Você está na página 1de 24

US006571828B2

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent N0.: US 6,571,828 B2


Harms et al. (45) Date of Patent: *Jun. 3, 2003

(54) PROPORTIONAL PRESSURE CONTROL 3,443,594 A 5/1969 Frayer ................. .. 137/625.64


VALVE 3,537,467 A 11/1970 Marshall 137/625.61 X
3,856,047 A 12/1974 Takayama . 137/625.61
. A 2 1982 Patel ......... .. 137 625.61
(75) Inventors: Louis Harms, Evanston, IL (US); A 7;1985 Dotti et a1 ____ __ 137%25'61
Z?ek Llberfarb, Morton Grove, IL 4,567,914 A 2/1986 Coppola at al. . 137/62564
(US) 4,674,613 A 6/1987 Sikorski ....... .. 137/625.64
4,741,364 A 5/1988 Stoes et al. 137/62564
(73) Assignee: Parker-Hanni?n Corporation, 4,785,849 A 11/1988 Masllda 137/625-64
Cleveland, OH (Us) 4,875,501 A 10/1989 Ichihashi et al. 137/625.64
4,911,469 A 3/1990 Kawarasaki .............. .. 280/707

( * ) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this 2 541101282 _______ 6);
Pawnt 1S @Xtended 0r adlusted under 35 5,024,459 A 6/1991 Kokubo et al. ........... .. 280/707
U-S-C- 154(b) by0 days- 5,031,663 A 7/1991 Fukuta et al. ..... .. 137/625.61 X
5,042,832 A 8/1991 Takahashi et al. .. 137/625.64 X
This patent is subject to a terminal dis- 5,051,631 A 9/1991 Anderson ~~~~~~~~ ~~ 137/625~64 X
Claimer' 5,054,599 A 10/1991 Ma'rcott~ ........... .. 137/62564 X
5,062,454 A 11/1991 Ichihashi et al. .... .. 137/625.61
5,174,338 A 12/1992 Yokota et al. ....... .. 137/62564
(21) Appl. N0.: 10/086,005 5,836,335 A 11/1998 Harms ............. .. 137/625.61 X
6,286,535 B1 9/2001 Harms et al. ........ .. 137/625.61
(22) Filed: Feb. 28, 2002
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
(65) Prior Publication Data
GB 2102158 1/1983 137/625.74
US 2002/0092573 A1 1111- 18, 2002 JP 1-199081 8/1989 .......... .. 137/625.64

Related U-S- Application Data Primary ExaminerGerald A. Michalsky


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmRoper & Quigg
(63) Continuation of application No. 09/912,825, ?led on Jul. 25,
2001, now Pat. No. 6,405,746, which is a continuation of (57) ABSTRACT
application No. 09/667,093, ?led on Sep. 21, 2000, now Pat. _ _ _ _
NO_ 6,286,535, which is a Continuation of application NO, T1115 invention generally concerns electronically controlled
08/960,971, ?led on Oct. 30, 1997, now abandoned, which hydraulic valves for use in electro-hydraulically controlled
is a continuation of application No- 08598285, ?led OI} Feb- transmissions. The proportional pressure control valve 20
8, 1996,' now Pat. No. 5,836,335, which is a continuation of includes a hollow Cage 42 pierced by Cage tank ports 52,
application No. 08/426,647, ?led on Apr. 21, 1995, now Cage Clutch ports 54 and Cage pump ports 56' The Cage
abandoned, which is a continuation of application No. um Orts 56 receive ?uid from a um The Ca 6 Clutch
08/034,188, ?led on Mar. 22, 1993, now abandoned, which p p p . . p p' g
is a continuation of application No. 07/747,131, ?led on ports 54 Supply fund to a hydrauhc actuator The Cage tank
Aug 19 1991 now abandoned ports 52 return ?uid from the valve 20 to a tank from where
?uid circulates back to the pump. Main spool 112 controls
Int. (:1-7 ............................................. .. ?ow between Cage Clutch ports and Cage pump ports
(52) US. Cl. ............................ .. 137/625.61; 137/625.64 56 or cage tank ports 52. An electromagnetically operated
(58) Field of Search ...................... .. 137/625.61, 625.64 P110t Valve regulates ?uid Pressllre applied to a Control
pressure surface 138. A feedback pressure passage 126,
(56) References Cited having a feedback restriction ori?ce 128, restrains the rate
?uid ?ows between the cage clutch ports 54 and the feed
US- PATENT DOCUMENTS back pressure surface 114.
3,029,830 A 4/1962 Klover et al. ..... .. 137/625.62 X
3,286,734 A 11/1966 Hartshorne .......... .. 137/62564 7 Claims, 11 Drawing Sheets

252'\_ 253

232

224 I52
\11311
28
K i
212
}
253
I76
U.S. Patent Jun. 3, 2003 Sheet 6 0f 11 US 6,571,828 B2

l 336 I36

WZW_(IIIIII"III/////A 5 r I

326

dd
U.S. Patent Jun. 3, 2003 Sheet 9 0f 11 US 6,571,828 B2
U.S. Patent Jun. 3, 2003 Sheet 10 0f 11 US 6,571,828 B2

