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Shared By: Mozahidul Islam, Ctg

fb: Dream-Catcher Mozahid


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c_g cKvk: 1 RyjvB, 2013

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dvb: 01823055399, 01720557177

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Aavq weeiY cv bs

1. Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw : wek I evsjv`k cwZ 01 33


INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

2. KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 34 73


COMMUNICATION SYSTEM & NETWORKING

3. msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 74 127


NUMBER SYSTEM & DIGITAL DEVICES

4. Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ Ges HTML 128 150


INTRODUCTION TO WEB DESIGN & HTML

5. cvMvwgs fvlv 151 212


PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

6. WUveR gvbRgU wmg 213 238


DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
c_g Aavq
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw : wek I evsjv`k cwZ
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: WORLD & BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE
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Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi bwZKZv eRvq ivLvi iZ evLv KiZ cvie|
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2 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

1.1 wekMvgi aviYv (Concept of Global Village)


Mvg kwUi mv_ Avgiv mevB cwiwPZ| Mvg mevB wgjwgk GKmv_ emevm Ki| Mvg mevB GK
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evRvi, ivv-NvU BZvw` AvQ Zv meviB Rvbv| Mvg Kv_vI
Kvbv Abyvb ev Kvbv NUbv NUj mevB gyn~Zi ga
RvbZ cvi| wVK ZgbB Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw Z_v
BUvibU eenvii dj AvR mgM cw_ex Mvgi gZv QvU
nq AvmQ| BUvibUi gvag Avgiv Lye mnR Z_
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1.1.1 hvMvhvM (Communication)
Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi hvMvhvM Afvebxq cwieZb mvab KiQ| eZgvb hvMvhvMi
mePq mnR gvagjv njv gvevBj dvb, B-gBj, Uwj Kbdviws, wfwWI Kbdviws, iwWI,
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Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 3

1.1.2 Kgmsvb (Employment)


Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj `k Ges we`k Kgmsvbi myhvM mw nqQ|
BUvibUi gvag Avgiv `k Ges `ki evBi
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nqQ| Avgv`i `k cZK BDwbqb cwil` Z_ I
mevK` Pvjy nqQ| Gi dj AbK eKvi
wP: AvBwmwU Kgmsvbi mw KiQ|
hyeK/hyeZxi AvZKgmsvbi myhvM nqQ| `wk-
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NyPvbv me| AvDU mvwms njv `k em AbjvBbi gvag Ab`ki KvqU`i KvR Kwiq
w`q e`wkK A_ DcvRb Kiv| KvRMyjvi ga KwDUvi ev gvevBj AvwcKkb Zwi, Iqe wWRvBb
Kiv, BgR GwWUii KvR| hviv GKvR RwoZ Zv`iK wdjvvi ev gy eemvqx ejv nq|
1.1.3 wkv (Education)
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw wkv wevi GKwU kwkvjx Uzjm| digvj Ges bb-digvj Dfq cwZZB
GwU AZ KvhKi| h Kvbv mgq Ges h Kvbv vb wkvi eev Kiv nqQ AvBwmwUi e`jZ|
Kvbv wkv_x w`bi h Kvbv mgq BUvibUi gvag
wkv MnY KiZ cvi| mKj Kvm msv Z_ BUvibU
cvIqv hvq| ZvQvovI iwWI Ges Uwjwfkbi gvag
jKPvi eWKvws Kiv nq| BUvibUi gvag wkK Ges
wkv_xiv cPzi cwigvY Kvm mKxq Dcv Ges Z_
cq _vK| myZivs Dfqi Rb h Kvbv welq MelYv
mnR nq| Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvi Ki `~iwkYi
gvag wkv wevi KiQ| AvBwmwU eenvii dj `ki
wkvwe` ev G welq bxwZ wbaviY ewMY wewfb `ki wP: cRii gvag Kvm wbQb|
wkv eev kwY, eqm Abyhvqx cvVg, wewfb `k
cwiPvwjZ MelYv wicvU chvjvPbv Ki GKwU hyMvchvMx wkvg Zwi KiZ cvib| kwYK
Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi Ki wkv_x`i KvmgyLx Kiv hvq| MZvbyMwZK jLvcovi cwZi
GKUz cwieZb Ki wWwRUvj wWfvBm eenvi Ki wkvK Aviv AvKlYxq Kiv nQ| Kvmi cvVi
4 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

mv_ msMwZc~Y wewfb wP, AwWI, wfwWI eenvi Ges Qv-Qvx`i AskMnYg~jK Kvmi gvag cvVi
welqK wkv_x`i mvgb Aviv mnR, evaMg Ki Zvjv nq| Gi Rb KwDUvi Ges cRi
eenvi Kiv nq| wkKiv Zv`i mswk welqi AvcWU wiPvm/ MelYv mK BUvibU _K
cqvRbxq Z_ msMn KiZ cvi| Kvbv welq MelYvi Rb Avi jvBewii ga em _vKZ nq bv|
kyay BUvibU cek Ki DjwLZ/ cqvRbxq welq wjL mvP w`jB ei nq Avm kZ kZ ce iPbv
ev wewfb Qwe| wbw` welqi Dci AwWI Ges wfwWI cvIqv hvq| hv eenvi Ki wkKiv wWwRUvj
KbUU Zwi KiZ cvi|
wkKiv wbw` welqi Dci jKPvi/ ce/ AwWI/ wfwWI wbw` Iqe mvBU AvcjvW Ki ivLZ
cvi, wkv_xiv Kvm bv wMqI H jKPvi WvDbjvW KiZ cvi| eZgvb wKQz cixvI
AbjvBbi gvag bqv nq| cixvi LvZv g~jvqbI Z_ I chyw eenvi Kiv nq, bewK
cixvi Di c g~jvqb Ges iPbvg~jK Aski b^i wgjKiY, wewfb welqi MwWs Kiv Ges
wRwcG wbYq Kiv BZvw` mKj KvRB chyw wbfi ^qwqfve cZ Kiv nq| eZ gvb wewfb
cvewjK cixvi djvdjI BUvibUi gvag cKvk Kiv nQ| BUvibUi gvag weki eo eo
wekwe`vjqi AavcK`i mv_ hvMvhvM Ki w_wmm ccvi Zwi Kiv hvq| we`ki Kvbv
wekwe`vjq iwRkb Ki Ggwdj/ wcGBPwW wWwM ARb Kiv hvq|
1.1.4 wPwKrmv (Treatment)
eZgvb wPwKrmv wevb Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi DjL Kivi gZv| wPwKrmv wevbi wewfb
MelYv hv Z_ I chywwbfi Zv AvR gvbylK Gb
w`qQ `xN Ges my`i Rxeb| AvBwmwU eenvii dj
Gi, AvjUvmvD, Gg Avi AvB (MRI) cfwZ chywi
mydj Avgiv cq _vwK| bZzb Jla Avwevi Ges Jla
Gi Dbqb mvabi Rb Z_ I chyw eenvi Kiv nQ
wkky gvZMf _vKv Aevq wU wbYq Kiv me Ges chyw
I Jla viv H mKj wU mskvab Kiv me| fvPyqvj
wiqvwjwUi eenvi Ki gvbwmK ivMx`i wPwKrmv `qv
nQ| AvRKvj Uwjdvb Gi gvagI RbMY wPwKrmv
mev cq _vK| nvmcvZvj ivMx`i cvj&m, Zvcgvv,
kvm-ckv m, iPvc BZvw` cheY, ivMxi kixi vb, wP: wPwKrmv AvBwmwU
Ges ivMx`i iKW msiY Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvi Kiv nq| g~jK_v wPwKrmv wPwKrmv
hcvwZ, ivMxi iKW, Iqe emW mvcvU, hvMvhvM I MelYvq AvBwmwU eeZ nq| wfwWI
Kbdviws Gi gvag Mvgi ivMxiv knii eo eo nvmcvZvji Wvvi`i civgk cZ cvi|
AvBwmwU eenvi Ki `ki evBi Wvvi`i mv_ hvMvhvM me| A_vr Wvvi Ges ivMx `yB vb
_K civgk Av`vb-c`vb Kiv me| ZvQvov GcvU wmg eenvi KiI Avgiv wPwKrmv msv civgk
cq _vwK|
KvR: Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj cw_ex GLb nvZi gyVvqevLv Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 5

1.1.5 MelYv (Research)


MelYv KvR Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi Acwimxg| c~e `Lv hZ, GKB welqi Dci
GKvwaK wevbx MelYv KiQb| GKRb Ab Rbi Lei RvbZb bv A_ev Kvbv wevbx Zuvi
MelYv Kvh Amgv iL gZzeiY KiQb| G wZwb Zuvi MelYvi AMMwZ, djvdj AbK
RvbvZ cviZb bv| wZwb Kvbv iKW ivLZ cviZb bv A_ev Zuvi fwelr cwiKbv KD RvbZv
bv| G Aevq H AvswkK MelYv Kvbv KvR AvmZv bv| H GKB welq AbRbK Avevi c_g
_K KvR kyi KiZ nZv| Gfve nqZv w`bi ci w`b PjZ _vKZv| wK eZgvb GB Z_ I
hvMvhvM chywi dj wevbxiv Zv`i wPvaviv BUvibUi gvag cKvk KiZ cvi| cw_exi
Kvbv GK cv Kvbv wbw` welq MelYv kyi Kij BUvibUi mvnvh mevB AeMZ nq|
MelYvi cwZwU avci djvdj mKji wbKU BUvibUi gvag cKvk KiZ cvi| Gi dj
GKRbi MelYvi djvdj KvR jvwMq AbRb MelYv Pvwjq hZ cvi| dj Avevi c _g
_K kyi KiZ nq bv|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj MelYvq cv Dcv h_vh_fve msiY Kiv me Ges
DcvMyjvK cwqvKiYi mgq m~ MvwYwZK wnmve-wbKvm Kivi Rb Ges hywg~jK wmv bqvi
Rb KwDUvi/AvBwmwU eenvi Kiv nq| cvYxi wWGbG Z_v Rxb wbq MelYvi Rb AvBwmwU
eenvi Kiv nq| gvbe `ni wewfb MelYvq wgvwK Gwbgkb eenvi Kiv nQ| hy Ges
hy mivg wbq MelYvq wgvwK wP eenvi Ki wewfb fve cheY Kiv hvq| wewfb cKvi
wec`bK c`v_ ZwiZ hv eenvii c~e cixv Kiv cqvRb mLvb fvPyqvj wiqwjwU eenvi
Ki cixv Kiv hvq, mwVK cwigvc Ges m~ wnmve MelYvq mwVK djvdj cZ mvnvh Ki| Avi
G `ywUB wbqY Kiv me kyaygv Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii gvag|
1.1.6 Awdm (Office)
Awdm-Av`vjZ AbKUvB GLb Z_ Ges hvMvhvM chyw-mg| Awdm ejZ GLb Avi Ki
ewkifvM Ask Ryo ~c
Kiv Qvbv ev AQvbv
KvMR dvBj, iwRvi-Gi
Dci a~jvevwj co AvQ
Ggb GKwU cwiwPZ `k
PvL co bv| Uweji
Dci GKwU KwDUvi,
wcUvi BZvw` chywi me
hcvwZ cvq mKj wP: mvaviY Awdmi wP| wP: AvBwmwU mg Awdm|
AwdmB iqQ| `ZMwZi
BUvibU mshvM eev Awdmi mKj aibi Z_, wicvU BZvw` mewKQzB GLb KwDUvi
msiwZ _vK| Awdmi KgKZv KgPvwi`i nvwRiv GLb Avi iwRvi ^vi Ki w`Z nq bv|
ewkifvM Z_ chyw mg Awdm cv KvW, wdvi wcU Gi gvag nvwRiv wbwZ Kiv nq|
Awdmi mKji eZbi wnmve GLb KwDUvii gvag Ki _vK| AbK Awdmi KgKZv-
6 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

KgPvwi`i eZb BjKUwbK Dcvq KgPvwi`i wbR wbR evsK wnmve Rgv nq hvq| GLb Avi
wcqbK Awdmi wewfb ig wewfb bvwUm wbq QzUv QzwU KiZ `Lv hvq bv, KviY GLb B-gBji
gvag mKji wbKU GKhvM hKvbv bvwUm ev msev` gyn~Zi ga cuQ hvq| eZgvb Awdm
KvMRi eenvi bB ejjB Pj| Awdmi bZzb KgPvwi`i cwkYI eenvi Kiv nq AvBwmwU|
my`i cvIqvi cqU cRUkbi gvag cwkYi KvRwU mb Kiv nq| hLvb B-gBj
msev` cvVvbv hvq bv mLvb gvevBj dvb Zv AvQB| ZvQvov cZK AwdmiB iqQ wbR^
Iqe mvBU| Gi gvag RbMY BQv KijB hKvbv mgq H Awdmi Kvhg mK mekl
msev` RvbZ cvi| eZgvb wewfb Awdmi KvRi `icI Avnevb Kiv nq BUvibUi gvag|
RgvI bqv nq BUvibUi gvag| Gi dj Awdm cvewjK M`vwis bB ejjB Pj|
1.1.7 evmvb (Residence)
Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi Avgv`i evmvbK Ki ZzjQ AwaKZi wbivc`| Avgiv
Avgv`i evmvbi evBii w`K wmwm
(KvR mvwKU) Kvgiv viv wbqY
KiZ cvwi| Gi dj Awbw` ew ev
Ab wKQzi MwZ-wewa gwbUwis Kiv hvq|
Ggb wK cqvRb iKwWs Kiv hvq|
ciewZZ Kvbv AcxwZKi NUbv NUj
iKWKZ Z_ _K Acivax mbv Kiv
ev wmv bqv hvq| wewfb BjwbK
hi ga mi eenvii dj Gjv
cqvRb Abyhvqx mev c`vb KiZ cvi| hgb- Ni _vKv Aevq jvBU, dvb, Gwm BZvw` Pvjy
_vK Ges KD bv _vKj Gjv e nq hvq| ZvQvov Avgv`i Nii `iRvq wewfb aibi mi I
evqvgwU wWfvBm eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
1.1.8 eemv-evwYR (Business)
eZgvb hyM Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi hyM| mKj B Z_ hvMvhvM chyw eeZ nQ| eemv-
evwYRI AvBwmwUi eenvi Acwimxg|
AvBwmwU eenvii dj eemv-evwYR GLb
kyay wbw` `vKvb ev eemv K`i ga
mxgve bq| BUvibUi gvag Qwoq
coQ mviv wek| BUvibU ev KwDUvi
bUIqvKi gvag BjKUwbK cwZZ
Kvbv cY ev mev q-weqi KvRKB
ej B-Kgvm| BjKUwbK dv Uvdvi,
mvcvB PBb gvbRgU wmg, BUvibU
gvKwUs, AbjvBb UvbRKkb cmwms,
BjKUwbK WUv BUviP, BbfwUs gvbRgU wmg Ges AUvgUW WUv KvjKkb
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 7

wmgmg~ni Dveb Ges evcK cPjbi dj `Z B-Kgvmi cmvi NUQ| Z_ I hvMvhvM


chyw eenvii dj cY ePv-Kbv Kivi Rb wbw` Kvbv vb iBj bv| GLb mviv cw_exevcx
evRvi Zwi nqQ| Kvbv cY q Kivi Rb ^-kixi Kv_vI hZ nq bv| Ni emB wewfb
Kvvwbi cY `LZ ev wewfb ewk mK RvbZ cviv hvq BUvibUi gvag| GKB RvZxq
wewfb Kvvwbi cYi ga Zzjbv KiZ cviv hvq| cY cQ` nj BUvibU evswKs ev wewfb
cKvi KvWi gvag UvKv/g~j cwikva Kiv hvq Ges Ni emB cY Wwjfvwi cvIqv hvq| Z_ I
hvMvhvM chyw Qvov evsK, wegv, wWU Kvvwb, cwienb BZvw` mKj KgKvB APj| eemv-
evwYRi Rb `Z msev` Av`vb-c`vb Ges hvMvhvM Uwjdvb, dv, Uwjwfkb, UwjwcUvi,
KwDUvi eyjwUb evW, BjKUwbK gBj, Iqe mvBU Ges BUvibU evwYwRK hvMvhvM BZvw`
njv hvMvhvM chyw-wbfi gvag| AvRKvj Kwl gvKUI Pvjy nqQ Gi dj BUvibUi gvag
Ni em wewfb KwlcYi evRvi`i Rvbv hvq Ges KwlcY q-weq Kiv hvq|
KvR: wekMvg cwZvq hme Dcv`vb AMYx f~wgKv cvjb KiQ Zv`i mK msc jL|

