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Energy 35 (2010) 562570

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Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance


of marine combined cycles Gas turbine performance
F. Haglind*
Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great
Received 21 November 2008 importance, and it is inuenced by the gas turbine conguration and load control strategy. This paper is
Received in revised form aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part-load performance.
8 September 2009
Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load performance for
Accepted 22 October 2009
combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at developing
Available online 17 November 2009
methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of
various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine congurations are studied, a two-
Keywords:
Variable geometry shaft aero-derivative conguration and a single-shaft industrial conguration. When both gas turbine
Gas turbine congurations are running in part-load using fuel ow control, the results indicate better part-load
Combined cycle performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger
Part-load decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft conguration.
Performance As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part-load
performance.
2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Because of the considerable portion of the running time spent at


part power, the part-load performance of combined cycles inten-
Today the great majority of prime movers and auxiliary plants of ded for naval use is of great importance. Then, the question arises
ocean-going ships are diesel engines. In terms of maximum which gas turbine conguration and which control strategy maxi-
installed engine power of all civilian ships above 100 gross tons, mise the plant efciency of a combined cycle in part-load. If the fuel
96% is produced by diesel engines [1]. As for large ships, almost all mass ow is neglected, i.e. it is assumed that the heat is added to
are powered by slow-speed, two-stroke diesel engines. The the gas turbine cycle in a heat exchanger, and the combustion
primary reasons for this dominance are their high efciency (also at efciency is assumed to be 100%, the following expression for the
part-load), and that they can run on heavy fuel oil (residual fuel oil net plant efciency for a combined cycle can be derived:
manufactured at the bottom end of the oil rening process).
A combined cycle featuring one or several gas turbines and hCC hGT 1  hGT 3HRSG hRankine (1)
a steam cycle is a power plant option commonly used for power where hGT is the gas turbine efciency, 3HRSG is the effectiveness of
production that offers high efciency. Combined cycles have rarely the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) (i.e. the ratio of heat
been used in the past for propulsion of ships, but following the transferred in the HRSG to heat transferrable in the HRSG), and
expected legislative actions, increasing environmental awareness hRankine is the efciency of the steam cycle (i.e. the ratio of net
and the increasing price of heavy fuel oil, it might be a viable option power output of the steam cycle to heat transferred in the HRSG).
for the future [24]. The primary advantages of using gas and steam The heat transferrable in the HRSG is dened as the amount of heat
turbine combined cycles for propulsion of large ships include lower that would be transferred if the stack temperature was equal to the
weight and space requirement for the prime mover system, as well ambient temperature.
as lower amounts of pollutant emissions. These issues were dis- The effectiveness of the HRSG is inuenced primarily by the
cussed in Haglind [3] and Haglind [4]. steam cycle design, e.g. number of pressure levels, stack tempera-
ture and pinch-points within the HRSG. In part-load, the eHRSG is
affected by the properties (primarily mass ow) of the gas turbine
* Tel.: 45 45 25 41 13; fax: 45 45 93 52 15. exhaust ow, because of their effects on the heat transfer coef-
E-mail address: frh@mek.dtu.dk cients within the HRSG and hence also on pinch-points. Depending

0360-5442/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.10.026
F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570 563

Nomenclature LHV lower heating value, MJ/kg


P power, kW
PR pressure ratio
Abbreviations TET turbine exit temperature, K
C compressor TIT turbine inlet temperature, K
CC combustion chamber W mass ow, kg/s
CT compressor turbine DP pressure loss, bar
DNA dynamic network analysis (computer simulation Da variable guide vane angle, degree
program) Db variable area nozzle angle, degree
E exhaust 3 effectiveness
G gear h efciency
HRSG heat recovery steam generator r density, kg/m3
I inlet y specic volume, m3/kg
MGO marine gas oil z parameter dependent on tube surface roughness and
PT power turbine Reynolds number
T turbine
TEU twenty-foot equivalent unit Subscripts
VAN variable area nozzle CC combined cycle
VGV variable guide vane cor corrected
VIGV variable inlet guide vane cormap corrected from map
D design
Notations E electrical
c velocity, m/s exh exhaust
FCU fraction cupper loss GT gas turbine
L loss, kW M mechanical
L/D relates to duct geometry PL part-load