Fawn

OE
w
U.S. Patent Jun. 3, 2003 Sheet 11 0f 11 US 6,571,828 B2

V
p
3/_

A\\\
\\\-.:=2. .3\\\r\ \
Q11;
\
momJN5
US 6,571,828 B2
1 2
PROPORTIONAL PRESSURE CONTROL poWer input shaft rotate at the same speed. HoWever, most
VALVE clutches for automotive vehicles operating in this tightly
coupled state are capable of passing only some maXimum
This application is a continuation of co-pending appli amount of torque from the internal combustion engine to the
cation Ser. No. 09/912,825 ?led Jul. 25, 2001, now US. Pat. transmission Without slippage occurring in the clutch. If a
No. 6,405,746, Which in turn is a continuation of prior torque greater than this maXimum amount is supplied to the
application Ser. No. 09/667,093 ?led on Sep. 21, 2000, clutch in its tightly coupled state, slippage occurs Within the
Which issued as US. Pat. No. 6,286,535 on Sep. 11, 2001, clutch that alloWs the poWer output shaft of the internal
Which in turn is a continuation of prior application Ser. No. combustion engine to rotate at a speed different from that of
the transmissions poWer input shaft.
08/960,971 ?led Oct. 30, 1997, noW abandoned, Which, in 10
turn, Was a continuation of prior application Ser. No. 08/598, BetWeen these tWo eXtremes of clutch operation, either of
285 ?led Feb. 8, 1996, Which issued as US. Pat. No. being decoupled or of being tightly coupled, the design of
5,836,335 on Nov. 17, 1998, Which, in turn, Was a continu most clutches used in automotive vehicles permit progres
ation of prior application Ser. No. 08/426,647 ?led Apr. 21, sively varying the tightness of coupling betWeen the
1995, noW abandoned, Which, in turn, Was a continuation of engines poWer output shaft and the transmissions poWer
prior application Ser. No. 08/034,188 ?led Mar. 22, 1993, input shaft. In intermediate states betWeen these tWo
noW abandoned, Which in turn Was a continuation of prior extremes, the clutch Will transmit an amount of torque to the
application Ser. No. 07/747,131 ?led Aug. 19, 1991, noW transmission Without slippage that is less than the maXimum
abandoned. Pursuant to MPEP 201.06(c), the speci?cation amount that it Will transmit When tightly coupled. Control
and draWings of application Ser. No. 08/960,971 are hereby 20 lably coupling differing amounts of torque from the internal
incorporated herein by reference. combustion engine to the means for driving the vehicle
across the earths surface permits smoothly accelerating an
TECHNICAL FIELD automotive vehicle into motion. Controllably coupling dif
ferent amounts of torque from the internal combustion
The present invention relates generally to the technical engine to the means for driving the vehicle through the
25
?eld of hydraulic control devices and, more particularly, to clutch is also useful, particularly for heavy industrial
electrically controlled hydraulic valves. vehicles such as trucks, tractors and the like When shifting
the transmission smoothly from a set of gears having one
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
ratio to another set having a different ratio.
Automobiles, trucks, tractors, earth-moving vehicles, and 30 Historically, a driver of an automotive vehicle usually
many other different types of vehicles (hereinafter collec operated its clutch through a direct mechanical linkage
tively referred to as automotive vehicles) frequently include betWeen the clutch and a clutch pedal located in the vehicles
an internal combustion engine for poWering their movement passenger compartment near the driver. In some instances, a
across the earths surface. An automotive vehicle also closed hydraulic system for operating the clutch by pressure
includes a drive train for transmitting energy produced by 35 on the clutch pedal replaces the direct mechanical linkage.
the internal combustion engine into movement of the More recently, to provide automatic electronic control of
Wheels, drive tracks or similar means by Which the vehicle gear ratio selection, particularly in automotive vehicles that
is driven across the earths surface. To effectively accom include a microprocessor, it has become desireable to con
modate the poWer characteristics of the internal combustion trol clutch operation by means of an electrical signal rather
engine to the load of the vehicle that it must drive at various 40 than by the driver pressing on a clutch pedal. While some
speeds over varying terrain, an automotive vehicles drive designs for clutches are knoWn that permit an electrical
train usually includes one or more transmissions. Each current to directly effect coupling and uncoupling of the
transmission in an automotive vehicle includes a transmis clutch, such clutches generally consume, and must therefore
sion poWer input shaft that receives energy from the internal also dissipate, a signi?cant amount of electrical poWer. Thus,
combustion engines poWer output shaft, and a transmission 45 even With microprocessor controlled operation of an auto
poWer output shaft for transmitting the engines energy onto motive vehicles transmission, it still appears desirable to
the means for driving the vehicle across the earths surface. continue controlling clutch operation indirectly by convert
Each transmission in an automotive vehicle also includes ing a control electrical signal from the microprocessor into
sets of gears, each one of Which, When selected for coupling a more poWerful mechanical driving force for directly
the transmissions poWer input shaft to its poWer output 50 operating a conventional clutch.
shaft, provides a different speed ratio betWeen the rotation In pursuing this indirect electronic control of automotive
rates, respectively, of the transmissions poWer input and vehicle clutches, some automotive vehicle manufacturers
poWer output shafts. have chosen to employ electro-hydraulic transmissions hav
To facilitate selecting a particular gear ratio and for ing hydraulically operated clutches. In such electro
smoothly accelerating an automotive vehicle from a station 55 hydraulic transmissions, a hydraulic pump supplies pressur
ary start, its drive train usually includes a clutch located iZed hydraulic ?uid for energiZing a hydraulic actuator, for
betWeen the automotive vehicles internal combustion eXample a piston or a belloWs, that directly operates the
engine and its transmission(s). This clutch selectively clutch. In one design for such a clutch, springs hold the
couples the internal combustion engines poWer output shaft clutch in its disengaged position and a carefully controlled
to the transmissions poWer input shaft. In one position of pressure of the hydraulic ?uid from the pump overcomes the
the clutch, it completely decouples the engines poWer springs force to effect engagement of the clutch. When the
output shaft from the transmissions poWer input shaft. In hydraulic pressure is removed from this clutch, the springs
another position, the clutch of an automotive vehicle pro once again move the clutch into its disengaged state. By
vides a tight coupling betWeen the internal combustion using the spring pressure to effect clutch disengagement and
engines poWer output shaft and the transmissions poWer 65 hydraulic pressure to effect clutch engagement, the clutch
input shaft. In this tightly coupled state, the internal com inherently disconnects the engine from the transmission
bustion engines poWer output shaft and the transmissions When the engine is not running to poWer the hydraulic ?uid
US 6,571,828 B2
3 4
pump. Furthermore, this method of operating an electro Located in the interior of the spool disclosed in the
hydraulic clutch inherently avoids creating a hazardous McCabe patent is a holloW ?rst internal passage. The
condition if the hydraulic ?uid pump fails. With such an formation of this passage in the spool establishes a cup
electro-hydraulically operated clutch, smoothly accelerating shaped cavity that is open toWard the right end of the spool
the vehicle into motion and smoothly shifting transmission and closed at the spools left end. Apassage, formed through
gear ratios require a hydraulic valve that controls the pres the Wall of the spool, connects this cup-shaped cavity to the
sure of the hydraulic ?uid supplied to the clutch precisely in second chamber. From FIGS. 1 and 2 of the McCabe patent,
response to changing values of the controlling electrical it appears that the ?rst internal passage in the spool alWays
signal. receives a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid from the pump through the
US. Pat. No. 4,996,195 entitled Transmission Pressure 10
pump ports in the cage and the second chamber regardless
