizing"

Gain on "downsizing" in
a function of load

Compare downsizing vs Miller-

Atkinson (Extended expansion)

Doc. MTZ

returns 82

"Down-sizing" and "rightsizing"

Comparison of two generations of a motor

It is essential to reduce the CSP under actual conditions of use (eg

partial loads in automotive).

Doc. MTZ

page 42 returns 83
Efficiency and performance - Comparison

For the record, the electric motors

deliver maximum torque at
zero velocity, and can achieve
very high yields
It must also reflect performance
entrained by the motor machines
(Eg alternator , propeller , ..) to
optimize the complete system

Doc. Motor-ingeener.net MAN ,, gm volt

returns 84
Energy distribution

The energy in the fuel is as follows ( variable distribution

following the engine and the operating point ):


1 parietal losses
2 losses due to mechanical friction
3 fraction friction losses ceded
the cooling circuit
4 transfer between the exhaust gases and
cooling circuit (valve
Doc. H.jeanmart, www.ucl.be
Doc. Mazda-news.eu 5 energy radiated exhaust
Conventional performance can be complemented by an approach Exergy ,
particularly useful when trying to recover lost energy: for example,
heat contained in exhaust gas could be converted to work with a
better performance than is available in the cooling circuit of which the
temperature is much lower.

page 43 returns 85

automotive propulsion energy distribution

Doc. H.jeanmart, www.ucl.be

Many current work seeks to recover energy that is far

lost (see chapter Applications)

returns 86

evaluation cycles engines

To assess the "average" consumption of an engine, you have to give a cycle

representative (if possible) the actual operation. The approval cycles ( test
cycle ) set by legislators depend on applications , but also regions
(Europe, US, Japan, ..)

These cycles are also used to evaluate the


Example operating points

European vehicle cycle
associated in the motor field
Doc. Renault

page 44 returns 87

evaluation cycles engines

motor vehicle cycle

US (FTP-75)
motor vehicle Japan cycle

returns 88

evaluation cycles engines

To facilitate the development of procedures, the trend is the development of cycles

world ( eg WHTC: worldwide Harmonized transient cycle for heavy vehicles,
WLTC: worldwide light-duty test cycle in automobile)
real driving tests ( RDE: Real Driving Emission ) are also provided

page 45 returns 89

evaluation cycles engines

For non-road engines ( off road ), we can use a few points

operation stabilized and do a weighted average.

Cycle ISO 8178 European Stationary Cycle

returns 90

evaluation cycles engines

It is also possible to define transient cycles (variable torque and speed) ( ex:
WHTC: worldwide Harmonized transient cycle )

To emissions can be defined

an entire area of the field in which the
emission levels must not exceed a
certain threshold ( eg NTE: Not to Exceed area )

WHTC cycle

NTE Zone

page 46 returns 91

Distribution of energy in automotive propulsion on the European cycle

Doc. Renault

returns 92
Emissions of CO

The MCI produce

significant amounts of CO2 and automobile
CO 2 , a major gas
greenhouse ;
for a given fuel,
CO 2 are
proportional to the

Origin of GHG by sector in France, source IFEN

Doc annonces-automobile.com

page 47 returns 93

Emissions of CO
The regulations will gradually set up to try to reduce these
emissions (Europe: 130 g / km on average emissions over the entire range of vehicles
a builder in 2015, 95 g in 2020 and penalty up to 95 / g additional / vehicle)

Emissions of CO 2 car in Europe

Emissions of CO 2 automobile and regulations

Doc Deer / Bosch, Ford, CCFA

returns 94
Emissions of CO
Bonus-malus vehicle (France) and effect on auto sales

Link emissions CO 2 and engine performance

page 48 returns 95
Emissions of CO

Comparison with a vehicle


returns 96
Emissions of CO

Maritime transport emits far less

CO 2 road transport per tonne
transported and per km
The use of an EEDI ( Energy Efficiency
Design Index ) is established with a
target of reducing emissions of CO 2

page 49 returns 97

Emissions of CO

To reduce these emissions several complementary approaches exist:

- Reduce the power required by the application : lighter cars, more
aerodynamic hull vessels with less resistance, naval propulsion
Extra wind; it is sometimes difficult (eg alternator for production
- Improve the efficiency of the engine (thermodynamic efficiency and / or mechanical,
see many examples in the chapters)
- Use the engine in operating conditions (speed, load,
temperature ..) where the returns are the best (hybrid, down-sizing, down-
speeding, cylinder deactivation, ...)
- Try to recover the lost energy (hybrid combined cycle, see Part ...
- Change of fuel: more carbon contents are low (CH 4 , H 2 ) is more
reduced the production of CO 2 during combustion. Caution must be analyzed
"Well to wheel" when considering the manufacture of fuel and sources
sinks of CO 2 correspondents (see Fuel section).

returns 98
Reduction of CO

The cost of mitigation techniques

CO 2 is increasing globally
with the level of reductions.
But differences significant cost
may exist from one technology to another
for the same level of reduction. The
interactions with the pollution can
have a strong impact on the cost

page 50 returns 99
Reduction of CO

roughly Solutions
complexes achieve
CO reductions 2 more or
less important for
gasoline or diesel engines

returns 100
Reduction of CO

Depending on the cost of technology the return on investment (thanks to

reducing consumption) may be more or less rapidly; it will condition
acceptance by the customer and thus the spread

page 51 returns 101

Positioning in the motor field

iso-CSP curves iso curves


available for
acceleration operation
steady (N 2 )

A vehicle speed
fixed point
depends on the ratio

Attention transient load changes and diet are not

instant: there is a response time longer or shorter ( Brio ).
This limits the "down-speeding" that effectively reduce consumption

returns 102

Positioning in the motor field

A speed alternator
variable reduces
the power consumption
partial, putting themselves in
a more favorable area
engine field
This involves treatment
the current to take him
the desired frequency

page 52 returns 103

cylinder deactivation

First developed on large

Motor gasoline engines (in
General V, with deactivation
a row of cylinders)
Available on a VW L4:
CO 2 = -8g / km on the NEDC
Obtained by disabling
valves (See part Bentley V8
distribution); the pistons remain
Difficulties potential in
Approval of conduct (noise,
transitions ...)
4 cyl VW TSI
returns 104
deactivation engines

Bentley V8

When using several

motors (eg power plant)
it is possible to modulate the
total load stopping some
engines. Thus engines
remaining operate at high
load and have a good performance.
For cons, the charging socket is
slower, because of the time
necessary to restart
Doc GE, Wartsila

page 53 returns 105

Power reduction

In naval propulsion is
possible of reduce the
consumption and emissions
CO 2 by reducing the speed of
The savings
allow the use of more Bentley V8
vessels to compensate for time
higher transportation

4 cyl VW TSI

experimental characterization 106

test bed engines

To develop and characterize the operation of a motor is used

usually a test bench . A brake ( Dynamometer Dyno ) absorbs power
supplied by the engine and used to measure the torque.
There are several types of brake:
- Current of eddy ( Eddy current ) or hydraulic to study the steady-state
(Brake only)
- Dynamic brake : asynchronous or synchronous electric machines for the Study of
operation transient (braking or driving )
The control system allows to independently adjust the speed and load, or
well to connect the load to the plan by more or less complex relationships
Sensors and devices used to measure : the speed, torque, temperature,
pressures, air flows, fuel, water, emissions, etc ...
It may be possible to engage in experiment with management systems
electronic and therefore change settings

page 54 experimental characterization 107

test bed engines


test cell
Doc, MathWorks, dynatest.com, CNRS / LMF

experimental characterization 108

Test Bed

To test the full propulsion system (motor and transmission) there

of GMP benches (Moto Group thruster, powertrain )
To test complete vehicles there are vehicles benches, using the
usually rolls ( Chassis dyno, roller test bench )

All these types use a bench (of) brake (s) like (s) to that of a
engine bench

Conversely, there are organ benches , to test a portion of the motor

(Eg, injection system, turbocharger, cylinder head, ..)

roller test bench

page 55 summary 109

A motor is characterized from the geometrical point of view by the bore, the
stroke, the compression ratio and the number of cylinders, which
define the displacement and the dead volume. These characteristics influence
on the performance and efficiency
To characterize the performance several parameters are
available: work, family, PM (performance brought to the displacement)
for a ring; power (includes the number of cycles per unit
time). We distinguish further indicated performance (theoretical, related
the pressure in the cylinders) and effective (actually available,
takes account of friction)
In practice, the speed and load of an engine may vary between
minimum and maximum values
Overall performance can be divided into combustion efficiencies,
thermodynamics and mechanics. is also often used the term
specific consumption. The energy not converted into useful work
discharged in different forms

summary 110

Performance varies depending on the speed and the load; to get

an average value, may be used a test cycle, representing
the application of MCI.
MCI emit CO 2 according to their consumption and
fuel used
There are several additional ways to reduce emissions
CO 2 and comply with regulations: power reduction,
performance improvement, use in areas of best
yield, recovery of lost energy, fuel change
To assess and optimize the performance and efficiency of MCI
(And other parameters: emissions, approval,
reliability ...) using test benches

page 56 QCM 111

In an engine, the thermodynamic efficiency:
is always greater than the effective yield
is sometimes larger than the actual yield
is never greater than the effective yield

Of the following parameters, which are relatively independent of the motor size:
Power average piston speed maximum cycle pressure
Couple engine inlet pressure
Average Pressure compression ratio Specific consumption
Rotation Plan Effective Yield fuel flow

In an engine, the efficiency of combustion:

often near East 1
Sometimes is greater than 1
Never exceed the Carnot efficiency

In an engine, the specific consumption:

varies little with the load
Is maximum full load
Is infinite empty

Piston best engines have a maximum effective yield on the order of:
35% 50% 65%


4. Applications

the main applications of MCI (constraints, types of

Engines used as alternatives to MCI ...)


energy recovery (combined cycles,

CHP ..)

Some examples of engines

page 57 Applications 113

bus Engine

Quasi monopoly:

Motorcycle (SI 2/4 tps)

Car (SI / Diesel)

Truck (D)

! Cost, emissions, performance, integration,

comfort, yield

Emergence of electrical

Doc. Forum-auto.com, wikipedia, transbus.org

Applications 114

naval propulsion

Outboard (E 2/4 tps / D)

Trawler (D)
Car ferry (D) Container door (D 2tps, gas)
(But TAG (+ light at equal power, but - good
yield) or TAV, nuclear)

! Integration, yield, reliability, emissions, performance

Future: solar booster / wind

Docs. Motorphilia.worldpress.com, forums.montrealracing.com, saintnazaire.maville.com, SkySails

page 58 Applications 115

train Engine

D, but also electricity

! Integration (width), yield, emissions

Most often diesel-electric

Doc: MTU railway-technology

Doc: lavoixeco.fr, bretagne.fr

Applications 116

aerospace propulsion

- E, D (small devices, drones), but above TAG / reactor

- Integration (air, visibility), altitude, cold, reliability

SR 305-230
300 Turbo-Avgas
avgas 250 HP
SR 305-300
) 250
s 150


2500 5000 7500 1000012500 15000 17500 20000 22500 25000 27500
Elevation (feet) 1 foot = 0.3048 meter
Doc. www.zenithair.com, Hangarlm.free.fr, wikipedia, popularmechanics.com

page 59 Applications 117

Electricity production

E, D, D 2T but TAG, or boiler

+ nuclear reactor steam cycle,

! Yield, emissions, reliability, noise

! constant speed (50/60 Hz)

Docs. Cummins.fr, Twenga.fr,

Applications 118

Electricity production

Compared to gas turbines, diesel semi-fast and slow motors have a

high efficiency , relatively constant for loads above 50% and relatively insensitive
the ambient conditions, the charging socket is quite fast

Gas Turbine

Docs. Cummins.fr, Twenga.fr,

Doc. MAN Diesel

page 60 Applications 119

Electricity production - floating plants

The production plants using

MCI can be installed on
So they can be deployed very
quickly to crisis situations
Docs. Cummins.fr, Twenga.fr,
Doc. MAN Diesel

Applications 120

various applications

Other vehicles, non-road: military vehicles, agricultural machinery,

Highly variable constraints

Docs. Choppedonion.com, materiel-motoculture.com, arcanemodelisme.com, hobby57.com, dieselpowermag.com

page 61 Applications 121

various applications

Other vehicles, non-road: motor sports, leisure gear,


Highly variable constraints

Docs. Choppedonion.com, materiel-motoculture.com, arcanemodelisme.com, hobby57.com, dieselpowermag.com

Applications 122

various applications

Other vehicles: construction vehicles

Highly variable constraints

Docs. Choppedonion.com, materiel-motoculture.com, arcanemodelisme.com, hobby57.com, dieselpowermag.com

page 62 Applications 123

various applications

Stationary engines: training of

pumps (irrigation, oil, cleaner
HP), of compressors (air, gas)
machinery gardening, ...

Highly variable constraints

Docs. Cummins.fr, Twenga.fr,

hybridization 124
General principles

It combines a MCI (SI / CI) to another type of engine (for Fuel:

Electrical example HEV: Hybrid Electric Vehicle ) reversible Energy
(That is to say, capable of performing the conversion work => Energy
source, that the MCI can not do!) and a device
energy storage (eg batteries) motor
The energy storage-retrieval helps decouple the Internal
power supplied by the MCI need of instant power.
Thus, it is possible to use the MCI in areas of
more favorable yield (for example, avoid using the MCI Energy
very low load). Kinetic

It is possible to recover kinetic energy during

decelerations ( KERS Kinetic Energy Recovery System ), the
convert then to store for later use Engine
These aspects allow a reduction in the
consumption, but at the cost of a system more complex , more
heavier and more expensive .
A mode of operation without emission (ZEV: Zero Storage
Emission Vehicle) is possible if one of the engine and allows the energy
may operate independently

page 63 hybridization 125

General principles

There are several architectures , the main ones being : serial, parallel, or series-parallel
sharing power
They are more or less appropriate depending on applications and more or less complex and
costly to implement

series hybrid parallel hybrid Series-parallel hybrid

Doc. Toyota

hybridization 126
General principles
Example of fuel savings due to hybridization.

The negative effects are outweighed by the positive effects

Doc. Toyota

page 64 hybridization 127

hybrid automotive propulsion

Example automotive hybrid electric ( HEV: Hybrid Electric Vehicle ) series-

parallel or shared power ( power split ) (Type Toyota Prius)

Doc. Toyota

hybridization 128

hybrid automotive propulsion

2 Driving Conditions 3 Sudden Acceleration

1 Starting and low
speeds The battery provides a
The power of MCI power surplus (A)
MCI is stopped when
distributed: one part leads for improve
would be in areas
the generator itself the acceleration produced by
poor performance
turns the ME (B). MCI and ME (B + C).
(Low load). The vehicle
The other part involves the
is driven by the single ME
(AT). wheels directly (C). The
distribution is regulated to
maximize returns.
Doc. Toyota

page 65 hybridization 129

hybrid automotive propulsion

4 Deceleration braking 5 Charging the battery

MOE is transformed into The battery level is
generator driven by the controlled to stay
wheels. he transforms sufficient. If necessary, the
energy kinetic of MCI drives the generator
vehicle electricity to recharge batteries
is stored in the battery (E).
(D). 6 Stop

When stopped MCI is cut.