1.1.9 msev` (News)


AvRKvj Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi mvnvh Qvov msev` gvag Kbv Kiv hvq bv| AvM msev` gvag
ejZ KvMR Qvcvbv cwKvKB eySvZ| ZvQvovI wQj mxwgZ cwimi ivxq iwWI Ges Uwjwfkb
eev| AZxZ `ki GK cv Kvbv NUbv ev `yNUbv NUj Zv RvbZ 2/3 w`b mgq jvMZ| Gi
dj AbK Z_ weKwZ NUZ ev nvwiq hZ| c~e `ki GK cv cwKv Qvcvbv nZ, mwU
`ki Aci cv hZ mvivw`b jM hZ| KLbv KLbv cii w`b cwKvq cuQvZ| hw`I
mvaviYfve Avgiv mKvj bvvi Uwej cwKv Avkv Kwi| Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eeni dj
AwZ `Z Avgiv cwZw`bi msev`c cq _vwK| KviY GLb `ki wewfb vb _K GKhvM
msev`c Qvcvbv nq| eZgvb Kvbv NUbv NUvi mv_ mv_ Avgiv RvbZ cvwi| KviY msev`
Kgxiv Uwjdvbi gvag Zv K`xq Awdm cuQ w`Z cvi Ges K`xq Awdm Zv eWKv KiZ
cvi| ZvQvov wfwWI Kbdviws- Gi gvagI msev` Av`vb-c`vb KiZ cvi| `ki Kv_vI
Kvbv NUbv NUj Zvi msev` Ges wfwWI dzUR BUvibUi gvag Awdm cuQ w`Z cvi|
dj Avgiv Ni em Kvbv NUbv NUvi mv_ mv_B RvbZ cvwi Ges cvmwK wfwWI dz UR `LZ
cvwi| Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi DbwZi dj AvR Avgiv mnRB BUvibU, iwWI, Uwjwfkb,
mvUjvBU BZvw`i gvag msev` cq _vwK| BUvibUi gvag Avgiv Avgv`i cqvRbxq
msev`, Z_ Ges MelYv, djvdj cq _vwK Ges wbRi BQv, wPvaviv, Kvbv MelYvi djvdj
AvcjvW KiZ cvwi| ZvQvovI eZgvb wewfb msev` mivmwi NUbvj _K cPvi KiQ| dj mvaviY
RbMYi wbKU msev`i iZ Ges MnYhvMZv AbK ew cqQ| Kvbv Lei mK m`n nj BUvibU
ev Uwjdvbi gvag Avgiv Kvqwi Ki wbwZ nZ cvwi|
8 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

1.1.10 webv`b I mvgvwRK hvMvhvM


Entertainment and Social Communication
eZgvb hyM webv`bi wewfb KwDUvi eeZ nQ hv Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cwZwbwaZ
Ki| QvU-eo mKjB KwDUvi Mg LjZ Ges
AvWfvi DcfvM KiZ cQ` Ki| ZvQvovI
BUvibUi gvag AbjvBb Mg LjZ cvi| wewfb
`ki wewfb kwY-ckvi jvKi mv_ Mi Avmi Kiv
hvq| ZvQvov cw_exi weLvZ wmbgv, M, Dcbvm
WKzgUvwi BZvw` AbjvBb `qv _vK| h KD BQv
Kij h Kvbv mgq Zv DcfvM KiZ cvi| wewfb
aibi gvwwgwWqv Uzjm eenvi Ki k Qwe Gwbgkb
BZvw` eenvi Ki ^ci fyeb Zwi Kiv hvq| wP: webv`b AvBwmwU|
hgb: miRMr, mvMii Zj`k BZvw`| mvgvwRK
hvMvhvMi Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw Z_v BUvibU mePq kwkvjx f~wgKv cvjb KiQ|
wbP KqKwU mvgvwRK hvMvhvM Gi ej eeZ Iqe mvBUi eYbv `qv njv-
dmeyK (Facebook):
wek-mvgvwRK AvthvMvhvM eevi GKwU Iqe mvBU, hv 4Vv deqvwi 2004 mvj cwZwZ nq|
Kvbv iKg LiP Qvov GZ m`m nIqv hvq| gvK RvKvi evM
(Mark Zuckerberg) dmeyKi cwZvZv Ges wbevnx cwiPvjK|
eenviKvixMY ez mshvRb, evZv ciY, Ges Zv`i ewMZ
Z_vewj nvjbvMv` KiZ Ges Z_ Av`vb-c`vb KiZ cvi| Iqe
mvBUwUi m`m cv_wgKfve nvfvW wekwe`vjqi QvQvx`i ga
mxgve wQj| ci GUv mKj wekwe`vjq, KjR, nvBzj Ges 13
eQii mKji Rb Dby Kiv nq| mviv wek eZgvb cvq 1000
wgwjqb KvhKix m`m iqQ GB Iqe mvBUwUi| dmeyKK Zvi
Pjvi c_ ek wKQz evavi myLxb nZ nqQ| wmwiqv, Pxb, Ges
wP: gvK RvKvi evM|
Bivbmn ek KqKwU `k GwU AvswkK KvhKi AvQ| GUvi eenvi
mgqi AcPq evLv w`q KgPvix`i wbirmvwnZ Ki Zv wbwl Kiv nqQ|
UzBUvi (Twitter):
mvgvwRK AvthvMvhvM eev I gvBvewMsqi GKwU Iqe mvBU| GLvb eenviKvwiiv mevP
140 Aii evZv Av`vb-c`vb I cKvk KiZ cvib| GB evZvK UzBU ejv nq| UzBUvi m`m`i
UzBU evZvjv Zv`i cvdvBj cvZvq `Lv hvq| UzBUvii m`miv Ab m`m`i UzBUwU covi Rb
wbeb KiZ cvib| UzBU wjLvi Rb m`miv mivmwi UzBUvi Iqe mvBU eenvi KiZ cvi|
ZvQvovI gvevBj dvb ev GmGgGm Gi gvagI UzBU jLvi myhvM iqQ| UzBUvii cavb
Kvhvjq gvwKb hyivi mvb dvwv kni| ZvQvov Uvmi mvb GUwbI Ges gvmvPymi eyb
UzBUvi mvfvi I kvLv Kvhvjq AvQ| 2006 mvj UzBUvi hvv i Ki Pvi eQii gv_vq Gi m`m
nq cvq 175 wgwjqb- hv Gi RbwcqZv cgvY Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 9

Gwgg: GwU GKwU mvgvwRK wgwWqv BUvibU mvwfm| hLvb eenviKvwiiv ge Ki Ges
gvwwgwWqv jLv, Qwe, AwWI, wfwWI) fvMvfvwM Ki GK Acii ga cfve wevi KiZ cvi|
Wvb KIqj, bcvii AbK cKkjxwe``i `j 2003 mvj GwU cwZv KiwQj|
gvBm GK wKb wbqQ Ges eZgvb Gi mvwfm e iqQ| gvBm Gi cavb kvLv efviwj
wnjvm, KvwjdvwbqvZ|
1.1.11 mvswZK wewbgq (Cultural Exchange)
c w _exi wewfb `ki Rxebhvvi aib, BwZnvm, ms w Z BZvw` wfb wfb | wewfb `k
AbK aibi Drme, cve Y D`& h vwcZ nq| c~ e GKB `ki wewfb Aj wfb wfb Drme
cvjb KiZ| wK Z_ I hvMvhvM c h y w i wewfb c e vni dj GK Aji wewfb Drme
mK Ab Aji jvKRb RvbZ cvi| mvUjvBU ev wWm eenvii gvag Avgiv
c w _exi wewfb `ki Aby vb `LZ cvwi| Avevi Avgv`i Aby vbI Abvb `ki
jvKRb `LZ cvi| Abvb `ki bvUK, wmbgv, Mvb BZvw` `L Avgiv H `ki
K w l, KvjPvi, BwZnvm, HwZn mK aviYv jvf KiZ cvwi| Gfve Z_ I hvMvhvM
c h y w i dj wewfb `ki ga ms w Zi wewbgq nq|

1.2 fvPzqvj wiqwjwU (Virtual Reality)


fvPzqvj wiqwjwU njv KwDUvi Ges wewfb cKvi mi Gi mg^q MwVZ GKwU cwiek hvi
AwZ _vKZ cvi Avevi m~Y KvwbK nZ cvi | hgb- miRMZi aviYvK KvR jvwMq
KwDUvi, wKvi, wewfb Qwe ev wP wekl cwZZ Ggb GKwU cwiek Zwi Kiv nq hv c`kbi
ci `kKi gb ne hb m mi RMr c`wY KiQb| GLvb AwfZv Ges Kbv kw KvR
jvwMq chywi gvag ^ci fyeb Zwi Kiv nq|

1.2.1 cvZwnK Rxeb fvPzqvj wiqwjwUi cfve


Influence of Vertual in daily life
Avgv`i cvZwnK Rxeb fvPyqvj wiqwjwUi cfve wbg AvjvPbv Kiv njv
wkv fvPyqvj wiqwjwU:
wkv fvPyqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Ki wkv MnY I c`vb Kiv hvq| Gi myweav njv GLvb
wgvwK cwiek ciii mv_ hvMvhvM Ki Qv-Qvx`i weivU eo Myc Zwi Kiv hvq|
RvwZwe`vi Qv`i fvPyqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Ki AwZ mnR wkLvbv hvq migj mK,
Kxfve Mn Pjgvb _vK| GKwU aygKZzi AMMwZ UvK BZvw` wgvwK cwiek mnR eySvbv
me| h mKj Qv-Qvx weklfve A_vr wP, is G A-webvm BZvw` eenvi Ki wkLZ cQ`
Ki| Jlai Qwe `L kLv, gwWKvj AcvPvi Abykxjb Ges wgvwK Qwe `L Qv-Qvxiv
mnR wkLZ cvie|
10 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

mvgwiK evwnbxZ fvPzqvj wiqwjwU:


mvgwiK evwnbxZ fvPyqvj wiqwjwU eeZ nQ| wZbwU (mbv, b, wegvb) evwnbxZB GwU cwkYi
KvR eeZ nQ| fvPzqvj wiqwjwU wekl Ki hyKvjxb cwiwwZ, Abvb wecbK cwiwwZ Ges
G mgq Zv`i mwVK KiYxq cwkYi Rb eeZ nq|
mvgwiK evwnbxZ h mKj fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eeZ nq-
dvBU Abykxjb
hyi Abykxjb
Jla mK cwkY (hy)
hvbevnb Abykxjb
fvPyqvj eyU Kv|
^vmevq fvPzqvj wiqwjwU:
^vmevq fvPyqvj wiqwjwU mePq ewk eeZ nq| wekl Ki AvcPvi Ges AvZM
ivMx`i wPwKrmv, ivewU mvRvwi Ges wPwKrmv cwkY| fvPyqvj wiqwjwUi myweav njv GUv
Wvvi`i wbivc` cwiek bZzb wKQz wkLZ ev Abykxjb KiZ mvnvh Ki| Ges GZ ivMx`i
Kvbv wec` NUQ bv|
wnDgvb wmgyjkb mdUIqvi (Human Simulation Software)- GLvb Wvvi, bvm Ges Abiv
BUviwf cwiek KvR KiZ cvi| cwkYi `k _vK, hLvb Zviv wgvwK cwiek ivMxi
mv_ cviwiK gZwewbgq KiZ cvi| fvPzqvj wiqwjwU ivM wbYqKvix h wnme eeZ nq|
MRI vb Kivi mgq WvviMY Abvb cwZi mv_ fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Ki| GwU AbK
mgq Acvikbi cqvRbxqZv ev` `q|
fvPyqvj ivewU mvRvwi:
fvPzqvj wiqwjwU Gi GKwU Rbwcq eenvi njv ivewU mvRvwi, hLvb Wvvi viv cwiPvwjZ
ivewU wWfvBm Kg mgq Ges Kg RwUjZv I Kg SzuwKmn Acvikb Ki| fvPzqvj wiqwjwU
cwkY KvR eenvi Kiv nq Ges `~ieZx Uwj mvRvwi A_vr hLvb Wvvi I ivMx `ywU Avjv`v
vb _vK| G cwZi Aviv GKwU ewk njv- Wvvii hLb Kvbv wnmve Kivi cqvRb nq
iveU ZLb mKi gaB wnmve Ki wmv wbZ cvi| ZvQvovI ^vmevq `wPwKrmv, Jla,
bvwms, mvRvwi, AwURg, cwZex`i wPwKrmvq fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq|
webv`b fvPzqvj wiqwjwU (Virtual Reality in Entertainment):
webv`b fvPzqvj wiqwjwU AbK eeZ nQ| Gi Rbwcq GjvKvjv nQ
fvPyqvj Rv`yNi, hgbwg_wq c`kbx
Mvjvwi
w_qUvi, hgbwg_wq wqvKv
fvPzqj w_g cvK
Avwevi K`|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 11