Regulator issued on Oct. 30, 1990 to Ralph P. McCabe of the lateral position of the spool along the length of the
(the McCabe patent) and discloses a valve for controlling cage.
the pressure of a ?uid medium that is adapted for use in a The spool disclosed in the McCabe patent also includes a
control system such as that of an automatic transmission of second internal passage that pierces both the Wall of the
an automotive vehicle. 15 broad trough and the left end surface of the spool. This
The valve disclosed in the McCabe patent includes a second internal passage couples the pressure of hydraulic
cylindrically shaped, elongated, holloW aperture means or ?uid in the ?rst chamber to a second cavity located at the left
cage. Formed through the Wall of the cage toWard one end end of the spool betWeen the spool and an end cap. The end
is a ?rst set of apertures or ports. This ?rst set of ports cap closes the end of the cage to the left of the spool and
receives a supply pressure of hydraulic ?uid, apparently seals the second cavity so that ?uid may enter and leave it
from a pump (not depicted or described in the teXt or only through the second internal passage. Because the
draWings of the McCabe patent). A second set of apertures second cavity opens only into the second internal passage,
or ports also passes through the Wall of the aperture means the pressure Within this second cavity alWays equals the
or cage. The second set of ports is displaced laterally from pressure of ?uid Within the ?rst chamber. The end cap also
the ?rst set of ports along the length of the cage and located 25 compresses a ?rst coil spring betWeen its inner surface and
near the middle of the length of the cage. The hydraulic ?uid the left hand surface of the spool. In the absence of any other
in the second set of ports has a control pressure and, force on the spool, this ?rst coil spring urges the spool
apparently, is supplied to the automatic transmission (not toWard the right end of the cage as depicted in FIGS. 1 and
depicted or described in the McCabe patent). A third set of 2 of the McCabe patent.
apertures or ports is formed in the Wall of the cage. The third An annularly shaped poppet valve plate is located imme
set of ports is displaced laterally along the length of the cage diately to the right of the spool as depicted in FIGS. 1 and
from both the ?rst and second sets of ports and is located 2 of the McCabe patent, and partially obscures the right hand
near the end of the cage furthest from the ?rst set. The end of the cylindrically shaped interior of the cage. The full
hydraulic ?uid in this third set of ports has a sump or tank pressure of hydraulic ?uid applied by the pump to the pump
pressure, and appears to return from the valve to a tank (not 35 ports forces hydraulic ?uid through the pump ports in the
depicted or described in the McCabe patent). Wall of the cage, the second chamber, and the ?rst internal
The inner surface of the cage is formed in the shape of a passage in the spool to the side of the poppet plate imme
right, circular cylinder and receives a snugly ?tting main diately adjacent to the right hand end of the spool. Asecond
spool. The spool is much shorter than the cage and can, coil spring is compressed betWeen the spool and the poppet
therefore, move laterally back and forth Within the cage plate at the right end of the spool and, according to the teXt
While remaining totally enclosed therein. A broad trough of the McCabe patent, applies a force to the spool that is
encircles the outer surface of the spool about its mid-section smaller than that applied by the ?rst coil spring at the left end
to establish a ?rst chamber betWeen the outer surface of the of the spool.
spool and the inner surface of the cage. The Width of this Located to the right of the poppet plate is a movable
trough along the length of the spool permits the ?rst chamber 45 armature that is surrounded by a solenoid coil. An electrical
to couple immediately adjacent pairs of sets of ports to each current ?oWing through the coil applies a magnetic force to
other While not simultaneously coupling all three sets of the armature. In the valve depicted in FIG. 1 of the McCabe
ports to each other. As depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the patent, this electromagnetic force on the armature urges it to
McCabe patent, When the spool is fully displaced toWard the move laterally toWard the left Which tends to close the
right, the ?rst chamber couples the second set of apertures, opening in the center of the annularly shaped poppet valve.
i.e., the clutch ports, to the third set of apertures, i.e., the tank According to the teXt of the McCabe patent, closure of the
ports. Alternatively, When the spool is fully displaced toWard poppet valve increases the pressure of the hydraulic ?uid at
the left, the ?rst chamber couples the ?rst set of apertures, the right end of the spool adjacent to the poppet plate. With
i.e., the pump ports, to the second set of apertures, i.e., the the spool urged to the right end of the cage by the ?rst coil
clutch ports. Thus, precisely controlled motion of the main 55 spring, an increase in hydraulic ?uid pressure on the right
spool laterally Within the cage couples the set of clutch ports end of the spool urges it to move laterally to the left aWay
either to the set of pump ports or to the set of tank ports, and, from the poppet plate. Movement of the spool to the left
as described in the McCabe patent, can thereby control the causes the ?rst chamber to move laterally aWay from the
hydraulic ?uid pressure in the clutch ports. tank ports toWard the pump ports. Lateral movement of the
As depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the McCabe patent, the ?rst chamber over the pump ports permits hydraulic ?uid to
outer surface of the spool is also encircled by a narroW ?oW from the pump ports to the clutch ports thereby
trough located near its left end. This narroW trough estab increasing the pressure of the hydraulic ?uid in the clutch
lishes a second chamber betWeen the outer surface of the ports. Increased pressure of the hydraulic ?uid in the clutch
spool and the inner surface of the cage. The second chamber ports is coupled via the second internal passage to the second
appears to be alWays open to a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid from 65 cavity thereby increasing the pressure of the hydraulic ?uid
the pump through the pump ports through the Wall of the in the second cavity at the left end of the spool. An
cage. increasing pressure in the second cavity urges the spool to
US 6,571,828 B2
5 6
halt its lateral movement to the left away from the poppet When a clutch, or any other hydraulically operated device
plate and urges it to begin moving back to the right toWard that is moving in response to a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid
the poppet plate. According to the teXt of the McCabe patent, reaches the mechanical limit of its travel, the hydraulic ?uid
the spool . . . Will move axially in relation to the poppet ?oW through the system stops abruptly. This abrupt stopping
plate . . . until the sum of the forces on the spool . . . are in of hydraulic ?uid ?oW converts the ?uids kinetic energy
equilibrium. The teXt of the McCabe patent also states that into potential energy thereby producing a sudden and abnor
the second coil spring compressed betWeen the poppet plate mal increase, or spike, in the pressure of the hydraulic ?uid.
and the spool acts to reduce lateral oscillation of the spool Under appropriate circumstances, this pressure spike may be
due to changes in the pressure of hydraulic ?uid at opposite heard audibly as a disturbing or alarming noise, and the
ends of the spool. Thus, according to the McCabe patent, the 10 pressure increase may be so severe that it causes failure of
combination of the poppet valve at the right end of the spool
With the second internal passage in the spool and the second the hydraulic system.
cavity at the left end of the spool along With the second coil SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
spring, precisely controls the movement of the main spool
laterally Within the cage to adjust the pressure in the clutch The present invention provides a commercially practical
ports. 15 electrically energiZed, hydraulic proportional pressure con
Based upon the preceding description of the operation of trol valve for use in electro-hydraulic transmissions having
the valve depicted in FIG. 1 of the McCabe patent, that valve hydraulically operated clutches.