Doc. Toyota

hybridization 130

hybrid automotive propulsion

Eg hybrid parallel (most

current) - MCI disengaged and
can pure electric mode
but with low self
(VW Touareg)


Doc. Wortex.com

page 66 hybridization 131

hybrid automotive propulsion

The hybridization level is variable (micro, mild, full)

Eg micro-hybrid "stop and start" system (or e-HDI) of Citron: alternator

starter (2kW) and automatic engine shut off (under
conditions). The supercapacitor can better recover braking energy

Stop and start

1 E-Booster
1a Power Electronics
1b Supercapacitor 5V
2 sealed 12V 70Ah battery
3 Supervisor Integrated Stop & Start engine and
4 reversible alternator
5 Engine HDI
Doc. PSA

hybridization 132
hybrid automotive propulsion

Eg hybrid PSA 3008 Hybrid4

- Wheel drive (4 4)

- Pure electric fashion possible with a

low self

- diesel motor


Doc. Wortex.com

page 67 hybridization 133

hybrid bus propulsion

Ex: Hybrid series - MCI is not connected to the wheels; the electric motor must
be sized to ensure only the propulsion of the vehicle; MCI
works as generator with a specific optimization or
continuous (storage capacity for low batteries) or so
outstanding (high capacity batteries recharged on the mains plug-in
to extend the battery ( range extender ) when the batteries are empty
Doc. jcwinnie.biz

hybridization 134

hybrid automotive propulsion

Ex: Range extender (BMWi3)

Doc. jcwinnie.biz

page 68 hybridization 135

hybrid automotive propulsion

hybridization 136

plug-in hybrid automotive propulsion

Eg rechargeable hybrid mains ( plug-in,

PHEV: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle )
Allows use of electric power
of various origins
The architectures can be variable
The role of MCI is more or less

Toyota Prius

Chevrolet Volt

Doc. Clean-auto.com, autonews.fr

page 69 hybridization 137

plug-in hybrid automotive propulsion

Comparison of different architectures and strategies

Doc. Libralto.co.uk
hybridization 138
plug-in hybrid automotive propulsion

Comparison of different architectures

Doc. Motortrend.com

page 70 hybridization 139

hybrid automotive propulsion

Comparison of different architectures

The consumer gains hybrid depend on the technology chosen

and also many of the type of journey
In France, an estimated two is less than 3 km and 80% are less than 20 km
Doc. AutoTechnology

hybridization 140
energy recovery potential brake
Potentially recoverable energy during braking phases and cycles on FTP72 NDEC

Doc. AutoTechnology

page 71 hybridization 141

operating strategy of a GMP Hybrid


Doc. AutoTechnology

hybridization 142

operating strategy of a GMP Hybrid

chevrolet Volt

Doc. Motortrend.com

page 72 hybridization 143

energy storage by flywheel

Coupling CVT or electric

High power density (164 hp on G11
Energy density better than
mechanical strength of Pb (F inertia!) And
friction (=> vacuum)
High speed (40,000 rev / min)

hybridization 144

hydraulic hybrid

The associated motor may be a hydraulic motor (operating in oil relaxing

pressure) less than an electric motor (but less efficient)
The storage is pneumatic (compressed nitrogen)
The storage capacity is small compared to electric batteries, but the cost is
lower and the problem of recycling simplified; it is possible to store
high powers , as when braking (electric this requires
Suitable for courses with lots of acceleration / braking
hydraulic hybrid
Doc. Jcwinnie.biz, MTZ

page 73 hybridization 145

hydraulic hybrid

Hybrid Air prototype PSA Doc. PSA

hybridization 146

hydraulic hybrid

Non-electric hybrids seek to preserve the benefits of the hybrid

( Consumption reduction, ZEV ) while reducing the disadvantages
( Extra cost, complexity, additional mass )

Doc. PSA

page 74 hybridization 147

pneumatic hybrid
The MCI can be a pneumatic motor
with an additional valve that connects the
cylinder to a storage tank
Still in the prototype stage

pneumatic hybrid
Doc. Jcwinnie.biz, MTZ (Www.idsc.ethz.ch, PRISM Lab Orleans)

hybridization 148

hybrid marine propulsion

naval propulsion ( diesel-electric ): eliminates the transmission shaft

engine propeller: the POD help increase manageability and improve
development within

Doc. ABB, Avanteyachts.com

page 75 hybridization 149

hybrid marine propulsion

A device batteries may enable storage - Energy and destocking

recovery during deceleration and reduce fuel consumption as well as
Doc. Xero hybrid

hybridization 150

hybrid marine propulsion

Example of reduction of

Doc. MAN

page 76 hybridization 151

naval propulsion

Doc. MAN

hybridization 152

hybrid drive train

Doc. Drives.co.uk ABB

page 77 hybridization 153

on hybrid construction machine

Doc. Drives.co.uk ABB

hybridization 154

Hybridization for

electricity production

It is common to couple a
generator using the MCI
amenities wind turbines or
PV to assist a
resource by intermittent nature
The use of fuel from
the biomass may increase
character renewable of
Doc Hitachizosen Econcern

page 78 Energy recovery 155

Valuation of the lost energy

In many systems exist (some are already used in industrial motors,

others to the prototype) to convert the energy contained in waste gases
exhaust and / or the cooling circuit in work or electricity ( Energy
Recovery System )
The recovery turbines ( turbocompound ) is to better exploit the gas expansion
at the exhaust; They produce dispatch work on the motor shaft or converted to
Other systems exploit the heat available in the exhaust gas and
cooling system:
Combined Cycle ( CC: Combined cycle ) : Conversion of heat into work (then
electricity) through a thermodynamic cycle condensable vapor (Rankine, Hirn, ..) or
phase (Stirling, Joule, ..)
Thermo-electricity (Seebeck) ( TEG: Thermo Electric Generator ): the conversion of heat
Cogeneration ( CHP: Combined Heat & Power ): direct use of heat

efficiency but especially the cost and congestion are critical parameters

Energy recovery 156

cycles combined naval propulsion (engine slow)

the turbine of condensable steam cycle comprises two stages
It is coupled to a "compound" turbine that relaxes exhaust

Doc. www.MANBW.com

page 79 Energy recovery 157

combined cycles in marine propulsion

Evolution of the repair of energy and

gain in yield
Doc. www.MANBW.com

Energy recovery 158

combined cycles in

electricity production

The cycle condensable vapor

recovers heat of the circuit
cooling (preheating) and
there is a steam turbine for
all engines semi-
Quick Central (one per
engine so slow engine)
Cooling of
condenser can hearth air , or water
(more efficient)

Doc. MAN

page 80 Energy recovery 159

Combined cycles producing


CC improves the
The scalability of the CC
slower than that of traction

Doc. MAN

Energy recovery 160

combined cycles in automotive propulsion

Heat recovery (circuit

Cooling + exhaust) to
supplying a condensable steam cycle
(Prototype BMW Turbosteamer)
Doc. BMW

page 81 Energy recovery 161

combined cycles in automotive propulsion

Q exhaust (kW)

Gas temperature

Q cooling (kW)

The recoverable power in gas

exhaust and in the system of
cooling depends on the point of
engine operation
The temperature of the gas
Exhaust is on lowered

Doc. BMW BMW Tubosteamer

Doc. MTZ

Energy recovery 162

combined cycles in automotive propulsion

power recovered

version 1

BMW Tubosteamer

interesting system
against high power
version 2

Doc. MTZ

page 82 Energy recovery 163

combined cycle Truck

Prototype Behr truck and efficiency depending on the use

For small powers the expansion of the steam is not done in

a piston machine

Doc. D & GT

Energy recovery 164

Turbine energy recovery - Turbocompound

Principle: providing a second turbine generally downstream of the turbocharger

(but other configurations are possible). The work thus recovered is returned to the shaft
motor via a gear and a hydraulic coupler, or an electrical system
generator / motor (with storage possible)
increases the performance engine of global
complex system hitherto reserved for engines
heavyweight application (Scania, Volvo)
deouis used in F1 2014 Renault F1 2014 System

Electrical system Scania system

page 83 Energy recovery 165

Gain consumption

Gain consumption

Energy recovery 166

Turbocompound + Hybridization (F1)

Gain consumption

Allows increased very

substantial performance
overall in a context
and determines the particular
performance since the energy
introduced is fixed
multiple configurations
competition Gain consumption

page 84 Energy recovery 167

Turbocompound + Hybridization (F1, WEC)

Gain consumption

Porsche 919 LMP1 - Le Mans

F1 Recovery Strategy
Gain consumption

Energy recovery 168

recovery by thermoelectricity

Principle: in some materials a temperature difference generates electricity ( effect

seebek , such as thermocouples, unlike the Peltier effect)

Doc. Wikipedia Prototype VW: 600W on

Truck Engine: reduction
consumption of a few%

page 85 Energy recovery 169


Recovering the heat of the circuit cooling (low temperature) and gas
exhaust (high temperature) for heating or steam generation

Docs. dhtd.co.jp
Energy recovery 170
Cogeneration - District Heating

Docs. dhtd.co.jp

page 86 Energy recovery 171

co-generation in naval propulsion

Heat is valued for the purposes on board:

Hot water, steam and water production

Doc. www.MANBW.com

Energy recovery 172

domestic CHP
Docs. dhtd.co.jp

page 87 Energy recovery 173



Docs. dhtd.co.jp

Energy recovery 174


Trigeneration: simultaneous production work ( electricity ), heat and cold (through a cycle
page 88 Energy recovery 175


Trigeneration: simultaneous production work ( electricity ), heat and cold (through a cycle

Examples engines 176

Model Engine
page 89 Examples engines 177

small spark-ignition engine

Examples engines 178

Small Diesel Engine

page 90 Examples engines 179

Motorcycle Engine
Examples engines 180

industrialized automotive diesel

page 91 Examples engines 181

industrialized automotive diesel

Examples engines 182

automotive diesel

page 92 Examples engines 183

automotive diesel
Examples engines 184

automotive ignition


page 93 Examples engines 185


direct injection, turbocharged

Examples engines 186

F1 2006 Engine

Doc. Auto-innovations.com, seriouswheels.com, epi-eng.com

page 94 Examples engines 187

truck engine

Examples engines 188

Diesel semi-fast Industrial, 4-stroke

page 95 Examples engines 189

Industrial Diesel 2 slow time

Examples engines 190

page 96 Examples engines 191

summary 192

MCI The applications are many and varied: propulsion

road, marine, rail, air; electricity production; gear
agricultural, construction, military, leisure, ... Next MCI case
occupies a more or less dominant role compared to other
machinery; Each application has specific constraints
Hybridization is used for many applications; She can
reduce fuel consumption by using the MCI
lez in the most favorable yield zones, thanks to Storage-
energy storage; It also helps to recover energy during
decelerations. There are many architectures (serial,
parallel, sharing power, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, ...)
The recovery of the energy dissipated by the MCI for value in
work or in the form of heat also allows reduction
page 97 QCM 193
The piston engine is a virtual monopoly in the following areas:
Auto Engine
Aerospace Propulsion
naval propulsion (transport)
Railway Engine

In rail propulsion, trains using piston engines:

Have disappeared in France since the 70s
Do not remain more than in developing countries
Utilize electric motors to drive the wheels
Utilize diesel or gas engines

Hybrid systems
apply only road propulsion
aim to improve the performance of MCI on a diet and a given load
aim to use the MCI when it has a high yield
systematically include energy storage in a battery
are most effective when the MCI works usually low load and / or variable

The lost energy recovery

Is more effective with the exhaust gas with the cooling system because energy
available is much higher
Can be done via a condensable vapor cycle
Only possible on stationary engines


5. Air Supply - Exhaust

Technology Elements


The distribution

The geometry of circuits

page 98 Introduction 195

key Objectives
The main objectives of the air supply and exhaust are:
- Increase the fill or volumetric efficiency ( Volumetric efficiency ) to
Full load: + torque / displacement
- Reduce pumping losses , especially at partial loads
- Check the air flow ( air mass flow ) to handle the load (ignition)
and / or dilution (EGR-> emissions)
- Understand the internal aerodynamics of the cylinder: turbulence (micro), the swirl, the
tumble, the squish (macro)
- Improve the scan ( scavenging ), reduce (or control) the rate of residual gases ,
avoid passing the mixture directly for admission to the exhaust (emissions
- Allow the exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation )
to reduce emissions
- Ensuring effective functioning of the devices post-processing of gas to
exhaust, notably by controlling the temperatures of the exhaust gases

Technology 196

The distribution members






Docs. Gazoline.net, pschryve.free.fr, effitreat.ch, 6enligne.net

page 99 Technology 197

The distribution

The profile of the cam and the engine speed determine the speeds and accelerations
instant of valves which can be very high.
Technology 198
The distribution

The valve and its spring are a vibratory system , with a risk
resonance , especially at very high speeds, or to specific recall systems ( pneumatic ,
desmodromic )
desmodromic valves

pneumatic spring (F1)

Doc.scarbsf1.com; f1-dictionary.110mb.com, ducati.fr, bluming.com

page 100 Technology 199

The camshaft

the camshaft can be lateral (with rod of

rocker + tumbler ) or the top (in the cylinder head, over
head camshaft OHC , single or double DOHC , with or
without rocker)

Docs. Membres.lycos.fr/rpoint,

Technology 200

The camshaft

The camshaft may be driven by toothed belt ( timing belt ) or chain

( Timing chain ); more rarely gears ( gear drive ) primarily used on
semi fast and slow industrial engines

page 101 Technology 201


the valves may be lateral (obsolete) or the top (in the cylinder head, in line
or V)
there may be 2, 3, 4 or 5 valves per cylinder
The intake and exhaust may be either side or
same side

Technology 202
The inlet line

The intake system generally includes a

air filter , a duct longer or shorter, a box
Reassurance ( 'collector' distributor
plenum manifold ) and the tubing ( runners )
separated for feeding air to each of the
cylinder, to the cylinder head
made in light alloy or material plastic
must limit the losses that penalize
the filling (performance) and increase the
pumping losses (reduced yield).
This is sometimes contradictory constraints
congestion , for example under the hood of a

page 102 Technology 203

The butterfly

On engines with spark ignition, it is necessary to

control the dosage: the air / fuel ratio. also when
varies the amount of fuel burned in each cycle for
varying load, we must also change the fill
(Air filling so direct injection, or fill in
air-fuel mixture if it is carried out)
Typically, this one is used for butterfly ( throttle )
placed on the intake system, and that more is closed or
The butterfly creates a loss more or less charge
important that limits the filling to
down load but significantly increasing
pumping losses
initially connected to the accelerator pedal through a cable , it
is now controlled by an electric actuator controlled
a calculator on electronically controlled engines butterfly flap
(Eg automotive)

Doc. Pluspiecesauto.com

Technology 204

The exhaust line

The exhaust circuit comprises a manifold

( Manifold ) , more or less sophisticated, in cast iron or steel ,
which brings together the cylinders (directly or gradually,
for example 4 in 2 in 1) and one (or two) line (s)
(pipes) with the system post-processing potential
(catalytic converters, ..) and the silencer (muffler) , for
reduce noise
The temperature of the gases may exceed 1100 C : the holding
Mechanical is critical (fatigue)
Conversely, it must be sufficient to ensure the
effective functioning of systems postprocessing
(Critical low load and during cold starts)
There may be specific constraints
application (eg underwater exhaust)

page 103 Technology 205

The exhaust line

The exhaust manifold may be integrated to the cylinder head

This enables better control of the temperature of
exhaust (thanks to coolant
- Rise in temperature faster
- Lower maximum temperature