`kK mswkZv-
hme cwiek mvaviYi c`kbx AvM ARvbv ev wbwl wQj, mLvb DP gZvi jmn fvPzqvj
wiqwjwU Mvm (Pkgv) Gi mvnvh wgvwK e wewfb w`K _K `Lv hZ| D`vniY^ic ejv hvq-
GKwU HwZnvwmK wews (vcbv) RbmvaviY wewfb w`K _K `LZ cvib| Gi dj Zviv BwZnvmi
wbw` mgqi gvbyli Rxeb hvcb Dcjw KiZ cvi| Zviv GKwU UvwKs wmg (Pkgv), hv Zv`i
PjvPj (Movement) UvK Ki KwDUvi cvVvq| KwDUvi `kKi Dcjw cwieZbi mv_ mv_
BgR/ Qwe cwieZb Ki| fvPzqvj wiqwjwU MBwgs webv`bi GKwU Rbwcq gvag|
fvPzq vj wiqwjwU Ges nwiUR:
fvPzqvj wiqwjwU hv`yNi Ges HwZnvwmK mwUs G eeZ nq| GB mwUs (wg_wqv cqvM Ki) G
RbMY bZzb Ges DRbvc~Y Dcvq Z_ I hvMvhvM gvag BUviwf nq| wkky`i Rb
gbvhvMi mv_ hv`yNi c`kbx weiwKi| ZvB fvPzqvj wiqwjwU Gi gvag wg_wqv cwZZ
wkky`i G weiw `~i Kiv hvq Ges `kK msLv ew Kiv hvq|
wKQz fvPzqvj wiqwjwU nwiUR mvBU njv-
wZma (Monuments)
vb n (Stonehenge)
fvh (Sculptures)
nv (Caves)
HwZnvwmK feb (Historical Building)
cZZvwK dig (Archaeological dig)
cvPxb kni I Mvg (Old towns and village)
12 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

eemvq fvPzq vj wiqwjwU:


wewfb Dcvq fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eemvq eeZ nQ| hgb
GKwU fvPzqvj cwiek eemvwqK gY
bZzb Kgx`i cwkY
GKwU cYi A360 `Lv
wKQz eemvq m~Y fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq| ala CAVE System Zv`i ga AMMvgx|
Zviv Zv`i cvWvjvK m~Yfve cZ nIqvi c~eB Pvwjq cixv KiZ cvi| ZvI Avevi
AwZwi LiP Qvov Ges SuzwKgyfve| h mKj Kvvwb wec`RbK Ges mve wZKi `e
Drcv`b Ki, Zviv `e eenvi/ evRviRvZ Kivi c~e Zv`i YvY cixv Kivi `iKvi nq|
fvPzqvj wiqwjwUi gvag G KvRwU Kiv hvq, G Kvvwbi KgPvix`i Kvbv SuzwK _vK bv|
Kvbv Kvbv Kvvwb WUv weklYi KvRI fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi KiQ|
cKkj wefvM fvPzqvj wiqwjwU:
fvPzqvj wiqwjwU cKkj wefvM wgvwK gWwjs Uzjm Ges cwiKbvi bKkv `Lvi Rb eenvi
Kiv nq| G cwZZ cKkjxiv Zv`i wgvwK cK `LZ cvi Ges Kxfve cKwU KvR Kie
Zv fvjvfve eySZ cvie| GwU Kvbv cK wbivc` cwiek `LZ cvi Ges cqvRbxq
cwieZb KiZ cvi| Gi dj mgq Ges LiP Dfq euvP| Kvbv wWRvBb Pi iZ fvPzqvj
wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq| Gi dj Kvbv wWRvBb wU _vKj mskvab Kiv hvq| ijIq
KbvKkb fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq| Gi dj A LiP mnR wWRvBb cwieZb Ges
djvdj `Lv hvq|
Ljvayjvq fvPzqvj wiqwjwU:
Mjd, Av_jwU (kixi PPv), wwUs, mvBwKs BZvw` Ljvq fvPzqvj wiqwjwU Uwbs wKU wnme eeZ
nq| kixiPPvq `Zv cwigvc, Kkj weklYi KvR
fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq| Gi dj
Ljvqvo`i cvkvK, hcvwZ Ges Kkj wbaviY Kiv
hvq| Ljvqvo`i Kg`Zv ewZ fvPzqvj wiqwjwU
eenvi Kiv nq| Ljvqvoiv Kvbv wbw` GwiqvZ
`Zv ew KiZ fvPzqvj wiqwjwU KvR jvMvq| hgb-
GKRb Mjdvi myBs DbZ KiZ PvQ A_ev UvK
mvBKj Avivnx Zvi mvai ga `Z hZ mgmvjv
LyR
u Q| ZLb wgvwK cwZ xovwe``i Zvi KiYxq
cwieZb mK aviYv w`e (evqvgvwUK ev KkjMZ)| WvBwfs mivgi bKkv Ges bZzb wKQzi bKkv
ZwiZ fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq| Ljvqvo`i Rvgv-Kvco, RyZv I Zv`i cqvRbxq Abvb
mivgi bKkv KiZ fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi Kiv nq, hv Zv`i Aviv MwZkxj Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 13

wgwWqvq fvPzq vj wiqwjwU:


fvPzqvj wiqwjwU PjwP Ges Uwjwfkbi cvMvg bZzb ewk w`qQ| fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eenvi
Ki wbwgZ BsiwR jwP njv
The Lawnmower Man
The Matrix
Torn (1982 version)
The Thirteenth Floor
eXistenZ
Vanilla Sky.
ZvQvovI msMxZ, eB Zwi, evwbK c`kbx, UwjKwgDwbKkb, wbgvY, cvMvwgs jvsqR
BZvw`Z fvPzqvj wiqwjwU eeZ nq|
KvR: fvPyqvj wiqwjwUi gvag wec`bK `ei Drcv`b LiP Kg- evLv Ki|

1.3 Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi mvwZK ceYZv (Contemporary tends of ICT)


Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eZgvb kyay RwUj Ges KwVb KvRjv mgvavb KiB em bB| AvBwmwU
eenvi Ki eZgvb Avgv`i vbi mxgv AwZg Ki MelYvi gvag bZzb bZzb chyw Ges
chywi ewe` eenvi kyi nqQ| hv gvbyli Kbv ev BQvi ga mxgve wQj| eZgvb Z_ I
hvMvhvM chywi eenvii dj mB mKj BQv ev Kbvjv eve ic bq| m~Pbv nqQ bZzb
bZzb chywi Ges cwiewZZ nqQ eenvii aviYv/ AvwUwdwmqvj BbUwjR, ivewUKm
evqvgwU, evqv-BbdigwU, RbwUK Bwwbqvwis, bvbv UKbvjwR BZvw` bZzb bZzb chyw
Gi eenvi kyi nqQ|
1.3.1 AvwUwdwmqvj BbUwjR (Artificial Intelligence)
AvwUwdwmqvj BbUwjR (Artificial Intelligence) wewfbfve Avgv`i RxebK cfvweZ KiZ cvi-
AvenvIqv MelYv (Taming the weather):
AvenvIqvi c~evfvm Gi Rb cPzi cwigvY WUv weklY KiZ nq| Awf AvenvIqvwe`MYI
memgq m~fve Zv weklY KiZ cvi bv| wevbxiv Ggb GKwU Kwg eywgv mdUIqvi Zwi
KiZ cvi hv mKj WUv wbfzjfve weklY, gvbyli wgm Kiv spot patterns Avgj wbq AwZ
Amgq wbfyj djvdj w`e| mdUIqviwU hLb GKwU eo So `Le ZLb m ^qswqfve RbMY
Ges MYgvagK mZK msKZ cvVve hv Rxeb euvPvZ mvnvh KiZ cvi| [source: Association for
the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence].
wec`RbK/ weiwKi KvR (Tackling dangerous or boring task):
Avgv`i `bw`b KvRjvi ga AbK KvRB weiwKi A_ev wec`RbK| hgb- Nii gS cwivi
Kiv, wmuwo, Avmevec Ggb wK cvlv weovj cwivi Kivi Rb Avgiv ivewU fvKzqvg wKbvi eenvi
Ki _vwK, Avmj GUvI AvwUwdwmqvj BbUwjR (Artificial Intelligence) Gi eenvi| ZvQvov
Lwbi wfZi KvR Kiv ev Avbi AwZ wbKU KvR Kivi gZv vU iveU eenvi Kiv nq|
14 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

cw_ex msiY (Saving the Planet):


Kwg eywgvi mv_ wkNB wevbxiv iveU I Abvb wWfvBm eenvi Ki cwiek `~lYi Rb `vqx
c`v_jv cwivi Kie| DbZ mdUIqvi viv gwkbjv eySZ cvie ev cv_K KiZ cvie
RweK cvYx Ges wec`RbK eR ev Zj| Gjv wZKi eR Mvm Kie Ges Re eR AZ
Qo w`e|
PvjKwenxb cwienb (Driverless transport):
Mvwo AvMvg evZv w`e `yNUbv _K A_ev wbRB PjZ i Kie GgbwU wK wPv Kiv hvq? nvu
Kwg eywgv Lye wkNB GwU me KiZ cvi Kvgiv, mi Ges wekl mdUIqvi eenvii
gvag PvjKwenxb Ub gvbyli mvnvh Qvov Rvcvbi GK kni _K Ab kni hvZvqvZ KiQ|
gnvKvki mxgv AwZg:
Kwg eywgvi eenvii dj wesk kZKi gnvKvk mxgv cwiq AbK`~i hZ cvie Ges
miRMZi mxgvbv wcQb dj wePiY Kiv me ne| bvmv GiB ga gvbylwenxb DcMn `~ieZx
Qvqvc_ ciYi D`vM wbqQ| hLvb gvbyl cuQZ AbK mgq jvMZ| PvjKwenxb ivfvm gj
Mn Ges Abvb Mn _K Qwe DwVq wevbx`i KvQ cvwVqQ hLvb gvbyli wePiY Ame|
A_bxwZ iv Ki:
2010 mvji wnmve weki cvq AaK kqvi evRvi Kwg eywgvwfwK mdUIqvi viv cwiPvwjZ
nq| GB cvMvg spot patterns AjMwi`g eenvi Ki fwelvYx Ki| Gi Dci wfw Ki kqvi
q-weq KiZ cvi| GB chyw wewbqvMKvix`i `Zv ew I jvfevb KiZ mvnvh Ki|
wbivc` evmvb:
Kw g eyw gv c hyw kxN B Av RvwZK gwK _K Avgv`i iv Kie| gvwK b nvgjv
wmwKDwiwU wWcvU gU `y w U fvPz q vj GRU eenvi Ki `y R b Kgx i cwieZ | ms vwU wmg
ch eY, dvb Kj I Abvb hvMvhvM vb Kiv BZvw` KvR GB Kgx `i eenvi Ki|
G cv MvgwU Ly e A mgq AwaK cwigvY WUv cixv KiZ cvi Ges mvaviY K_vevZ v Ges
mve gwKi ga cv_K KiZ cvi|
`bw`b mvnvh:
Kwg eywgv mg iveU ay Nievwo cwivi Kie bv Nii Avmeve c mvRvbv (Assembling)
A_ev wkky ev cvlv weovji hZ bqvi KvRI Kie| Kwg eywgv mg gwkbjv Kvbv
wRwbm/e wPbZ Ges mvRvZ mg ne| hLb KvR Kie AcvKZ Kg fzj Kie| ivewU ay
cwievii KvR Kie bv GwU e Ges cwZex`iI mvnvh Kie| fqR wiKMbvBRkb
mdUIqvii eenvi Ki A`i mvnvh Kiv hZ cvi| Cedar- Sinai medical mUvi nvUi
cixv Ges nvU AvUvK msNwUZ nIqvi c~eB Zv e KiZ wekl aibi mdUIqvi eenvi Kiv
nq| mekl Kwg eywgv mg wWfvBm Rxeb ivKvix Jla Ges fRvj Jla wbYq KiZ cvi|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 15

1.3.2 ivewUK&m (Robotics)


iveU nQ GK aibi gwkb hv KwDUvi cvMvg viv wbqwZ| GwU gvbyli gZv KvR KiZ
cvi A_ev Gi KvRi aib `L gb nq, Gi Kwg eywgv
AvQ| iveU h ay gvbyli AvKwZi ne Zv bq| GK Zvi
KvRi DchvMx Ki AvKvi Ges AvKwZ `qv nq| iveU AZ
`Z MwZZ Ges Kvwnxbfve c~ewjwLZ cvMvgi wfwZ KvR
KiZ cvi| c_g wbw` KvRi DchvMx hvwK Ask Zwi Kiv
nq, ci iveUi hvwK msMVbi mv_ GKwU KwDUvi wPc
mshy Kiv nq| ^qswq hi mv_ Gi cv_K njv-iveU GKB
KvR evi evi bv Ki ZvK hgbwU kLvbv nq Zgb wewfb
aibi KvR Ki| wKQy wKQz iveU ay cvMvg Abymvi KvR Ki
Avevi AbKjvK `~i _K jRvi iwk ev iwWI wmMbvji wP: iveU
mvnvh wbqY Kiv hvq| wk KVvi kvixwiK cwikg ev
RwUj Ges wec`RbK KvRjv iveUi mvnvh Kiv hvq| Gi mvnvh weivgnxbfve `xN mgq KvR
KiZ cvi| KviLvbvq KwDUvi wbqwZ iveUi mvnvh bvbviKg wec`RbK KvR;
hgbIqws, XvjvB, fvwi gvjvgvj IVvbv-bvgvbv hvsk mshvRb BZvw` KvR Kiv nq| wewfb
aibi gvBv mvwKUi KvR m~Pviic cixv-wbixv KiZ cvi iveUi mvnvh hv gvbyli viv
me bq| wbDwKqvi cvU ev mvMii Zj`ki wewfb MelYvi KvRi Rb iveU eenvi Kiv nq|
hyivi UvbwRkb wimvP Kcvikbi ^ZvwaKvix Rvmd Gd GbRjevMvi nQb Bvwqvj
iveU Gi RbK| Zvi iveUwU wQj fvKzqvg wKbvi iveU| GwU Kvbv gvbyli mvnvh QvovB eo
eo mycvi gvKU, GqvicvU ev dvwi cwivii KvR KiZ cvi|
iveUi DjLhvM eenvi njv
gnvKvk MelYvq
^qswq wegvb I Mvwo Pvjbvq
evwo Nii `bw`b KvR
wk KviLvbvq
Lye Vvv ev Lye Mig cwiek
Iqws- Gi KvR
gvwUi wbP wewfb LwbZ KvR KiZ wP: ^v mevq iveU
KvR: evsjv`ki eo eo kni Kvb chyw eenvi eR eevcbv Ges fywgK cieZx
eevcbvq KvR jvMvbv hZ cvi? Zvgvi gZvgZi c hyw `LvI|
16 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

1.3.3 vqv mvRvwi (Cryosurgery)