on the gas turbine conguration and load control strategy, the mass simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various compo-
ow, temperature and composition of the gas turbine exhaust ow nents within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine congurations
vary in part-load. That is, the gas turbine part-load behaviour are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative conguration and a single-
affects the eHRSG. Furthermore, the gas turbine conguration and shaft industrial conguration. As for the two-shaft conguration,
load control strategy inuence the exhaust temperature, and thus, the load is controlled by fuel ow and a VAN, respectively. The load
the mean temperature of the heat supply for the steam cycle, which of the single-shaft arrangement is controlled by fuel ow and
affects the efciency of the steam cycle. compressor VGVs, respectively. Gas turbine performances are
The approach adapted here is to maintain the gas turbine obtained for the load range 30100%, corresponding approximately
exhaust temperature to the extent possible in part-load using to the combined cycle load range in which large ships normally are
variable area, thereby maintaining the heat recovery capability, operated at sea. The formation of pollutant emissions is not
with as small as possible decrease in efciency for the gas turbine. addressed. It is possible that the inclusion of technologies for
There are primarily two ways of changing the gas turbine geometry reducing emissions would affect the way the gas turbine is
for controlling the load: compressor variable guide vanes (VGVs) controlled in part-load, making it suitable to revise the load control
and turbine variable area nozzle (VAN). methods studied here.
The use of VGVs as a means of improving the part-load perfor- Considering large ship types like container vessels, bulk carriers
mance for stationary combined cycles has been addressed previ- and tankers, it is the container vessel that requires the greatest
ously [510]. In fact, in fairly modern stationary combined cycles, propulsion powers. In terms of load capacity, the majority of
the gas turbine(s) is generally equipped with three rows of VGVs, container ship orders today are in the Post-Panamax (i.e. not able to
allowing a high gas turbine exhaust gas temperature down to 40% pass the Panama Canal) and New Panamax (i.e. able to pass the
load [11]. As far as recuperated gas turbines are concerned, it is Panama Canal after a widening) classes, carrying in the range of
common practice to use a power turbine with VAN [12]. The 510114,500 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) containers [19]. The
advantages of VAN load control over pure fuel load control for largest vessels currently delivered can carry 15,500 TEU, which
recuperated gas turbines have been demonstrated in studies (e.g. corresponds to a propulsion power demand of about 76 MW. In the
[13]) and by practical experience for the marine gas turbine WR-21 future, ultra large vessels carrying up to 22,000 TEU are expected,
[14]. More information about the WR-21 engine is given in Section requiring a propulsion power of about 90 MW.
2.2.2. For combined cycles there also might be a potential for While container ships have an average speed in service of up to
improving the part-load performance by employing a variable area 25 knots, bulk carriers and tankers are sailing at speeds of about 15
turbine, which has not previously been thoroughly evaluated. The knots or less [20,21]. The propulsion power needed is proportional
use of VGVs and/or VAN has also been suggested for achieving to the ship speed to approximately the fourth power, and conse-
higher part-load efciencies for gas turbines [1518]. quently, the propulsion power requirements of bulk carriers and
This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable tankers are less than those of container vessels. The largest bulk
geometry on the gas turbine part-load performance. Subsequently, carriers (carrying about 320,000 DWT) require a propulsion power
in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load of about 25 MW [20], and the largest crude carriers (tankers)
performance for gas and steam turbine combined cycles used for (carrying about 560,000 DWT) require about 4045 MW for pro-
ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at pulsion [21]. In this work, for meeting the power requirements of
developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load future large container vessels while having operational exibility,
564 F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570