Docs. MTZ

Technology 206
The exhaust line

Temperature at the pre-cat during a cold start turbine inlet temperature

The losses in the exhaust
(against pressure) increase losses
pumping and thus reduce the yield of
They are especially due to the presence
post-treatment gas systems (see
Part emissions)
Docs. MTZ, dieselnet.com

page 104 Technology 207

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

EGR: Exhaust Gas Recirculation is intended to

reduce emissions polluting (see Part
combustion) and / or improve the performance
It may exist on motor gasoline and
Diesel , including automobile and truck
The recirculation rate is controlled using a
when you want to increase the recirculated flow rate it
is possible to lower the inlet pressure
engine or increase the output pressure
using butterfly flaps
A neighbor effect (but not identical) can be
obtained by trapping residual gas ( EGR
internal or IGR ). In this case the gases are not
cooled but the response time is shorter
(better responsiveness )
The RMI is generally obtained and controlled
with a variable distribution

Filling 208

volumetric efficiency

Volumetric efficiency quantifies the effectiveness of filling the

cylinder. It is defined by:

m adm m adm m adm

= = =
m admrf_ admVadm_cy VP
adm displacement
rT adm

Doc. AVL
page 105 Filling 209

volumetric efficiency

AT quasi-static effects

B suppression G fluids
t eu
in C
d m Agreement blocking
Ren acoustic sonic
(Water hammer)

Diet Doc. Heywood

In many phenomena , which vary depending on the system , combine

to achieve a more or less good filling

Supplements: During "exchange process gas" and "valvetrain system" www.egr.msu.edu/erl/ME444/index.htm

Filling 210

volumetric efficiency

The volumetric efficiency has a direct and strong influence on the couple and so on
the performance
Doc. PSA / SIA

page 106 Filling 211


Optimizing the shape of the intake and exhaust ducts and

valves (CFD calculations, tests); multivalve cylinder heads to improve

Filling 212

internal aerodynamics

The intake ducts, valves (as well as the shape of the room)
serve in particular to control the global movements of air during the
compression and the level of turbulence

page 107 Filling 213

internal aerodynamics

There are variable swirl devices (eg Renault 1.6 dCi R9M)
Doc. Renault

Filling 214

unsteady flows

The flow in the inlet ducts and exhaust are highly

unsteady .
The opening and closing valves periodically generates pressure waves
( Pressure waves ) which propagate in the intake and exhaust systems to
speed of sound (local) with respect to the flow.
These waves are reflected at the junctions and the ends of the pipes, with
of interactions possible between the different cylinders.
Back at the valves, they can promote or otherwise penalize the
gas exchange. The ideal is to get pressure (relative pressure
average) for admission to the end of the opening of the intake valve and a
depression exhaust shortly before the end of the opening of the valve
exhaust . In this case we say that the intake system and / or exhaust
are " granted " ( tuned ).
The agreement depends on the geometry (length, volume, ..) circuits and the regime of
motor rotation

page 108 Filling 215

unsteady flows



ion (ba
s 1
s 0.8

0 100 200 300 400 500 600
crankshaft angle (deg)

Filling 216

unsteady flows


(b 1.1
io 2000 rpm
is 1 3500 rpm
d 5000 rpm
at 0.9
not 6500 rpm
s 0.8

305 355 405 455 505 555 605 655

crankshaft angle

page 109 Filling 217

depending on the load filling

On a motor ignition to reduce the load it is necessary to degrade

voluntarily filling (often with a butterfly) which penalizes the performance
(Pumping losses)



r) 1
at 100%
(b 80%
io 60%
ss 40%
0.6 20%


0 0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003 0.00035 0.0004
Volume (m3)
BP loop according to the load (motor PMI-BP ratio (pumping) on
ignition with butterfly) PMI Total (%)

Doc. Sciences-direct.com

Distribution 218
distribution pattern

The moments of opening and closing of the valves are defined angularly by
the advance or delay with respect to the ideal graph :


Adjournment (inch)


Crankshaft angle (deg)

Doc. Performancetrends.com

page 110 Distribution 219

distribution pattern

We find these angles on the pie chart distribution

Crossover valve ( valve overlap ): intake and exhaust are open

Doc. PSA / SIA

Distribution 220

Setting the timing

admission to pressure oscillations depend on the engine speed: with a

fixed timing, it is impossible to optimize the filling at all rpm . We have to
a compromise that will be different depending on the use of the engine.
This has prompted the emergence of systems variable valve timing ( VVT variable valve
timing ) of more or less complex distribution, sometimes combined with a lifting
variable ( VVL: Variable Valve Lift ) . Lifting of the variations may be continuous or
discontinuous (+ single).
These systems combine good filling at full load (obtained
Also over a wide speed range) with other often conflicting objectives:
as appropriate, yield amounted to partial load , reduction of emissions , stability
slow motion
Appeared initially on engines automotive ignition for
improve performance and the performance , they begin to appear on
Engines Diesel automotive and industrial for cleanup

page 111 Distribution 221

Timing variable distribution

Interest of variable valve: optimize filling at all rpm

There are a large number of systems (examples below)

Doc. AVL

Distribution 222
phase shift of the camshaft

1 - control hydraulic pressure,

2 - Camshaft,
3 - helical ramp inside the pinion
drive: longitudinal displacement due to
pressure, VANOS systems (BMW)
4 - helical ramp on the camshaft: rotation
relative to the pinion.

The duration of opening remains unchanged

The system covers admission and sometimes exhaust
Doc. Auto-innovation.com

page 112 Distribution 223

phase shift of the camshaft

Renault system

Doc. Megane2.superforum.fr, forum-auto.com

Distribution 224

Variable Valve Timing: such strategies (VW)

Doc. VW

page 113 Distribution 225

Examples of strategies: VVTi system (Toyota)

Doc. romraider.com, power-entreprise.co.jp, 3sgte.com

Application 226
Strategies VVT

page 114 Distribution 227

variable valve
Some systems also allow to vary the exercise maximum
according to operating conditions:
- Low lift at low load to promote turbulence , the quality of
combustion and reduce emissions
- Significant lifting heavy load to support the filling and
the lifting of change can be batch or continuous
In terms of technology, there is a wide variety of systems
These systems are associated with a variable-pitch

Distribution 228

variable lift: VVTLi system (Toyota)

Variable Valve Timing and Lift with


System with two cams, batch

Associated with VVT

Doc.v-eight.com autozine.com, puresportscar.com, alflash.com.ua

page 115 Distribution 229

variable lift: VTEC (Honda)

Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control

3 different modes
Originality: low both diet
intake valves have
separate lifted: a rest near
closed, to promote swirl

Doc. Auto-innovations.com, b18c5eg.com

Distribution 230

variable lift

Example of use of a system

bit in the motor field
System 2 cams Variocam more

Supplements: file "distributions length and variable aperture" auto-innovations.com

Doc. fitfreak.net, Porsche,

page 116 Distribution 231

variable lift
Doc. Motorlegend.com, blog.caranddriver.com, bioage.typepad.com
At the extreme: deactivating cylinders to improve efficiency in
part load (eg VW-Audi system)

Distribution 232

variable valve: Valvetronic (BMW)

Change continues to lift

allows the removal of the butterfly System 1 + eccentric cam
Admission (load management): Commanding an intermediate lever
lower pumping losses

Doc. psugier.fm.interia.pl

page 117 Distribution 233

variable valve: Valvetronic (BMW)


Doc. psugier.fm.interia.pl

Distribution 234

variable valve: load control

Doc. psugier.fm.interia.pl

page 118 Distribution 235

variable valve: VEL (Nissan)

Doc. Puregreencars.com, nissan

Distribution 236
Variable valve lift and duration: FIAT MultiAir
Solution exploitable mass at reasonable cost

Doc. Autozine.org

page 119 Distribution 237

Applying example for the MultiAir

Opening Types

Earnings in consumption strategies

Doc. psugier.fm.interia.pl

Distribution 238
variable distribution of industrial diesel

1) Pressure accumulator
2) Middle pressure chamber
3) Oil supply
4) Engine valves
5) Pump Unit
6) High pressure chamber
7) Solenoid valve
8) Actuator / brake
9) Camshaft

Opening Types

Doc. Wartsilae
Cycle Miller : intake valve closing early or
Later from the standard cycle
Objective here: the reduction temperature cycle to reduce
Emissions of NOx (see Part combustion)
The filling loss is offset by an increase
the pressure supercharging
Doc. psugier.fm.interia.pl

page 120 Distribution 239

Distribution without camshaft ( Camless )

The camshaft is replaced by a

system electromagnetic or electronic
This system allows the management
electronic distribution with a
total freedom for rigging and sometimes
is thus avoided constraints
mechanical, except for the displacement of
the valve: the flexibility is maximum
control of noise, clutter,
energy consumption, cost
can be problematic
Still in the development

Valeo SVA system

(Smart Valve Actuation)

Geometry circuits 240

Filling: influence of admission circuits


The filling depends on the geometry (length, volume)

intake and exhaust pipes: one tries to define such a configuration
peak pressure at intake coincides with the opening of the intake valve.
Pb: "best" values are not the same for all systems (including
due to resonance and wave)
Solution: systems of admission (and more rarely exhaust) variable (either
continuous or by selecting a pipe course or led along according to plans)
Implementation: a wide variety of systems , more or less complex
page 121 Geometry circuits 241

Circuits intake variable length

System ford DSI (Dual-stage

The length increases when the
speed decreases: Frequency
lowest resonance
System discontinuous (2 positions)

Geometry circuits 242

Circuits intake variable length

Stage 1
Stage 2
stage3 NOT)
System Audi V8 Co

System discrete 3 position

Speed (r / min)

page 122 Geometry circuits 243

Circuits intake variable length

BMW system rotating drum

System DC
The length varies from 231-673 mm

Geometry circuits 244

Circuits intake variable volume

Porsche flat 6 engine

3 positions Systems

A: N <5160 rev / min

B: 5160 r / min <N <5920 rev / min

C: N> 5920 rev / min

page 123 Geometry circuits 245

Circuits intake variable volume

Geometry circuits 246
admission tours - comparison

Systems sophisticated possible to increase the filling and so work

specific and expand the rev range

Doc. PSA / SIA

page 124 Geometry circuits 247

exhaust circuits

geometry exhaust systems including plays on the interactions between cylinders

An optimized geometry can promote the scan , and thus reduce the rate of waste gases;
it limits the clatter (see Part combustion) and thus increase the yield
(eg Mazda sky activ) and / or the performance
Doc. mazda

summary 248

intake and exhaust systems must meet

several goals, sometimes antagonistic maximize filling,
control the scanning and the level of residual gases, minimizing the work
decanting (pumping loss), allowing control
load, control the internal aerodynamics and ensure effective
aftertreatment systems ...
The gas flows to the intake and exhaust are
unsteady and accompanied by pressure waves
The valve timing and geometry of these conduits influence
flows. A fixed configuration can not be optimum all the
time, hence the development of variable systems, for
modify as appropriate the valve timing, valve lift
or the geometry of the conduits. They achieve goals has
priori antagonists (performance / efficiency, low / high speeds
full / low load).

page 125 QCM 249

The camshaft phase systems can be varied:
The duration of admission
The duration of valve overlap
The beginning of the admission angle
The end angle of admission

The volumetric efficiency

Can be greater than 1, thanks in particular to pressure waves
Is improved at high speed if the intake valve closes after BDC
may be improved by increasing the number of valves
Can be improved by using a chain to drive the camshaft

An overhead camshaft
Is always driven by a toothed belt
Can control valves directly
Is located in the engine block
Can control the valves via rocker arms

A spark ignition engine, to reduce losses by partial load pumping can:

to increase the residual gas content to increase the throttle opening
To disable cylinders
To use an intake system to lift and variable length
Reduce the pressure losses on the intake circuit

6. Overeating

the principle

different technologies

the "down sizing"

page 126 Introduction 251


An effective way of increasing the air mass or mixture introduced into the
cylinder in each cycle and to increase the pressure and therefore the density at admission
using a compressor ( compressor ) .
The compression has the side effect of heating the air , hence the presence
a frequent exchanger (RAS charge air cooler or
intercooler, CAC: Charge Air Cooler ) between the compressor and the entry of
The compressor can be driven by the crankshaft (or a motor
electric): mechanical compressor ( supercharger ). It may also be driven by
a turbine placed on the exhaust and mounted circuit on the same shaft as the
compressor: turbocharger ( turbocharger )
Limited by pressure Technical maximum allowable cylinder (E: rattling, D:
mechanical). Solution: lower the compression ratio . But when bp Psural

Pressure booster (max):

bar (relative): turbo "low pressure" automobile
automobile engine down-size / truck: bar (absolute)
Industrial motor: bar (absolute)

mechanical compressors 252

Different types of mechanical compressors

driven by the crankshaft with a belt or gears , optionally

or disengageable by an electric motor (difficult because of the rotational speeds
generally effective at low speeds
main drawback: the power consumed by the compressor being
levied on the crankshaft, the overall engine efficiency is affected
used car on some big engines and two-stroke diesel
Several types of compressor :

1) Compressor Centrifugal ( Centrifugal )

good compression efficiency (60-80%)
high rotating speeds
ineffective when his regime is too

page 127 mechanical compressors 253

Different types of mechanical compressors

2) Compressor volumetric lobe

(Type Roots )
bad compression efficiency
can saturate at high speed
Simple and cheap

3 ) positive displacement screw compressor ( twin

screw )
good compression efficiency (70-
Effective at any speed

mechanical compressors 254

a compressor performance chart

page 128 mechanical compressors 255

Pressure control by a bypass

turbocharger 256

driven by a turbine which recovers the energy available in the exhaust gas and
disposed on the same shaft as the compressor
the shaft is mounted on fluid bearings or bearings; it is lubricated by the oil of
engine, the turbocharger is sometimes cooled by the engine water circuit
centrifugal compressor, axial or centripetal turbine (large motors)
better overall performance than the mechanical compressor

The main challenges are:

the response time ( turbo lag ) in transient: there is a mismatch between

acceleration / charge socket of the motor on the one hand and the acceleration of the turbocharger
and increasing the second supercharge pressure
adaptation ( turbo matching ): turbomachinery used have a single design flow, gold
the gas flow through the engine varies with the regime
The pulsed operation of the turbine : recover energy from "puffs" of pressure
page 129
turbocharger 257


turbocharger 258

Different types of turbines

A centripetal turbine (r <160 mm)

axial turbine (r> 300 mm)

Mixed (d) and comparison with radial (g)

page 130 turbocharger 259

Champs compressors and turbines

iso speed

limit Iso-Yield


Volume flow rate

compressor field turbine field

turbocharger 260

Calculation of a turbocharger (Simplified)

steady state

Atmosphere: P0, T0
Deb_comp, _comp Turbine
_ turb= 0L / Pec
Pad, Tad _ turb= _ (1g
_N, Turb
turb) field
( )
Deb_ turb= _ (2g _N, Turb
turb) field
( )
Pec Tec W_turb
W_comp . turb= Deb_ turbPc Tec _ turb1-( _ turb)1-

n_mot N_TC Turbo balance
comp= _NOT
turb= TC_N
Deb_turb, _turb
. comp= _W
. turb
mass balance
Deb_ turb= Deb_ word
+ Deb_ carb= Deb_ comp+ Deb_ carb
_ word
Deb_ word pad Vcyflight
Compressor 2 r Tad
Deb_ carb= h1 Deb_ word )(dosage)
_ comp= 0L / Pad
Pec= Nh_ (2 word, Deb_ word, ...)Cycle
( )
_ comp= Deb (1f
_ comp_, comp) (field )
Tec = Nh
_ (3 word
, Deb_ word, ...)Cycle
( )
_NOT comp= Deb (2f_ comp_, comp) field
( )
( 1
. _ comp)-

_Wcomp= Deb_ compPc 0T
_ comp

page 131 turbocharger 261

response time

J TC = W - W - W
TC dt turb comp frot

Couple (atmospheric)
Couple (turbocharger)
Turbo lag


turbocharger 262

Reduced response time

reduce the inertia :