Kvvi eZgvb weki GKwU geagvb mgmv| Ggb wK mKj DbZ chyw eenvii ciI Gi
mywbw` Kvbv cwZKvi bB| Kvvii wewfb aibi
wPwKrmv cwZ iqQ Gjvi me KwUiB Avevi weasmx
cvkcwZwqv iqQ| Gjvi ga iqQ Acvikb Ki
AcmviY, Kgv_ivwc, wewKiY wPwKrmv (Radiation
treatement), nvBcvi_viwgqv (Hyperthermia), Kvvi
wPwKrmvq Aviv GKwU cwZ iqQ hvi bvg njv
vqvmvRvwi (Cryosurgery).
wP: Kvvi Avv Kvl
cwZ:
vqvmvRvwiZ Zij bvBUvRb eenvi Kiv nq| AZ Kg Zvcgvvq Avv wUmyZ bvBUvRb
cqvM Kiv nq hvZ Kvljv asm nq hvq| GwU
GKwU mvaviY Ges Rbwcq cwZ| KviY G cwZ
mnR, KvhKi Ges Kg LiP| vqvmvRvwii Rb
ivMxi Zgb Kvbv c~e cwZi cqvRb nq bv, Ze
e_vi cwZ AwZ mse`bkxj ivMx`i 3090 wgwbU
c~e e_vbvkK (Numbing Cream) wg eenvi
Kiv hZ cvi| G cwZi mePq eo myweav njv
GZ SuzwK Kg Ges mgq AbK Kg jvM| Zij
bvBUvRb KUb, ev gUvj cve eenvi Ki Avv wUmyZ 30 mKi Rb cqvM Kiv
nq| AwaKZi Avvi 60 mK ch cqvM Kiv hZ cvi| cqvMKZ vb eidi
KviY mv`v nq hvq, KviY Zij bvBUvRb AZ Vvv| ewkifvM ivMxi B Zviv mvgvb
Avqx e_v Ges Kb Abyfe Ki|
mvaviYZ wbwjwLZ Kvvii vqvmvRvwi cqvM Kiv nq _vK
skin tumors.
pre-cancerous skin moles.
nodules.
skin tags.
unsightly freckles.
retinoblastomas, a childhood cancer of the retina.
prostate, liver, and cervical cancers, especially if surgical resection is not possible.
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 17

vqvmvRvwiZ wbgwjwLZ hcvwZ cqvRb nq


AvjUv mvD (ultrasound)
KwDUW UgvMvwd ev gvMbwUK wiRvb BgR
(computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance
(MR) imaging)
KUb evU / wWfvBm (a cotton swab or spray device)
vqvcve (cryoprobe)
evvc (bronchoscope)
1.3.4 gnvKvk Awfhvb (Space Exploration)
GKzk kZK gnvKvk Awfhvb Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi mvnvh Qvov Ame| Puv` AeZiY, gnvKvk
kb vcb, Abvb Mn Awfhvb Ges cw_exi Dci
jLvcov Kivi Rb WUv cwqvKiY, WUv vbvi,
msiY Ges eb BZvw`Z Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw
eenvi Kiv nq| gnvKvk Awfhvb mePq eo welq
njv Awfhvb AskMnYKvwi mKj h ev hvsk
mwVK mgq mwVKfve KvR Kiv| Kvbv KviY
Kvbv GKwU Ask weKj nj ev KvR bv Kij
mb Awfhvb evwZj nq hvq| GZ cPzi mgq Ges
A_i AcPq nq| eZgvb gnvKvk K` cuvPwU
mvaviY KwDUvi eenvi Kiv nq| cZKwU
KwDUvi wewfb Aski mv_ hvMvhvM ivi wP: gnvKvk Awfhvb AvBwmwUi eenvi|
gvag mnR Ges RwUj KvRjv mb Ki| RwUj
KvR Kivi Rb PviwU KwDUvi cqvRb nq Ges cgwU KwDUvi nvWIqvi mgmv mgvavbi
Rb ivLv nq AwZwi wnme|
bvmv (NASA) mi Iqe wmgi K_v wPv KiQ| Gi dj wekvj AvKvii mvUjvBUi
cwieZ AcvKZ QvU AvKvii mvUjvBU Zwi| ciY Kiv ne wbw` UvMU Ki| Giv
cqvRb Aevb cwieZb KiZ cvie Ges cwiewZZ wbw` Gwiqv Kfvi KiZ cvie|
mvUjvBUi KwDUvijvK mycvi KwDUvi viv cwZvcb Kiv ne| QvU QvU
mvUjvBUjvK cw_ex _K wbqY Kiv hve| mvUjvBUi Kvbv GKwU Ask weKj nj ev
KvhgZv Kg Mj m~Y mvUjvBU asm bv Ki H wbw` Ask cwieZb Kiv ev AvcWU Kiv
me ne| GB cwZZ gnvKvk Awfhvb eq AbK Kge| gnvKvk Awfhvb Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi
mv_ nvZ nvZ iL mKj mgmv mgvavb Ki cw_ex Ryo Dbqb eq Avbe|
18 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

1.3.5 AvBwmwU wbfi Drcv`b eev (ICT in Productions)


Drcv`b nQ Avgv`i mgvRi mePq iZc~Y welq| GwU eni RbMvwi mvgvwRK I
A_bwZK Dbqb mvab Ki| eZgvb hyM Bbdigkb I Z_ chywi hyM| Drcv`b eevqI Gi
f~wgKv Acwimxg| KwDUvi GBWW wWRvBb (CAD) Gi eenvi AvRKvj Lye mvaviY welq| Gi
gvag AwZ mnR bZzb bZzb cYi wWRvBb Kiv me| GQvov wewfb RwUj cYi wWRvBbI
KwDUvii gvag Kiv nq _vK| msev`c Qvcvbvi Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii
dj Ag~j cwieZb GmQ| c~e GKwU eB wcU KiZ AbK mgq jvMZ Gi mvaviY wWRvBbi
evBi hvIqv hZ bv| wK eZgvb chywi eenvii dj Lye mnR Qvcvi KvR Kiv hvq|
GKhvM `ki wewfb vb _K cwKv cKvk Kiv hvq| cYi wWRvBb, Mvwd, wP BZvw` wewfb
mdU&Iqvii gvag Kiv hvq|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw wbgwjwLZ Dcvq Drcv`b f~wgKv ivLZ cvi:
1. Templates-G eenvii Rb wewfb WvqvMvg KvWi Dci wcU Ki|
2. Qvcvbv jLv/U wkU AuvUvbv Ges mB Abyhvqx KvUv|
3. wewfb aibi RwUj dg (shap) Lye mnR KwDUvi wbqwZ gwkbi mvnvh KvUv hvq| hv
nvZi mvnvh/ gvbyqvj ek RwUj| wekl Ki wewfb avZe wkU Gi Dci|
4. KwDUvi wbqwZ j`gwkbi mvnvh mnR wewfb AvKwZi UzKiv Kiv me| wewfb ivmvqwbK
KviLvbv Ges Jla wk cY Drcv`bi Rb wbw` Zvcgvv Ges Pvc wbqY Kiv KwDUvii
gvag me| cvkvK wk Kvco wewfb AvKvi UzKiv Kivi Rb KwDUvi wbqwZ KwDUvi
wbqwZ gwkb eenvi Kiv nq| Kwl AvBwmwU eenvii dj G Drcv`b evcK nvi
ew cqQ| KviY Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj KlK GLb RvbZ cvi, Kvb
gvwUZ Kvbv aibi dmj/ RvZ fvjv Rbve Ges KLb Kvb ivMi Kvb Jla/ KxUbvkK
cqvM KiZ cvie|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj dmji RxbMZ cwieZb mvab Ki Drcv`b ew Kiv
hvq Ges cwZKzj cwieki DchvMx Kiv hvq| AbK wk KviLvbv iqQ hLvb gvbyli c
KvR Kiv wec`RbK| mme hgb- gvwUi AbK wbPi LwbZ, AwaK Zvcgvv we`gvb|
Ggb KvR AvBwmwUi Abb Dcnvi iveU eenvi Kiv hvq| Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi dj
wewfb Drcv`b eevq ^qswqZv GbQ|
^qswq gwkb eenvii myw eav njv GwU m~Y Rxebi Drcv`b cwiKbvq (Life time of
the production plant) Drcv`b LiP Kgvq Ges wbgw jwLZ myw eav `q
DPZi MyYmb (Higher quality)
AwaKZvi mvgmc~Y MyY (More Consistent quality)
mvivw`b Kgg _vK
AwZ `Z MwZmb (Very fast)
AwaKZi wbfihvM
A mgq AwaK cwigvY Drcv`b Ki|
KvR: wPwKrmv Ges wewfb dvwiZ eeZ 5wU AvBwmwU mg hi bvg jL|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 19

1.3.5 Defense (cwZiv)


cwZiv wk njv h Kvbv ivi GKwU iZc~Y A_bwZK BDwbU| GwU A Ges hyi wekl
hcvwZ Drcv`b/ Zwi Ki| AbK `ki cwZiv wk Lye DbZ| Zviv wewfb hy mivg Ab
`k ivwb Ki| cwZiv wki AvDUcyUK `yB fvM fvM Kiv nqQ AvBwmwUi gZvB
nvWIqvi Ges mdUIqvi|
cwZiv wk _K h mKj nvWIqvi AvDUcyU cvIqv hvq Zvnjv
wewfb aibi RvnvR cUvj wkc, corvette, frigale, wewfb Dk eenvi Kiv hvq Ggb
RvnvR, nwjKvi enbKvix RvnvR|
AvKvk hvb BDwUwjwU I AvgY nwjKvi, Rx, AvUKKvix, evgvi wegvb BZvw`|
f~wgwfwK hvb fvwi hy UvsK, c`vwZK hy evnb, UKwbKvj hvb BZvw`|
mieivn hcvwZ all terrain vehicle (ATV)
A: QvU-eo wewfb aibi ivBdj, Kvgvb wcQ, wgmvBj, evgv BZvw`|
cwZiv wki md&UIqvi AvDUcyUjv njv
f~wg, mgy` Ges AvKvk eenvihvM ivWvi
AcUvwbK, AcwUKvj BjKUwbK wmg
mKkb, cvUzb, Kvvwb, iwRgU, weMW, wefvM Ges Kcm chvq hvMhvMi Rb
UwjhvMvhvM wmg|
hy gvbRgU wmg|
BjUwbK Countermeasures h:
cwZiv wk Abvb AbK wki gZv Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw viv fxlYfve cfvweZ| AvBwmwU
Ges cwZiv wki ga Mfxi mK iqQ| `ywUi ga mivmwi ev BwZevPK mK iqQ|
AvBwmwU cwZiv wk Dbqb iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb Ki| Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw cwZiv wkK
vU evgv Zwi KiZ wkwLqQ AvM hLvb Dumb evgv Zwi/eenvi Kiv nZv| AvM hy& wQj
gvbylKw`K GLb Zv nq bUIqvK Kw`K eevcbv| AvM hLvb hyi djvdj wbq chvjvPbv
Kiv nZv mLvb GLb eve mgq (Real time) hy chvjvPbv Kiv nq| AvM hLvb f~wg Ges
mgy` _K AvgY Kiv nZv| GLb mLvb AvKvk Ges gnvKvk Kw`K, nvWIqvi eRW hyi
cwieZ mdUIqvi eRW hy cwiPvwjZ nq|
cwZiv wk Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw hy nIqvi c~e Ges cii Aev wbP eYbv Kiv njv
(i) AvM cwZiv wk cPzi cwigvY dumb evgv cyZ KiZ| G evgvjv iZc~Y vcbv asm
Kivi Rb eenvi Kiv nZv hgb nvBWv-BjKwUK euva, weR, wegvb e`i, ij Ges
iZc~Y Awdm| hgb- miKvwi ckvmwbK feb, wk Kgc KLbv mvgwiK ew`i Dci
eenvi Kiv nq fq `Lvbvi Rb| G evgvjvK dumb ejv nZv KviY G`i cQ` ev UvMU
wbw` Kivi gZv bB| Giv wbRi cQ` gZv KvR KiZ cvi bv| Zviv AwaK iZ Ges Kg
iZi vcbv wPwZ KiZ cvi bv|
20 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbkvbv (target) wgm Kiv ev AcqvRb wevwiZ nIqv wQj wbZ-bwgwK evcvi| 1g Ges
2q wekhyi mgq G aibi evgvi cPzi eenvi wQj|
Z_I hvMvhvM chyw cwZiv wkK Ag~j cwiewZZ KiQ| AvBwmwUi mvnvh cwZiv
wk eZgvb smart A Zwi KiQ| vU A AwaKZi kwkvjx Ges wbfyj wbkvbvq
AvgY KiZ mg| mvgwiK evwnbx Gme Ai mv_ K_v ejZ ev wb`k w`Z cvi| wZwb
(Kgvvi) AK wbw` ey `L asm Kivi wb`k w`Z cvi Pvi cvki GjvKvi Kvbv iKg
asm mvab bv Ki|
(ii) c~e A Ges hcvwZ Zwi nZv aygv wewfb evwnbxi KgKZv`i ewMZ cqvRb
gUvbvi Rb| kci wZ mvab Kivi Rb GB AjvK GKmv_ eenvi Kiv
nZv| cPzi mb Ges mvgwiK hcvwZ I Ai Dci wbfi Ki hy eevcbvK
gvbeKw`K hy eevcbv ej|
ZLb Kvbv evwnbxi mb msLvi Dci H evwnbxi kw cwigvcY Kiv nZv| fvjv
Kkji Pq Zviv mb msLv ew i Kkj eenvi KiZ| hy Rqi Rb
RbvijMYi AwaK msLK mb, A Ges hcvwZi Pvwn`v wQj| mb`i mvnvh Kivi
Rb Ges mieivn wbwZ Kivi Rb Aviv jvK `iKvi nZv| ZvQvov mvwPweK KvRi
Rb Aviv AbK jvKi cqvRb wQj|
eZg vb bUIqvK Kw` K hy eevcbv AvBwmwUi my dj| Gi dj GKRb
Rbvij Zvi mb`i ch eY KiZ, Zv`i Aev b, Zv`i hy mivgi mieivn
BZvw` ch eY KiZ cvib|
G eevq mbiv wbR`i ga hvMvhvM eev DbZ KiQ| GKRb vqvW wjWvi k mb
Ges wg mb mbv KiZ cvi Ges hy Qovbv-wQUvbv hy mivg mK AeMZ nZ
cvi| Gi dj GKRb vqvW wjWvi mwVK mgq AwZ `Z wmv MnY KiZ cvi|
(iii) cwZivq AvBwmwU hy nIqvi c~e Ggb Kvbv wWfvBm ev h wQj bv hvi viv hy i
mvgwiK Kvhg cwigvc Kiv hZ| hy cieZx chvjvPbvq wbR`i wnmve Ges hZUzKz wZZ
_vK Zv w`qB hyi `Zv cwigvc Kiv nZv| Gjv mvaviYZ hyi gWj, gvbwP BZvw`
cheY Ki Ges DPc` KgKZvMY mivmwi cheY KiZv| G kZfvM MnYhvM Z_
msMn ckevaK wQj| Gi dj hycieZx AvnZ (BbRyiW) mb msLv Ges hy AskMnYi
ceYZvi ga Lye ewk cv_K j Kiv hvq|
cwZiv wk AvBwmwU hy nIqvi ci wiqj UvBg hy cheY, bUIqvKwfwK hyi eo AMMwZ
nq| hyi me NUbv mK ZrYvr Lei Av`k/wb`k mUvi cuQ hvq| GUv me nqQ-
KviY mbiv GLb hyvi mv_ AbK AvaywbK Bjwb hi mvnvh bq- hvi dj Zviv mnR
mwVK wmv wbZ cvi| ki UvMU Ges wbR`i Aevb eySZ cvi, GKvb _K Abvb
hZ KZ mgq jvMj Zv wnmve KiZ cvi| ki vcbv asm KiZ cvi| hLb Kvbv
wec`RbK hy AeZxY nq ZLb ZvrYvr Kgvvii wb`k cZ/ MnY KiZ cvi|
KvR: eZgvb hy mvaviY RbMYi gZzi nvi Lye Kg-Gi KviY evLv Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 21

1.3.6 evqvgwU (Biometrics)


evqvgwU njv Re ewk/ Z_ weklY Ges cwigvc Kivi wevb I chyw we`v| Z_ chywZ
evqvgwU ejZ H Kkj ev cwZK evSvq hv gvbe `ni
wewfb ewk hgb- wW Gb G, Avyji Qvc, PvLi iwUbv I
AvBwik, fqm cvUvb, gyL gji cvUvb, nvZi gvc BZvw`
cgvY Kivi Dk weklY I cwigvc Ki|