combined cycles consisting of two gas turbines (of the size of the used here, originally from Stevenson and Saravanamuttoo [26], is
LM2500) with heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and one intended to reect the compressor of the LM2500 gas turbine. The
steam cycle are considered. map used for the compressor turbine (and turbine, in the case of
Due to the increasing pressure on ship owners to reduce fuel the single-shaft arrangement) reects a high work, low aspect ratio
consumption and pollutant emissions, natural gas-red gas and axial turbine [27], and the power turbine is modelled using a map
steam turbine combined cycles may also be an option for high- of an axial turbine derived from Serovy [28]. More information
speed ferries. Today these vessels are powered either by diesel- about these component maps and detailed descriptions about the
fuelled piston engines or gas turbines. The propulsion power use of maps in DNA are given in Haglind and Elmegaard [29].
demand for such vessels is large; the largest ferries in operation Furthermore, in Haglind and Elmegaard [29] is included a valida-
today require a minimum of 36 MW at 38 knots, while vessels tion of the DNA model used here for estimating design point and
available within the next 510 years are expected to require about part-load performances of gas turbines.
4550 MW at 38 knots (D. Nielsen, Mols-Linien, Aarhus, Denmark,
2009, private communication). Moreover, to be suitable for high-
speed ferries, the propulsion system needs to be light and compact. 2.2. Variable geometry
When using combined cycle power plants for ships, either the
turbines can directly drive propeller shafts or a turbo-electric In this work, variable geometry is used to enable a maintained
transmission can be used [2]. Turbo-electric transmission implies gas turbine exhaust gas temperature in part-load, thereby
that electric generators convert the mechanical energy of the improving the efciency of the Rankine cycle. Two different
turbines (steam and/or gas) into electric energy, and an electric approaches are considered: compressor variable guide vanes
motor powers the propeller shaft. In this work, combined cycles (VGVs) applied to the single-shaft conguration, and variable
with the gas and steam turbines connected to generators rotating area nozzle (VAN) applied to the power turbine of the two-shaft
with constant speeds are considered. conguration. In this section the modelling approaches of these
In this paper the modelling approach and derivation of models technologies are described.
related to the gas turbine are described in Section 2. The designs of In order to model a given variable geometry compressor or
the gas turbines are outlined in Section 3, and in Section 4 their turbine accurately, sets of maps would be required because each
control strategies are explained, part-load performance results are VGV or VAN angle represents a unique geometry and hence has its
presented, and operational conditions are discussed. Finally, in own map. In this work, it is not desirable to model any specic
Section 5 the conclusions are outlined. In a subsequent paper, the components but rather to model variable geometry in an approx-
derivations of the models with respect to the steam cycle will be imate, generic way in the context of performance of the gas turbine.
outlined and the design of the steam cycle will be described. The For this purpose, variable geometry is modelled by correcting the
performances for combined cycles in terms of efciency over the data read from the maps versus VGV or VAN angle. Whether any of
load range and ship voyage efciencies will be presented. the maps used here include any variable geometry within their
characteristics is unknown. It may be possible for the compressor
2. Modelling map, but it seems unlikely for the turbine maps. In any case, for the
level of accuracy required here, the approach of correcting map
In this section the modelling tool used for the simulations is data is believed to be reasonable (and the evaluation of the meth-
described, and the derivations of models are outlined for part-load odology for compressors in Section 2.2.1 also supports this).
simulation suitable for energy system analysis of various compo-
nents within gas turbines. 2.2.1. Compressor variable guide vanes (VGVs)
The effects of VGVs on gas turbine and combined cycle
2.1. DNA the performance modelling tool performance are estimated in an approximate way following the
methodology used in the gas turbine performance program
The results reported within the paper are obtained using the GasTurb 11 (see http://www.gasturb.de/GasTurb11Help/index.
simulation program DNA (dynamic network analysis), which is html?variablecompressorgeometry.htm). At design the guide
a program used for energy systems analyses [22-24]. DNA is the vane angle, Da, is zero, and for a given angle in part-load the cor-
present result of an ongoing development at Technical University of rected mass ow, Wcor, pressure ratio, PR, and efciency, h, are
Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, which began corrected as follows:
with a Masters Thesis work in 1990 [24]. Within the program the  
c Da
physical model is formulated by connecting the relevant compo- Wcor Wcormap 1 1 (2)
nent models through nodes and by including operating conditions 100
for the complete system. The physical model is converted into a set  
of mathematical equations to be solved numerically. The mathe- c Da
PR  1 PR  1map 1 2 (3)
matical equations include mass and energy conservation for all 100
components and nodes, as well as relations for thermodynamic
properties of the uids involved. In addition, the components  
c3 Da2
include a number of constitutive equations representing their h hmap 1  (4)
100
physical properties, e.g. heat transfer coefcients for heat
exchangers and isentropic efciencies for compressors and where c1, c2 and c3 are constants. That mass ow and pressure ratio
turbines. Simulations of both steady state (involving algebraic follow a linear relationship and that efciency follows a quadratic
equations) and dynamic behaviour (involving differential equa- relationship versus guide vane angle, have been concluded by the
tions) are possible. developer of GasTurb through examination of experimental results.
The compressor and turbines in this paper are modelled using By default, the coefcients c1, c2 and c3 are given the values 1, 1 and
component maps provided with the GasTurb software, version 10 0.01 in GasTurb. Giving the coefcients c1 and c2 the same value
[25]. These maps have been compiled by the developer of GasTurb agrees with the fact that, to a rst order, the working line in terms
from data published in the public domain. The compressor map of pressure ratio versus ow is unaffected by the setting of the VGVs
F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570 565

[12]. In order to validate the VGV modelling approach and select 100
reasonable values for the constants, model results are compared
95
with experimental results of the V64.3 gas turbine operated in part-
load with VGV control. 90
The V64.3 is a 60 MW, single-shaft machine designed for

Relative data [%]


combined cycles. Manufacturer data at base load when operated on 85

oil (with a lower heating value of 42 MW/kg) [30], together with


80
model results, are gathered in Table 1. Effects of cooling are simu- TET
lated by bleeding off 11% of the air ow after the compressor. To 75
TIT
simulate nozzle guide vane and turbine cooling, 10% of the bleed is Th. eff.
70
injected before the compressor turbine, and the remaining 1% is
Wexh
injected after the turbine prior to the exhaust duct. Inlet, 65 PR
combustion chamber and exhaust pressure losses of 1, 3 and 2% are
assumed. In part-load these are corrected using the methodology 60
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
described in Section 2.3. The mechanical efciency is assumed to be
99%, and the isentropic efciencies of the compressor and turbine Load [%]

are assumed to be 85 and 89.5%, respectively. For a turbine inlet Fig. 1. Part-load performance of the V64.3 gas turbine. Marks indicate manufacturer
temperature of 1225  C the agreement with manufacturer data is data and lines model results.
reasonably good; see Table 1.
In Fig. 1 performance results obtained with the model are
compared with test results of the V64.3 gas turbine [30]. Down to angle, Db (which is linearly related to the VAN throat area), follow
50% power the machine is controlled by VGVs, and below this point quadratic relationships, the data read in the power turbine map can
fuel ow control is used. The model results have been obtained be corrected as follows:
with the coefcients c1, c2 and c3 equal to the GasTurb default
!
values. This comparison conrms that the VGV modelling approach c Db
2
is reasonable and that the GasTurb default values for the coef- Wcor Wcormap 1 4 (5)
100
cients are acceptable. The minor deviations in exhaust temperature
and thermal efciency at the lightest loads are primarily to be !
2
attributed to deviations in map characteristics rather than to VGV c Db
modelling (because at these loads the guide vane angle is kept h hmap 1 5 (6)
100
constant). Consequently, in this paper the coefcients c1, c2 and c3
are given the values 1, 1 and 0.01. where c4 and c5 are constants governing the rates of reductions
with the VAN angle. At full load Db is equal to 0. In this work it is
2.2.2. Turbine variable area nozzle assumed that the fully opened VAN position gives the highest
Reducing the nozzle area has a negative effect on the turbine efciency. In practice, it would be possible to design a turbine with
isentropic efciency. In order to derive a model able to quantify this any VAN position corresponding to that of highest efciency.
effect in an approximate way, the performance of the marine gas In order to select reasonable values for the constants c4 and c5,
turbine WR-21 [14,3136] is considered. This is an intercooled, the test results of a variable geometry single-stage power turbine
recuperated gas turbine, featuring a two-shaft gas generator and are considered [37]. For a given speed (75%) and a given pressure
a power turbine, and providing 21.6 MW at full power. By using ratio (1.5), the results for this power turbine suggest that a reduc-
a VAN, it achieves a 30% reduction in fuel consumption compared tion in ow capacity (in terms of non-dimensional ow) of 25%
with a simple cycle engine. The power turbine is a ve-stage design achieved by using the VAN, is accompanied by 9% reduction in
with the nozzle of the rst stage variable. When reducing the load efciency. Subsequently it is assumed that the efciency gures
from full power down to about 3040% power, the VAN area is claimed in Rahnke [37] refer to the isentropic efciency. In order to
reduced while the power turbine entry temperature is held use these gures, one must recognise that these gures reect
constant [14]. In order to decrease the power further, the VAN a single stage, whereas the power turbine to be simulated in this
needs to be reopened for avoiding compressor surge problems. work consists of a number of stages, similar to that of the WR-21
When the load and the VAN throat area are decreased simul- engine. In the WR-21 engine the contributions from individual
taneously for the WR-21 engine following the aforementioned stages to the total power output from the power turbine vary with
control schedule, the ow capacity (in terms of non-dimensional the load. At high power, with the VAN opened, the output is
ow) and the power turbine isentropic efciency decrease dominated by stages 25 [14]. At low power, on the other hand,
continuously, with an increasing rate (R. Sinclair, Rolls-Royce plc, with the VAN closed, its overall efciency is dominated by the
Bristol, UK, 2008, private communication). If it is assumed that lower efciency variable stage as the power contribution from the
reductions in ow capacity, Wcor, and efciency, h, versus VAN more efcient xed blading stages falls away in response to the loss
of pressure ratio across them. With respect to efciencies, stages 2
5 are only slightly affected by the VAN angle at low powers.
Table 1 For the purpose of selecting reasonable values for the constants
Performance results of the V64.3 gas turbine at base load. c4 and c5, it is assumed that the effect of the VAN angle on the stages
Manufacturer data Model results
following the rst stage is negligibly small. Based on the charac-
teristics of the WR-21 engine in terms of power contributions from
Turbine output at coupling [MW] 60.0 60.0
Thermal efciency at coupling [%] 35.4 35.7 individual stages, it is assumed that at a 25% reduction in ow
Compressor pressure ratio 15.5 15.5 capacity, the rst stage (with VAN) of the power turbine contrib-
Fuel mass ow 4.04 4.00 utes with 50% of the total power output. Consequently, the 9%
Turbine exhaust mass ow [kg/s] 187 187 reduction in efciency corresponding to the 25% reduction in ow
Turbine exhaust temperature [ C] 535 547
capacity for the single-stage turbine is changed to 4.5% when
566 F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570

considering the whole turbine. In order to get a 4.5% reduction in 100


Data
efciency for a 25% reduction in ow capacity with Eqs. (5) and (6), 98

Efficiency [%]
Formula
the ratio of the constants c4 to c5 should be equal to 5.553 (their
96
values inuence only their rates with the VAN angle). For this work,
the constants c4 and c5 are given the values 0.05 and 0.009, 94
respectively. 92
It should be emphasized that estimating the constants on the
basis of the performance of the single-stage turbine outlined in 90
0 20 40 60 80 100
Rahnke [37] is a simplied approach. One of the reasons for this is Load [%]
that these results were obtained for constant pressure ratio and
rotational speed, whereas the pressure ratio and speed are reduced Fig. 2. Gear efciency versus load. Marks indicate manufacturer data and the line is
obtained using Eq. (9).
with load when the aero-derivative gas turbine modelled here is
running in part-load.
manufacturer data reect a gear that has a reduction ratio of 4 and
2.3. Pressure loss features double helical toothing. As such it is believed to be
representative for gears used for steam and gas turbines in
Pressure losses dened at design conditions in the gas turbine general. In this work the gear efciency in part-load is calculated
inlet and outlet will decrease when operating in part-load condi- using Eq. (9).
tions. In this paper such effects are included in an approximate way
without making detailed component designs. For this purpose, the 2.5. Generator
well-known equation for duct pressure losses, valid for ows of any
cross-section and for laminar and turbulent ow, is considered (e.g. Large generators used for power plants often feature
[38]): a stationary armature called a stator and a rotor with eld coils that
serve to create the N and S poles. The magnetic eld is excited by
L C2
DP z r (7) a direct-current generator often mounted on the same shaft. The
D 2 losses of such machine can be divided into mechanical and elec-
where z is a parameter dependent on the tube surface roughness trical losses (J. Santiago, The ngstrom Laboratory, Uppsala,
and Reynolds number. L/D relates to the duct geometry, r is the Sweden, 2007, private communication). Mechanical losses arise
density, and c is the velocity. Neglecting effects on the Reynolds due to friction and windage from the cooling fan, and are inde-
number and considering a given geometry, it follows from Eq. (7) pendent of load. Electrical losses occur in both the rotor and the
that the pressure loss is proportional to rc2. Making use of the stator. Those in the rotor occur when the magnetic eld is gener-
continuity equation it follows that the pressure loss in part-load, DP, ated. Since this eld is constant, this loss is independent of the load.
can be correlated to that in design as: The losses in the stator consist of iron and copper losses. The
copper losses (also called conductor losses) are produced in the
 2
DP n W winding of the stator. Their magnitude is equal to the resistance of
(8)
DPD nD WD the conductor times the current it carries squared. As the electrical
power output is equal to the voltage times the current, it follows
where W is the mass ow and y is the specic volume. When using that the copper losses are proportional to the load squared. The iron
Eq. (8) the specic volume at the inlet of the component is losses are due to hysteresis and eddy currents, and are not load-
considered. dependent. For more details about these losses, the reader is
referred to a textbook on electrical machines, for instance, Wilidi
2.4. Gear [41]. From this very brief outline of generator losses, it follows that
the copper losses are dependent on the load squared, whereas the
High-speed gears used for gas and steam turbines are often rest of the losses are independent of the load.
parallel gears with single or double helical toothing. The efciency The efciency of the generator is usually dened as the ratio of
for a single gear unit of such type typically ranges between 98% and the electrical power output, PE, to the mechanical power input, PM
99% [39]. For the present work a simple correlation predicting the (which in turn can be expressed as the electrical power plus the
efciency in part-load is required. Generally, the efciency of gears losses, L):
is dependent on three separate and distinct types of losses: 1)
windage and churning losses; 2) bearing losses; and 3) gear-mesh PE PE
h (10)
losses [40]. As a matter of fact, the majority of the power loss is PM PE L
independent of the load of the gear. By assuming that the loss in
Assuming that the copper losses constitute a fraction, FCU, of the
absolute terms in part-load is equal to that in full load, the part-load
total losses in design, the following equation for the efciency in
efciency of the gear can be expressed as:
part-load as a function of this fraction, the efciency at design, hD,
and the load can be derived:
Load hD
hPL (9)
Load hD 1  hD Load hD
hPL h i (11)
where hD is the efciency at design and the load is dened as the Load hD 1  hD 1  FCU FCU Load2
ratio of power out of the gear at part-load to that in design.
A comparison with the performance of a gear for a 47 MW steam In order to nd a reasonable gure for FCU, results for the
turbine (Y. Struensee, BHS Getriebe, Sonthofen, Germany, 2008, generator of the LM2500 gas turbine are considered (J. Peters,
private communication) (for which the load is reduced through General Electric, Houston, Texas, USA, 2007, private communica-
lowered torque with retained speed), suggests that this simple tion). This is a BRUSH DAX 2-pole turbogenerator (BDAX 71-193ER
correlation agrees reasonably well with reality; see Fig. 2. The 60 Hz, 13.8 kV, 0.8PF), which can run on either 3000 rpm,
F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570 567

100 Based on performance data for design condition for the


GE
LM2500 gas turbine provided by General Electric (J. Peters,
Formula
96 General Electric, Houston, Texas, USA, 2007, private communica-
tion), a performance model is created in DNA. More details about
Efficiency [%]

the derivation of the model can be found in Haglind and Elmegaard


92 [29]. Effects of cooling are simulated by bleeding off 10% of the air
ow after the compressor. To simulate nozzle guide vane cooling,
88 8% of the bleed is injected before the compressor turbine, and the
remaining 2% is injected before the power turbine to simulate the
use for rotor cooling and seals.
84
The single-shaft conguration is obtained by removing the
power turbine and connecting the gas generator to the generator.
80 As the gas generator is rotating with a higher speed (typically about
0 20 40 60 80 100
8000 rpm) than the generator (which has a rotational speed of
Load [%]
3000 or 3600 rpm), a gear is introduced. The isentropic efciency
Fig. 3. Generator efciency versus load for manufacturer data and results of formula. for the turbine is adjusted to get the same polytrophic efciency as
those of the turbines of the two-shaft conguration (which are
about the same). The cooling ow distribution is changed to obtain
corresponding to a frequency of 50 Hz, or 3600 rpm, corresponding the same power output as the aero-derivative conguration if
to a frequency of 60 Hz. Efciency gures for this generator for the disregarding the gear loss: of the 10% bleed off after the compressor,
load ranging from 10% to 100% are shown in Fig. 3. For FCU equal to 9.1% is injected before the turbine and the remaining 0.9% is
0.43 very good agreement between Eq. (11) and the data is found; injected after the turbine. Schematic gures of the engine models
see Fig. 3. Eq. (11) with FCU equal to 0.43 is used in this paper for are shown in Figs. 5 and 6. Assumptions about component ef-
part-load modelling of generators. ciencies and losses, and performance data for these two models at
design are shown in Table 2.
It needs to be noted that in practice, for modern gas turbines, the
3. Gas turbine design
turbine cooling system generally is more complex than modelled
here; air is usually extracted from the compressor at a number of
The gas turbine selected to form the basis for this study is the
places, matching the pressure condition where it should be injected
LM2500 manufactured by General Electric. This machine, being
in the turbine. Moreover, due to the losses in the turbine associated
an upgraded version of the LM2500, is commonly used for marine
with cooling, the isentropic efciency of the compressor turbine
applications. It is an aero-derivative gas turbine originally derived
would be lower than that of the power turbine for the two-shaft gas
from the CF6 family of aircraft engines used on wide body aircraft.
turbine. Quantifying the detrimental effect of cooling on the
The LM2500 gas turbine is a two-shaft design, with the gas
turbine isentropic efciency is, however, beyond the scope of the
generator mechanically uncoupled from the power turbine,
current work. Since the overall performance is of primary interest
enabling the power turbine to operate at a continuous speed of
here, for simplicity, the same efciency gure, representing an
either 3600 or 3000 rpm, regardless of the speed of the gas
average value during the whole expansion process, is selected.
generator. It features a 17-stage axial compressor with the rst six
stages provided with variable guide vanes. The compressor turbine
and power turbine feature two and six stages, respectively; see 4. Part-load performance and operational issues
Fig. 4. When applied to marine applications, the LM2500 gas
turbine is running on a light distillate fuel with a lower heating By reducing the compressor and/or turbine ow area using
value (LHV) of 18,400 Btu/lb, corresponding to 42.798 MJ/kg. For variable geometry, the mass ow through the machine is lowered,
the modelling, a fuel composition reecting typical gures for enabling temperature levels within the cycle to be maintained in
Marine Gas Oil (MGO) is used. Ambient conditions are assumed to part-load. In general, compressors often are provided with several
be 15  C and 1.01325 bar. rows of variable stators at the front of the compressor, permitting

Fig. 4. The LM2500 gas turbine (by courtesy of General Electric).


