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Topic/Objective: Name:

Chapter 26
Class/Period:

Date:
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Essential Question:
How did the encounters between people from different lands make a connections by exploring and
voyaging?

Question: Notes:
Eyewitness: Vasco de
Gamas Spicy Voyage Matteo ricci was a Roman Catholic missionary and wanted to capture the
attention of the emperor and persuade him and his subjects to convert to
Christianity. He took one big clock for display purposes and a small one for
the emperor's purposes . the emperor allowed him to travel baking for his
missionary purposes and the emperor and his court were enchanted with his
clocks and they became all the rage in elite in china.

QUEST FOR POLITICAL STABILITY IN CHINA.

the ming dynasty succeeded the yuan dynasty after the Mongols took over it.

The Ming Dynasty


Hongwu was the founder of the ming dynasty(brilliant dynasty) he drove
Mongols out of china and built a centralized state. He made extensive use of
mandarins and eunuchs
The great wall: The ming dynasty built the great wall of China a long the
northern border. Ming emperor's sought to eradicate Mongol influemc people
had adopted during the yuan dynasty.

Ming decline: 1) conflicts with pirates. 2) emperor's sometimes ignored


government affairs and satisfied their own various appetites. 3) eunuchs used
their powers to lead lives of luxury. Corruption weakened the ming state.

Ming collapse: famine struck


Peasants rebelled
Manchu forces invaded from the North and displaced the ming dynasty.

The Qing Dynasty


The manchus: after displacing ming created qing dynasty (pure) manchus
were mostly pastoral nomads . nurachi an ambitious chieftain unified the
Manchu tribes into a centralized state. Manchu ruling elite schooled in
Chinese language and Confucian thought. Manchus outlawed marriages
between them and Chinese and forbade the Chinese from learning their
language they forced Chinese men to shave their head in a Manchu style
queue as a sign of submission.

Kangxi and his reign/ qianlong and his reign: xangxi a Confucian scholar
and a conquerer and qianlong the grand son of kangxi helped Manchu
consolidate their hold on China. Qianlongs reign marked the height of the
qing dynasty. He was an educated learned man toward the end of his reign
he paid less attention to imperial affairs and designated them to his favourite
eunuchs and his successors continued that practice.,leading to difficulties in
the quin dynasty.

The Son of Heaven And The Scholar-Bureaucrats

The Son of Heaven: Chinese tradition held that the emperor was a "son of
heaven" The human brain designated by heavenly powers to maintain order
on earth.individuals who had the privilege of meeting him had to perform the
kowtow three kneelings and 9 head knockings.

The scholar-bureacrats/civil service examinations: Day to day governance of


the empire fell to scholar-bureacrats. They came from an educated class of
men called the scholar gentry.civil service examinations were a battery of
tests administered at the district provincial levels. Only 300 students could
pass these exams. Candidates spent their time writing "8 legged essays"
with 8 distinct sections composed be examiners
The examination system in Chinese societies: a degree did not ensure
government service. The examination ensured the pursuit of a formal
education and provides an avenue for upward social mobility. It also molded
the personal values of those who managed say to Day affairs in imperial
China.

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGES


agricultural production increases dramatically

The Patriarchal Family

Filial piety: Filial piety implies not only the duties of children to their fathers
but also loyalty of subjects to their emperors. In a Chinese family the rather
was the head and when he does he passed authority to the oldest son. Clan
based authority groups augument government services.

Gender relations/womenfoot binding: women subjected to the authority of


the men Chinese parents preferred boys over girls. Which led to the increase
of infanticide within newborn girls. Widows we're encouraged not to
remarry. Footbindong was most common among wealthy classes. Women
could not divorce their husbands but men could pit aside their wives

Population growth and economic development.