may be characteriZed as a normally closed valve that couples An object of the present invention is to provide a fully
the clutch ports to the tank ports When no current ?oWs operable electrically energiZed, hydraulic proportional pres
through the coil. Conversely, the valve depicted in FIG. 2 of sure control valve for use in electro-hydraulic transmissions.
the McCabe patent includes a spring Which biases the poppet Another object of the present invention is to provide an
valve closed, and a magnetic ?eld generated by an electric
current ?oWing through the coil urges the armature to move electrically energiZed, hydraulic proportional pressure con
toWard the right thereby opening the poppet valve. Accord trol valve that controls the pressure in its clutch port pre
ing to the teXt of the McCabe patent, the hydraulic pressure 25
cisely in response to changing values of the controlling
applied to the right end of the spool of the valve depicted in electrical signal.
FIG. 2 When no current ?oWs through the coil causes the Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an
spool to move to the left thereby causing the ?rst chamber electrically energiZed, hydraulic proportional pressure con
to couple the clutch ports to the pump ports. Thus the valve trol valve that relieves the abnormally high hydraulic ?uid
embodiment depicted in FIG. 2 of the McCabe patent may pressure spike that occurs When a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid
be characteriZed as a normally open valve that couples the through the valve stops abruptly.
clutch ports to the pump ports When no current ?oWs through Another object of the present invention is to provide an
the coil. electrically energiZed, hydraulic proportional pressure con
The teXt of the McCabe patent appears to lack an eXpla trol valve that reduces the abnormally high hydraulic ?uid
nation of hoW closing and opening of the poppet valve 35 pressure spike that occurs When a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid
depicted in the draWings of the patent may increase or through the valve stops abruptly.
decrease the pressure of hydraulic ?uid present at the right Another object of the present invention is to provide a
end of the spool adjacent to the annularly shaped poppet simpler electrically energiZed, hydraulic proportional pres
plate. Accordingly, it appears that the valve disclosed in the sure control valve.
McCabe patent may be commercially impractical for its Another object of the present invention is to provide a
intended purpose of controlling the pressure of hydraulic more easily manufactured electrically energiZed, hydraulic
?uid in an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. proportional pressure control valve.
US. Pat. No. 4,996,195 entitled Pilot-Operated Valve Another object of the present invention is to provide a
With Load Pressure Feedback issued on May 3, 1988 to more economical electrically energiZed, hydraulic propor
Kenneth J. Stoss and Richard A Felland (the Stoss et al. 45 tional pressure control valve.
patent) discloses a pilot-operated electro-hydraulic valve Another object of the present invention is to provide an
adapted for use in controlling a transmission of an automo
tive vehicle. The valve disclosed in the Stoss et al. patent
electrically energiZed, proportional pressure control valve
includes an electromagnetically controlled pilot valve that
that, When used in conjunction With a clutch, provides
improved and smooth engagement and disengagement of a
controls the operation of the valves main spool. A pilot
load through precise control of ?uid pressures Within a
feedback passage couples the pressure of hydraulic ?uid in
the load or clutch port of the valve to a feedback chamber at
hydraulic system.
one end of the pilot valve. The Stoss et al. patent discloses A further object of the present invention is to provide an
that a pilot feedback passage coupling the clutch port to the electrically energiZed, proportional pressure control valve
feedback chamber preferably includes a ?ltered ori?ce. The 55
that has an improved pilot valve section alloWing precise
Stoss et al. patent appears to omit an explanation of the control of ?uid pressures Within a hydraulic system.
function provided by the ?ltered ori?ce. Another object of the invention is to provide an electri
Neither the McCabe patent nor the Stoss et al. patent cally energiZed, proportional pressure control valve that has
disclose or solve a problem that occurs in the operation of an improved ball type pilot valve section Which alloWs
clutches in electro-hydraulic transmissions knoWn as spik precise control of ?uid pressures Within a hydraulic system
ing. Spiking is a phenomenon that results from abruptly and substantially reduces the cost of such a valve.
halting ?uid ?oW through a hydraulic system. Fluid ?oWing A further object of the invention is to provide an elec
through a hydraulic system has tWo types of energy. Those tronically energiZed, proportional pressure control valve that
tWo different types of energy are potential energy and kinetic includes improved feedback means to dampen oscillation
energy. Potential energy is energy that is present due to the 65 Within the valve.
pressure of hydraulic ?uid. Kinetic energy is energy that is Brie?y a proportional pressure control valve in accor
present due to the ?oW of ?uid through the hydraulic system. dance With the present invention includes a holloW cage
US 6,571,828 B2
7 8
having a Wall that is pierced by a pump port, by a clutch port, FIGS. 4A through 4D are cross-sectional plan vieWs of a
and by a tank port. The pump port receives hydraulic ?uid portion of the assembled proportional pressure control valve
from a pump at a pressure provided by the pump. The clutch of FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrating motion of the main spool
port is adapted for supplying pressuriZed hydraulic ?uid to relative to the cage;
a hydraulic actuator at a pressure that is controlled by the FIG. 5, made up of FIGS. 5A and 5B, is an exploded,
proportional pressure control valve. The tank port of the cross-sectional plan vieW of a normally open proportional
cage returns hydraulic ?uid from the proportional pressure
control valve to a tank from Which the ?uid circulates back pressure control valve in accordance With the present inven
to the pump.
tion that is adapted for control by a digital electrical control
The proportional pressure control valve also includes a signal;
1O
main spool adapted to ?t snugly Within the cage. Contained FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional plan vieW of the assembled
Within the cage, the main spool is movable along the length proportional pressure control valve depicted in FIG. 5;
of the cage for controlling a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid passing FIG. 7, made up of FIGS. 7A and 7B, is an exploded,
betWeen the clutch port and either the pump port or the tank cross-sectional plan vieW of a normally closed proportional
port. 15
pressure control valve in accordance With the present inven
An electromagnetically operated pilot valve regulates a tion that is adapted for control by a digital electrical control
control pressure of hydraulic ?uid that is present in a control signal;
pressure chamber of the proportional pressure control valve. FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional plan vieW of the assembled
The pressure of the ?uid in the control pressure chamber is proportional pressure control valve depicted in FIG. 7; and
applied to a control pressure surface of the main spool. FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional plan vieW of a spool in
Pressure applied to the control pressure surface urges the accordance With the present invention including a pressure
main spool to move along the length of the cage to a position spike suppression check valve for relieving any abnormally
in Which it alloWs hydraulic ?uid to ?oW betWeen the pump high pressure that occurs in the clutch port of the cage;
port and the clutch port. When disposed in such a position,
the main spool obstructs any ?oW of hydraulic ?uid betWeen 25 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
the clutch port and the tank port. INVENTION
A feedback pressure passage couples the pressure of
hydraulic ?uid in the clutch port of the proportional pressure FIG. 2 depicts a cross-sectional plan vieW of a normally
control valve to a feedback pressure chamber. The feedback closed proportional pressure control valve referred to by the
pressure chamber applies the pressure of hydraulic ?uid in general reference character 20. FIG. 1, made up of FIGS. 1A
the clutch port to a feedback surface of the main spool. and 1B, is an exploded, cross-sectional plan vieW depicting
Pressure applied to the feedback pressure surface of the the various parts included in the proportional pressure
control valve 20. The same reference characters are used to
main spool urges the main spool to move Within the cage to
a position in Which it alloWs a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid to pass identify the same part of the proportional pressure control
betWeen the clutch port and the tank port. When disposed in valve 20 both in FIG. 1 and in FIG. 2.
35
such a position, the main spool obstructs any ?oW of The proportional pressure control valve 20 includes a
hydraulic ?uid betWeen the pump port and the clutch port. body 22. Formed in the center of the body 22, symmetrically
The feedback pressure passage includes a feedback restric about a center line 24 that appears only in FIG. 1, is a
tion ori?ce for restraining the rate at Which ?uid may ?oW cylindrically-shaped cavity 26. Surrounding the cavity 26 is
betWeen the clutch port and the feedback pressure chamber. a body Wall 28 that is pierced by a body tank port 32 and a
An embodiment of the proportional pressure control valve body clutch port 34. During normal operation of the pro
of the present invention includes a pressure spike suppres portional pressure control valve 20, the pressure of hydraulic
sion check valve for relieving any abnormally high pressure ?uid in the body tank port 32 is very loW because the body
that occurs in the clutch port of the cage. Such an abnormally tank port 32 connects to an unpressuriZed hydraulic ?uid
high pressure may occur if a ?oW of hydraulic ?uid through 45 reservoir (not depicted in any of the FIGS.).
the clutch port stops abruptly. In the preferred form of this The cavity 26 is formed to receive a cylindrically-shaped,
embodiment, the check valve alloWs hydraulic ?uid to ?oW elongated, holloW cage 42 having a cylindrically-shaped
from the cage clutch port to the cage tank port When an cage Wall 44. Formed through the cage Wall 44, toWard one
abnormally high pressure occurs in the clutch port. A spike end of the cage 42, is a set of cage tank ports 52. Displaced
suppression ori?ce may also be included to restrain the rate laterally along the length of the cage 42 from the cage tank
at Which ?uid may ?oW through the check valve. ports 52 and located approximately about the middle of the
These and other features, objects and advantages Will be cage 42 is a set of cage clutch ports 54 that pass through the
understood or apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art cage Wall 44. Displaced even further laterally along the
from the folloWing detailed description of the preferred length of the cage 42 from the cage tank ports 52 than the
embodiment as illustrated in the various draWing ?gures. 55 cage clutch ports 54 is a set of cage pump ports 56 that also
pass through the cage Wall 44. The cage Wall 44 betWeen the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS cage tank ports 52 and the cage clutch ports 54 includes a
FIG. 1, made up of FIGS. 1A and 1B, is an exploded, pair of raised lands 62 that encircle the cage 42. The lands
cross-sectional plan vieW of a normally closed proportional 62 establish a U-shaped trough 64 that also encircles the
pressure control valve constructed in accordance With the cage 42 and receives an encircling O-ring 66. Similarly, the
present invention that is adapted for control by an analog cage Wall 44 betWeen the cage clutch ports 54 and the cage
electrical control signal; pump ports 56 includes another pair of raised lands 72 that
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional plan vieW of the assembled encircle the cage 42. The lands 72 establish another
proportional pressure control valve depicted in FIG. 1; U-shaped trough 74 that encircles the cage 42 and receives
FIG. 3 is a plan vieW of a plunger included in the 65 another encircling O-ring 76.
proportional pressure control valve depicted in FIGS. 1 and When the cage 42 is inserted into the cavity 26 in the body
2 taken along the line 33 in FIG. 1; 22, the surface of the cavity 26 receives the raised outer
US 6,571,828 B2
9 10
surface of the lands 62 and 72, and the O-rings 66 and 76 52 While the outer surface of the main spool 112 simulta
seal between the surface of the cavity 26 and the outer neously blocks any substantial ?oW of hydraulic ?uid
surface of the cage Wall 44. With the cage 42 disposed in this betWeen the cage pump ports 56 and the cage clutch ports
position Within the body 22, the surface of the cavity 26 and 54. Thus, controlled movement of the main spool 112
the outer surface of the cage Wall 44 betWeen immediately laterally along the length of the cage 42 couples the cage
adjacent lands 62 and 72 established a holloW, annularly clutch ports 54 either to the cage pump ports 56 or to the
shaped clutch outlet chamber 82 that encircles the cage 42. cage tank ports 52.
Hydraulic ?uid, that is applied to a hydraulic actuator (not Afeedback pressure passage 126 is formed into the end of
depicted in any of the FIGS), ?oWs betWeen the cage clutch the main spool 112 adjacent to the coil spring 108 and the
ports 54 and the body clutch port 34 through the clutch outlet 10 plug 92. Afeedback restriction ori?ce 128, formed at the end
chamber 82. On the opposite side of the lands 72 from the of the feedback pressure passage 126 furthest from the coil
clutch outlet chamber 82, the surface of the cavity 26 and the spring 108 and the plug 92, passes through the surface of the
outer surface of the cage Wall 44 establish a holloW, trough 122 thereby coupling the feedback pressure passage
annularly-shaped pump inlet chamber 84 that also encircles 126 to valving chamber 124. Because the cage clutch ports
the cage 42. The pump inlet chamber 84 receives pressuriZed 15 54 alWays open into the valving chamber 124, the feedback
hydraulic ?uid from a pump (not depicted in any of the pressure passage 126 continuously couples the pressure of
FIGS.) and supplies it to the interior of the cage 42 through hydraulic ?uid in the cage clutch ports 54 through the main
the cage pump ports 56. spool 112 to establish a feedback pressure for the hydraulic
A cup-shaped plug 92 ?ts snugly Within the interior ?uid Within the feedback pressure chamber 118. The feed
surface of the cage Wall 44 at the end of the cage 42 nearest back restriction ori?ce 128 in the feedback pressure passage
the cage pump ports 56. AU-shaped trough 94 encircles the 126 restrains the rate at Which hydraulic ?uid may ?oW
plug 92 and receives an O-ring 96. The O-ring 96 seals betWeen the valving chamber 124 and the feedback pressure
betWeen the inner surface of the cage Wall 44 and the outer chamber 118. The feedback restriction ori?ce 128 is siZed
surface of the plug 92. The inner surface of the cage Wall 44 dependant upon ?oW rate of ?uid Within the system as Well
immediately adjacent to the plug 92 includes a U-shaped 25 as the siZe of the main spool 112 to provide acceptable
groove 102. The groove 102 receives a snap ring 104 that overshoot spike suppression and operational stability of the
mechanically retains the plug 92 Within the cage 42. Secured system. To accomplish these intended purposes, feedback
in this location, the plug 92 closes the interior surface of the restriction ori?ce 128 is approximately about 0.020 to
cage 42 betWeen the plug 92 and the cage pump ports 56 about 0.040 in diameter.
formed through the cage Wall 44. Received Within the cage The outer surface of the main spool 112 betWeen the
42 abutting the plug 92 is a coil spring 108. trough 122 and the feedback pressure surface 114 is also
The inner surface of the cage Wall 44 is formed in the encircled by a narroW trough 132. This narroW trough 132
shape of a right, circular cylinder to receive a snugly ?tting establishes a holloW, annularly-shaped pilot valve supply
main spool 112. While the length of the main spool 112 is chamber 134 encircling the main spool 112 betWeen the
shorter than that of the cage 42, the main spool 112 never 35 outer surface of the main spool 112 and the inner surface of
theless abuts the end of the coil spring 108 furthest from the the cage Wall 44. Regardless of the lateral position of the
plug 92 to compress the coil spring 108 betWeen the plug 92 main spool 112 along the length of the cage 42, the pilot
and a feedback pressure surface 114 of the main spool 112. valve supply chamber 134 is alWays open to a ?oW of
The pressure of the coil spring 108 against the feedback hydraulic ?uid from the pump through the cage pump ports