Avyji Qvc _K wbDgwiK WUvq i~cvi nQ


PvLi iwUbv vb Kiv nQ

evqvgwU hvPvBqi viv cwiPq cgvY eev KcviU I cvewjK wbivcv, BjKUwb cY Ges
weq K` GKwU mvaviY cwZ| wbivcv QvovI evqvgwUK hvPvBqi wKQz myweav iqQ|
GKwU evqvgwU wWfvBm hgb- wdvivbvi (Finger-scanner) wbg w jwLZ Aski
mg^ q MwVZ-
GKwU BbcyU wWfvBm ev vbvi (A reader or Scanner)
GKwU mdUIqvi hv- vb Kiv Z_K wWwRUvj digU icvi Ki Ges gvP cqU Zzjbv Ki|
GKwU WUveR, hLvb Zzjbv Kiv WUv msiwZ _vK|
cwiPq Pzwi iva Z_ MnY Kivi mgq mvaviYZ WUv Gbw Kiv nq| GLb `Lv hvK Kxfve
evqvgwUK hvPvBqi KvRwU mb nq
evqvgwUK BbcyUK icvi KiZ Ges gvwPs cqU Ae WUv mbv Kivi Rb GKwU eenvwiK
mdU&Iqvi eenvi Kiv nq| WUveRi ga gvP cqU cwqvKiYi Rb GKwU AvjMwi`g
eenvi Kiv nq Ges Z_K msLvevPK WUvq icvi Kiv nq| WUveRi gvb mekl evqvgwU
BbcyUi mv_ Zzjbv Kiv nq Ges cgvYi Rb bgybv wgj ev Awgj NvlYv Kiv nq|
1.3.7 evqvBbdigwU (Bioinformatics)
evqv-BbdigwU njv Re Z_ eevcbvi Rb KwDUvi chywi GKwU eenvi| Re I
RbwUK Z_ msiY, weklY Ges GKwKiYi KvR KwDUvii gvag Kiv nq, hv wRbwfwK
bZzb Jla Avwevi Ges Dbqbi KvR jvM| wnDgvb wRbg cR (Human Genome Project)
Gi dj RbmvaviY wRb mK cPzi Z_ Rvb, hvi dj evqv-BbdigwU Gi cqvRbxqZv ew
cqQ| wnDgvb wRbgi Dk- mKj gvbe wRb g wbaviY Kiv hv cvq wZb wewjqb Rvov|
evqv-BbdigwU wevb njv AvYyweK Re wevb Ges KwDUvi wevbi mgw^Z ic| bZzb
Jla Avwevii Rb gwjKzjvi UvMU (Molecular targets) mywbw` Kiv Ges gvbe `ni ivM
mcK evSvi Rb RbwUK Z_ eenvi Kiv| Gi ^xKwZi Rb AbK wekwe`vjq, miKvwi cwZvb,
Ges dvg v wmDwUKvj Kvvwb Mbbxq Rxewevbx (Computational biologists) Ges
evqvBbdigwU KwDUvi wevbx (Bioinformatics Computer Scientists) Gi
mg^ q evqvBbdigwU M c MVb KiQ|
22 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

AvYyweK Rxewevbx`i Rb mePq eo Pvj njv Rbg wmKvqws cRi WUvjvi Z_


Rvbvbv| KviY, c_vMZfve MelYvMvi AvYyweK Rxe wevbxiv KvR KiZ mxwgZ WUv wbq, wK
cPzi msLK WUv wbq KvR Kivi Rb G MelYvi mv_ KwDUvi hy Kiv nq| wmKvq
RbviU Kiv, mve-wmKvq msiY Kiv, WUv icvi Ges weklY BZvw` KwDUvi wbfi KvR|
Ze, GKwU AvYyweK Re cixv Kiv Lye RwUj KvR- hLb Zviv wewfb jfj _vK hgb-
genom, proteome, transcriptome Ges metabalome jfj| evqv-BbdigwU m`vqi
c_g Pvj njv wekvj WUvi fvviK mykLjfve msiY Kiv| mnR wePiY (Access) Ges
wbfihvM WUv c`vbi `vwqZ cvjb Kiv|
WUv weklYi c~e GKevi A_nxb _vK| GKRb cwkwZ Rxe wevbxi cI gvbyqwj evLv
Kiv me bq| AZGe, A_c~Y ReZ_ c`vbi Rb KwDUvi eenvi Kiv nq| GKwU evqv-
BbdigwU h wZbwU cavb cwqv Ki _vK
wW Gb G g cvwUb g wbYq Ki (DNA sequence determines protein sequence )
cvwUb g cvwUb MVb/ KvVvgv wbYq Ki (Protein sequence determines protein structure)
cvwUb MVb/ KvVvgv cvwUbi KvR wbYq Ki (Protein structure determines protein
function) |

1.3.8 RbwUK Bwwbqvwis (Genetic Engineering)


cixvMvi wevbxiv Rxe c v wYi wW Gb G (DNA) cwieZ b Kivi Rb h Kkj
Aej^ b Ki ZvK RbwUK Bwwbqvwis ej|
Avevi Abfve ejv hvq, RbwUK Bwwbqvwis njv
Kvbv c v YxZ gvby qjwj wWGbG (DNA) hvM
Kivi c w qv Genetic Enginering is the
process of manually adding new DNA to an
organism|
Kvbv Rxei Rxeb, ewmn Abvb ewk H Rxei
DNA Gi Dci wbfi Ki| DNA Gi h Ask wekl
ewki Rb `vqx ZvK wRb (Genes) ej| AvYweK
wevbxMY AbK GbRvBg Avwevi KiQb hv DNA Gi
MVb cwieZb KiZ cvi| wKQz wKQz GbRvBg AvQ hvi
mvnvh DNA Gi wKQz Ask (strands) ev` w`Z A_ev
hvM KiZ cvi| G aibi GbRvBg eenvi Ki
wevbxiv DNA _K wbw` wRb ev` w`q KvgvBR
DNA Zwi KiZ wkLQ| GKwU D`vniY w`j welqwU wP: wWGbG
Aviv mnR ne- UgUv Vvv mn KiZ cvi bv
Abw`K gvQ Vvv cvwbZ _vKZ cvi| wevbxiv LuyR ei Kie Kvbv wRbi Rb gvQ Vvv mn
KiZ cvi, mB wRb UgUvZ cwZvcb Kij UgUv Vvv mn KiZ cvie|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 23

RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi dj Avgiv wbwjwLZfve DcKvi cq _vwK-


1| Bbmywjb Drcv`b njv RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi mePq eo mydj| Bbmywjb WvqvewUK&m
ivMi wPwKrmvq cqvRb nq|
2| Interferon njv gvbe Kvl _K wbtmZ GK aibi im (agent) hv fvBivm bvkK (Anti viral)
wnme KvR Ki| AvRKvj RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi gvag Zwi Interferon eeZ nQ|
3| wRb _ivwc RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi GKwU mydj| wRb _ivwci gvag ivMi wPwKrmv Ges
wUc~Y gvbyli wRb cwieZb Ki my Ki Zvjv hvq|
4| RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi gvag m~Y bZzb AbK sophisticated dvgvwmDwUKvj cY
Drcv`b Kiv nq| G bZzb Jla wbw` wRbi Kvwbs viv Zwi|
5| wnDgvb Mv_ nigvb GLb wkRvZ evKUwiqv _K wbvwkZ nZ cvi| GB nigvb evgbZ
(euU) iva eeZ nq| RbwUKvjwj Drcvw`Z wnDgvb Mv_ nigvb cvov ZK, dU
hvIqv nuvo, Ges Lv` bvwji Avjmvii wPwKrmvq eeZ nq|
6| RbwUKvjwj cwiewZZ (modified) dmj Drcv`bi RbwUK Bwwbqvwis eeZ nQ|
hgb- mqvweb, fyv, Zzjv, Zj exR BZvw`| Gjv cvKv-gvKo I Abvb Dw` bvkK viv
Avv njI QvK I fvBivm cwZivax| ZvQvov RbwUKvjwj cwiewZZ dmj AwaK Liv I
Vvv mn KiZ cvi|
7| RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi dj Re KviLvbvq cPzi cwigvY cvwUb I GbRvBg Drcv`b Kiv hvq|
Gjv cPzi msLvq Tryptophan Gi gZv wUKv I m~iK Zwi Kiv me| GQvov Rvjvwb ZwiZI
Gjv eeZ nq|
8| MfeZx gwnjv`i Fetuses `L mvbi RbwUK wUmg~n wbYq Kiv hvq| wcZv-gvZv I
Wvvi wgj wkkyi Rbi c~eB mgmvi mgvavb Kiv hZ cvi|

1.3.9 bvbv UKbvjwR (Nano Technology)


bvbv kwU wMK nanos k _K GmQ hvi AvwfavwbK A_ Dwarft wK GwU GKwU gvci GKK
wnme eeZ nQ| 1 wgUvii 1000000000 (100 KvwU) fvMi GK fvMK ejv nq bvbv wgUvi|
Avi G bvbvwgUvi j h mg UKbvjwR mwKZ mjvKB bvbv UKbvjwR ej|
wevbxiv bvbvwevb ev bvbvchyw mK c_g aviYv cvb bvej weRqx c`v_we` Richard
Feynman-Gi 1959 mvji American physical society Gi GKwU mjb `qv Theres
Plenty of Room at the Bottom bvgi ee _K| ZviI GK `kK ci Professor Norio
Taniguchi bvbv chyw kwU Dveb Kib|
bvbv chywi `ywU cwqv AvQ| GKwU njv Dci _K wbP (Top to Bottom) Ges AciwU
njv bxP _K Dci (Bottom to Top)| UcWvDb cwZZ Kvbv wRwbmK KU QvU QvU Ki
wbw` AvKvi `qv nq, G Etching cwqvwU mwKZ| Abw`K eUg-Uc njv AwZ QvU
QvU AvKvii wRwbmK w`q eo Kvbv wRwbm Zwi Kiv| Avgv`i eZgvb Bjwb njv Uc-
WvDb chywi Avi bvbv chyw njv eUg-Uc chywi| bvbvwgUvi j z` ` ei Dcv`vb
24 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Zwi Kiv nq GB bvbv chywZ| hgb- Avgv`i hw` wekl aibi GKwU DNA cqvRb nq
Zvnj eUg-Uc chywZ mB DNA Gi QvU QvU Dcv`vbjvK wgkY Ki mB KvwZ DNA
Zwi Kiv ne| Ze bvbv chyw aygv eUg-Uc chywB bq eis Uc-eUg chyw eenvi Ki G
`ywUi wgkY Kiv ne|
cwZ eQiB `Lv hvq, KwDUvii KvhgZv ew cvq wK `vg AvMi eQii Zzjbvq KgQ| KviY
Gi mv_I bvbv chywi mK iqQ| KwDUvii wfZii gvBvcmmi iqQ AmsL AwZ
z` z` mvwKU| Avi ZvZ eeZ nQ bvbv chyw| bvbv chywi dj gvevBjB KwDUvii
KvR Kiv hvq (eZgvb evRvi G aibi wKQz gvevBj AvQ)| ZvQvov G chywi dj KwDUvii
nvWwWi aviY gZv w`b w`b evoQ, hv 10/15 eQi AvM KbvI Kiv hZ bv|
BUvibUi ci GwUB chywi mePq eo Dcnvi| bvbvi KviY mvq wdK&kbi AbK wKQzB GLb
eve| welqwU GLb GZB evcK h, GwU kyaygv Avi wevbi Qv-Qvx`i ga mxgve bq eis
mKj wefvMi Qv-Qvx`i Rb Acvi mvebvi `yqvi Lyj w`qQ|
wewfb `ki miKvii mv_ cvq mKj eRvwZK KvvwbMyjv GLb bvbvchywi MelYvq KvR
KiQ| Rvcvb Zvi RvZxq MelYv evRUi wmsn fvM iLQ bvbv chyw msv welqjvi
Dci| ay Rvcvb bq BDivc, AvgwiKv, Pxb, Kvwiqv- mejv `kB bvbvchywi eenvi wbq
KvR KiQ| mKji bvbvchywi Dci GZ AvMn `L GUv eySZ evwK _vKj bv h, mvgbi hyM
ne bvbvchywi hyM| Kviv `ivM nqQ ? bvbv iveU kixii wfZi XzK mB me givgZ
Kie| Avgv`i nvZi Nwo nq hve KwDUvi, gvevBj| me wKQzB, Avi Zv me ne bvbv
chywi e`jZ|
KvR: wewfb `yNUbvq AbK cwiPq ARvbv jvK gviv hvq| G`iK eIqvwik wnmve Kei Kiv nq|
cieZxZ G`i AvZxq^Rb mbv Kivi cwZ AvQ wK? Zvgvi gZvgZi c weklY Ki|
1.4 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvi bwZKZv (Morality in using ICT)
Avgiv ivv w`q nuU hvIqvi mgq ivvi `yB cvk wewfb aibi dji evMvb `wL, djjv
LvIqvi Dchy _vK, ZvB ej evMvb XzK BQvgZ dj LvIqv i Kwi bv| Avgiv mf gvbyl m
wnme Avgv`i GKwU bwZK `vwqZ _vK| eis hw` KLbv `Lv hvq Kvbv c-cvwLZ ev Ab
Kvbvfve evMvbi wZ nQ ZLb Avgiv evMvbK Avmb wZi nvZ _K iv Kivi Pv Kwi|
Kvbv evwoi `iRv Lvjv cjB Avgiv AcwiwPZ Kviv evwoZ XzK hvB bv| BUvibU Avgiv hLb
wewfb IqemvBU `wL, mLvb h gvbyl ev cwZvb IqemvBU Zwi KiQ Zviv h AskUzKz m
Avgv`i `LvZ PvBQ Avgiv mB AskUzKz `LZ cvB| Iqe mvBUi wbR^ ev Mvcb AskUzKzZ
Avgv`i XvKvi K_v bq, cqvRbI bB| mLvb hZ cvi Zv`i wbw` gvbylRb- hviv Mvcb
cvmIqvW eenvi Ki mLvb cek Ki wbw` Z_ mvwRq ivL, mLvb KvR Ki| eve Rxeb
Avgiv hw` Avgv`i Pvicvk ZvKvB Zvnj wewfb aibi Aciva msNUb nIqvi wP `LZ ev Lei
bZ cvB| hgb t mvmx, Pzwi, WvKvwZ, nvBRvwKs, cZviYv BZvw`| eZgvb hyM Z_ I hvMvhvM
chywi hyM| Avgv`i Rxebi cwZwU Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi Kiv nq| mKj
Avwevi/ Dbqb/ cwieZb gvbyli Rb hgb KjvY eq Avb Zgwb Gi Aceenvi gvbylK AbK
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 25

wec` ev nqivwbi ^xKvi Ki| Z_ chywi eenvi ewki fvMB GKKfve/ Z_i Av`vb-c`vbi
gvag nq _vK jvBf `Lvi myhvM Lye mxwgZ| ZvB Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvi bwZKZvi
iZ Acwimxg| Avgv`i mgvRi Lye mvaviY Ges AwZ cwiwPZ NUbv- Avgiv cvqB `wL, gvbyl
gvevBj dvb K_v ejvi mgq wbRi Aevb mK wg_v Z_ `q hv gvUI DwPr bq| GUv
AbwZK KvR| Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cavb gvag njv KwDUvi Ges BUvibU| Avgv`i DwPr
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvi bwZKZv eRvq ivLv| GLb Avgiv Rvbev AbwZK KvRjv wK wK
ew wekli wei AbwZK KvR:
B-gBji gvag nqivwb
KwDUvi wmgi wZ mvab Kiv
cZviYv Kiv
Acev` `qv
cwZvbi wei AbwZK KvR:
KwDUvi wmg AevwZ cek/ wbqY
wbwl ev msiwZ Z_ AwaKvi ev Pzwi
miKvwi cwZvbi wei mvBevi mvm Kiv
cvBiUKZ mdUIqvi weq I weZiY
mgvRi wei AbwZK KvR:
cbvMvwd/ Akxj I wkvPvi ewnf~Z welq c`kbi gvag hye mgvRK `~wlZ Kiv
Mvcbxq ev Aea Z_ cvPvi
A_bwZK Aciva
Aea AvwUKj weq
AbjvBb Ryqv
wbP wKQz KwDUvi ev BUvibUi gvag Kiv bwZKZv ewRZ Acivai bvg `qv njv-
vwgs (Spamming)
nvwKs (Hacking)
mvBevi AvgY (Syber Attack)
mvBevi Pzwi (Syber Theft)
UvBg G wimvm Pzwi (Time and Resource Theft)
md&UIqvi G BUjKPzqvj ccvwU cvBiwm (Software and intellectual Property Piracy)
fvBivm Ges Iqvg (Virus and Worm) BZvw`|
26 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