- Materials more lightweight (eg ceramic turbine)
- Turbos more small (V-engine "bi turbo": 2 turbos in
parallel )
- Reduction of the volume of the conduits between the engine and the
- Compressor 2 sides (small radius)

Compressor for 2 sides

bi-turbo V8 engine
Turbine streamlined with reduced inertia

page 132 turbocharger 263

Reduced response time

support the turbo (electric, pneumatic) during transient phases

may be reversible: energy recovery during deceleration
can also be used to permanently low engine speed to increase
boost pressure or recovering energy; used in F1 since 2014

electric assistance

pneumatic assistance
turbocharger 264
Reduced response time: compressed air injection

Volvo Power Pulse

page 133 turbocharger 265

Reduced response time

It is also possible to reduce the response time playing on the motor cycle.
Thus, one can increase the energy supplied to the turbine and thus maintain a diet
high turnover turbocharger during deceleration phases:
- ALS ( Anti Lag System , "bang bang") in competition: increased flow
exhaust and increase in temperature with a delayed ignition and
enrichment that produce very little work on the motor shaft but lead to
combustion in the exhaust line
- Increase in the valve overlap with VVT ( "scavenging technology"
Alfa Romeo) to again increase the turbine speed

System "Anti Lag"

turbocharger 266

Reduced response time

On engine medium speed diesel , it is possible thanks to common rail injection system
perform during charging taken a post-injection very late ( "boost injection")
which produces very little work on the tree but provides significant energy in the
exhaust system; This additional energy accelerates the turbocharger
delivers a higher boost pressure and shortens acceleration

System "boost injection" of MAN Diesel

page 134 turbocharger 267


It is difficult to dimension a turbocharger for it to be correctly

suitable for a given engine
The compressor must be capable of delivering the boost pressure desired
and the air flow rate corresponding to the rate from the supply motor .
The turbine must be able to drive the compressor , knowing that their speed
rotation is the same and that, in steady state, the power recovered by the turbine
and the power consumed by the compressor are identical
The task is even more difficult than generally the engine speed is variable ; By
Therefore the gas flow circulating in the compressor and the turbine is too. So,
with a conventional turbocharger, it is necessary to make compromises

Shape of a centrifugal compressor of field, with the

surge limit , implies that at low speed and low-speed
the compression ratio is reduced
A small section of turbine work well at low revs
motor (low speed) but is too small to high engine speed
(Too high flow), while a larger turbine work
well at high speed (high speed) but will recover little
energy low engine speed (low speed)

turbocharger 268


pumping gas

Pressure Pressure
Boost Boost
Turbine entry turbine inlet
(Max Plan
C TC exceeded)
eT eT

schem schem

orther orther

Couple m Couple m

Engine speed Engine speed

page 135 turbocharger 269


Turbine adapted to high engine speeds (large): bad

performance at low speeds: low power + bp for
Transient (tps response)
Turbine suitable for low speed (small): too much power
recovered at high speed: risk of overspeed and Pb evacuation
the exhaust gas

Relief valve ( waste gate ): adaptation

at low speeds, and it cuts off the power
recovered by the turbine at high rpm. Simple
but average yield. limited amplitude.
Commissioned by the intake pressure,
exhaust or computer (actuator
electrical or pneumatic)

turbocharger 270

A variable geometry turbine

variable turbine geometry (TGV, VGT

variable nozzle turbine VNT )
idea: several turbos in a
Electronic control
variable section continuously , only side
Amplitude limited.
several technologies : axial variation
input section or movable diffuser vanes
for the moment mainly on engine
Diesel because of the temperature of gas
to lower exhaust, less problematic
for reliability; gasoline app:
TGV axial variation
Porsche 911

page 136 turbocharger 271

A variable geometry turbine

movable diffuser vanes (swivel):

The most current.

TGV mobile diffuser

turbocharger 272

A variable geometry turbine

turbine efficiency rather low (angle of suboptimal diffuser, see Triangle


Turbine field turbine performance

page 137 273

A variable geometry turbine

used in automotive propulsion / weight

heavy: improves the low performance
regime and the response time

e WG

1000 200 300 400

0 0 0
Engine RPM

Performance at low speed

transient performance

turbocharger 274
A variable geometry turbine

appears on engines industrial (axial turbines)

Gain consumption at partial loads

transient performance

Doc. MAN

page 138 turbocharger 275

pulsating power turbine

turbine works better at constant pressure : large volume to smooth manifolds

pressure oscillations possible big engine, but bp and transient
congestion in road propulsion
the presence of the turbine in the flow tends to increase the pressure at the output of
motor, which is detrimental to the scanning and to the low pressure loop .
The judicious combination of the cylinders can limit this phenomenon, thanks to
of turbines to two (or more) entries ( twin scroll )

Turbine "twin scroll" Pulse pressure

Gain related to "twin scroll" in turbine inlet

turbocharger 276

Scale Effects

turbochargers for engines large usually have efficiency

higher overall
The first reason is that when the size of compressors and turbines increase, the
losses become proportionally smaller and therefore better yields
In addition, the variation range of the system and thus the engine speed being narrower, it is
easier to stay in the areas of energy efficient turbomachinery

overall efficiency of a turbocharger

rapid engine medium-speed engine
semi fast engine

page 139 turbocharger 277

Influence of ambient conditions

operation of the turbochargers is affected by changes in the conditions

ambient (pressure, temperature). Systems of regulation may to some
able to take into account these effects.
Consideration of a temperature
very low ambient slow on diesel

medium-speed engine

supercharging systems 278

Turbocharger + supercharger

coupling with a mechanical compressor to improve the low-end torque

also decreases the response time

compressor driven by the electric compressor

crankshaft (eg VAG TSI)

page 140 supercharging systems 279

Turbocharger + supercharger

VW TFSI System

compressor driven by the

crankshaft (eg VAG TSI)

supercharging systems 280

sequential turbocharging

idea: combine several turbos differently depending on the area of

engine operation
used on industrial engines and in truck, car
Different configurations: turbos in parallel, series (two-stage) or mixed; coupling
with mechanical compressor ..
Large amplitude adjustment
Electronic control
improves the stabilized operation (especially low revs ) and
behavior transient

page 141 supercharging systems 281


sequential -parallle

Extending the operating field

low speed

STC system
(Semt Pielstick)

efficiency gain at partial loads

supercharging systems 282

-parallle sequential turbocharging

Wastegate turbine 2

common output

compressor 1

turbine inlet 2

turbine inlet 1
compressor 2
Compressor output 2 Exit
compressor 1

PSA system - Honeywell

2.2l Diesel engine

page 142 supercharging systems 283

sequential turbocharging -parallle + compressor


supercharging systems 284

sequential turbocharging -parallle + compressor

Each turbocharger has a valve and an exhaust pipe
dedicated to each cylinder
The passage 1TC / 2TC is managed via the distribution (disabling one of two valves)

page 143 supercharging systems 285

sequential turbocharging -parallle + compressor


supercharging systems 286

sequential turbocharging - series

R2S system (BorgWarner) Automotive

Low speed: BP + HP / Top speed: BP

not 2 floors
your 2 floors
e sequential
not Sequential
1 floor parallel
reduced mass air flow
Comparison with other

page 144 supercharging systems 287

sequential turbocharging - series

Gain in operating

stabilized operating gain

supercharging systems 288

sequential turbocharging - series

Example strategy
page 145 supercharging systems 289

Overeating double floor - series

T limit oil coking

( C
air you
Specific entropy s (J / kgK)
One course
Two stage intercooler with isobaric

On industrial engine allows

to achieve of the pressures of
supercharging very high
the intermediate cooling
increases the overall efficiency
Allows implementation cycles
Miller (Chapter distribution) to
reduce emissions

supercharging systems 290

Overeating double floor - sequential serial / parallel

On BMW 3.0l diesel engine

page 146 supercharging systems 291

Overeating double floor - serial / parallel

supercharging systems 292

Turbocharger and EGR

There are two configurations Main:

- HP EGR , the most common far upstream to downstream turbine compressor, easy to
out but detrimental to overeating because the turbine receives less gas
exhaust when the EGR rate increases
-EGR BP : turbine downstream to upstream compressor, technically more complex,
development with new standards pollution . The turbine flow becomes
independent of the EGR rate. EGR must be filtered (Diesel) and cooled; there are risks
for the reliability of the compressor and intercooler; allows of higher EGR rate
-it is possible to combine the two systems and use the more favorable following the
Working conditions


page 147 Down sizing 293


Principle: replace an existing engine with an engine displacement of less but

highly supercharged (automotive propulsion)
Interest: the small increase , and consequently the performance , especially in the area of
The most common operation (partial load)
Problem: overeating , especially at low speeds and causing a transient
performance deficit at low speed (brilliantly), burning under high pressure holding
mechanical, cooling ...
Doc. Honeywell

Down sizing 294

Gain consumption


page 148 Down sizing 295

Consumer variation on cycle

VW - Audi Production vehicles

Equivalent fuel oil

Engine CO 2 Mass
OEM Performance Economy
emissions Reduction
Naturally Gain
Aspirated engine * gr. / Km

1.8L 150 HP 2 mpg -0.1

2.4L I4 ---
European Turbo 8% -12%
Turbo 1.8L +2.5 mpg -0.125
170 HP 2.8L V6 5-20 lbs.
Engine Turbo 11% -14%
Family 1.8L 180 HP +3.75 mpg -0.19
3.0L V6 30-50 lbs.
Turbo 17% - 20%
1.8L 225 HP 1 mpg -0.04
3.2 V6 30-50 lbs.
Turbo 4% -5%
summary 296

Overeating increases the filling of a motor thanks

a mechanical compressor or a turbocompressor
More use, the turbocharger is facing two major difficulties:
response time and adaptation. More or less complex systems
have been developed to treat these two aspects: wastegate, turbine
geometry variable, assistance electric or pneumatic,
sequential supercharging series and / or parallel, with a coupling
mechanical compressor ...
Turbocharging enables the down-sizing which allows for
better align the areas of engine performance with good areas
actually used, particularly in automotive propulsion

page 149 QCM 297

The down sizing is to get the same power as a reference engine:
With a downsized
With a higher rpm
With more SMEs
With a greater number of cylinders

In a turbocharger, based on a fixed geometry turbine, a TGV

less Coute
Reduce response time
Improves engine performance
A better isentropic efficiency

Because the pumping phenomenon, a centrifugal compressor can not

Producing a high throughput with a high compression ratio
Producing a high speed with a low compression ratio
Produce a low rate with a high compression ratio
Produce a low rate with a low compression ratio

A turbocharger turbine section too small relative to the engine equipped

to be a problem rather low engine speeds
pose problem rather to high engine speeds
Risk turn too fast
risk turning too slowly
risk of leading to high levels of residual gases in the cylinders

7. Fuel supply

the different fuels

spark ignition engines

diesel engines

page 150 fuels 299

fossil fuels

Fossil Fuels:
- From oil: petrol ( gasoline, petrol ), diesel ( diesel ), heavy fuel oil ( heavy fuel oil ), Gas
Liquid petroleum gas LPG ( LPG )
- Natural gas (CNG: Natural gas vehicles, CNG compressed Natural Gas , LNG: Liquid
Natural Gas )
- Converted coal (liquefied or gasified)

fuels 300

fossil fuels

The specifications of fuels vary from country to country: sulfur content, index
octane, cetane, ...
page 151 fuels 301


Bio fuels or agro-fuels : from the photosynthesis or rarely

original animal
- Ethanol , ETBE, biogas , (Spark ignition)
- Crude or esterified vegetable oils (FAME, VOEE, diester, biodiesel), DME (Diesel)
- Some can be blended with fossil fuels (eg E85)
- The engine modifications may be necessary, particularly at the circuit
fuel supply and combustion of settings

fuels 302


Synthetic fuels :
- Hydrogen, methane, liquid fuel ...
page 152 fuels 303

Energy content / PCI

the energy contained in the fuel (calorific value PCI):

Gasoline = 44MJ / kg, diesel = 42.5MJ / kg CH 4 = 50 mJ / kg ethanol = 27MJ / kg H 2 = 120MJ / kg
We must also consider the energy mix by mass (see stoichiometric coefficient
below) and energy density (gaseous fuel)
Despite significant advances in technology, energy density stored in the
electric batteries is very much lower than that of traditional fuels
They also pose
problems of recycling and cost
when they resort to
rare materials

fuels 304


Hydrogen does not emit CO 2

during combustion but poses
many problems:
- Production
- Storage and distribution
- combustion
BMW has sold a vehicle
piston engine in small quantities
(Storage at 700 bar)
Mazda has developed a prototype
wankel engine
other manufacturers plan
rather its use in battery
fuel or so as "dopant"
conventional fuels
page 153 fuels 305
The dual-fuel

Two fuels are used simultaneously , for example, natural gas and diesel,
in varying proportions
Available now some industrial engines , especially for propulsion

Ex. In. Ex. In. Ex. In.

Gas fashion: ****

Otto principle * *** * ** ** ***

* *
** **
Low-pressure gas intake *

diesel injection Pilot

Intake of compression of by ignition

air and gas air and gas pilot diesel fuel

Diesel fashion:
Ex. In. Ex. In. Ex. In.
Diesel principle

Diesel injection

Intake of compression of injection of

air air diesel fuel Doc. Wartsilae

fuels 306

The dual-fuel

We can use the " gas " for

reduce emissions (eg
naval propulsion near areas
coastal) or develop leaks
(LNG); a specific injector
for injecting very small
quantities is generally used for
injection pilot

The "fashion heavy fuel " allows

reduce the operating cost
The transition between the two modes is
quite fast
the proportions of gas and fuel
liquid can be variable
engines available semi fast
and slow

page 154 fuels 307

The bi-fuel or bi-fuel

two fuels may be used alternatively , for example LPG and

gasoline or natural gas and gasoline
There are two reservoirs and two separate supply systems
Doc. Ecocars-technologie.com

fuels 308

The bi-fuel or bi-fuel

Doc. Ecocars-technologie.com

page 155 fuels 309

The flex-fuel

Two fuels can be used simultaneously or alternately mixed in

proportions ranging from 0 to 100%, for example of petrol and ethanol (E85)
there is a single tank and only one engine supply circuit detects the
mix proportions with the lambda probe
Doc. renault

fuels 310
The flex-fuel

Some elements must be specific to support certain fuels

such as E85 (corrosive)
The performance may vary slightly depending on the fuel used

Doc. Renault

page 156 fuels 311

Emissions of CO

Currently a major issue is the balance in terms of emissions of greenhouse gas

At the application level ( tank to wheel : Tank to wheel ) emissions of CO 2
depend on the motor and the application
It appears more appropriate to also consider the production of fuel ( the well to
wheel : Well to wheel ) can then assess the value of biofuels, highly variable
Next dies
fuels 312

Emissions of CO

These figures vary depending on the mode of production fuel (especially for organic
fuel), following the vehicle , along the path

page 157 fuels 313

Biofuels and CO

These figures vary depending on the mode of production fuel (especially for
bio fuels), following the vehicle , along the path

fuels 314

Fuel and emissions

HFO: Heavy Fuel Oil: Heavy fuel oil
MDO: Marine Diesel Oil: light fuel
DF: Dual Fuel