pressure surface 114 urges the main spool 112 to move 56 in the cage Wall 44. One end of a pilot valve supply
laterally along the length of the cage 42 aWay from the plug passage 136, formed through the interior of the main spool
92. 112, is open to the trough 132 While the other end of the pilot
When the main spool 112 is properly disposed Within the valve supply passage 136 passes through a control pressure
cage 42, the plug 92, the feedback pressure surface 114 of surface 138 on the outer surface of the main spool 112
the main spool 112, and the interior surface of the cage Wall 45 furthest from the coil spring 108 and the plug 92. In the
44 betWeen the plug 92 and the feedback pressure surface proportional pressure control valve 20 depicted in FIGS. 1
114 establish a feedback pressure chamber 118. In addition and 2, the pilot valve supply passage 136 immediately
to the coil spring 108, any hydraulic ?uid pressure Within the adjacent to the control pressure surface 138 receives a screen
feedback pressure chamber 118 also urges the main spool 142 and is threaded to receive a threaded control ?oW
112 to move laterally along the length of the cage 42 aWay restriction ori?ce 144. The control ?oW restriction ori?ce
from the plug 92. 144 restrains the ?oW rate of a control pressure ?oW of
Abroad, U-shaped trough 122 encircles the outer surface hydraulic ?uid that passes from the cage pump ports 56
of the main spool 112 about its mid-section. When the main through the trough 132, the pilot valve supply passage 136,
spool 112 is properly disposed Within the cage 42, the outer and through the control pressure surface 138 of the main
surface of the main spool 112 formed by the trough 122 and 55 spool 112. The screen 142 catches particles in the hydraulic
the inner surface of the cage Wall 44 establish a holloW, ?uid to hinder blockage of the control ?oW restriction ori?ce
annularly-shaped valving chamber 124 that encircles the 144 by such particles.
main spool 112. Asuf?ciently large lateral movement of the An annularly-shaped stop 152 ?ts snugly Within the
main spool 112 toWard the plug 92 alloWs hydraulic ?uid to interior surface of the cage Wall 44 at the end of the cage 42
?oW through valving chamber 124 betWeen the cage pump nearest the cage tank ports 52. A U-shaped trough 154
ports 56 and the cage clutch ports 54 While the outer surface encircles the stop 152 and receives an O-ring 156. The
of the main spool 112 simultaneously obscures the cage tank O-ring 156 seals betWeen the inner surface of the cage Wall
ports 52 thereby obstructing hydraulic ?uid ?oW through the 44 and the outer surface of the stop 152. When the main
cage tank ports 52. Alternatively, a sufficiently large lateral spool 112 is properly disposed Within the cage 42, the stop
movement of the main spool 112 aWay from the plug 92 65 152, the control ?oW restriction ori?ce 144, the control
alloWs hydraulic ?uid to ?oW through the valving chamber pressure surface 138 of the main spool 112, and the interior
124 betWeen the cage clutch ports 54 and the cage tank ports surface of the cage Wall 44 betWeen the stop 152 and the
US 6,571,828 B2
11 12
control pressure surface 138 establish a control pressure ?oW past the pole piece 212 and ?ll the length of the tube
chamber 158. The pressure of hydraulic ?uid Within the 202 extending outWard from the adaptor 176.
control pressure chamber 158 urges the main spool 112 to Formed through the middle of the pole piece 212 is an
move laterally along the length of the cage 42 aWay from the elongated, cylindrically-shaped pin passage 222. An elon
stop 152 toWard the plug 92. gated pin 224 ?ts loosely Within the pin passage 222 and
Passing through the middle of the stop 152 is a holloW slides freely back and forth Within the length of the pin
control pressure chamber outlet passage 162. Formed on the passage 222. The end of the pin passage 222 immediately
edge of the control pressure chamber outlet passage 162 adjacent to the recess 216 is formed With an enlarged
furthest from the control pressure surface 138 of the main diameter to provide a valve ball retaining chamber 226. The
spool 112 is a beveled valve seat 164. 10 valve ball retaining chamber 226 receives a loosely ?tting
Formed on the outer surface of the cage Wall 44 surround valve ball 228 that is free to move back and forth along the
ing the stop 152 are threads 172 adapted to mate With threads length of the valve ball retaining chamber 226. Within the
174 formed on the interior surface of an annularly-shaped proportional pressure control valve 20, the valve ball retain
adaptor 176 of a tube assembly 178. Formed on the outer ing chamber 226 supports the valve ball 228 in a position in
surface of the adaptor 176 are threads 182 adapted to mate 15 Which the pin 224 may urge the valve ball 228 into sealing
With threads 184 formed at one end of the cavity 26 formed engagement With the valve seat 164 of the stop 152.
in the body 22. AU-shaped trough 186 encircles the adaptor Loosely received Within the tube 202 of the tube assembly
176 immediately adjacent to the threads 182 and receives an 178 betWeen the pole piece 212 and the threaded tube plug
encircling O-ring 188. The O-ring 188 seals betWeen the 204 is a plunger 232. The plunger 232 is free to move back
outer surface of the adaptor 176 and the surface of the cavity and forth Within the tube 202 betWeen the pole piece 212 and
26 in the body 22. With the adaptor 176 disposed in this the threaded tube plug 204. The end of the plunger 232
position Within the body 22 and mated With the cage 42, the nearest the pole piece 212 contacts the end of the pin 224
surface of the cavity 26, the end surface of the adaptor 176, that eXtends out of the pole piece 212 furthest from the valve
the outer surface of the cage Wall 44 and the land 72 nearest ball 228. A spring cavity 234 is formed into the end of the
to the adaptor 176 establish a holloW, annularly-shaped tank plunger 232 nearest the threaded tube plug 204 to receive a
outlet chamber 192 encircling the cage 42. Hydraulic ?uid light, minimum pressure coil spring 236. A partially
?oWing to the tank ?oWs betWeen the cage tank ports 52 and threaded, central passage 238, that passes longitudinally
the body tank port 32 through the tank outlet chamber 192. through the middle of the threaded tube plug 204, receives
A pair of control pressure ?oW return ports 194 pass the end of the spring 236 that projects out of the end of the
through the adaptor 176 at the end of the threads 174 and 182 plunger 232. As illustrated in the plan vieW of FIG. 3, the
immediately adjacent to the trough 186 and the O-ring 188. outer surface of the plunger 232 parallel to the center line 24
A pair of elongated control pressure ?oW return slots 196 is not formed in the shape of a full right circular cylinder.
extend across the threads 182 from the control pressure ?oW Rather, portions of the outer surface of the plunger 232
return ports 194 aWay from the trough 186 and the O-ring parallel to the center line 24 are formed by planar surfaces
188. The control pressure ?oW return ports 194 and the 240.
control pressure ?oW return slots 196 provide a passage by A preload adjusting screW 242 threads into the central
Which the control pressure ?oW of hydraulic ?uid, that ?oWs passage 238 and contacts the end of the spring 236 Within
out of the control pressure chamber 158 through the control the central passage 238. Threading the preload adjusting
pressure chamber outlet passage 162, returns to the body screW 242 into the central passage 238 of the threaded tube
tank port 32 and the cage tank ports 52, and thence to the plug 204 presses the spring 236 into the spring cavity 234 of
tank. the plunger 232. This force on the plunger 232 urges it into
Projecting outWard from the side of the annularly-shaped contact With the immediately adjacent end of the pin 224
adaptor 176 opposite to the threads 174 and 182 is a holloW Whose far end contacts the valve ball 228. This force applied
tube 202 included in the tube assembly 178. The tube 202 is 45
to the valve ball 228 by the preload adjusting screW 242
rigidly attached to the adaptor 176 and sealed to it. Also urges the valve ball 228 into a sealing contact With the valve
rigidly attached and sealed to the tube 202 at its end furthest seat 164 of the stop 152.
from the adaptor 176 is an annularly-shaped threaded tube A U-shaped trough 244 encircles the end of the preload
plug 204 also included in the tube assembly 178. adjusting screW 242 nearest the spring 236 and receives an