568 F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570

Table 2
Assumptions and performance data at design for the two and single-shaft gas
turbine models.
CC
2-shaft model 1-shaft model
I C CT PT E
Compressor isentropic efciency [%] 85 85
1% 10% 8% 2% Compressor turbine isentropic efciency [%] 88 90
Bleed Power turbine isentropic efciency [%] 88
Cooling flows
Gas generator mechanical efciency [%] 99 99
Fig. 5. Schematic gure of the two-shaft aero-derivative gas turbine model. Gear efciency [%] 99
Generator efciency [%] 97.5 97.5
Compressor bleed [%] 1 1
Intake pressure loss [%] 1 1
large pressure ratios to be achieved in a single-shaft [12,42]. When
Exhaust pressure loss [%] 2.9 2.9
the stators are rotated away from the axial direction, the axial Combustor pressure loss [%] 3 3
velocity and mass ow are decreased for a given rotational speed. Inlet mass ow [kg/s] 88.4 88.4
At low rotational speeds, this delays stalling of the rst few stages Pressure ratio [-] 23.54 23.54
Combustor outlet temperature [ C] 1310 1310
and choking in the last stage, hence improving the surge margin.
Turbine inlet temperature [ C] 1250 1242
Variation of the area at turbine entry is accomplished by rotation of Exhaust temperature [ C] 531.8 531.8
the nozzle blades, which allows the effective throat area to be Electrical power output [MW] 31.21 30.90
reduced or increased. As discussed in Section 1, it can be used to Thermal efciency [%] 37.75 37.37
improve the part-load performance of gas turbines, and in partic-
ular, to improve the heat recovery capability in part-load. Generally,
the VAN is fully opened at full load and decreased as the load is performance. Therefore, regular fuel ow load control is compared
reduced. Closing the VAN will displace the compressor running line with VAN control for the two-shaft gas turbine conguration.
towards surge, which is likely to have a benecial effect on the Similarly as for the single-shaft machine, fuel ow control implies
compressor efciency [42]. that the load is controlled purely by adjusting the fuel ow.
In the following, performance results are presented for the gas Considering what is attainable for the WR-21 engine (see Section
turbines in the power range 30100%. It is assumed that the gas 2.2.2.), 30% is considered the maximum possible reduction in
turbines are connected to generators rotating with constant speeds. power turbine non-dimensional ow using the VAN. This reduction
This means that the rotational speed is constant for the single-shaft is sufcient for decreasing the load down to 30%, enabling the
machine over the whole load range. For the two-shaft gas turbine, exhaust temperature to be constant over the whole load range
the speed of the gas generator is reduced while the speed of the considered here.
power turbine (which is connected to the power turbine) is In Figs. 710 the relative inlet mass ow, compressor pressure
constant in part-load. When using variable geometry, the exhaust ratio, exhaust temperature and thermal efciency versus load are
temperature is kept constant to the extent possible in part-load. In shown for the single and two-shaft gas turbine congurations with
a subsequent paper, similar results will be presented for these gas fuel ow and variable geometry load control strategies, respec-
turbines when used in a combined cycle. tively. It needs to be noted that due to the lack of detailed manu-
As for the single-shaft gas turbine conguration, regular fuel facturer/experimental data with respect to the variable area nozzle
ow load control is compared with VGV control. In the case of fuel turbine performance, the results for the two-shaft gas turbine with
ow control, the load is controlled purely by adjusting the fuel ow. VAN control are associated with the larger uncertainties than the
The variable guide vane control implies that the VGVs are closed, others.
while the fuel ow rate is reduced simultaneously for keeping the Using fuel ow control, the two-shaft and single-shaft cong-
exhaust gas temperature constant. Considering the capabilities of urations are operated differently in part-load in the sense that the
modern compressors, it is assumed that inlet mass ow rate can be relative non-dimensional speed is kept constant for the single-shaft
reduced by 40% using the VGVs. Subsequently, the VGV angle is conguration, while it is reduced for the gas generator of the two-
kept constant while the fuel ow rate is lowered further, causing shaft conguration. As for the single-shaft gas turbine, the
the exhaust temperature to decrease. Following this strategy the compressor operating point is moved downwards along a speed
load can be reduced down to about 35% using the VGVs.
As far as the two-shaft conguration is concerned, a previous
study [5] suggests that the use of compressor variable inlet guide 110
vanes (VIGVs) for this type of gas turbine conguration does not
Relative inlet mass flow [%]

bring any advantages in terms of combined cycle part-load 100


performance. This is because the lowered gas turbine efciency
counteracts the advantage in the bottoming cycle performance. 90
However, as discussed in Section 1, VAN control may increase the
80