vwgs (Spamming)
B-gBj GKvDU cvqB wKQz wKQz APbv I AcqvRbxq B-gBj cvIqv hvq hv Avgv`i weiw
NUvq| G aibi B-gBjK mvaviYZ vg (Spam) ej|
nvwKs (Hacking)
mvaviYZ AbygwZ eZxZ Kvbv KwDUvi bUIqvK cek Ki KwDUvi eenvi Kiv A_ev Kvbv
KwDUviK gvnvQb Ki Zvi cyiv wbqY wbq bqvK nvwKs ej| h nvwKs Ki ZvnvK nvKvi
(Haker) ej|
mvBevi AvgY (Syber Attack)
mvBevi AvgY GK aibi BjwbK AvgY hvZ wwgbvjiv BUvibUi gvag KviI wmg
webv AbygwZZ cek Ki dvBj, cvMvg wKsev nvWIqvi asm ev wZ mvab Ki| GK mvBevi
Vandalism I ejv nq|
mvBevi Pzwi (Syber Theft)
AbjvBb evswKs eevq Z_ Pzwii mv_ mv_ UvKv cqmvI Pzwi Ki| GLvb Giv Kvbv bUIqvK cek
Ki jywKq _vK Ges BDRvi KZc c` Bbdigkbi WUveRi AbyKwc Zwi Ki| ci mB
BbdigkbMyjv eenvi Ki RvwjqvwZi gvag Kvivi GKvDU _K Zvi mg UvKv wbR GKvDU
Uvdvi Ki bq|
mvaviYfve mvBevi Pzwi `yB fve NUZ cvi, hgb-
K. WUv Pzwi (Data Theft)
L. AwZ Pzwi (Identity Theft)
WUv Pzwi (Data Theft):
Kvbv ew ev eemvq cwZvb _K AbygwZ eZxZ Bbdigkb Kwc A_ev msMn KivK WUv Pzwi
ejv nq| ewMZ eenvwiK Z_ wKsev Kvbv cwZvbi Ggb wKQz Z_ _vK hv Abi nvZ Mj
ew ev cwZvbi bvbvwea wZ nZ cvi| G aibi Z_ Ab KD nMZ Kij ZvK WUv Pzwi
wnme MY Kiv nq|
ew cwiPq Pzwi (Identify Theft):
GKRbi cwiPq eenvi Ki Ab Kvbv ew wKQz q Ki Zvi `vqfvi H ewi Dci PvcvbvK
cwiPq Pzwi ej| KvbvWv I AvgwiKvZ GB Aciva mePq ewk msNwUZ nq| KviI ew cwiPq
ev AwZ (Identity) Pzwi ejZ bUIqvK ev BUvibU eenviKvixi User ID Ges Password Pzwii
KvRK eySvq|
UvBg G wimvm Pzwi (Time and Resource Theft):
AbygwZ Qvov Kvbv KwDUvi ev bUIqvK eenvi KivK UvBg G wimvm w_ ej|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 27

md&UIqvi cvBiwm (Software Piracy)


md&UIqvi cvBiwm ejZ cZKvixi webv AbygwZZ Kvbv md&UIqvi Kwc Kiv, wbRi bvg weZiY
Kiv wKsev Kvbv cKvi cwieZbi gvag wbRi ej Pvwjq `Iqv BZvw` KvhgK eySvq|
cwRqvwiRg (Plagiarism)
Abi jLv Pzwi Ki wbRi bvg Pvwjq `qv ev cKvk KivKB cwRqvwiRg ej| Kvbv ewi
Kvbv mvwnZ, MelYv ev mv`bv Kg e bKj ev AvswkK cwieZb Ki wbRi bvg cKvk KivB
njv cwRqvwiRg|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi Aviv GKwU gvag njv gvevBj dvb| Gi gvag h mKj AbwZK
KvR nq-
wbRi Aevb mK wg_v ejv
AcwiwPZ KvDK wgm Kj `qv
AcwiwPZ KvDK dvb Ki wei Kiv
KvDK fq-fxwZ `Lvbv ev gwK `qv
Avgiv Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii AbwZK w`KMyjv Rvbjvg| mKji G KvRMyjv cwinvi Kiv DwPr|
1.5 mgvR Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cfve (Impacts of ICT in society)
eZgvb hyM Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi hyM| eZgvb mgvRi cwZwU Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi
eenvi j Kiv hvq| Gi dj wPiPbv mvgvwRK ic cwZwbqZ cwiewZZ nQ| Zvj wgwjq PjQ
hyMi mv_| Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj mgvRi cZKwU DjLhvM cwieZb
mvwaZ nqQ| eemv-evwYR, hvMvhvM, wkv, wPwKrmv, wk, mswZ, Awdm-Av`vjZ, wk-
KviLvbv BZvw` cwZwU kwY-ckvi gvbyl Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi mev MnY Ki wbR wbR Aevb
Aviv DbZ Ges MwZkxj KiQ| mgvR Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cfvejv wbg wevwiZ
AvjvPbv Kiv njv
hvMvhvMi MwZ ew KiQ| AvM Kvbv msev` GKvb _K Abvb ciY KiZ AbK mgq
jvMZ wK eZgvb BUvibUi gvag h Kvbv msev` gyn~Zi gaB GK ezi wbKU _K Ab
ezi wbKU ev eemvwqi KvQ cuQvbv hvq| GZ mgq euvP|
BUvibU eenvi Kiv Abvb hvMvhvM gvagi Zzjbvq LiP AbK Kg| KviY GZ Kvbv gvwmK
mvwfm PvR w`Z nq bv| Bnv eenviKvixK cPzi cwigvY WUv Avm Kivi myhvM `q mB
Zzjbvq LiP AZwaK Kg| KwDUvii GKwU ewk nQ wbfihvMZv| BUvibUi gvag
Kvbv vb _K h Kvbv mgq Z_ ei KiZ cvwi| hvMvhvMi GUv nQ GKwU mnR cwZ|
Ze KwDUvi WUv BbcyU `q gvbyl, myZivs gvbyl fzj WUv BbcyU w`j fzj Z_ cvIqvi mvebv
_vK| Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi dj cw_exi mKji mv_ vbi Av`vb-c`vb Kiv hvq| Bnv
GKwU mxgvbvnxb Z_ mvwfm|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj mgvR ayB h myweav cvQ Zv bq AmyweavI iqQ| hgb-
cZviYv, cwiPq Mvcb/ Pzwi, cbvMvwd, nvwKs BZvw`| AwaK gvvq KwDUvi eenvi Ges mwVK
cwZZ eenvi bv Kivi KviY wKQz ^v mgmvI `Lv w`Z cvi|
28 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

eemv-evwYR Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cqvM:


Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi evcK eenvi eZxZ AvaywbK eemv I Avg`vwb-ivwbZ Dbqb me bq|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw Qvov AvRKvj evsK, exgv, wWU Kvvwb, cwienb Ges DbZ weki
mvaviY KbvKvUvmn AbK KgKv APj| eemv-evwYR Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi evcK eenvi
nQ| eemv-evwYRi Rb mnR Kg mgq msev` Av`vb-c`vb I hvMvhvM, B-gBj, Iqe mvBU
Ges BUvibU evwYwRK hvMvhvMmn me iKg hvMvhvMi AvaywbK gvag| weki cvq mKj
`ki ga BUvibUi gvag ew wKsev cwZvbi ga jb`bK B-Kgvm ej| BUvibUi
gvag cY I mev weqi welqwU mKji `w mePq ewk AvKlY KiQ| Gi gvag ay h
cY q-weq nQ Zv bq, wewfb aibi mevI BUvibUi gvag cvIqv hvq| B-evswKs Gi
gvag Avgiv evsK bv wMq wbw` wnmve UvKv vbvi KiZ cvwi| ewki fvM evsKB GLb
GwUGg ey_ Gi gvag UvKv Dvjb I Rgv`vbi myweav w`Q| Gi dj AwZ mnR Kg LiP Ges
Kg mgq UvKv Dvjb I Rgv `qv hvq|
wkv Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cqvM:
wkv Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi DjL Kivi gZv| GLb BQv Kij KD evsjv`k em
AvgwiKvi Kvbv jvBewi _K eB coZ cvib|
AvRKvj cw_exi wewfb `ki miv wekwe`vjqi
jvBewi wKsev MelYv Kg mv_ mv_ BUvibU cKvk
Kiv nQ| dj cw_exi h Kvbv `ki gvbyl Zv`i
cqvRbxq Z_ msMn KiZ cviQ| AvRKvj wkv_xK
wkv `qvi Rb KwDUvi Ges cRi eenvi Kiv
nq| cZK kwYi DchvMx Ki wWwRUvj KUU Zwi
Kiv nq| hy Kiv nq my`i, AvKlYxq wP Ges eYbv|
Gi dj wkv_xiv mnR cvVi welqe eySZ Gis
Avq KiZ cvi| Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi
eenvii dj bv eyS eB `L ay gyL Kivi w`b
kl nq MQ | ZvQvov wkKiv Kvm ii AvMB jKPvi wkU AbjvBb Qv-Qvx`i w`q w`Z
cvib| Gi dj wkv_xiv AvM _KB cwZ wbZ cvib| wewfb `ki cvVg chvjvPbv Ki
mgqvchvMx Ges DbZ gvbi cvVg Zwi KiZ cvi| vb ARb GLb Avi kwYK I
wkKi ga mxgve bB| eZgvb Distance learning Gi mvnvh Ni em cov GgbwK wWwM
bqvI me| wkv Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw wece GbQ|
eZgvb gvwwgwWqv wmwW I BUvibU eenvii gvag hKvbv welq m^ Qv-Qvxiv RvbZ
cvi| AbK wkKiv Qv`i wewfb Iqe mvBUi bvg I wVKvbv w`q `b| Gi dj Zv`i
weklY `Zv I mgmv mgvavb Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii Afvm ew cvq hv eZgvb wek
vbi cavb fvvi wnmve weewPZ| wewfb cixvi Dic g~jvqbi Rb Z_ I hvMvhvM
chywi eenvi DjL Kivi gZv| ck- Di Gi gvag wewfb cixvi g~jvqb Kiv nq _vK|
eZgvb KwDUvii gvag wewfb cixv (hgb: GmGmwm I GBPGmwm) LvZv g~jvqb Ki Ges
djvdj c`vb Ki _vK| eZgvb wewfb cixvi djvdj BUvibUi gvag cKvk Kiv nq|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 29

Awdm-Av`vjZ Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cqvM:


Awdm Av`vjZ Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi DjL Kivi gZv| Awdm hLvb AvM cPzi
cwigvY KvMRc ~c `qv _vKZ AvR mLvb
KvMRc `Lv hvq bv ejjB Pj| GZme
dvBji cwieZ iqQ GKwU gv KwDUvi
Ges GKwU BUvibU mshvM| KwDUviB
msiwZ AvQ Awdmi mKj KgKZv`i
cqvRbxq Z_| KwDUvii gvagB Kiv nq
eZb, cvIbv BZvw`i wnmve| `i `i
dvBj wbq wcqb`i `oSvc PvL co bv,
KviY B-gBji gvagB G KvRjv mi
bqv nq| wePviK Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi
gvag wePvi cv_x`i mv MnY KiZ cvib|
wePvi cv_xiv AbjvBb mvaviY Wvqwi Ges wePvi `vqi KiZ cvib| mvaviY RbMY Z_ I
hvMvhvM chywi gvag `ki cPwjZ AvBb mK RvbZ cvie| dj Zviv AvBbi cwZ
kvkxj neb| mvaviY gvbyl AvBb gvb KiZ Drmvnx neb| miKvi Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi
gvag `ki mKj AvBbK webvg~j RbMYi Rb AbjvBb cKvk KiZ cvi| wePvii mv_
mswk mKj Kvhg Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi KjvY mgw^Zfve Kiv me| Z_ I hvMvhvM
chywi cqvM Av`vjZ Z_v wePvi eevi mKj Kvhg mgw^Zfve KivB njv B-KvU| weki
wewfb vb B-KvU Pvjy nqQ Ges mvdjRbKfve KvR KiQ|
wevb, wPwKrmvq Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cqvM:
c~e Kvbv GKRb wevbx Kvbv MelYv Kvh Amgv iL gviv Mj A_ev Ab Kvbv KviY
Pvwjq hZ bv cvij, MelYv KvRwU mLvbB mgv nq hZ Kvbv djvdj Qvov| nqZv
cieZxZ Avevi Kvbv wevbx H GKB welqi
Dci MelYv i KiQb| A_ev GgbI `Lv
hvq h, GKB welqi Dci cw_exi wewfb `k
GKhvM cvivjvjfve MelYv Ki, KviY
wevbxiv wbR`i ga Kvbv cKvi hvMvhvM
KiZ cviZb bv ev myhvM wQj bv| GKRb
AbRbi MelYvi AMMwZ ev djvdj mK
RvbZ cviZb bv| wevbi gweKvki avivq
Z_ chywi ecweK cwieZb m~wPZ nqQ|
wevbi wewfb MelYv Kg bZzbfve cKvwkZ
nIqvi dj Uwjdvb, Uwjwfkb, B-gBj, BUvibU BZvw`i gvag mviv wek Qwoq coQ Ges
30 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