Doc. Wartsilae

Example in naval propulsion

page 158 fuels 315


Determination : adjusting the amount of fuel according to the quantity of air,

modifying the injection duration
Measurement of air flow:
- Hot-wire flow meter, hot film
- Measuring the pressure in the intake manifold
- Measurement of the angle of the butterfly
m carb
Wealth : .
= - 1 = air
Excess air or Lambda : carb
m air
The lambda probe measures the richness of the exhaust gases and allows a regulation
wealth (spark ignition engines, and sometimes Diesel)
stoechio ratio (kg / kg): 14.7 gasoline, diesel 14.5, ethanol 9; CH 4
Wealth can also be estimated from the composition of the exhaust gases
(analyzers CO, CO 2 , O 2 , HC, NO x )

Technology lambda probes: www.ngkntk.fr/produits-technologie/sondes-lambda/technologies-des-sondes-lambda/

Petrol engines 316

the carburetor

The carburettor (Historically the

Principle: a venturi creates a depression
admission allows to suck the
fuel through a calibrated orifice
( Nozzle ) from a tank level
(Pressure) constant.
Full System mechanical -
Hydraulic . No need for electricity or
Pb difficult to maintain dosing (air / fuel ratio) especially during constant
Currently, for reasons of pollution in developed countries available to small
engines of few kW

page 159 Petrol engines 317

The electronic injection

carburettor is p rogressivement replaced by

electronic injection , appeared in automobile 70 bobinageaiguille
widespread since 93 in Europe
Principle: the fuel is put under pressure by a
electrical or mechanical pump (Direct Injection) .

injection pressure:
- External injection:
- Direct injection:

It is then injected through one or more

injectors . The opening of the electrical injector is
( Solenoid ). The order, including the duration
injection (which determines the amount of fuel
injected), is ensured by an electronic computer
( ECU: Electronic Control Unit, EMS: Engine V =
Management System ) which handles many other
functions SCD
= V
Advantage: better control of dosing in all d
conditions (normal, transient, starting at

Petrol engines 318

single point injection

single point injection ( single injector,

Throttle Body Injection ) : one
upstream injector throttle. Single
but imprecise : disparities
cylinders, deterioration of the mixture
before admission
Injection indirect Preparation
external of a mixture homogeneous
longer used in automotive in Europe

1. Electric fuel pump. 2. Fuel filter.

3a. Throttle-valve potentiometer 3b. pressure regulator
3c. Injector spacer 3d. Connector plug with intake-air temperature sensor
3rd. Throttle-valve actuator idle 4. Engine temperature sensor.
5. Lambda sensor. 6. ECU.

page 160 Petrol engines 319

multipoint injection

Multipoint injection ( Multi injector port,

MPI ) : one injector per cylinder , front
the intake valve (downstream of the throttle)
better control of dosage and quality
of the mixture.
Injection indirect Preparation external
a mixture homogeneous
injection simultaneously : on all cylinders
at the same time, 2 times per cycle at a
any time
injection sequential or phased : a
moment of the cycle (more accurate;
requires a phase sensor) 1: Injector
2: Fuel Pressure Regulator
3: Gas Papillon 4: Idle Control
5: air flow meter 6: Air Filter
7: Fuel filter 8: Calculator
9: Fuel Pump
10: Fuel Tank

possible formation of a liquid film

Petrol engines 320

direct injection

Injection direct Preparation internal mixing

gradually reappears (including automobile) since
90, after some sporadic uses after 45
HP pump (100 to 200 bar); injection during the intake and / or
the compression
feasibility of a mixture laminate (low load and
LTL) generally poor or homogeneous (strong

page 161 Petrol engines 321

direct injection

The lamination may be carried out

two ways:
- The fuel jet is guided by the head
the piston and the movement of air
( Tumble ) ( wall guided )
- The jet itself is the source of the
stratification ( spray guided ). injection
is carried out so precise just
right time with the injectors

Petrol engines 322

direct injection

The stratified direct injection allows operation with

mixtures much poorer (up to = 4 or 5)
it reduces pumping losses and
losses to the walls and therefore consumption expenses
The dosage is more accurate because controlled cycle to cycle
(MPI late due to liquid film)
direct injection allows cool
the gas in the cylinder (evaporation
fuel) and so push
the occurrence of rattling (see Chapter
pollution control (post-treatment) is
much more complex mixed

Doc. AVL, Mitsubishi

page 162 Petrol engines 323

Joint injection

Direct injection is sometimes coupled to an external system multiport used in certain

special circumstances, such as cold starts (eg Toyota, VW)
Doc. AVL turbomagazien.com

Petrol engines 324

direct injection 2 stroke

undated subordinated notes (Synerject / Peugeot): 1 tank fuel pump 2-

Electric fuel, 3 Differential pressure regulator between air and
petrol, 4 reel, 5- Candle, 6- Injector petrol (SP95), 7-
Air injector. Lubrication System: 8 Oil tank two times,
9- electric pump oil, 10- pure air compressor.

1- injector fuel, 2- Back

A fuel 2.5 bar, 3-
B Air to 5.5 bars, 4-
gas inlet to the regulator
pressure (8 to 5.5), Room C-
Special for combustion
stratified charge

Doc. PSA
Direct injection engine over 2 times (2 wheels, outboard, snowmobile) allows
significantly reduce emissions ( scan to clean air) and consumption (control
assay )
The injection is sometimes assisted by compressed air
Some builders: Rotax Apprila, Tohatsu, Mercury, Orbital

page 163 Diesel engines 325

gas-oil supply

The fuel is placed under very high pressure (several hundred bars, maximum
current of the order of 2500 bar ) by a pump and injected into the chamber
combustion ( direct injection DI ) or in a prechamber ( indirect injection IDI ) by
an injector having one or more holes .
Large motors (industrial) have always used direct injection. In automotive,
Diesel appeared about 40 with IDI. The DI appeared about 90 and became widespread around
2000. Today IDI is for small engines (few kW)
It is conventionally the arrival of fuel under pressure which causes the opening of
the injector by lifting the needle, held closed by a spring (except activation
direct yet widespread).
Bosch Document

Diesel engines 326

Diesel injectors

injectors may be purely hydraulic , or have a valve

actuated by a solenoid or piezoelectric . Finally, Siemens recently introduced a
injector where the needle is directly controlled by a piezo actuator

Docs. Bosch, siemens

page 164 Diesel engines 327

gas-oil supply

A greater or lesser amount of fuel is injected as a function of the load ,

by adjusting the injection time
This adjustment is carried out so as mechanical or through the control electronics
Several systems exist to achieve the diesel injection, depending on the applications
Doc. Bosch

Diesel engines 328

dispensing pump

The engine is equipped with a pump "distribution" reciprocating (piston

axial or radial piston or "online") adapted to the number of cylinders
Each cycle at the right time (end of compression) pump
pressurizes the fuel required for injection (dependent variable
load) and sends it to the cylinder concerned. There are as many outputs as
Management can be mechanical or electronic
used in automobile and truck until the appearance of common
rail end 90 which gradually replaces (fully auto);
subsists in industrial motor

page 165 Diesel engines 329

Injector and pump unit

Each cylinder is equipped with its own pump which can be integrated in the body of
the injector ( injector pump , unit injector , small engine) or separate ( unit pump , unites
pump , big engine).
These systems are very modular
Thanks to their compactness , they can achieve very high injection pressures
(2500 bar)
Management can be mechanical or electronic

briefly used car (around 2000) in particular by

VW; remains on industrial engines

Doc. Auto-innovations.com

Diesel engines 330

Comparison of different systems

with dispensing pump systems, pump injector or
unit injector, the injection pressure dependent on engine rpm

In effect, the pump being driven by

motor, for the same duration
injection time when the regime
of the motor decreases, the rotation angle
of the pump is lower,
leading to a pressurized
This has motivated the development of
system common rail

page 166 Diesel engines 331

Common rail injection

A pump accumulates in diesel

pressure in a capacity ( ramp or
common sphere , common rail ) whose
pressure is controlled and maintained
The pressure in the rail is adjustable in
depending on the operating point and
can reach 1800 to 2500 bar (Diam.
Mini holes: about 100 .mu.m).
The fuel is then routed to
the various cylinders in the
injections that can occur at
any time of the cycle (pre
injection, post injection system very
Management is electronic
Generalized System and automobile
heavy weights; Developing large
industrial engines

Diesel engines 332

Common rail system

Pump and Injectors

there are many variations
page 167 Diesel engines 333

Common rail system

Systems have been developed for

engines semi-fast and slow , which can
operate heavy fuel oil

Doc. MAN Diesel

Diesel engines 334

Comparison of different systems

the "common rail" overcomes to the evolution of the injection pressure

according to the regime imposed by the other systems
The injection pressure is controlled by the computer; it varies depending on the plan and
load to satisfy different constraints (noise, emissions, performance,
yield ..)

pump injectors

common rail
pump dispenser

page 168 Diesel engines 335

Comparison of different systems

For dispensing pump systems, pump injectors Bosch Document

and unit injector, the pressure varies a lot over
the "common rail" system provides pressure
quasi constant injection during injection and
more clean cut , beneficial in terms of emissions
However introductory rate (or speed) of the injector is not perfectly 'square' because
the needle lift is not instantaneous
Doc. Bosch Sciencesdirect

Diesel engines 336

Comparison of different systems

The common rail engines semi-rapid and

slow , improves the operation
partial loads : specific consumption
and emissions of NOx and reduced fumes

Doc. MAN Diesel

page 169 Diesel engines 337

common rail

The common rail offers the

great flexibility in terms
fuel introducing:
pre injections (noise),
injections multiple
(Emissions) post injection
(post treatment)

V =

In order to inject a given amount can be
Bosch Document
play on the pressure and the injection time
(Managed by the computer), or the section
(Number and size of holes, design)
These parameters have an impact on
emissions , the wetting of the walls (dilution
oil), performance , noise ...

Diesel engines 338


An injector with a variable section holes could help inject

the needs of very small quantities or large quantities,
always in good conditions ( high speeds , satisfactory duration )

page 170 Gas engines 339

Engines antechamber

There are several concepts for gas engines : conventional spark ignition (the system
gas supply then resembles a gasoline MPI), Dual-fuel, or use of a
antechamber (complex but effective in light of very lean mixtures ); This last
system is also conceivable for petrol engines lean
(Used in F1)
Doc. MAN Diesel

summary 340

Several kinds of fuels can be used in the MCI

fossil or from bio-mass origin. Some engines peuvenet
accept multiple fuels simultaneously or sequentially. The
fuel has an impact on the emission of CO 2 from the reservoir to the wheel and
especially from well to wheel, and exhaust emissions.
For engines with spark ignition, carburetor remains only
on small engines. The others are equipped with an injection
E (under a few bars), external or internal. The latter,
more complex and costly, can eventually achieve mixtures
stratified by wealth and enables efficiencies.
For diesel engines, vending pumps and injectors
unit respectively will remain as small engines and
very large industrial engines. The common rail system ( "common
rail "), with electronic control, offers a much greater
flexibility (injection pressure, rate of introduction, ..) and enables
very high injection pressures (2000 bar). It plays a major role
in reducing emissions.

page 171 QCM 341

By improving the efficiency of a motor can be reduced
Emissions of CO 2 from the reservoir to the wheel (g / km)
Emissions of CO 2 from the well to the wheel (g / km)
CO emissions 2 well to tank (g / km)

The energy density (J / kg) of gasoline

the same order as that of an electric battery
Although higher than that of an electric battery
Although lower than that of an electric battery

Gasoline direct injection

Can occur at any time of the cycle
Used to cool the contents of the cylinder and thus to push the rattling
can afford to make a stratified
Is carried out with a pressure of several thousands of bar
The common rail diesel injection
Team essentially very large industrial engines
Has a pressurized fuel reserve controlled
Is electronically controlled
Can result in several injections per cycle


8. Combustion

Study means

spark ignition engines

diesel engines

page 172 Of study 343

local study

experimental visualization (speed photography,

PLIF measurements, PIV, ...) through an optical access
(Window): complex and difficult techniques to
in artwork. information essentially
qualitative; movement of the feed gas;
development projects; local aspects of
combustion; flame zone, levels
temperature of the chemical species localization
(Intermediaries, pollutants ...)

Doc. Warwick university

Of study 344


Thermodynamic analysis from the 160
measurement of cylinder pressure: clearance
apparent heat ( net heat release , 100 P
Heat from the combustion less 80 P without comb
heat lost through the walls) , then 60
crude clearance ( gross heat release ) linked to the
combustion by giving a model 0
heat losses , changes in the fraction 300 350 400 450
brle ( burnt fraction )
implementation of the first principle of the
1.5 million 1
thermodynamics 0.9
Assumptions: homogeneous volume, properties 1100000
thermodynamic gas model 900000 0.6
700000 0.5 dqc / dt
heat exchange with the walls .... 0.4 xb
300000 0.2
100000 0.1
-100000300 350 400 4500

page 173 ignition engines 345

Combustion in spark-ignition engines

Combustion premix ( premixed combustion ), initiated by the spark ( spark )

performed at the spark plug ignition. Then there is propagation of a front
turbulent flame to the walls of the room and then extinction.

ignition engines 346

turbulent flame front

The turbulence has the effect of stretching,
bend and crease the flame
We can link the flame velocity
St turbulent to laminar speed Sl

Doc. Heywood

page 174 ignition engines 347

Ignition advance

This is the time to place the spark, usually a few degrees (10 to 40) before
TDC: ignition timing ( spark advance or timing ) that allows for the
combustion at the right time (not too early or too late) to maximize
performance cycle and the recovered work.

Doc. Heywood

The optimal values vary a

engine to another and depending on the
motor parameters: speed , load ,
temperature , fuel , ...
management of the advance is electronic
(Calculator) except small engines

ignition engines 348

Combustion process

We can distinguish three stages in the evolution of the burnt fraction:

- Development of the flame (initiation)
- Rapid combustion: flame spread
- termination
Doc. Heywood

page 175 ignition engines 349


During rapid combustion, flame propagation speed is influenced

- Turbulence , related to the whole load speeds (swirl, tumble ..) and thus to
engine speed. The flame speed increases with the turbulence
- Wealth (dosage) and dilution (residual burnt gas). (Vmax for = 1.2; V with the
- The fuel (gasoline, methane, propane, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen)
- The design (geometry) of the combustion chamber
- The pressure (V when P), the temperature
These parameters are interdependent

The variable ignition advance to take into account the

higher or lower burning rate for
maintain phasing of "burning center"

Doc. sciencesdirect
The addition of H 2 increases the burning rate

ignition engines 350

Disparities cycle to cycle

The consecutive cycles are not identical

This is due to small variations of filling ,
of composition (wealth, mixing with gas
residual) and movement of the load
(turbulence), particularly in the vicinity of the spark plug ,
which ultimately lead to significant disparities
These disparities are particularly sensitive in
of initiation
Doc. Heywood

page 176 ignition engines 351

Disparities cycle to cycle

disparities lead to an adjustment in advance adapted to extreme cycles (the

faster) and therefore not optimal in most cases .
The fastest combustion define constraints rattling
disparities increase as the mixture becomes poor and / or diluted
in extreme cases are obtained ignition failed ( misfire ) or combustions
incomplete (partial burn)
The disparities are also reflected in the PMI and deviations from the mean
( GPEI COV coefficient of variation ) that does not exceed a limit value
( Approval, stability )

Doc. Heywood

ignition engines 352

abnormal combustion: rattling, self-ignition

Under certain conditions, a combustion abnormal can take place, generating noise
and potentially destruction engine
The fresh gas downstream of the flame front may ignite spontaneously if their
pressure and temperature is too high. What follows is a very heat release
importantly, a sharp rise in pressure and propagation of pressure waves
(detonation) . Because of the noise generated and the phenomenon is called rattling ( knock ).
It can be controlled by reducing pre-ignition (knock detection on some
engines). The clicking limits the compression ratio of spark ignition engines.
A hot spot (deposit, valve plug, ..) can also ignite the mixture before
the arrival of the flame front (before or after lighting) and cause knock. The
drawing room and the use of fuel and lubricant provide good quality
to remedy this problem.

page 177 ignition engines 353

abnormal combustion

Damage to the piston related

abnormal combustion

Influence knock on the pressure


Combustion clatter pre-ignition


Doc. Heywood

ignition engines 354


Example mechanism binder

pre-ignition of lubricating

Doc. MTZ

page 178 ignition engines 355

Rattling Influence of fuel

The appearance of the knock is very dependent on the fuel used, which is characterized by
its octane
We say that a fuel has an octane rating of 95, when it behaves, from the point
of view of the auto-ignition, such as a mixture of 95% isooctane which detonates bit
(the index was 100 by definition) and of 5% heptane , which it is very explosive (its
index is 0 by definition).
To measure the octane number, we use a special cylinder engine ( engine
CFR (Cooperative Fuel Research) ). We measure the product octane study and,
by comparison with the values obtained in the measurement of the reference products, we
knows the product octane.

To improve the octane are added anti-knock products (formerly

lead, banned in developed countries due to pollution).

Number (RON)
Ethanol: 129
Methane: 135

ignition engines 356

rattling, self-ignition

Doc. Heywood

page 179 ignition engines 357

Rattling: influence of compression ratio

The compression ratio of spark ignition engines is limited by the appearance of

Mazda has developed a "sky activ" engine with a CR 14
Thanks to a sophisticated exhaust (see filling part) the rate of residual gases
(hot) is reduced , which limits the temperature during compression and therefore rattling
A particular form of piston (with cavity) is also used to increase the
flame speed , thus reducing the time available for the appearance of knock

Documents: Mazda

ignition engines 358

Rattling: influence of compression ratio

The risk of occurrence of rattling is especially sensitive to high load , especially low
diet (high pressure and temperature)
This phenomenon is dimensioning for determining the compression ratio , which
could be higher at light loads which would improve performance
On engines highly charged the risk of rattling leads to using advances
suboptimal ignitions and / or enrich the dosage at the expense of performance for
high loads

page 180 ignition engines 359

Engines with variable compression ratio (VCR)

These systems (there are a multitude of mechanisms)

to adapt the compression ratio as a function of the
load and the risk of rattling .. This allows an improvement
sensitive of the cycle efficiency at light loads.
For now still in prototype stage because complex; must
appear in series (Infinity-Nissan).
Documents: Nissan

ignition engines 360

Reduction knock: water injection

Enrichment at full load

gasoline and E85

reducing the temperature in the chamber (cooling due to evaporation of water ), so

the risk of rattling and the need to enhance and / or delay the combustion
allows a compression ratio higher; improves performance
Doc. Bosch, BMW

page 181 ignition engines 361


Enrichment at full load

gasoline and E85

In general it works stoichiometric mixture in order to clean up with a

three-way catalyst
at full load is enriched to increase performance , push the rattling and
limit the exhaust temperature , but it is at the expense of consumption

ignition engines 362

Doc. Renault / SIA
It is also possible to deplete or dilute with EGR
cooling of the exhaust gases also limits the enrichment and therefore
the consumption

page 182 ignition engines 363

Dosing stratified charge engines
Euro 5

= 1 with EGR Euro 6

Doc. MTZ

ignition engines 364

Dosing gas engines

Optimum performance
for all cylinders

Misfirin h
r] ]
at Operating
[b window / kW
EP cy [%
not s [g
BM fficie not
the issio
at m
rm xe

Doc. Wartsilae Air / Fuel ratio

A lean mixture is used on some gas engine manufacturers to increase
the yield
This also reduces NOx emissions at source and can help meet
standards without aftertreatment

page 183 ignition engines 365

Dosing gas engine

It is possible to use a relatively high compression ratio and get

returns close engines Diesel Doc. FEB

ignition engines 366

Ignition jet

(Pre-chamber engine)
the spark ignitionthe
in holes
the antechamber thenthe
created the hot chamber
jets when gas
out through that will ignite lean premix
main; it is a simultaneous lighting at several points which allows combustion
very fast and very sensitive to knocking
Doc. Malhe

page 184 Diesel engines 367

Conduct of the diesel combustion

we distinguish three phases :

- The ignition delay is the time elapsing between the start of injection and the
initiating inflammation.
- The premix combustion : the fuel introduced during the period and prepared (ie
vaporized and mixed with the air in proportions enabling inflammation) burns
mass causing a sudden release of heat and a sudden change of
cylinder pressure (slope failure)
- The diffusion combustion : the fuel injected at the end of the period, burns diffusion,
as and extent of its turbulent mixture with air .
Excess global air

Excess local air

Diesel engines 368

heat release

page 185 Diesel engines 369

influence parameters
Importance of the characteristics of jet
Effect of the injection pressure,
number and size of the holes, the walls of
Doc. Heywood, ilasseeurope.org, fluid-research.com

Diesel engines 370

influence parameters

The ignition delay is shorter as the pressure and temperature prevailing

in the cylinder at the start of injection is high. It also depends on the characteristics of the
fuel ( cetane number ), and the conditions of injection (pressure, hole size, ..).
The importance of premix phase is highly dependent on the amount of
fuel injected during the period , so by the time delay, and the introductory rate
during the period ( pre-injection for example). The premixing combustion speed is
then limited by the chemistry and therefore depends on the temperature.
The distribution of phase depends on the rate of mixing between fuel and air. this one
is related to the turbulence which is dependent on movements of the air (slightly: swirl, ...) and especially
injection (many, especially with the high pressure systems). The spray causing
certain volume of fresh gas per unit of time, the combustion will be even faster than
the mass of O 2 driven (and therefore available for combustion) will be. It depends
the density (ie pressure and temperature) and the oxygen content (which decreases with
EGR). The chemistry is generally very fast before mixing and is therefore not
limiting, unless very low temperature (high dilution, for example)
The way to inject fuel (injection rate, introductory rate) plays a role
major in diesel combustion

page 186 Diesel engines 371

Diesel combustion

conventional and

Doc. Musculus et al. - Sandia

Diesel engines 372





Doc. Musculus et al. - Sandia

page 187 Diesel engines 373

Use of a pilot injection

Doc. Bosch

Example: the pre-injection ( or pilot injection ) allows to obtain a start

burning less brutal, with less noise (dP / da lower).

Diesel engines 374

influence parameters

Influence of EGR

Influence of the injection pressure

page 188 Diesel engines 375

influence parameters

Example: the influence of temperature on a premixed combustion

summary 376

To study experimentally combustion in an MCI can

use the exotherm (thermodynamics) and
Local visualization techniques (optical access engines)
In ignition engines combustion is premixed,
with ignition by a spark plug and propagation of a flame front which
the speed is influenced by many parameters (turbulence,
pressure, wealth, dilution). Self-ignition of the mixture before arrival
Flame is problematic (knocking). The assay is often
stoichiometric, but according to need can be enriched (full load)
impoverish or (stratified charge, gas engines)
The Diesel combustion is essentially controlled by the diffusive
injection process. At the beginning of injection there is a delay
Ignition followed by combustion of rapid and intense premix
controlled by the chemistry and the slower diffusion combustion
controlled by the mixture. The importance of these phases varies
depending on influencing parameters, in particular the amount of
fuel injected during the period and the amount of oxygen entrained
by the fuel sprays.

page 189 QCM 377

In an ignition engine to avoid knocking one can
Increasing the compression ratio
Reduce the ignition advance
Choosing a fuel with a higher octane rating
Enriching the mixture

In an ignition engine, ignition advance

Is usually independent of the regime and the load
Increases usually with diet
Increases generally with the load
Is minimized to maximize performance
Decreases performance if it is too early or too late

In a diesel engine, the ignition lag

is all longer than the air temperature is high
Can be reduced by the use of a pilot injection
Depends fuel (cetane number)

In a diesel engine, the use of a pilot injection

Reduces the importance of premix combustion
Enables start of main combustion softer
Increases noise
It reduces ignition delay for the main combustion

9. Exhaust emissions

different pollutants


spark ignition engines

diesel engines

alternative combustions

Supplements: Senate report "Definition and implications of the concept of clean car"
EU www.dieselnet.com/standards /

page 190 Different pollutants 379

gaseous pollutants Emissions

nitrogen oxides NO x (NO and NO 2 ): multiple mechanisms of oxidation of the nitrogen

air (or fuel) at high temperature :
- Early NO ( prompt NO ) oxidation combustion court (usually small)
- Thermal NO ( thermal NO ) oxidation in the hot flue gas (dominant)
- Fuel NO : nitrogen fuel (heavy fuel oil, for example, negligible with petrol or diesel

N2 + O NO + NOT

+ OH

WE+ NO + O

Different pollutants 380

gaseous pollutants Emissions

CO Carbon monoxide : incomplete combustion (lack of oxygen,

too low temperature)
unburned hydrocarbons (HC): absence of combustion (inadequate wealth,
too low temperature adsorption by the oil film scanning)
oxides of sulfur (SO 2 , SO 3 ) oxidation of the sulfur contained in the fuel
page 191 Different pollutants 381

Solid emissions

the soot ( soot ): solid elements based on carbon (collected on a heated filter by
example 200 C)
particles ( paticulates PM ) : soot and soluble organic fraction (collected on a filter
"Cold" for example 52 C)
linked to a combustion rich (eg cold start spark ignition engines)
promoted by the heterogeneous combustion (Diesel, ignition stratified charge)

The solid particles are visible, the concept of using opacity :

- Optical measurement of the absorption of a light beam
-measurement of the blackening of a paper having a known volume of filtered
exhaust: clues Bosch , Bacharach
Emissions are also assessed in mass and number of particles

The emission standards 382

Measures and developments

Depending on the applications , emissions are expressed in terms of the distance

traveled ( g / km ) or power output ( g / kwh ). One can also use
concentrations in the exhaust ( ppm (= 10 -6 ) or% (= 10 -2 ), volume (in general) or
the standards (varying according to geographic areas and applications ) require the
measuring cycles (representative of the actual operation) and set limits more and

automobile Euro standards mg / km Diesel

page 192 The emission standards 383

Different types of standards

For automobiles,
US regulations are complex:
several classes (bin) exist
knowing that a manufacturer who
homologous vehicles "more
pollutants "(eg bin8) must
offset by vehicles
"Clean" (ie bin 2 or 3)
reach in average Bin5

The emission standards 384

Different types of standards

Navy standard (IMO)

Europe standard trucks (Diesel)

Transport-related emissions have been widely

decreased, despite the increase of the park.

page 193 The emission standards 385

geographical disparities
The emission standards 386

geographical disparities

page 194 The emission standards 387

geographical disparities

maritime standards following areas

The emission
standards 388

Emissions reduction

can reduce emissions in two ways:

- The source , playing on the course of the combustion so that it generates less
-in treating exhaust gases for removing pollutants ( post treatment ).
Post-processing is not 100% effective, it is still interesting to limit
emissions at source, which, for a given processing rate, limit emissions
finals. In addition, the cost and the size of the post-treatment systems being linked to
quantities to be processed , it remains interesting to reduce emissions at source
As the source reduction, post treatment has a strong influence on the
motor ( yield , performance ), requiring strategies
Specific control (wealth temperature of exhaust gases ...)

page 195 The spark ignition engines 389

Emissions influence parameters

The determining factor is the wealth

CO and HC increase if rich (lack
oxygen) or too low (bad
flame spread)
NO x is maximal for lambda slightly
greater than 1 (+ rich if there is - of O 2 to
make NO x , + poor if the temperature
decreases by dilution)
It is a slightly lean mixture
offers the best compromise between the 3

The spark ignition engines 390

Source Reduction

The exhaust gas recirculation ( Exhaust gas recirculation EGR ) allows

lower NOx : the dilution used to limit temperature and concentration
oxygen. For not too high recirculation rate (<20%) and the emission of CO
HC are little affected. Also recirculation may decrease losses
by pumping

The reduction of CO and HC for a

data richness may be achieved by a
"Best" combustion (limiting
including propagation problems
flame) and by controlling other
sources (adsorption, scanning, ..) for
The particular phases (cold start,
slow, transient, ..) can ask
specific problems

page 196 The spark ignition engines 391

Post treatment

For very low emissions, it is necessary to use a system of

post treatment: the 3-way catalyst (widespread in countries in automotive
Through precious metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) deposited on a ceramic monolith, it
allows for:
The catalyst is damaged by lead and
can be inhibited by sulfur
The effectiveness of the catalyst decreases with the
The spark ignition engines 392

3-way catalyst

For the conversion to be effective must

a wealth very close to 1 (If too poor
Nox reduction difficult, if too rich
oxidation of CO and HC that difficult)
The oxygen sensor measures the content
by oxygen in the exhaust gas and
control (closed loop through management
e) so that the catalyst remains
always effective.
This type of catalyst is ineffective on
engines lean

page 197 The spark ignition engines 393

3-way catalyst

For the conversion to be effective we also need a sufficient temperature

During cold starts the catalyst is ineffective for several tens of
It is possible to mitigate this disadvantage with a pre-catalyst placed close to
engine, which heats up faster
It is also possible to trap the pollutants and then process them later when
the catalyst is hot

E 200 250 300 350 400
150 Exhaust temperature C

The spark ignition engines 394

3-way catalyst

We call boot ( light-off ) of the catalyst

time the conversion reaches 50%
automobile propulsion, on standard cycles
with cold start emissions are largely
dependent boot time

page 198 The spark ignition engines 395

NOx traps

For lean burn engines (gas engines, stratified direct injection) the
oxidation catalysts can operate and treat CO and HC
For NO x , it develops traps NO x ( NO x trap, LNT Lean NOx Trap, NSC:
NOx Storage Catalyst ): During lean operation , NO x are trapped ( storage
by adsorption) and regularly to perform a rich phase , short enough to
reduce NOx and "empty" stocks. Research continues on the materials used.

The spark ignition engines 396

NOx traps
The theoretical efficiency is good , but these traps NO x are sensitive to sulfur .
These devices are generally coupled with a reduction in the NOx source
(EGR for example)

The rich phases, managed by the ECU, are disadvantageous in terms of consumption

page 199 The spark ignition engines 397


direct injection engines can emit quantities of PM (Number and sometimes

mass) above the permitted levels (mostly cold)
a particle filter ( GPF: Gasoline Particulate Filter ) may be necessary

The spark ignition engines 398

Particulate Filter Gasoline

Doc. Mdpi.com

page 200 Diesel engines 399

Training programs

The NO x are essentially thermal , products

poor side of the diffusion flame
The soot are produced in local area
then partially oxidized : the final level depends on
the relative importance of these two phenomena
the levels of CO and HC are generally low

Diesel engines 400

Compromise NOx / PM

There is a tradeoff between NOx and particles : high temperatures promote

the occurrence of NOx but allow better oxidation particles
The NOx reduction at source therefore leads to particle growth and
general consumption ( lower yield )
Example with the rate of swirl

page 201 Diesel engines 401

Decrease advance
reducing the injection advance (lower P and T but also yield of the cycle) and more
generally changes the introductory rate to delay and "soften" the
combustion can reduce NOx but increases particles

Diesel engines 402


the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR idem gasoline), optionally cooled

generalized automobile; present on larger engines (truck, ship); difficult to
full load (air excess limit)
The main effect is the dilution which reduces the temperature of combustion (heat
released is absorbed by a larger mass)
There are side effects , beneficial or harmful: increased delay combustion
delayed (slower), reduced excess air, filling the drop as the temperature
admission increases

page 202 Diesel engines 403


the LP EGR ( LR Long Route ) allows the EGR rate higher and a lower temperature
favorable to the reduction of NOx;
The HP EGR ( Short Route ) remains interesting in
some phases ( cold start, low costs )
because of its specific features ( warmer, more responsive ,
possibly less pumping losses for
Diesel engines 404

The cooled EGR achieves better compromise between NOx and PM

the mix air / EGR should be as homogeneous as possible, to avoid disparities between
the cylinders
It is possible under certain conditions to obtain with high rates of EGR down
simultaneous emission of NOx and PM: it then enters a zone combustion
"Low temperature" ( Low Temperature Combustion LTC ). The temperature is
low enough to not only produce low NOx but also produce few
PM. However it generates a lot of CO and HC and the specific consumption
increasing, in particular because of the combustion delay

page 203 Diesel engines 405


EGR is applied on large engines

naval propulsion with a rather complex system
cleaning of recirculated gas (no filter)
Diesel engines 406

Humidification and water injection

Water injection in the combustion chamber (in emulsion with the diesel injection
laminated, specific injector) or humidification of the intake air to reduce the
temperature due to the vaporization of water and the dilution effect
Requires a water tank . Reserved for large engines (ship propulsion).
Potentially can cause problems reliability .

Doc. MAN

page 204 Diesel engines 407

humidification and water injection

Emulsion water / oil


Diesel engines 408

Air cooling, Miller cycle

The cooling of the air compressor output is very widely used on

turbocharged engines. The cooling of the EGR also helps lower
the temperature in engine entrance, and therefore throughout the cycle. But a temperature too
low can degrade combustion (longer period)
Another way to lower the combustion temperature (used on Diesel
industrial) is to lower the effective compression ratio with a Miller cycle
(Closing of the intake valve shifted, largely before / after BDC). The decrease
filling is compensated by an increase of the supercharging pressure
(See parts filling and supercharging)

page 205 Diesel engines 409

Miller cycle, lower compression ratio

Mazda offers engine automotive Diesel "sky activated" with a compression ratio
very low geometric (14) which made for standard Euro6 without post-processing; the
thermodynamic yield loss related to the lower rate is offset by
reduced friction (lower maximum pressure) and the possibility of advancing
combustion, which is more widely premixed with the longer period
inflammation; the difficulties of cold start are bypassed with a pitch
variable exhaust that makes available internal EGR

Diesel engines 410

Post treatment

The oxidation catalysts can reduce the emission of CO and HC

(Widespread in Europe on automobiles since 1996). They require a temperature
sufficient to be effective (light off)
They can also oxidize the soluble organic fraction of particulate ( SOF )

page 206 Diesel engines 411

Post treatment

The reduction of NO x the same problem that spark ignition mixture

poor. Development traps NO x is hampered by the problem of sulfur content
in the fuel and the drop in effectiveness over time. Already standard on qq
automobiles in the US, will arrive with Euro6
Another solution already successfully applied on large stationary engines and
naval propulsion is the SCR ( Selective Catalytic Reduction
SCR ). It is widespread on trucks and appears automobile. It consists of
use ammonia NH 3 to reduce NO x . NH 3 is produced in the system
from urea, which is injected upstream in the exhaust line
Some systems (eg Honda) propose to manufacture NH 3 in a first phase
(Mixed system)
In automotive, for Euro6, several routes are envisaged : SCR, EGR + NOx trap
BP, or source reduction with variable distribution (Mazda)
These systems complexes are expensive , widening the price gap compared to
gasoline engines

Diesel engines 412

NOx trap
page 207 Diesel engines 413
NOx trap

Diesel engines 414


requires a tank + urea distribution system

(Trade name: AdBlue, Diesel Exhaust Fluid DEF )

page 208 Diesel engines 415


efficiency can exceed 90% but depends

the temperature of the exhaust gas and is
low during the rise in temperature
The choice of catalyst depends on the window
usual temperature of the exhaust gases

In case of overdose, there is rejection of NH 3 (pollutant); the latter can be avoided by

effective control or using a supplemental oxidation catalyst ( "clean-up")
which converts NH 3 to N 2 and H 2 O

Diesel engines 416


For optimal efficiency report

NO 2 / NOx should be about 50%.
The report can be obtained through oxidation
of NO to NO 2 in the oxidation catalyst which
above the SCR
However it can be difficult to achieve strong
load (NO 2 unstable, because of the temperature
high; but this high temperature leads
still in good efficiency) or low
load (low temperature for priming

page 209 Diesel engines 417


The use of sulfur-containing fuels (heavy fuel) poses specific problems and requires
higher exhaust temperature

Diesel engines 418


page 210 Diesel engines 419


the use of SCR can reduce or even eliminate the source reduction
NOx; Thus it is possible to optimize combustion to maximize performance ;
However these fuel savings are to be weighted by a greater consumption
Diesel engines 420
Compare SCR- NOx Trap

The SCR is generally more effective especially to loads (temperatures and exhaust)
medium and high , with the highest emissions of NOx; it has the added advantage of not increasing
fuel consumption
Despite a higher cost it is spreading gradually by car, sometimes coupled
with a NOx trap to handle cold starts (low temperature exhaust)

page 211 Diesel engines 421

Particle filter

The particles can be selected by a particulate filter ( DPFS , Diesel Particulate

Filter DPF ). It must be active , ie being able to regenerate by burning
the particles during specific phases.
For this it is necessary to reach a sufficient temperature .
In the case of FAP PSA (1st world automobile) regeneration is facilitated by
a Aditif added to the fuel and which lowers the combustion temperature of
particles. In addition, when the filter regeneration phases, if necessary a post
injection is performed by the common rail system to increase the temperature
exhaust gas (but at the expense of consumption)
The FAP may require a further maintenance periodically.
This technique, with adaptations (removing the Aditif or maintenance, use
filter catalyzed , and an additional injector in the exhaust system for
promote regeneration) was widespread automobile in Europe (Euro5). It remains
marginal hand on large industrial motors (standards)

Diesel engines 422

Particle filter

FAP PSA system

The FAP will cut emissions of 10000

it can be coupled to a NOx aftertreatment (NOx
trap or SCR)

page 212 Diesel engines 423


FAP Renault

Doc. Renault SIA

Diesel engines 424

Particle filter

FAP prototype system

on marine diesel engine (10
regeneration by heating
internal filter elements

FAP Renault

Doc. Renault SIA

page 213 Diesel engines 425

Treatment of particles on industrial engines

When necessary to reduce PM emissions

several solutions:
- The filter bags ( bag filters ) can only be used
when the gas temperature is below 200 C; it is
the case where the exhaust heat is recovered
in a boiler (cogen, DC)
- Flue gas cleaning ( wet scrubber )
- Electrostatic Precipitation ( Electrostatic precipitator )
filter bags

Doc. Renault SIA

filter bags Flue gas scrubbing

Diesel engines 426

Treatment of particles on industrial engines

In a system with Precipitation

electrostatic ( Electrostatic precipitator )
the exhaust stream is slowed down in the
circulating in a large volume. In
this volume, the gas flow along
plates carriers of loads
electrostatic; the particles are attracted
and bind to the plates; the plates are
regularly shaken which dropped
the particles in a silo

Doc. Renault SIA

page 214 Diesel engines 427

De sulphidation exhaust

To treat SOx if fuel use sulfur ( heavy fuel , ..) can be used
a flue gas scrubbing with water ( water scrubber ), especially in naval propulsion

Diesel engines 428

De sulphidation exhaust

If water availability is low ( power generation ) there are methods of

Dry cleaning fumes

page 215 Diesel engines 429

Strategies engine for postprocessing

The specific strategies are used on the engine for the smooth
operation of the post-treatment; They aim in particular to achieve a temperature
Exhaust sufficient for effective post-treatment or for the regeneration of
FAP. The strategies relate mainly injection and the air loop
(Turbocharging, EGR, ..)

Diesel engines 430

Strategies engine for postprocessing

regeneration of the DPF
page 216 Diesel engines 431
automotive diesel aftertreatment

The order of different devices

may vary depending on the constraints

Diesel engines 432

automotive diesel aftertreatment

DPF-SCR Combination ( SCR on DPF, CBP, SCRF )

all very compact

The order of different devices

may vary depending on the constraints

page 217 Diesel engines 433

Aftertreatment diesel trucks and off-road
Post-processing elements
used depend on the standards

alternative combustion 434

alternative combustions

To avoid NOx must avoid high temperatures (> 2200K)

It becomes very difficult to oxidize eventually produced particles
We must therefore strive not to produce particles by varying the temperature (LTC)
or wealth (CICP, Flame lifted, HCCI, ..)
We must maintain the levels of CO and HC and a combustion efficiency acceptable.
The control can also cause problems.

page 218 alternative combustion 435

alternative combustions

The burning HCCI (Homogeneous Charge

Ignition compression) or CAI (Controled Auto Ignition)
is to turn on compression mixture
highly diluted by residual gas (external EGR and / or
The ignition takes place simultaneously at several points
the room, there is no flame propagation , the
combustion is controlled by chemical kinetics and
place at low temperature . The production of NOx is
very low and the level of particles

alternative combustion 436

alternative combustions

The base can be a motor gasoline (in which we will seek to promote self
inflammation, increasing the temperature on entry or the compression rate) or
Engine Diesel (in which we will instead seek to limit the inflammation to avoid self
too sudden combustion).
The main difficulty is to control the start of combustion
The perfect homogeneity is impossible to achieve in practice and observed disparities
particular temperature
This will improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines at part load
or reduce emissions of diesel

page 219 summary 437

The main emissions are NOx (high temperature + O 2 ), CO

(lack of O 2 and / or low temperature), HC (various causes)
SOx (sulfur content of the fuel) and solid particles (wealth
Local> 2, their oxidation is favored by high temperatures).
Standards vary geographically and in terms of applications.
They are becoming more stringent.
To satisfy one can try to reduce emissions at source,
by acting on the combustion and / or post-treating exhaust gas
(Now mandatory automobile).
On ignition the 3-way catalyst is used which treats NOx,
CO and HC but requires to be rich 1; Lean (petrol
laminate, gas, diesel) an oxidation catalyst is used for CO and
HC. For NOx it takes a NOx trap or a SCR, more complex and
binding. The particles (diesel) are treated with a filter that
be regenerated periodically. SOx (heavy fuel) require
Wash fumes.

summary 438

Post-processing systems require gas temperature

sufficient and advanced control strategies to be effective;
They can cause excessive fuel consumption
The source reduction concerns mainly NOx and Diesel
is to lower the combustion temperature (EGR, water injection,
cooling the intake air, reducing the compression ratio).
It faces a compromise NOx / PM and NOx / performance.
Alternative combustions are being studied to try to reconcile
high efficiency and low emissions at source.

page 220 QCM 439

The 3-way catalyst:
Works well on a diesel engine
oxide NOx and reduces CO and HC
Requires a temperature sufficient to be effective
Requires a lambda sensor to regulate the wealth

Aftertreatment SCR:
Requires periodic regenerations
Uses mixed with the fuel Aditif
Use of urea that is injected into the exhaust gases
Only works properly only wealth 1

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR):

Used to reduce PM emissions
Is used to reduce NOX emissions
Reduced dilution by combustion temperature
A tendency to delay the combustion

The standards on car emissions

Relate only the full load
are expressed in g / kWh
Take into account the acceleration and deceleration
Are becoming more severe

10. Cooling


Heat transfer


page 221 Technology 441


We must ensure a temperature compatible with the mechanical parts,

maintain an oil film between the moving parts, with a good yield

Docs. CD-Adapco, www.gsvalves.co.uk, Malhe

Technology 442

liquid cooling

The engine cooling systems are variable:

liquid cooling ( "water" water cooled )
2. Probe electric fan
4. Thermostatic valve
5. Cylinder
6. mini liquid level indicator light
7. liquid gauge
8. Expansion tank
9. expansion tank cap
10. coolant temperature sensor
11. Probe lamp max temperature indicator light
cooling liquid
Indicator 14. Liquid temperature of
15. liquid temperature indicator light to
Doc. www.kh.refer.org cooling.

page 222 Technology 443

liquid cooling

thermostat, water pump, radiator

Doc. www.auto-innovations.com, www.forum-auto.com, www.mecatehnic.com, www.autopartswarehouse.com

Technology 444

liquid cooling

marine engine
Double cooling loop
(HV and LV)

Doc. www.marinediesel.co.uk

page 223 Technology 445

Air cooling

Air cooling ( air cooled ) - Simple and robust (no problem

gel or sealing)
- difficult at regulate : present
primarily on small engines
and some specific applications
(aviation,..); Abandoned in
automobile for 20 years
- Fan noise and absorbs
part of the energy produced by the

Doc. www.motorera.com

heat transfer 446

Type of transfers

Heat transfer between the gas and the walls of the combustion chamber is
essentially convective (+ radiation soot in diesel); then there is a transfer
by conduction through the walls (cylinders, cylinder head, piston) then again by
convection with the coolant (or air ) and oil (piston)
The convection coefficient of gas in the chamber varies temporally over
cycle (as well as spatially according to gas movements), and
that the temperature of the gases and the exchange surface
Temporal variations of the walls are low temperature across the
cycle (inertia), but important for the engine warm-up time after a
cold start
There are spatial variations in the wall temperature (which can be
different from one engine to another)
During the intake phase and the beginning of the compression walls heat
generally the gas present in the cylinder
page 224 heat transfer 447
Transfer Evaluation

Simplified calculation of heat transfer to the cylinder walls:

c 2 at
. ( )
S cyl= at 1 - cos + -- 2 () 2
sin + +
= -
TShQ T 2 - 1 2
gas walls
a: bore, c: running, : volume ratio, : report rod / crank

The coefficient h is determined by empirical formulations (Woschni, Annand,

Hoenberg, ...)
B: bore, p, T: pressure and temperature of the gases in the cylinder, w: average gas velocity in the cylinder

Doc. Heywood

SST example, instant heat flow over the cycle

heat transfer 448

local temperatures

Examples of spatial distributions of the temperature of the walls and the influence of
cooling liquid temperature (ignition engine, full load)

Doc. Pulkrabek Heywood

page 225 Optimization 449

Reduced heat loss

To improve the efficiency of an engine, we try to limit losses , including feed

heat transmitted by cooling.
To do the can be increased coolant temperature (and therefore
walls) but there are limits! (Boiling temperature of the coolant that
must not be exceeded, but can increase by pressurizing; mechanical);
improvement: liquid temperature controlled and variable (higher at low loads and
It can also lower the temperature of gas in the cylinder , for example by dilution

Doc Live Science

Influence of the temperature of the liquid

cooling on the specific consumption

Optimization 450
Performance Improvement

engines " adiabatic " insulated with special materials (ceramics, ..) have a
reduced heat flux cooling but price disadvantages: the power
saved is not converted into mechanical power (increase
temperature of exhaust gas); drop filling, ...
To reduce the cooling-related losses we seek to limit the exchange area,
or more precisely the surface / volume ratio of the cylinder (long race), but it must
to compromise with other constraints
Another challenge is to limit the mechanical energy consumed by the system
cooling; it is thus possible to replace the pump driven by the crankshaft
a more flexible electric pump