Received Within the adaptor 176 and positioned at the end O-ring 246. The O-ring 246 seals betWeen the threaded tube
of the tube 202 nearest the adaptor 176 is an elongated, plug 204 and the preload adjusting screW 242 to close the
annularly-shaped pole piece 212. Araised land 214 encircles end of the tube assembly 178 furthest from the body 22.
the outer surface of the pole piece 212. When the adaptor Because the tube assembly 178 is formed as a sealed unit,
176 is threaded onto the cage 42, the adaptor 176 presses the because the O-ring 246 seals betWeen the preload adjusting
land 214 against the stop 152. Thus, threading the adaptor 55 screW 242 and the threaded tube plug 204, and because the
176 onto the cage 42 forces the stop 152 into the cage 42 and O-ring 188 seals betWeen the adaptor 176 and the body 22,
holds it there. An annularly-shaped recess 216 is formed into hydraulic ?uid normally enters the proportional pressure
the end of the pole piece 212 immediately adjacent to the control valve 20 only through the pump inlet chamber 84
stop 152. Apair of elongated slots 218 are formed along the and normally leaves the proportional pressure control valve
entire length of the pole piece 212 and across the land 214 20 only through the body tank port 32 and the body clutch
to open into the recess 216. The recess 216 and the ends of port 34.
the slots 218 crossing the land 214 also form part of the The proportional pressure control valve 20 also includes
passage by Which the control pressure ?oW of hydraulic an annularly-shaped solenoid coil 252 that loosely encircles
?uid, that ?oWs out of the control pressure chamber 158 the tube 202 of the tube assembly 178 immediately adjacent
through the control pressure chamber outlet passage 162, 65 to the adaptor 176. An annularly-shaped spacer 254 also
returns to the body tank port 32 and cage tank ports 52, and loosely encircles the tube 202 of the tube assembly 178 on
thence to the tank. The slots 218 alloW hydraulic ?uid to side of the solenoid coil 252 furthest from the adaptor 176.
US 6,571,828 B2
13 14
A ?uX ring 253 is located between the coil shell and the spool 112 spool blocks substantially all ?uid ?oW through
adaptor 176 to enhance magnetic ?uX betWeen the coil and the cage pump ports 56 to the cage clutch ports 54 While the
the adaptor. A nut 256 threads onto the threaded tube plug valving chamber 124 alloWs ?uid to How freely from the
204 to contact the spacer 254 thereby urging it along the cage clutch ports 54 to the cage tank ports 52. Because the
length of the tube assembly 178 toWard the adaptor 176. valving chamber 124 couples the cage clutch ports 54 to the
Thus, force from the nut 256 holds the solenoid coil 252 in cage tank ports 52, substantially the same loW pressure of
contact With the adaptor 176. The solenoid coil 252 includes hydraulic ?uid is present both in the body tank port 32 and
a pair of electrically conductive leads 258. Applying an in the body clutch port 34.
electrical control signal to the leads 258 produces a magnetic Applying an electrical control signal to the leads 258
?eld Within the tube 202 of the tube assembly 178. This increases the force pushing the plunger 232 toWard the stop
magnetic ?eld applies a force that pushes the plunger 232 152. This increased force on the plunger 232 is applied by
along the length of the tube 202 toWard the valve ball 228. the pin 224 to the valve ball 228. The force from the plunger
Thus, in addition to the coil spring 236, an electric current 232 urges the valve ball 228 toWard the valve seat 164
?oWing through the solenoid coil 252 also applies a force to thereby reducing the control pressure How of ?uid out of the
the valve ball 228 that urges it into a sealing contact With the 15 control pressure chamber outlet passage 162 and increasing
valve seat 164 of the stop 152. the pressure of ?uid Within the control pressure chamber
With no electric current passing through the solenoid coil 158. The increased ?uid pressure Within the control pressure
252 of the proportional pressure control valve 20 depicted in chamber 158 presses against the control pressure surface
FIGS. 1 and 2, the pressure of the hydraulic ?uid supplied 138, overcomes the force applied to the main spool 112 by
by the pump to the pump inlet chamber 84 is transmitted the coil spring 108 located in the feedback pressure chamber
substantially undiminished to the control How restriction 118, and moves the main spool 112 aWay from the stop 152
ori?ce 144 retained in the main spool 112. The control toWard the plug 92 as illustrated in FIGS. 4A through 4D.
pressure How of hydraulic ?uid passing through the control Movement of the main spool 112 aWay from the stop 152
How restriction ori?ce 144 ?lls the control pressure chamber ?rst causes the outer surface of the main spool 112 to
158 and ?oWs out of the control pressure chamber 158 25 occlude the cage tank ports 52 and then alloWs the valving
through the control pressure chamber outlet passage 162. chamber 124 to couple the cage clutch ports 54 to the cage
This control pressure How of ?uid through the control pump ports 56. Coupling of the cage clutch ports 54 to the
pressure chamber outlet passage 162 impinges upon the cage pump ports 56 increases the pressure of hydraulic ?uid
valve ball 228 urging it aWay from the valve seat 164 on the Within the body clutch port 34.
stop 152. The pressure applied to the plunger 232 by the The increased pressure of ?uid in the body clutch port 34
spring 236 applies only a light force urging the valve ball is coupled through the cage clutch ports 54, the valving
228 back toWard the valve seat 164. Therefore, When no chamber 124, feedback restriction ori?ce 128, and the
electrical current passes through the solenoid coil 252, it feedback pressure passage 126 to the feedback pressure
requires only a loW pressure for ?uid Within the control chamber 118. The pressure of ?uid in the feedback pressure
pressure chamber 158 to overcome the force applied to the 35 chamber 118 presses against the feedback pressure surface
valve ball 228 by the coil spring 236 and to push the valve 114 of the main spool 112 to oppose the force applied to the
ball 228 aWay from the stop 152. control pressure surface 138 of the main spool 112 by the
?uid in the control pressure chamber 158. When the forces
With the valve ball 228 thus displaced aWay from the
applied to these opposite ends of the main spool 112 become
valve seat 164 against only the force applied by the spring
equal the main spool 112 stops moving Within the cage 42
236, the control How restriction ori?ce 144 located Within
and the proportional pressure control valve 20 maintains a
the main spool 112 restrains the How rate of the control
constant ?uid pressure Within the body clutch port 34. Any
pressure How of hydraulic ?uid passing through the pilot inequality betWeen the forces applied simultaneously to the
valve supply passage 136 to a loW value. The resistance to
control pressure surface 138 and to the feedback pressure
this loW rate of ?uid ?oW past the valve ball 228 and through
surface 114 of the main spool 112 cause the main spool 112
the control pressure How return passage to the cage tank
to move laterally Within the cage 42. In response to such
ports 52 provides a backup pressure that is suf?ciently loW
unequal forces, the main spool 112 moves aWay from the
such that little force is applied by the ?uid in the control
end receiving the larger force and toWard the end receiving
pressure chamber 158 to the control pressure surface 138 of
the lesser force. Because the feedback restriction ori?ce 128
the main spool 112. Therefore, the force applied to the restrains the rate at Which hydraulic ?uid may ?oW from the
feedback pressure surface 114 of the main spool 112 by the
valving chamber 124 to the feedback pressure chamber 118,
coil spring 108 Within the feedback pressure chamber 118
it dampens out possible oscillation of the main spool 112
pushes the main spool 112 toWard the stop 152.
Within the cage 42. Operated in this manner, the solenoid
In the proportional pressure control valve 20 depicted in coil 252, the plunger 232, the pin 224, the valve ball 228, the
FIGS. 1 and 2, varying the pressure applied to the plunger 55 stop 152, and the control How restriction ori?ce 144 provide
232 by the spring 236 adjusts the hydraulic ?uid pressure an electromagnetically operated pilot valve for supplying a
present in the cage clutch ports 54 of the cage 42 to a regulated pressure of ?uid to the control pressure chamber
predetermined pressure valve. This is accomplished by 158 responsive to an electrical control signal.
turning the preload adjusting screW 242 Within the threaded Changing the electrical control signal so an electrical
tube plug 204. current no longer ?oWs through the solenoid coil 252 again
The coil spring 236, the central passage 238 in the plug permits the ?uid pressure from the cage pump ports 56 to
204 and the adjustable screW 242 may be eliminated in overcome the force applied to the valve ball 228 and move
applications Where back-up pressure is not required or is it aWay from the valve seat 164 on the stop 152. Moving the
undesirable. Such an arrangement is illustrated in FIG. 6 and valve ball 228 aWay from the valve seat 164 reduces the
described beloW. 65 force applied to the control pressure surface 138 of the main
When the control pressure surface 138 of the main spool spool 112 by ?uid pressure Within the control pressure
112 is located immediately adjacent to the stop 152, the main chamber 158. With a lesser force being applied to the control
US 6,571,828 B2
15 16
pressure surface 138, both the force applied to the feedback proportional pressure control valve 20 by substituting a solid
pressure surface 114 by the coil spring 108 and any residual tube plug 342 for the annularly-shaped threaded tube plug
pressure in the feedback pressure chamber 118 urge the 204.
spool to move back toWard the stop 152. The proportional pressure control valve 310 omits the coil
Applying different levels of electrical control signals spring 236 included in the proportional pressure control
provides different solenoid forces and therefore different valve 20. Accordingly, the plunger 232 of the digital nor
pressures in the control chamber and the clutch in proportion mally open proportional pressure control valve 310 lacks the
to electric signals. This type of signal control makes pro spring cavity 234 that is included in the plunger 232 of the
analog normally closed proportional pressure control valve
portional pressure control and corresponding clutch torque 20.
control possible. 10
In the assembled proportional pressure control valve 310,
FIG. 6 depicts a cross-sectional plan vieW of a propor a long pin 346 and a short pin 348 extend outWard coaxially
tional pressure control valve referred to by the general from the plunger 232 through the interior of the pole piece
reference character 310. FIG. 5, made up of FIGS. 5A and 212 toWard the seat spool 324. The long pin 346 is prefer
5B, is an exploded, cross-sectional plan vieW depicting the ably made from a non-magnetic material such as stainless
15
various parts included in the proportional pressure control steel or the like. To resist Wear at the point of contact
valve 310. Those elements depicted in FIGS. 5 and 6 that are betWeen the short pin 348 and the valve ball 336, the short
common to the proportional pressure control valve 20 pin 348 is preferably made from a material such as hardened
depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2 carry the same reference numeral steel or a material having similar Wear resistant properties.
distinguished by a prime (") designation. The same refer The end of the short pin 348 furthest from the plunger 232
ence characters are used to identify the same part of the and nearest to the seat spool 324 is formed With a smaller
proportional pressure control valve 310 both in FIG. 5 and diameter Which alloWs it to enter freely into the control
in FIG. 6. The proportional pressure control valve 310 pressure chamber outlet passage 162 of the stop 152. As
depicted in FIGS. 5 and 6 is a normally open valve. may be appreciated by those skolled in the art, this same
The interior of the main spool 112 of the proportional tWo-piece pin con?guration may be utiliZed in the system
pressure control valve 310 differs from that of the propor illustrated on FIG. 2 and previously described above.
tional pressure control valve 20. Formed through the entire While in the proportional pressure control valve 20 the
length of the interior of the main spool 112 is a right circular diameter of the control pressure chamber outlet passage 162
cylindrically-shaped seat spool passage 322. When in the stop 152 has a uniform diameter throughout its entire
assembled into the proportional pressure control valve 310, length, the diameter of the control pressure chamber outlet
the seat spool passage 322 of the main spool 112 receives a passage 162 of the stop 152 in the proportional pressure
rod-shaped seat spool 324 having a length that is greater than control valve 310 has an enlarged diameter immediately
that of the main spool 112. The end of the seat spool 324 adjacent to the valve seat 332 of the seat spool 324. The
extending outWard beyond the feedback pressure surface enlarged diameter of the control pressure chamber outlet
114 of the main spool 112 contacts the inner surface of the passage 162 immediately adjacent to the valve seat 332
plug 92 and is surrounded by the coil spring 108. Thus, in provides a valve ball retaining chamber 354 analogous to the
the proportional pressure control valve 310 the coil spring valve ball retaining chamber 226 in the pole piece 212 of the
108 presses against the feedback pressure surface 114 of the proportional pressure control valve 20. A U-shaped slot 356
main spool 112 and not against the seat spool 324. extends across the face of the stop 152 immediately adjacent
The outer surface of the seat spool 324 enclosed Within to the main spool 112 and the seat spool 324. The slot 356
the main spool 112 near its feedback pressure surface 114 forms a portion of the control pressure chamber 158 that
is encircled by a trough 326. The trough 326 establishes a permits hydraulic ?uid to ?oW into and out of that portion of
holloW, annularly-shaped pilot valve supply coupling cham the control pressure chamber 158 adjacent to the control
ber 328 encircling the seat spool 324 betWeen the outer pressure surface 138 of the main spool 112. The diameter
surface of the seat spool 324 and the surface of the seat spool 45 of the control pressure chamber outlet passage 162 on the
passage 322. The pilot valve supply coupling chamber 328 opposite side of the stop 152 from the valve ball retaining
forms part of the pilot valve supply passage 136 to couple chamber 354 that is adjacent to the pole piece 212 is also
the portion of the pilot valve supply passage 136 passing enlarged to permit hydraulic ?uid to ?oW freely about the
through the main spool 112 to the portion of the pilot valve short pin 348 on its Way to the body tank port 32 and cage
supply passage 136 passing through the interior of the seat tank ports 52, and thence to the tank.
spool 324. Thus, as in the proportional pressure control Because the proportional pressure control valve 310 omits
valve 20, the pilot valve supply passage 136 of the propor the coil spring 236 included in the proportional pressure
tional pressure control valve 310 is alWays open to a ?oW of control valve 20, unless an electrical current ?oWs through
hydraulic ?uid from the pump through the cage pump ports the solenoid coil 252 there is no force urging the plunger
56 in the cage Wall 44. 55 232 aWay from the solid tube plug 342 toWard the valve ball
Formed on the edge of the pilot valve supply passage 136 336. Therefore, When no electrical current ?oWs through the
passing through the seat spool 324 that extends outWard solenoid coil 252, the force of the hydraulic ?uid impinging
through the control pressure surface 138 of the main spool on the valve ball 336 urges it aWay from the valve seat 332
112 is a beveled valve seat 332. In the assembled propor of the seat spool 324 toWard the interior of the stop 152 and
tional pressure control valve 310, a valve ball 336 is the narroWest portion of the control pressure chamber outlet
juxtaposed With the valve seat 332 of the seat spool 324. The passage 162. In this location, the valve ball 336 seals the
digital control signal proportional pressure control valve 310 control pressure chamber outlet passage 162 and hydraulic
depicted in FIGS. 5 and 6 omits the screen 142 and the ?uid at the full pressure supplied by the pump ?lls the
control ?oW restriction ori?ce 144 included in the propor control pressure chamber 158. The presence of hydraulic
tional pressure control valve 20 depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2. 65 ?uid Within the control pressure chamber 158 at the full
The tube assembly 178 of the proportional pressure pressure supplied by the pump causes the main spool 112 to
control valve 310 differs from the tube assembly 178 of the move longitudinally Within the cage 42 thereby coupling the

Você também pode gostar