Only a small amount of land was suitable for planting in china so farmers
relied on intensive, garden style agriculture

American good crops/population growth: Spanish merchants coming by way


of the Philippines introduced American food crops to china. Introduction of
new crops increased food supply and population growth. Chinese economy
benefited from the influx of Japanese and American silver, which stimulated
trade and financed further commercial expansion.
Foreign trade: Chinese workers produced a vast quantity of silk porcelain
and lacquer ware for customers in the Indian ocean basin, central Asia and
Europe. Chinese imports were relatively few. Compensation for exports
came mostly in the form of the silver bullion. After the reign of yongle the
ming government tried to prevent the. Chinese subjects from dealing with
foreign people's.
Chinese merchants continued to be active in South East asia. They had
dealings with the Dutch voc.
Government and technology during the tang and song dynasties china was
the world leader in technology. Chinese purchases European cannons that
were based on early Chinese invention of gunpowder. The government
suppressed technological advancement,fearing social instability would result.
The abundance and ready availability of skilled workers also discouraged
technological innovations.
Gentry, Commoners, Soldiers, and Mean people.
Privileged classes. Mostly consisted of scholar-bureaucrats and they wore
distinctive clothing with their ranks l. They had some immunity from some
legal proceedings such as taxes, and Labour service.
Working classes/merchants: Working classes consisted of peasants,
artisans,workers, and merchants. Confucian principles regarded peasants as
most honourable of the three classes. Moralists looked down upon merchants
as social parasites and merchants enjoyed little legal protection
Lower classes: The mean people included slaves, indentured servants,
entertainers, prostitutes, and other marginal people's such as the "beggers of
jiangsu" and the "boat people of Guangdong".

THE CONFUCIAN TRADITION AND NEW CULTURAL


INFLUENCES
The ming and qing emperor's looked to Chinese traditions for guidiance in
framing their cultural and political social policies.
Neo-confucianism and pulp fiction
Zhu xi was the most prominent architect of neo-confucianism. It contained a
Confucian morality with Buddhist logic. Education at different levels were
promoted.popular novels were also composed.
The return of Christianity to china.
Before the plague historian Christians had established churches and
monastaries in china. But after the outbreak of the epidemic plague and the
collapse of the yuan dynasty Christianity disappeared from china. The
Jesuits returned unflder matteo riccis attempt to convert the ming emperor
Wanli.
Confucianism and christianity: franciscans and Dominicans convinced the
pope that Jesuits compromising Christianity with traditions. Emperor
kangxi banned Christian preachings in china.
UNIFICATION OF JAPAN.
During the late 16th century the political unification of japan ended an
extended period of civil disorder.
The tokugawa shogunate.
A shogun ruled JAPAN through retainers who received political rights and
large estates in exchange for military services. Tokugawa leyasu established
a millitary government. Bakufu: "tent government.
Control of the daimyo: the shoguns required the daymyos to spend every
other year at court. Their marriages were controlled and also their
socialization of daimyo families. The shogums restrict foreign relations travel
and import of books were forbidden and these policies were strictly
maintained for 200 years.
Economic and social change
The end of civil conflicts contributed to prosperity in Japan and irrigation
systems improved agricultural production. With all this population growth
was moderate and the principal control measure was infanticide which was
reffered to as " thinning out the rice shoots". Contraception, late marriage,
and and abortion also played roles in limiting population growth.
Social change: the end of civil disturbances created massive disturbances and
led to the unemployment daimyos and samurai warriors. This encoutlraged
them t9 join bureaucratic and goverment functionaries.
Neo-confucianism and floating worlds
Formal Education began with the Chinese language and literature. Shoguns
patronized scholars who advocated neo-confucian views, which figured
prominently in the educational curriculum.folk tradition,shinto. The centers
of tokugawa urban culture were the ukiyo entertainment and pleasure
quaters where tea houses theaters and public baths offered escape from
social responsibilities and the rigid rules of conduct that governed public
behaviour in tokugawa society. Kabuki theatre, men playing roles. Bunraku
puppet theatre.
Christianity and Dutch learning
Jesuit Francis xavier. Missionaries had remarkable success among daimyos
and the daimyos were also hoping to establish trade relations with
europeans. The Anti Christian campaign restricted christianity, executed
staunch Christians.
Dutch learning: Japanese scholars studied Dutch to approach European
science, medicine, and art.

Summary: