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‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

F O U R T H E D I T I O N

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Undirected graphs

・Thousands of practical applications.

・Hundreds of graph algorithms known.

・Interesting and broadly useful abstraction.

・Challenging branch of computer science and discrete math.

3

Protein-protein interaction network

4

The Internet as mapped by the Opte Project

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

5

Map of science clickstreams

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004803

6

10 million Facebook friends

7

One week of Enron emails

8

The evolution of FCC lobbying coalitions

“The Evolution of FCC Lobbying Coalitions” by Pierre de Vries in JoSS Visualization Symposium 2010 9

weight status controlled for homophily.25 The smoking status of egos and alters at times t and

key variable of interest was an alter’s obesity at t + 1 to the foregoing models. We also analyzed

time t + 1. A significant coefficient for this vari- the role of geographic distance between egos

Framingham heart study

able would suggest either that an alter’s weight

affected an ego’s weight or that an ego and an

and alters by adding such a variable.

We calculated 95% confidence intervals by sim-

alter experienced contemporaneous events affect- ulating the first difference in the alter’s contem-

Figure 1. Largest Connected Subcomponent of the Social Network in the Framingham Heart Study in the Year 2000.

Each circle (node) represents one person in the data set. There are 2200 persons in this subcomponent of the social

network. Circles with red borders denote women, and circles with blue borders denote men. The size of each circle

is proportional to the person’s body-mass index. The interior color of the circles indicates the person’s obesity status:

yellow denotes an obese person (body-mass index, ≥30) and green denotes a nonobese person. The colors of the

ties between the nodes indicate the relationship between them: purple denotes a friendship or marital tie and orange

denotes a familial tie.

“The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years” by Christakis and Fowler in New England Journal of Medicine, 2007 10

n engl j med 357;4 www.nejm.org july 26, 2007 373

Graph applications

11

Graph terminology

Cycle. Path whose first and last vertices are the same.

vertex

edge

cycle of

length 5

path of

length 4

vertex of

degree 3

connected

components

Anatomy of a graph

12

Some graph-processing problems

Shortest path. What is the shortest path between s and t ?

Euler tour. Is there a cycle that uses each edge exactly once?

Hamilton tour. Is there a cycle that uses each vertex exactly once.

MST. What is the best way to connect all of the vertices?

Biconnectivity. Is there a vertex whose removal disconnects the graph?

Planarity. Can you draw the graph in the plane with no crossing edges

Graph isomorphism. Do two adjacency lists represent the same graph?

13

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Graph representation

Two drawings of the same graph

16

Two drawings of the same graph

Graph representation

Vertex representation.

・This lecture: use integers between 0 and V – 1.

・Applications: convert between names and integers with symbol table.

A 0

B C G 1 2 6

symbol table

D E 3 4

F 5

self-loop parallel

edges

Anomalies.

Anomalies

17

Graph API

Graph G = new Graph(in); input stream

for (int w : G.adj(v)) edge (twice)

StdOut.println(v + "-" + w);

18

Graph API: sample client

mediumG.txt

V V 0-6250

13

E E

13 0-21273

0 5 0-1244 246

4 3 0-5239 240

0 1 238 245

1-0

9 12 235 238

6 4 2-0233 240

5 4 3-5232 248

0 2 3-4231 248

11 12 … 229 249

9 10 228 241

12-11

0 6 226 231

7 8

12-9

...

9 11 (1261 additional lines)

5 3

Input format for Graph constructor (two examples)

Graph G = new Graph(in); input stream

for (int w : G.adj(v)) edge (twice)

StdOut.println(v + "-" + w);

19

4.1 Undirected Graphs 523

task implementation

{

int degree = 0;

compute the degree of v

for (int w : G.adj(v)) degree++;

return degree;

}

{

int max = 0;

for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)

compute maximum degree if (degree(G, v) > max)

max = degree(G, v);

return max;

}

compute average degree { return 2.0 * G.E() / G.V(); }

{

int count = 0;

for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)

count self-loops for (int w : G.adj(v))

if (v == w) count++;

return count/2; // each edge counted twice

}

20

Set-of-edges graph representation

0 0 1

0 2

0 5

1 2 6

0 6

3 4

3 4 3 5

4 5

5 4 6

7 8

9 10 9 10

9 11

7 8 9 12

11 12 11 12

21

Adjacency-matrix graph representation

for each edge v–w in graph: adj[v][w] = adj[w][v] = true.

two entries

for each edge

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 2 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 4 4 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

9 10 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

7 8

11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

11 12 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

22

Adjacency-list graph representation

6 2 1 5

0

Bag objects

0

0

adj[]

0 5 4

1

1 2 6 2 5 6 3

3

4 3 4 0

3 4 5

6 0 4

7

5 8 8

representations

9 of the same edge

10 7

9 10 11

12 11 10 12

7 8

9

11 12

9 12

11 9

Adjacency-list graph representation: Java implementation

{

private final int V; adjacency lists

private Bag<Integer>[] adj; ( using Bag data type )

public Graph(int V)

{

this.V = V;

create empty graph

adj = (Bag<Integer>[]) new Bag[V]; with V vertices

for (int v = 0; v < V; v++)

adj[v] = new Bag<Integer>();

}

{ add edge v-w

adj[v].add(w); (parallel edges and

adj[w].add(v); self-loops allowed)

{ return adj[v]; }

}

24

Graph representations

・Algorithms based on iterating over vertices adjacent to v.

・Real-world graphs tend to be sparse.

huge number of vertices,

small average vertex degree

25

Graph representations

・Algorithms based on iterating over vertices adjacent to v.

・Real-world graphs tend to be sparse.

huge number of vertices,

small average vertex degree

representation space add edge

v and w? adjacent to v?

list of edges E 1 E E

adjacency matrix V2 1* 1 V

26

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Maze exploration

Maze graph.

・Vertex = intersection.

・Edge = passage.

intersection passage

29

Trémaux maze exploration

Algorithm.

・Unroll a ball of string behind you.

・Mark each visited intersection and each visited passage.

・Retrace steps when no unvisited options.

Tremaux exploration

30

Trémaux maze exploration

Algorithm.

・Unroll a ball of string behind you.

・Mark each visited intersection and each visited passage.

・Retrace steps when no unvisited options.

First use? Theseus entered Labyrinth to kill the monstrous Minotaur;

Ariadne instructed Theseus to use a ball of string to find his way back out.

31

Maze exploration

32

Maze exploration

33

Depth-first search

Idea. Mimic maze exploration.

Mark v as visited.

Recursively visit all unmarked

vertices w adjacent to v.

Typical applications.

・Find all vertices connected to a given source vertex.

・Find a path between two vertices.

Design pattern for graph processing

・Create a Graph object.

・Pass the Graph to a graph-processing routine.

・Query the graph-processing routine for information.

for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)

if (paths.hasPathTo(v))

print all vertices

StdOut.println(v); connected to s

35

Depth-first search demo

To visit a vertex v :

・Mark vertex v as visited.

・Recursively visit all unmarked vertices adjacent to v.

tinyG.txt

0 7 8 V

13

E

13

0 5

4 3

0 1

1 2 6 9 10 9 12

6 4

5 4

0 2

11 12

3 4 11 12

9 10

0 6

7 8

9 11

5

5 3

graph G

36

Depth-first search demo

To visit a vertex v :

・Mark vertex v as visited.

・Recursively visit all unmarked vertices adjacent to v.

0 7 8 v marked[] edgeTo[v]

0 T –

1 T 0

2 T 0

1 2 6 9 10 3 T 5

4 T 6

5 T 4

6 T 0

3 4 11 12 7 F –

8 F –

9 F –

5 10 F –

11 F –

12 F –

37

Depth-first search

Idea. Mimic maze exploration.

Algorithm.

・Use recursion (ball of string).

・Mark each visited vertex (and keep track of edge taken to visit it).

・Return (retrace steps) when no unvisited options.

Data structures.

・ boolean[] marked to mark visited vertices.

・ int[] edgeTo to keep tree of paths.

(edgeTo[w] == v) means that edge v-w taken to visit w for first time

Depth-first search

{ marked[v] = true

private boolean[] marked; if v connected to s

private int[] edgeTo; edgeTo[v] = previous

private int s; vertex on path from s to v

{

... initialize data structures

dfs(G, s); find vertices connected to s

}

recursive DFS does the work

{

marked[v] = true;

for (int w : G.adj(v))

if (!marked[w])

{

dfs(G, w);

edgeTo[w] = v;

}

}

}

39

Depth-first search properties

the sum of their degrees.

vertices

・If w marked, then w connected to s (why?) s

(if w unmarked, then consider last edge

on a path from s to w that goes from a v

no such edge

set of can exist

marked vertex to an unmarked one). unmarked

vertices x

Each vertex connected to s is visited once.

w

40

Depth-first search properties

and can find a path to s (if one exists) in time proportional to its length.

{ return marked[v]; }

edgeTo[]

public Iterable<Integer> pathTo(int v)

0

{

1 2

if (!hasPathTo(v)) return null; 2 0

Stack<Integer> path = new Stack<Integer>(); 3 2

for (int x = v; x != s; x = edgeTo[x]) 4 3

path.push(x); 5 3

path.push(s); x path

return path; 5 5

} 3 3 5

2 2 3 5

0 0 2 3 5

41

Depth-first search application: preparing for a date

http://xkcd.com/761/

42

Depth-first search application: flood fill

Assumptions. Picture has millions to billions of pixels.

・Vertex: pixel.

・Edge: between two adjacent gray pixels.

・Blob: all pixels connected to given pixel.

43

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Breadth-first search demo

・Remove vertex v from queue.

・Add to queue all unmarked vertices adjacent to v and mark them.

tinyCG.txt standard d

0 2

V

6 E

8

0 5

1 2 4

2 3

1 2 drawing w

0 1

3 3 4

3 5

5 4 0 2

adjacency lists

2

graph G

0

adj[]

46

0

0

Breadth-first search demo

・Remove vertex v from queue.

・Add to queue all unmarked vertices adjacent to v and mark them.

0 2

v edgeTo[] distTo[]

0 – 0

1 0 1

1 2 0 1

3 2 2

4 2 2

3 5 0 1

5 4

done

47

Breadth-first search

Breadth-first search. Put unvisited vertices on a queue.

Shortest path. Find path from s to t that uses fewest number of edges.

Repeat until the queue is empty:

- remove the least recently added vertex v

- add each of v's unvisited neighbors to the queue,

and mark them as visited.

Breadth-first

maze exploration

Intuition. BFS examines vertices in increasing distance from s.

48

Breadth-first search properties

from s to all other vertices in a graph in time proportional to E + V.

distance k from s, followed by zero or more vertices of distance k + 1.

1

4

0 2

1 0 2

3

3

5 4

5

49

Breadth-first search

{

private boolean[] marked;

private int[] edgeTo;

…

{

Queue<Integer> q = new Queue<Integer>();

q.enqueue(s);

marked[s] = true;

while (!q.isEmpty())

{

int v = q.dequeue();

for (int w : G.adj(v))

{

if (!marked[w])

{

q.enqueue(w);

marked[w] = true;

edgeTo[w] = v;

}

}

}

}

}

50

Breadth-first search application: routing

51

Breadth-first search application: Kevin Bacon numbers

http://oracleofbacon.org

52

Kevin Bacon graph

・Include one vertex for each performer and one for each movie.

・Connect a movie to all performers that appear in that movie.

・Compute shortest path from s = Kevin Bacon.

Patrick Dial M Grace

Caligola Kelly

Allen for Murder

Close Wives High

To Catch Noon

a Thief

John

Gielgud

Portrait Lloyd

of a Lady The Eagle Bridges

Nicole Has Landed

Kidman

Murder on the

Orient Express

Cold Donald

Sutherland Kathleen Joe Versus

Mountain

Quinlan the Volcano

Hamlet Haunting Belushi House performer

Apollo 13 vertex

Vernon

Dobtcheff

The

Woodsman Kevin

Bacon Tom

Hanks

Bill

movie Paxton

Wild

vertex Things The River

Jude Wild

The Da

Paul

Vinci Code

Herbert

Meryl

Enigma Streep Serretta

Kate Wilson

Winslet Yves

Titanic

Aubert Shane

Eternal Sunshine Zaza

of the Spotless

Mind

53

V and E

movies.txt

not explicitly

specified

Breadth-first search application: Erdös numbers

54

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Connectivity queries

in constant time.

public class CC

Depth-first search. Yes. [next few slides]

57

Connected components

・Reflexive: v is connected to v.

・Symmetric: if v is connected to w, then w is connected to v.

・Transitive: if v connected to w and w connected to x, then v connected to x.

Def. A connected component is a maximal set of connected vertices.

v id[]

0 0

7 8

0 1 0

2 0

3 0

1 2 6 4 0

9 10 5 0

6 0

3 4 7 1

11 12 8 1

5 9 2

10 2

3 connected components 11 2

12 2

58

Connected components

63 connected components

59

Connected components

Connected components

vertices discovered as part of the same component. V

13

E

13

0 5

tinyG.txt mediumG.txt

4 3

V V 250 0 1

13

E E

13 12739 12

0 5 244 6246

4

4 3 239 5240

4

0 1 238 0245

2

9 12 235 11

238 12

9 10

6 4 233 240

0 6

5 4 232 248

7 8

0 2 231 9248

11

11 12 229 5249

3

9 10 228 241 I

0 6 226 231

7 8 ... 60

Connected components demo

To visit a vertex v :

・Mark vertex v as visited.

・Recursively visit all unmarked vertices adjacent to v.

0 7 8 v marked[] id[]

0 F –

1 F –

2 F –

1 2 6 9 10 3 F –

4 F –

5 F –

6 F –

3 4 11 12 7 F –

8 F –

9 F –

5 10 F –

11 F –

12 F –

graph G

61

Connected components demo

To visit a vertex v :

・Mark vertex v as visited.

・Recursively visit all unmarked vertices adjacent to v.

0 7 8 v marked[] id[]

0 T 0

1 T 0

2 T 0

1 2 6 9 10 3 T 0

4 T 0

5 T 0

6 T 0

3 4 11 12 7 T 1

8 T 1

9 T 2

5 10 T 2

11 T 2

12 T 2

done

62

Finding connected components with DFS

public class CC

{

private boolean[] marked;

private int[] id; id[v] = id of component containing v

private int count; number of components

public CC(Graph G)

{

marked = new boolean[G.V()];

id = new int[G.V()];

for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)

{

if (!marked[v])

{ run DFS from one vertex in

dfs(G, v); each component

count++;

}

}

}

public int id(int v)

private void dfs(Graph G, int v)

}

63

Finding connected components with DFS (continued)

number of components

{ return count; }

{ return id[v]; }

{

marked[v] = true; all vertices discovered in

id[v] = count; same call of dfs have same id

for (int w : G.adj(v))

if (!marked[w])

dfs(G, w);

}

64

Connected components application: study spread of STDs

Peter Bearman, James Moody, and Katherine Stovel. Chains of affection: The structure of

adolescent romantic and sexual networks. American Journal of Sociology, 110(1): 44–99, 2004.

65

Connected components application: particle detection

・Vertex: pixel.

・Edge: between two adjacent pixels with grayscale value ≥ 70.

・Blob: connected component of 20-30 pixels. black = 0

white = 255

66

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Graph-processing challenge 1

0 0-1

0-2

0-5

1 2 6

0-6

1-3

How difficult? 3 4 2-3

・Any programmer could do it. 5

2-4

4-5

✓・Typical diligent algorithms student could do it. 4-6

・Hire an expert.

・Intractable. simple DFS-based solution

(see textbook) 0 0-1

・No one knows. 0-2

0-5

・Impossible. 1 2 6

0-6

1-3

3 4 2-3

2-4

5 4-5

4-6

{ 0, 3, 4 }

69

Bipartiteness application: is dating graph bipartite?

70

Graph-processing challenge 2

0 0-1

0-2

0-5

1 2 6

0-6

1-3

How difficult? 3 4 2-3

・Any programmer could do it. 5

2-4

4-5

✓・Typical diligent algorithms student could do it. 4-6

(see textbook)

・No one knows.

・Impossible.

71

Bridges of Königsberg

Kneiphof; the river which surrounds it is divided into two branches ...

and these branches are crossed by seven bridges. Concerning these

bridges, it was asked whether anyone could arrange a route in such a

way that he could cross each bridge once and only once. ”

Euler tour. Is there a (general) cycle that uses each edge exactly once?

Answer. A connected graph is Eulerian iff all vertices have even degree.

72

Graph-processing challenge 3

Problem. Find a (general) cycle that uses every edge exactly once.

0 0-1

0-2

0-5

1 2 6

0-6

1-2

How difficult? 3 4 2-3

・Any programmer could do it. 5

2-4

3-4

✓・Typical diligent algorithms student could do it. 4-5

4-6

(classic graph-processing problem)

・No one knows.

・Impossible.

73

Graph-processing challenge 4

0 0-1

0-2

0-5

1 2 6

0-6

1-2

How difficult? 3 4 2-6

・Any programmer could do it. 5

3-4

3-5

・Typical diligent algorithms student could do it. 4-5

4-6

✓・Intractable.

Hamiltonian cycle

・No one knows. (classical NP-complete problem)

・Impossible.

74

Graph-processing challenge 5

0 0-1

0-2

0-5

1 2 6

0-6

3-4

How difficult? 3 4 3-5

・Any programmer could do it. 5

4-5

4-6

・Typical diligent algorithms student could do it.

・Hire an expert.

・Intractable. 3 0-4

✓・No one knows. 2

0-5

0-6

・Impossible. graph isomorphism is

4

1

1-4

1-5

6

longstanding open problem

5 2-4

3-4

0 5-6

75

Graph-processing challenge 6

1 0-1

0-2

2

0-5

0 0-6

6

3-4

How difficult? 3

4 3-5

・Any programmer could do it. 4-5

4-6

・Typical diligent algorithms student could do it. 5

✓ ・Hire an expert.

・Intractable. linear-time DFS-based planarity algorithm

0

3 4

76

4.1 U NDIRECTED G RAPHS

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

Algorithms R OBERT S EDGEWICK | K EVIN W AYNE

‣ introduction

‣ graph API

‣ depth-first search

Algorithms

‣ breadth-first search

F O U R T H E D I T I O N

‣ connected components

http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu ‣ challenges

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