70
1-shaft, FF control
60 1-shaft, VGV control
CC 2-shaft, FF control
50 2-shaft, VAN control
I C T EG
40
1% 10% 9.1%
Bleed 0.9% 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Cooling flows Load [%]
Fig. 6. Schematic gure of the single-shaft gas turbine model. Fig. 7. Relative inlet mass ow versus load.
F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570 569

100 100
Relative compressor pressure ratio [%]

Relative thermal efficiency [%]


95
90
90

85
80
80
70 75 1-shaft, FF control
1-shaft, VGV control
70 2-shaft, FF control
60
1-shaft, FF control 65 2-shaft, VAN control
1-shaft, VGV control
50 60
2-shaft, FF control
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
2-shaft, VAN control
Load [%]
40
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Fig. 10. Relative thermal efciency versus load.
Load [%]
Fig. 8. Relative compressor pressure ratio versus load.
curves, the two-shaft conguration using fuel ow control is indi-
cated to give the best part-load performance.
line in the map (which are almost vertical at high speeds) when The systems ability to respond to load changes will affect its
reducing the load, resulting in approximately unchanged mass suitability for ship propulsion. However, owing to the large vessel
ow, decreased isentropic efciency, and only a small decrease inertia, engine acceleration time is generally not critical for ships
(compared with that of the two-shaft conguration) in compressor [12]. As far as the congurations studied here are concerned, the
pressure ratio. On the other hand, when running the two-shaft load of the two-shaft gas turbine is controlled by the gas
arrangement in part-load, the compressor operating point is moved generator speed, and its capability to respond to load changes is
along an operating line approximately parallel with the surge line, dependent on rotor inertia, surge margin and temperature limits
reducing also the mass ow and pressure ratio essentially. [44]. With the single-shaft machine, on the other hand, once
Because of their behaviours in mass ow, pressure ratio and synchronised, the rotational speed will remain constant, and
compressor isentropic efciency, the compressor work remains there is therefore no inertia to overcome when changing the
nearly constant in part-load for the single-shaft gas turbine, while it load. For these reasons, the single-shaft machine does respond
is reduced for the two-shaft conguration. Furthermore, the rela- faster to a sudden load change than does the two-shaft cong-
tive thermal efciency in part-load is superior for the two-shaft uration. Moreover, in the event of the load being shed, the
arrangement, which is in agreement with the conclusions of other compressor of the single-shaft machine acts as a very efcient
studies [5,42,43]. The fact that the compressor work remains nearly brake, and for this reason regulation of the output speed is easier
constant for the single-shaft gas turbine is the primary reason for this machine than with a two-shaft gas turbine conguration
why the exhaust temperature is decreased much more for this [42].
conguration. Another aspect to be considered when comparing these
The results suggest that VGV control enables slightly increased congurations for marine applications is the starting power
thermal efciency compared with fuel ow control at high powers, requirements. While the entire rotating assembly must be brought
but for low powers the thermal efciency is decreased, mainly as up to speed for a single-shaft arrangement using some kind of
a consequence of the increasing detrimental effect on the starting equipment (e.g. electrical motor), neither the power
compressor isentropic efciency of the VGVs. Moreover, the use of turbine nor the load are driven by the starter for the two-shaft
VAN control seems to reduce the efciency over the whole load conguration [42]. Consequently, the starting power requirement is
range compared with fuel ow control. Considering all the four essentially larger for the single-shaft arrangement.

5. Conclusions
Relative exhaust temperature

110 In this paper the effects on gas turbine part-load performance of


100 using variable geometry have been illustrated. In addition, meth-
odologies have been developed and models have been derived for
90 part-load modelling of components within gas turbines.
80 Models for off-design modelling of compressor variable inlet
[%]

guide vanes, turbine variable area nozzle, duct pressure loss, gear
1-shaft, FF control
70 and generator have been developed and incorporated in our
1-shaft, VGV control
60 simulation tool DNA. These models are suited for system analysis
2-shaft, FF control
for which detailed design features of individual components are
50 2-shaft, VAN control unknown and reasonable estimations of their performances are
40 sufcient. The models have been validated against experimental
30 50 70 90 results where possible/necessary.
Load [%] When comparing the part-load performance of the two-shaft
gas turbine with that of the single-shaft gas turbine, with both of
Fig. 9. Relative exhaust temperature versus load. them operated with fuel ow control, the results indicate better
570 F. Haglind / Energy 35 (2010) 562570

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colleague Brian Elmegaard (from the same institute), who has also
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edge Joseph Peters and Danny Hutchison at General Electric, USA, M.Sc. thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; 1991 [in Danish].
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gas turbine, and to Joachim Kurzke (developer of GasTurb), Germany.
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