MelYv Kg Divi mgw jvf KiQ| dj wevb mvgbi w`K GwMq PjQ iKUi MwZZ|
wevb wbZ-bZzb mvebv wbq Avgv`i vi nvwRi nQ| wPwKrmv Z_ chywi evcK
eenvii dj gvbyli Mo Avqy ew cvQ| AvR Ni em Z_ chywi KjvY wPwKsmv mev cvIqv
me nQ| bZzb bZzb Jlai Dveb Ges ivM wbivgqi mekl cwZ AvR mevB Rb hvQb|
ivMxiv Ni em weki wewfb `ki DbZ nvmcvZvji Wvvi`i mv_ wfwWI Kbdviws Gi
gvag mivmwi K_v ejZ cvib Ges civgk wbZ cvib| wewfb cv_jwRK cixvi wicvU
BUvibUi gag `~i `k _vKv WvviK `LvZ cvib| eZgvb Avgv`i `kI UwjgwWwmb
cwZ cPwjZ iqQ| Gi dj `yMg GjvKv _KI RbMY Uwjdvbi gvag wPwKrmv mev cq _vK|
wk-mvwnZ Ges webv`b Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw:
mviv weki wUwf Pvbji Abyvb AvR Ni em DcfvM Kiv hvq| wewfb aibi w_wW Mg Ges
GwbgUW wewfb wmbgv webv`b bZzb gvv hvM KiQ| wWwRUvj cRKkbi dj `kK wmbgv,
bvUK I HwZnvwmK eYbv Avb`i mv_ DcfvM KiZ cvi| Z_ chywi KjvY AvR wk
mvwnZi evcK cmvi nQ Ges cKvkbvi hy nQ Divi mgw| mvwnZ I wk Kgi
djvdj AvR gyn~Z mviv wek Qwoq coQ Ges gvbyli KjvY mme Kg Ae`vb iL hvQ|
webv`bi K_vZv ejvB evj| Z_ chywi KjvY mviv wek AvR Avgv`i nvZi gyVvq| dj
Z_ chyw Avgv`i webv`bi mKj Pvwn`vK c~iY Ki hvQ|
Kwl Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cqvM
Avgv`i `k Kwl cavb `k| G`ki 80% jvK Kwl KvR Ki RxweKv wbevn Ki| Kwl wki
DbwZi mv_ mviv `ki DbwZ wbfi Ki| Avi
GB Kwli Dbqb Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvi
DjL Kivi gZv| AvR-Kvj Rwgi gvwU cixv-
wbixv Ki gvwUi wewfb Dcv`vbi DcwwZi Dci
wfw Ki wbaviY KiZ cvib, Kvbv gvwUZ
Kvbv dmj fvjv Drcv`b ne| Z_ chywi
e`jZ wewfb dmji Drcv`b Kkj KlKiv
RvbZ cvi, c~e Zviv ay AwfZvi AvjvK
Pvlvev` KiZ| ivM evjvBi AvgY _K ivi
Rb KvhKix Jla, cvKwRs eev, evRviRvZKiY BZvw`i Rb cqvRbxq vb eZgvb Z_ I
hvMvhvM chywi gvag cq _vK|
AbjvBb Kwl evRviI Pvjy nqQ-hvi dj KlKiv mnR ewk `vg KwlcY evRviRvZ KiZ
cvi| KlKiv Mvg _KB gyn~Zi ga eo eo knii cvBKvwi evRvii `vg RvbZ cvi| dj
Kg `vg dmj wew Ki jvKmvb w`Z nq bv| wevb I chywi wewfb MelYv I cqvMi dj
RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi gvag DbZ, AwaK djbkxj, cwZK~j cwiek mnbkxj Lv`km Avwevi
KiQ hv KwlZ ecweK cwieZb GbQ|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 31

Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi dj Avgv`i mgvR wKQz bwZevPK cfve j Kiv hvq:


Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi cmvii dj mnR gvbyl cZviYv KiZ I wg_v ejv eo MQ| hgb-
Avgiv cvqB gvevBj dvb wbRi Aevb mK wg_v ejZ `wL| ZvQvov BUvibU AbK
wg_v cjvfb `wLq RbmvaviYi mv_ cZviYv Ki| ZvQvov AbK wbRi cwiPq Mvcb iL
wewfb aibi KvhKjvc Pvwjq _vK| cbvMvwdi Kivj _vevq `ki hye mgvRK asmi w`K
Vj w`Q, Gi dj GjvKvi hye mgvRi bwZK jb NU| ZvQvov nvwKsqi gvag Abi
iZc~Y Z_ Pzwi Kivi ceYZv `Lv hvq| ZvQvov wk-wKkviiv wewfb cKvi Mgm-G Avm nq
cPzi mgq b Ki| GZ Zv`i jLvcovi wZ nq| Gw`K KwDUvi gvvwZwi KvR Kivi
dj wewfb kvixwiK mgmv `Lv `q|
1.6 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw Ges A_bwZK Dbqb
ICT and Economical Development
eZgvb hyM wekvqbi hyM, Avi G wekvqb mePq eo f~wgKv cvjb KiQ Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw|
Kvbv `ki A_bwZK Dbqb Z_ hvMvhvM chyw Lye iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb Ki| AvBwmwU
Ges A_bwZK Dbqb ciii ga Mfxi mK iqQ| AvBwmwU evRviRvZKiY, MelYv Ges
ciii ga Mfxi mK iqQ| AvBwmwU cw_exi wewfb `k bZzb bZzb evRvi aivi Rb Dby
Ki w`qQ h Kvbv Kvvwb ev AMvbvBRkbi Rb hgb-AvgwiKvi GKwU Kvvwb Iqe
mvBUi gvag Zv`i cYi mKj Z_ wjwce KiZ cvi| cw_exi wewfb cv AevbiZ
AvMnxiv H cvWv mK RvbZ cvi, Qwe `LZ, Kvbv welq AvjvPbvi cqvRb nj Zv
KiZ cvi Ges Ggb wK weki wewfb vb em cY AWvi `qv hvq| Dcii AvjvPbvi mKj
wKQzB me Z_ hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj| AvBwmwU Kvbv `ki A_bwZK Dbqb myweav
c`vbKvixi f~wgKv cvjb Ki| wkv nQ hKvbv `k Dbqbi eo nvwZqvi| ZvB AbK `k
G wewbqvM KiQ| AvBwmwU Ges A_bwZK Dbqbi ga GKwU hvMm~ iqQ mLvb
cw_exi Abvb `ki Qv`i AvK Kiv hvq|
evsjv`ki A_bxwZZ Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw:
evsjv`k Kwlcavb `k| G`ki kZKiv Avwk Rb jvK Kwl KvR Ki _vK| myZivs Kwli
Dbqb nj Avgv`i `k A_bwZK Dbqb AbK AMMwZ mvwaZ ne| Avgv`i `k Kwl Ges
KlKi Dbqb Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw wewfbfve mvnvh KiQ| evsjv`k miKvi Z_ I
hvMvhvM chywK `wi` wegvPbi nvwZqvi wnme `LQ| AvBwmwUi gvag Kwl Ges MvgxY
A_bxwZi Dbqb me| wewfb aibi Uwjwfkb I iwWI Abyvb (hgb-`q gvwU I gvbyl, Kwl
w`evwbwk, gvwUi Uvb BZvw`) KlK`i Kwl dmj, Pvl cwZ, evRviRvZKiY cfwZ mK Abyvb
cPvi Ki Ges KlK`i wewfb cki Di w`q _vK| BDwbqb Z_mev K`, hvi ga MvgxY
RbMvx Zv`i cqvRbxq Z_mev cq _vK, KwlcY msv Iqe mvBU _K KlKiv Zv`i
cqvRbxq civgk cZ cvi Ges dmji ivM cwZiva cwZ, DbZ RvZ wbevPb BZvw` mK
Z_ jvf KiZ cvib| Gi dj KlK AwaK dmj Drcb KiZ cvi Gi dj Kwl Ges KlK
A_bwZKfve jvfevb nq|
32 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

AvRKvj KwDUvii cqvRbxq jLvjwLi KvR Ges cw kYi Rb Z_mev c` vbi Rb


wewfb K` Mo DVQ Ges dj eKvi`i Kg ms vb Ges Ab`i ` Kgx wnme Mo
Zvjv m e| wbR AvZKg msv b Ki A_ bwZKfve jvfevb nb| A``i cw kYi
gvag ` Kgx Zwii dj Avgiv we`k AvBwUZ ` Rbkw ivwb Ki e`wkK gy` v
AR b KiZ cvwi hv A_ bwZKfve `kK mg Ki| eZgvb Avgv`i `k-we`k Kg
msvbi Rb iwR kbi KvR BDwbqb Z_mev K` _K Kiv hvq| Gi dj Mv gi
jvKRb wekl Ki Aaw kwZ/ AwkwZ jvKRb Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw i mev wbq
we`k Kgmsvbi cw qv KiZ cvi Ges we`k wMq A_ DcvR b Ki `ki
A_ bxwZZ iZc ~Y f~w gKv cvjb Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii gvag AvRKvj BUvibUi gvag wewfb cKvi BDwUwjwU wej
GgbwK AvqKi wiUvb `vwLj Ges Kii UvKv cwikva Kiv hvq| GB cwZ AZ mnR weavq
RbmvaviY AvqKi w`Z Drmvnx nq Ges Gi dj cPzi ivR^ Av`vq nq RvZxq A_bxwZZ iZc~Y
f~wgKv cvjb Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw eenvii dj evswKs LvZ Avg~j cwieZb nqQ, evsK GLb mvaviY
PK eBqi cwieZ GgAvBwm Avi (MICR) PK eenvi Ki| Gi dj wbKvk Nii KvR AwZ
A mgqi ga nq _vK| ZvQvovI we`k `k UvKv cvVvbvi I c~ei gvbyqvj cwZi
cwieZ BjKUwb dv Uvdvi cwZZ UvKv cvVvbv nq| dj dv vbvi AwZ `Z nq hv
Avgv`i A_bxwZ DbwZ Zivw^Z Ki|

Abykxjbx
mRbkxj ck:
1| evsjv`ki AvqZb ewk eo bq wK Gi RbmsLv w`b w`b ew cvQ| G wekvj RbMvwi
Lv`i Pvwn`v c~iY wngwkg LvQ KZc| wevbxiv Lv`kmi Drcv`b ew Ges cwZKzj
cwiek djbkxj RvZ Dvebi Pv KiQ|
K. vqvmvRvwi Kvbv ivMi wPwKrmvq eeZ nq?
L. RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Kx?
M. wevbxiv Kvbv cwZZ kmi Drcv`b ew Ges cwZKzj cwiek djbkxj RvZ Dveb
KiZ cvi Zv eYbv Ki|
N. RbwUK Bwwbqvwis Gi dj wewfb djg~j, kvKmw Zvi Avw` ewk nvivQevLv Ki|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw: wek I evsjv`k cwZ 33

2| iwng wgqv GKRb KlK| wZwb Zvi wbRi RwgZ dmj Drcv`b Ki cwievii LiP
gUvq| wK G eQi Zvi RwgZ fvj dmj Drcb nqwb ZvB wZwb _vbv Kw l cwi`k Ki
wbKU civgki Rb Mjb| cwi`kK mvne Zvi Rwgi gvwU cixv KiZ Ges evRvi `i
hvPvB Ki Drcb dmj weqi civgk `b|

K. dmeyK wK?
L. iwng wgqv wKfve dmji evRvi `i mK RvbZ cvie?
M. gvwU cixv Ki wKfve Re mvii eenvi Kgvbv hvq? eYbv Ki|
N. Kwl Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi eenvievLv Ki|

ewbevPwb ck:
1| wbPi KvbvwUi KviY cw_ex AbK QvU nq AvmQ-
K. BUvibU L. RU wegvb Avwevi
M. mycvi KwDUvi Avwevi N. AvRv wZK nvBIq Zwi
wbPi AbyQ`wU co Ges 2 I 3bs cki Di `vI|
Kwig mvne evmvq GKv _vKb| GKw`b Awdm _K wdi `Lb Zuvi Nii `iRv Lvjv| Ni
XzK `Lb Avjgvwi, KwDUvi ZQbQ KiQ| AvjgvwiZ ii wP `LZ cjb| cywjkK
Rvbvj , cywjk i, Avjgvwi I KwDUvi jM _vKv nvZi Avyji Qvc msMn Ki wbq
Mjb| KqK w`bi gaB Pvi aiv coj|
2| AbygwZ Qvov KwDUvi bUIqvK cek Ki KwDUvii wbqY wbq bqvK Kx ej
K. vwgs L. nvwKs
M. mvBevi Pzwi N. cwRqvwiRg
3| Kvbv cwZZ Avyji Qvc eenvi Ki cywjk Acivax aiZ mg nqQ
K. RbwUK Bwwbqvwis L. evqvgwU
M. bvbv UKbvjwR N. AvwUwdwmqvj BbUwjR
4| BDwbqb Z_ I mevK` MVbi dj
i. Kgmsvbi mw nqQ|
ii. RbMYi hvMvhvM LiP KgQ|
iii. RbMYi mgq AcPq iva nqQ|
wbPi KvbvwU mwVK?
K. i L. i I ii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii
wZxq Aavq
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM & NETWORKING
eZgvb hyM Z_ chywi hyM| AvaywbK mfZvi gweKvk Z_ chywi cfve Acwimxg| Z_
chywi Rb cqvRb WUv KwgDwbKkb, Uwjdvb, gvevBj, Uwjwfkb Ges KwDUvi bUIqvK
eev| AvR wekevcx BUvibU hvMvhvM eevi cPjb mfZvK cwZwbqZ GwMq wbq hvQ|
eZgvb mgq KwgDwbKkb ejZ KwDUvi _K KwDUvii WUv vbviK evSvbv nq| mviv
wek AvR gvbyli nvZi gyVvq| gvbyl Z_i gnvmgy` Aevb KiZ cviQ| BUvibUi gvag
gvbyl wekevcx Dcv I Z_ wewbgq KiZ cviQ| G Dcv I Z_ wewbgq Kivi Rb
KwgDwbKkb wmg (ev DB_, Uvwgkb g_W, gvW), WUv KwgDwbKkb gvag (Kv-Gwqvj
Kvej, UzBW cqvi Kvej AcwUKvj dvBevi), Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb wmg (eyUz_, IqvB-
dvB, IqvB-gv) gvevBj hvMvhvM, KwDUvi bUIqvwKs eev I KvDW KwDwUs BZvw`
mK vb jvf Kiv cqvRb|

G Aavq cvV kl wkv_xiv


KwgDwbKkb wmgi aviYv eYbv KiZ cvie|
WUv KwgDwbKkbi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
WUv KwgDwbKkb cwqv weklY KiZ cvie|
WUv Uvwgkb gvWi kwYwebvm KiZ cvie|
WUv KwgDwbKkb gvagmg~ni ga Zzjbv KiZ cvie|
WUv KwgDwbKkb AcwUKvj dvBevii iZ weklY KiZ cvie|
Iqvijm KwgDwbKkbi wewfb gvagmg~n wPwZ KiZ cvie|
wewfb cRbi gvevBj dvbi WUv KwgDwbKkb cwZi ga Zzjbv KiZ cvie|
Z_ hvMvhvM chywi wewfb Iqvijm KwgDwbKkbi cqvRbxqZv g~jvqb KiZ cvie|
bUIqvKi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
bUIqvKi iZ weklY KiZ cvie|
wewfb aibi bUIqvKi Kvhvewj weklY KiZ cvie|
bUIqvK UcvjwR evLv KiZ cvie|
KvDW KwDwUs Gi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
KvBW KwDwUs Gi myweav evLv KiZ cvie|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 35
2.1 KwgDwbKkb wmgi cv_wgK aviYv
Primary Concept of Communication System
KwgDwbKkb ki A_ hvMvhvM Ges wmg ki A_ cwZ| A_vr KwgDwbKkb wmg
ki A_ nQ hvMvhvM cwZ| GK mgq gvbyl cvqivi cvq eua GK RvqMv _K Ab RvqMvq
Z_ cvVvZ| Nvovi WvKi cPjb wQj mf RvwZMyjvi ga| GK RvqMv _K Lei AviK RvqMvq
cvVvbvi Rb ivbvii eev Avgv`i `k wKQzKvj c~e ch cPwjZ wQj| cieZxZ UwjMvd
cwZi Avwevi Avgv`i wPv-PZbvK cfvweZ Kij| 1876 mvj AvjKRvvi Mvnvg ej KZK
e`ywZK msKZi mvnvh Uwjdvb jvBbi gvag K^i ciYi cwZ c`kbi NUbv _K
WUv KwgDwbKkbi bZzb w`M DbvwPZ nq| 1940 mvj W. RR wweR c_g KwDUvi _K
UwjMvd jvBbi gvag wbDBqK wmwUZ AewZ ej jveiUwii KvjKzjUi WUv ciY Kib,
ZLb DbvwPZ nq Z_ ciYi bZzb w`M| Zvi nvZ ai AvR wekevcx BUvibU hvMvhvM
eevi cPjb mfZvK cwZwbqZ GwMq wbq hvQ| eZgvb mgq KwgDwbKkb ejZ KwDUvi
_K KwDUvii WUv vbviK evSvbv nq| 1960 mvj mec_g GKwU K`xq KwDUvi I
`~ieZx Uvwgbvji ga Dcv vbvi cwqvi cPjb kyiy nq| Gme Uvwgbvj msiY I cmwms-
Gi gZv wQj bv| Gaibi cwZ Uwjcmwms bvg cwiwPZ| eZgvb hyM WUv GKwU g~jevb
m`| GKwU cwZvbi DbwZ, cwZvbi Rb evewfwK wmv MnY, evBii `Z cwieZbkxj
RMZi mv_ cwZvbi AfixY cwiekK mshvM vcb BZvw` welq Z_ ev WUv iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb
Ki|
2.1.1 WUv KwgDwbKkb (Data Communication)
Kvbv WUv ev Z_K GK KwDUvi nZ Ab KwDUvi wKsev GK wWfvBm nZ Ab wWfvBm
(gvevBj, vUdvb, cvmvbvj wWwRUvj AvwmmUU, wRwcGm bwfMUi BZvw`) wKsev GKvb nZ Ab
vb wKsev GKRbi WUv ev Z_K Abi wbKU vbvii cwqvK WUv KwgDwbKkb ej| GwU Ggb
aibi cwqv hvi gvag GK vb nZ Abvb wbfihvMfve WUv ev Z_ mnR I `~ZZg mgq
Av`vb-c`vb Kiv hvq|
WUv KwgDwbKkbi Dcv`vb (Elements of Data Communication)
WUv KwgDwbKkb cwqvq GKvb nZ Abvb wbfihvMfve WUv ev Z_ Av`vb-c`vb me|
WUv KwgDwbKkbi cuvPwU gwjK Dcv`vb njv
K. Drm (Source) L. ciK (Transmitter)
M. gvag (Medium) N. MvnK ev cvcK (Receiver) I
O. Me (Destination)
Drm wmg Uvwgkb wmg Me wmg