Doc Descombes

Doc. www.auto-innovations.com/BMW

electric water pump

Changing the energy balance between a
Supplements: www.auto-innovations.com, Dossier "the engine cooling system"
conventional engine and an isolated engine H Jeanmart courses, UCL, over 3 www.icampus.ucl.ac.be/claroline/course/index.php?cid=MECA220

page 226 Optimization 451

transitional aspects

Taking into account the transitory , including cold start is very important: the
engine shall reach its optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible to
limit wear , the consumption and pollutant emissions
The oil also takes time to reach the rated temperature. The rise
temperature is generally longer than for the cooling liquid
Optimization 452
transitional aspects

A 4-way valve can afford not cool at all when starting the engine
cold (the water does not circulate around the cylinders; Themis system Renault R9M)

page 227 Optimization 453

transitional aspects
Optimization 454

transitional aspects

It is also possible to accelerate the motor temperature rise by heating

additional (electrical or fuel) of the cooling circuit (but this affects the
of total consumption)
One can also retrieve via an exchanger of the energy lost at the gas
exhaust and use a heat store (latent heat) that recharges
when the engine is hot




Eg for cold climate

Source: Koranen and. al

page 228 Optimization 455

Cost and benefit of new technologies

summary 456
The MCI feature a liquid cooling or air
transfers heat mainly dissipated through the walls of the
To maximize returns should be limited these exchanges
Thermal exactly necessary.
The cooling system must also consume a minimum of
Finally, cold departures management is paramount (especially
car) for a motor temperature increase of more
fast as possible

page 229 QCM 457

A system of automobile engine cooling
The liquid continuously circulates in the radiator
The water pump is either driven by the crankshaft is electric
The cylinders are provided with fins to increase the exchange surface
The calorstat insulates the radiator circuit during cold starts
Coolant circulates inside the piston

To accelerate the engine temperature rise during a cold start, it is possible:

From recover heat of the exhaust gases
To use an additional heater
To use a latent heat storage
From ventilate the radiator


11. Lubrication, Friction




page 230 Technology 459

Lubricating System

Most engines are lubricated under pressure ( bubbling for children)

1. Carter lower oil tank

2. suction strainer
5. gauge pressure
6. Thermometer
7. Lubrication of crankshaft bearings
8. ducts drilled in the crankshaft
9. Watering pistons
10. Lubricate the bearings
Doc. www.kh.refer.org
11. Lubrication of shaft bearings cam

pressure lubrication system

Technology 460

Lubricating System
Doc. Renault

page 231 Technology 461

Lubricating System

Lubrication by dry sump ( dry

sump )
- Avoids planing (tilt, strength
- Lowers the center of gravity; decreases
height Engine
Instead of down by gravity,
oil is sucked after lubricating
in a specific tank
fueling pump that puts oil
under pressure

Technology 462

Components of lubrication system

Doc. VW, PURFLUX, www.hoffmann-speedster.com

page 232 Technology 463

Components of lubrication system

The oil circuit also has a function of cooling : it serves to dispel some of
the heat generated by the motor; it may include an oil / air heat exchanger (radiator) or
oil / water : in the latter case it has the control circuit of the temperature of

Oil Cooler
Doc. www.passiongolfgti.com
Water / oil exchanger

Technology 464

Piston cooling by oil


Docs. K. Hoag Univ Wisconsin

page 233 Optimization 465

Lubrication must:
- Spacing the maximum the drain
- Minimize oil consumption
- To reduce friction
- Reduce wear of moving parts
- Reduce the work consumed for lubrication

The management of thermal transients is critical; especially during cold starts

lubrication is reduced, the increased friction and wear parts

The developments include the lubrication system and the lubricants

Docs www.roady.fr
Supplements: www4.total.fr/lubrifiants-auto/total.html
Folder "lubrication and tribology" www.auto-innovations.fr

Optimization 466

labor reduction consumed by the pump

page 234 friction 467

Evolution of mechanical losses

The friction losses increase with the regime

The influence of the load is variable and generally rather low
MFP Evolution with the speed and load (example)

friction 468

Distribution of mechanical losses

On the European homologation cycle, the mechanical losses (friction,

Accessories) represent a quarter of the energy contained in the fuel consumed

Comparison with fluid bearings

Doc. PSA / SIA

page 235 friction 469

Reduction of mechanical losses

= Catch hydraulic lash

Valve control via latch
Shifting the piston pin:
( Roller finger follower )
reducing lateral forces
Doc. www.compcams.com, AutoTechnology

friction 470

Reduction of mechanical losses

Use of a surface coating & lubricant specific:

page 236 friction 471

Reduction of mechanical losses

Replacement of fluid bearings by ball bearings (cam shaft):

Doc. February / SIA

friction 472
Reduction of mechanical losses

crankshaft bearings:

fluid bearings


Doc. February / AutoTechnology

page 237 summary 473

Lubrication of MCI is usually done through a circuit

pressure which distributes oil to all moving parts.
The pressurizing the oil pump consumes the work we
strives to reduce.
The oil recovered from the waste heat of the combustion chamber
(Including piston); therefore it is necessary to cool it.
Conversely for satisfactory lubrication oil must reach
a sufficient temperature; the management of cold starts must
ensure a rise in the quickest possible temperature.
The mechanical losses in an MCI related to friction between
moving parts and training accessories. They
increase with the plan or when the temperature of the oil is
low and vary more weakly with the load.
Various technologies can reduce friction and
mechanical losses.

QCM 474

The lubrication system of an ICE:

typically Includes a pump for pressure oil
Met contacting the oil and the coolant in a mixer
receives a portion of the heat dissipated by the combustion chamber
Usually contains a filtration system

Friction of MCI
Increase the rotation speed
are proportionally higher as the load increases
Increase when the oil heats up
can be reduced by surface treatments

page 238 475

12. Electronic management



electronic management 476


For fifteen years, driven in particular emission standards,

electronic management of MCI was a very important development.
The engine control system based on:
- The sensors (eg engine speed, crankshaft position, camshaft position, position
accelerator, water temperature, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, pressure
overeating, manifold pressure, air flow, position of the TGV detector
rattling, lambda probe, FAP Delta pressure, fuel pressure, ...)
- A computer (microprocessor whose power continuously augment) which contains the
strategies (algorithms) control and numeric values defined during the design
point of the engine (maps)
-Of actuators electric or pneumatic (eg motorized throttle, injectors,
ignition, TGV, variable intake system, wastegate, EGR valve, ..)
Most often they incorporate features self-diagnostic (OBD mandatory
automobile, sometimes consulted remotely)

page 239 electronic management 477

Examples of control systems

electronic management 478

Electronic management - Automotive Diesel Engine

Doc. Renault

page 240 electronic management 479

board diagnostic - OBD

Doc. Renault

13. Bibliography - to go further ...

Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals JB Heywood

Bosch Automotive Technology Digest
Educational Server
auto-innovations.com website
Review MTZ worlwide (http://www.mtz-worldwide.com/)
Automotive Engineering International Magazine (gratis) (www.sae.org)
Review Automotive Engineers (SIA)
Review Engine Technology Internationnal (gratis) (www.ukipme.com)
Diesel Progress Magazines, Diesel and Gas tubine Worldwide (Diesel, free)
Off highway Journal (gratis) (www.sae.org)
Review Professional Motorsport World (gratis) (www.ukipme.com)
Review Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International (gratis)
Ricardo Quarterly Review (gratis) (www.ricardo.com)
Review Oil & Gas Science and Technology of the IFP (gratis) (ogst.ifp.fr)

page 241 481

Conferences and SAE collections (www.sae.org)
Conferences and ASME codes (divisions.asme.org/ice/)
Conferences and collections FISITA (www.fisita.com)
Conferences and collections SIA (ww.sia.fr)
Thiesel Conferences (Diesel)
DEER Conferences
COMODIA Conferences (www.comodia.jp)
CIMAC (large motors) (www.cimac.com)
Engine combustion network (www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/)


14. Exercises

page Exercise
242 1 483

Calculate the work and performance of a Beautiful Rochas cycle literally

What determines the performance? Work ?
In practice, what is the heat supply limited?
What are the differences between a real cycle and the theoretical cycle?
Digital Application: - calculate the pressure and compression end temperature for input conditions 1bar
and 25 C, with = V2 / V1 = 10 then 20
- Calculate the yield in these two cases
- Making the necessary assumptions, calculate the power if V2 / V1 = 10, V2 = 2l for a diet of 5000 rev / min;
calculate the maximum pressure cycle
Repeat these calculations for diesel cycles (put = V4 / V3) and mixed (ask = P3 '/ P3)
Repeat this calculation for a cycle with RFA (we ask = V RFA / V PMB )
exercise 2
Either a 4-cylinder engine with the following characteristics: bore 88 mm, stroke: 90 mm, compression ratio: 12
calculate the displacement, then the dead volume
Calculate the height h of the dead volume assuming a cylindrical shape
We wish to increase the maximum engine speed without changing the architecture 4-cylinder or engine capacity and without
increase the average piston speed. What solution do you propose?
Calculate the bore and the value of h to keep the engine with a stroke of 70 mm and 40 mm. What are the
problems that this solution?
What solution can be envisaged if one wishes to absolutely reduce the race?
By setting a limit average piston speed of 15m / s, what is the maximum regimes for different values of

exercise 3 484
Represent a 2 cycle time with pre-compression in the piston by mentioning the different stages of the cycle and
distinguishing the cylinder and the pre-compression volume
exercise 4
A vehicle is equipped with the engine described below; calculate its consumption in liters / 100 km at 90 km / h in 3rd, 4th and
Specify in each case the quantity of fuel injected per cycle
Enter the corresponding injection duration, and time deg AM
120 -
calculate the CO2 emissions to 90km / h in 5th
105 -

90 - Vehicle: Cx = 0.35, S = 1.9m 2 , m = 1350 kg, Cr = 0.015

) 75 - r V 10-3 P = CS
Prlt= C81.9M
V 3 29.1
x 6.3 2 10
60 - BV ratios (km / h at 1000 r / min): 5th: 34.1; 4th: 26.7;
the 3rd: 20.1
Co45 - Engine: 4-cylinder Diesel, diesel = 830 kg / m 3
thirty - Injectors: 5 150 .mu.m hole injection pressure 1200 bar
Diesel: C n H 1.8N , 170 g / mol
15 -

1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Speed (r / min)
exercise 5

At what speed does the SMEs of this engine maximum? How much is it worth?
Application engines presented in the course

page 243 485

exercise 6
A motor has a PMF idle vacuum of 1 bar. How then is PMI?
Assuming a thermodynamic efficiency of 20% and a 85% combustion efficiency calculate consumption
Fuel schedule for regime 600tr / min and 800tr / min.
Fuel: petrol, 1.6-liter engine
exercise 7

What is the overall efficiency of a diesel engine with a CSP of 190 g / kWh
exercise 8
what is the torque curve of an atmospheric engine "perfect"; what are the phenomena which lead to the
curve "real"
exercise 9
calculate the stoichiometric ratio of methane

exercise 10

calculate concentrations at the exhaust of an engine fueled with octane (C 8 H 18 ) to richness 1 (considering the
complete combustion). Same question for an engine running on Diesel (C 12 H 22 ) with = 1.4
exercise 11 486
Place this operating point in the compressor field; indicate the performance and the actual speed
calculate compressor outlet temperature, the power absorbed by the compressor, the power dissipated in the inter-
cooler, the engine volumetric efficiency
calculate the exhaust flow and the isentropic efficiency of the turbine

12-cylinder diesel
Bore: 200mm, 240mm stroke
Speed = 1500 rev / min; Power = 2403 kilowatts
Specific consumption 210 g / kWh
Air flow rate = 4.78 kg / s
compressor input: 991mbar, 16 C
Compressor output: 3.84 bar
breech entry: 3.8 bar, 62 C
turbine inlet: 3.5 bar, 600 C
turbine outlet: 1 bar
Air: GP, = 1.4, r = 287 J / kg / K
Exhaust: GP = 1.3, r = 287 J / kg / K

page exercise
244 12 487
calculation of torque at 1500 r / min full load for 2 motors
Assuming = 1 and = 1 and rvol Tinput head = 25 C, evaluating the intake pressure to 4000 rev / min for the full load 2
Engine displacement 1.6 l (left) and 0.8 l (right).

exercise 13

the consumer gain is desired estimate (to be calculated in mg / stroke) provided by the down sizing to a point
operation of 1500 rev / min and 60 mN
1 st case: Diesel engine; Reference displacement: 2 down the engine size: 1.5 l; PMF = 1.5 bar; Yield = 45% heat; PCI = 42.7
MJ / kg, yield = 100% COMBU
2 nd case: gasoline engine; Reference displacement: 2 l; Engine Down Size: 1 l; MFP = 1 bar; Yield thermo HP = 38%; PMI BP
from p curve. 177; PCI = 44 MJ / kg; COMBU yield = 95%

exercise 14 488
A diesel engine develops 100kW power measured at the bench with a CSP of 230 g / kWh. We
also measures:
- Flow = 0.15 kg / s, Tinput motor = 25 C = 360 C Tchappement
Expressed in% the future of the chemical energy contained in the fuel; How about the part
dissipated by friction and accessories?
exercise 15
For a 2l controlled ignition engine operating at 1 wealth is obtained on a charge point
in part the following: Torque = 25mN; CSP = 500g / kWh; PMI = 3 bar;
By simplifying assumptions (consider including an exhaust pressure of 1 bar, and
a perfect filling) calculating the PMI BP.
It was decided to adopt a stratified direct injection system and operate at = 2. By the
assumptions for calculating the new PMI BP and the new CSP

exercise 16
Dimension an injector for a 4-cylinder atmospheric 2l ignition engines
gasoline powered with external multipoint injection. Consider a maximum speed of 6500
r / min and an injection pressure of 4 bar.
Evaluate idling (assumptions: 600 r / min, PMF = 1.5 bar, thermo yield = 20%)

page exercise
245 17 489
From the provided fields, calculate NOx emissions in ppm and in g / km
Assumptions: motor gasoline: C n H 1.87n ; 110 g / mol, Capacity: 2 liters
operation at 4000 rev / min; SME = 6 bar, 90 km / h

exercise 18

Identify the different areas of operation and explain the settings of the supercharging system valves

exercise 19 490
A central power generation has 8 engines with a
unit capacity of 6 MW. The generators have an assumed yield
constant of 0.95; Calculate the hourly fuel consumption and
Specific consumption in g / kWh e in the following cases:
- Maximum Power generation
- Continuous production of 15 MW:
i) With all engines operating; rated speed
ii) With all engines operating; variable speed
iii) By stopping the engines; rated speed
iv) By stopping the engines; variable speed
- Continuous production of 2 MW (nominal speed):
i) 1 motor continuous operation
ii) using a storage / retrieval of the electricity system
(Total Return 0.8)
exercise 20

A turbocharged diesel engine 2l engine at full load, use a boost pressure of 2 bar. We have
in addition
l = 1.2; HP Thermal yield = 40%; losses water + oil = 30%; After intercooler T = 50 C; PCI = 42.7 MJ / kg; A / Fst = 14.7
With the necessary assumptions, calculate the mass of air trapped, the fuel mass per cycle, the indicated work
HP and the heat released by the combustion cycle.
Calculate the work absorbed by the compressor; ambient conditions are 1 bar; 25 C; Yield = 60% comp
Calculate the exhaust temperature from an energy balance
Calculate the turbine inlet pressure pumping work and the thermodynamic efficiency in the 3 following cases:
i) Turb Yield = 50%; ii) turb Yield = 40%; iii) turb Yield = 50% with an open wastegate that diverts 10% of the flow

page 246 491

15. Companies - Laboratories

Engine Manufacturers:

Developers: assemblers:

Equipment suppliers:


Service providers: Simulation: fuels:

Test Equipment:


Spain Italy



Austria Swiss Holland

Sweden Finland Greece Belgium


list not