Source Transmitter Medium Receiver Destination

wP-2.1: WUv KwgDwbKkbi mvaviY eKwP


36 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

K. Drm (Source): WUv KwgDwbKkbi hme wWfvBm nZ WUv ev Dcv Zwi Kiv nq
ZvK Drm ej| hgb- KwDUvi, Uwjdvb BZvw`|
L. ciK (Transmitter): Drm _K WUv mivmwi ciY Kiv hvq bv| Gi Rb ciKi
cqvRb nq| Drm _K cvcKi wbKU WUv cvVvbvi Rb h h eeZ nq ZvK ciK
ej| hgb-gWg|
M. gvag (Medium): hvi gvag WUv GKvb _K Abvb A_ev GK KwDUvi _K Ab
KwDUvi vbvi Kiv nq ZvK WUv cevni evnK ev gvag ejv nq| hgb-Kvej, cvewjK
Uwjdvb jvBb, iwWI Iqf, gvBvIqf, AcwUKvj dvBevi, mvUjvBU I gWg BZvw`|
M. MvnK ev cvcK (Receiver): h hi gvag WUv MnY Kiv nq ZvK MvnK ev cvcK ej|
MvnK ev cvcK wnme gWg eenvi Kiv nq| MvnK KwDUvii mv_ hy gWg KwDUvii
AvbvjM msKZK wWwRUvj msKZ cwiYZ Ki|
N. Me (Destination): mekl h wWfvBm WUvmg~nK cvVvbv nq ZvK Me ej| Me
wnme mvfvi, cvmvbvj KwDUvi BZvw` eenvi Kiv nq|
WUv KwgDwbKkb eev (Data Communication System)
WUv KwgDwbKkb eevq KwDUvi _K KwDUvi A_ev KwUvi _K Ab Kvbv wWfvBm
WUv ev Z_i Av`vb-c`vb nZ cvi| G KwDUvi WUvi Drm, gWg ciK, cvewjK
Uwjdvb jvBb gvag, gWg cvcK Ges mvfvi Me wnme KvR KiQ| ciK nZ h gvagi
mvnvh WUv A_ev Z_ cvcKi KvQ cuQvq ZvK ejv nq gvag| Uwjdvb jvBb, Kvej BZvw`
G aibi gvagi D`vniY| wbPi wPi GKwU mvaviY WUv KwgDwbKkb eev `Lvbv njv

Workstation Modem Public Telephone Network Modem Server

wP-2.2: WUv KwgDwbKkb eev


Uwjdvb jvBbi ga w`q AvbvjM msKZ (Analog Signal) Av`vb-c`vb nq| KwDUvi
cmwms Kivi Rb WUvK wWwRUvj msKZ (Digital Signal) icvi Kiv nq| KvRB WUv
KwgDwbKkbi Rb wWwRUvj msKZK AvbvjM msKZ Ges AvbvjM msKZK wWwRUvj
msKZ cwiYZ Kiv cqvRb|
ciK KwDUvii mv_ mshy gWg (Modem) KwDUvi eeZ wWwRUvj msKZK AvbvjM
msKZ icvwiZ Ki Uwjdvb jvBb ciY Ki| cvcK KwDUvii mv_ mshy gWg
Uwjdvb jvBb _K cv AvbvjM msKZK wWwRUvj msKZ icvwiZ Ki MvnK KwDUvi
ciY Ki|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 37
2.1.2 WUv Uvwgkb wW (Data Transmission Speed)
Kvbv WUvK GK KwDUvi nZ Ab KwDUvi wKsev GKvb nZ Abvb WUv vbvii nviK
WUv Uvwgkb wW ej| G Uvwgkb wWK BandwidthI ejv nq| mvaviYZ Bit per Second
(bps) G GB evDB_ wnmve Kiv nq| cwZ mK h cwigvY weU UvwgU Kiv nq ZvK bps ev
Bandwidth ej|
WUv Uvdvi MwZi Dci wfw Ki KwgDwbKkb MwZK wZbfvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
1. bviv ev (Narrow Band)
2. fqm ev (Voice Band)
3. eW ev (Broad Band)
1. bviv ev (Narrow Band): bviv evi gvag WUv vbvii MwZ mePq Kg| h
ev WUv PjvPji MwZ 45 bps _K 300 bps ch nq _vK ZvK bviv ev ev
mve-fqR ev ej| mvaviYZ axiMwZi WUv vbvii G ev eenvi Kiv nq|
UwjMvwdZ Zvii eenvi ewk nIqvq WUv vbvii MwZ Kg| hgb-UwjMvd|
2. fqm ev (Voice Band): G evi WUv Uvwgkb nvi 9600 bps ch nq _vK|
GwU mvaviYZ jv Uwjdvb ewk eenvi Kiv nq| Ze KwDUvi WUv KwgDwbKkb
KwDUvi _K wcUvi WUv vbvii wKsev KvW wiWvi _K KwDUvi WUv
vbvii G Band Width eenvi Kiv nq|
3. eW ev (Broad Band): GwU DP MwZmb Bandwidth- hvi WUv Uvwgkb nvi 1
gMv bps nZ AwZ DPMwZ ch nq _vK| Broad Band mvaviYZ Kv-Gwqvj Kvej I
AcwUKvj dvBevi WUv vbvi eenvi Kiv nq| ZvQvov WiMax, mvUjvBU KwgDwbKkb
Ges gvBvIqf KwgDwbKkb cfwZ I GwU eeZ nq|
2.1.3 WUv Uvwgkb cwZ (Method of Data Transmission)
KwDUvi _K KwDUvi WUv vbvi nq wmMbvj weUi gvag| GK KwDUvi _K Ab
KwDUvi WUv Uvwgkb nIqvi mgq AekB `yKwDUvii ga wmMbvj weUi iy I kl eySZ
mZ nZ nq| weUi iy I kl eySZ bv cvij cvcK KwDUvi m wmMbvj MnY KiZ cvi
bv| G wmMbvj cvVvbvi mgq wewfb weUi ga mg^qi Rb eeZ cwZK ejv nq weU
wmbvbvBRkb|
KwDUvi WUv KwgwbDKkb cavbZ wZb aibi weU wmbvbvBRkb eeZ nq| h_v:
1. Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkb (Asynchronous Transmission)
2. wmbvbvm Uvwgkb (Synchronous Transmission ) I
3. AvBmvvbvm Uvwgkb (Isochronous Transmission)
38 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkb (Asynchronous Transmission)


h WUv Uvwgkb wmg ciK KwDUvi nZ WUv MvnK KwDUvi Kvivi evB Kvivi
UvwgU nq ZvK Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkb ej| Gwmbvbvm cwZZ 8 weUi Kvivi WUvK
Uvwgkbi c~e Zvi myL GKwU vU weU Ges kl GKwU ev `ywU c weU mshy nq cwZwU
Kvivi 10 A_ev 11 weUi WUvq icvwiZ nq UvwgU nq|
vU weU 8 weU Kvivi c weU
wP: Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkb GKwU Kvivi cvVvbvi Rb wmMbvj|
Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkbi ewk (Characteristics of Asynchronous Transmission)
1. G aibi Uvwgkb eevq ciK hKvbv mgq WUv UvwgU KiZ cvie Ges MvnKI
Zv MnY Kie|
2. G cwZZ GKwU Kvivi UvwgU nevi ci AviKwU Kvivi UvwgU Kivi gvSi weiwZ
mgq mgvb bv nq wfb wfb nZ cvi|
3. ciK kb cvBgvwi viRi cqvRb nq bv|
4. WUv Uvwgkb eevi `Zv I MwZ Kg|
5. cwZwU Kvivii iZ GKwU Start bit Ges kl GKwU A_ev `ywU Stop bit ciY
Kiv nq| G aibi WUv UvwgkbK vU/ c UvwgkbI ejv nq|
6. mvUjvBU ev gvBvIqfi Uvwgkb e _vKj LiP eo hvq|
Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkbi myweavmg~n (Advantages of Asynchronous Transmission)
1. hKvbv mgq ciK WUv vbvi KiZ cvi Ges MvnK Zv MnY KiZ cvi|
2. WUv Uvwgkbi Rb ciKi Kvbv cvBgvwi viR wWfvBmi cqvRb nq bv|
3. Kg WUv Uvwgkbi ewk DchvMx|
4. Zzjbvg~jKfve LiP Kg|
Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkbi Amyweavmg~n (Disadvantages of Asynchronous Transmission)
1. wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi Zzjbvq Gi `Zv Kg|
2. WUv Uvwgkb MwZ Kg|
3. hLb WUv vbvii KvR e _vK ZLb Uvwgkb gvagwU AKviY AeeZ Aevq co _vK|
4. mvUjvBU ev gvBvIqfi Uvwgkb e _vKj LiP eo hvq|
Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkbi eenvi (Application of Asynchronous Transmission)
1. KwDUvi nZ wcUvi WUv vbvi G cwZ eeZ nq|
2. KxevW nZ KwDUvi WUv vbvi G cwZ eeZ nq|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 39
wmbvbvm Uvwgkb (Synchronous Transmission)
h WUv Uvwgkb eevq ciK kb c_g WUvK Kvbv cv_wgK viR wWfvBm msiY
Ki bqvi ci WUvi Kvivimg~nK eK AvKvi fvM Ki cwZevi GKwU Ki eK UvwgU Kiv nq
ZvK wmbvbvm Uvwgkb ej| cwZwU eK (hvK cvKUI ejv nq) Kgc 80 _K 132wU
Kvivi _vK| `ywU eKi gvSLvbi mgq weiwZ mgvb mgq nq _vK Ges cwZwU eK WUvi iZ
GKwU nWvi (Header) Bbdigkb I kl GKwU UBji (Tailer) Bbdigkb cvVvbv nq|
nWvi Bbdigkb MvnKi KK wWK ciKi KK wWi mv_ wmbvbvBR Ki Ges ciK
I MvnKi mbvKiY msLv enb Ki _vK| Avi UBji Bbdigkb eKi kl wb`k Ki|
ZvQvov WUvi ga Kvbv fyj AvQ wKbv Zv hvPvB KiZ mnvqZv Ki _vK|
wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi ewk (Characteristics of Synchronous Transmission)
1. wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi `Zv Zzjbvg~jKfve ewk|
2. Uvwgkbi MwZ AbK ewk|
3. cwZwU Kvivii gvS UvBg BUvifj ev weiwZi cqvRb nq bv|
4. cwZwU Kvivii iZ GKwU Start bit Ges kl Stop bit cqvRb nq bv|
5. ciK kb cvBgvwi viRi cqvRb nq|
6. Zzjbvg~jKfve eqej|
wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi myweavmg~n (Advantages of Synchronous Transmission)
1. wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi `Zv (Efficiency) Gwmbvbvm Gi Zzjbvq ewk|
2. hnZz Uvwgkb Kvh AbeiZ PjZ _vK dj Zvi Uvwgkb MwZ ewk|
3. cwZ Kvivii ci UvBg BUvifj Gi cqvRb nq bv Ges cwZ Kvivii i Ges
kl Start Ges Stop bit Gi cqvRb nq bv|
4. mgq Zzjbvg~jKfve Kg jvM|
wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi Amyweavmg~n (Disadvantages of Synchronous Transmission)
1. ciK kb GKwU cv_wgK msiY wWfvBmi cqvRb nq|
2. GwU Zzjbvg~jKfve eqej|
wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi eenvi (Application of Synchronous Transmission)
1. KwDUvi nZ KwDUvi WUv KwgDwbKkb wmbvbvm Uvwgkb cwZ eeZ nq|
2. GKvb _K `~ieZx Kvbv vb WUv vbvi GB cwZ eeZ nq|
3. GK KwDUvi nZ GKB mgq AbKjv KwDUvi WUv Uvwgkbi GwU GKwU
ej eeZ cwZ|
40 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

AvBmvvbvm Uvwgkb (Isochronous Transmission)


AvBmvvbvm Uvwgkb cvq wmbvbvm Uvwgkbi gZvB| Ze AviI DbZ fvmb|
AvBmvvbvm Uvwgkb ciK I cvcK kbi ga WUv Uvwgkb wWj (Delay) mewbg ivLv
nq| G cwZZ ciK nZ MvnKK AbKMyjv eY wbq GKwU Ki eK Zwi Ki GKmv_ GKwU
eK WUv cvVvbv nq| `ywU eKi ga WUv Uvdvii mgq cvq 0 GKK Kivi Pv Kiv nq|
KvR: Gwmbvbvm Uvwgkb I wmbvbvm Uvwgkb wmgi ga cv_K jL|
2.1.4 WUv Uvwgkb gvW (Data Transmission Mode)
KwDUvi _K KwDUvi WUv KwgDwbKkbi WUv cevni w`KK WUv Uvwgkb gvW
ejv nq| WUv vbvii cevni Dci wfw Ki A_vr w`K ewki wfwZ WUv Uvwgkb
gvWK cavbZ wZb fvM fvM Kiv nq| hgb
1. BDwbKv (Unicast) 2. eWKv (Broadcast) 3. gvwKv (Multicast)
BDwbKv (Unicast): h Uvwgkb eevq ciK (KwDUvi) I cvcKi (KwDUvi) ga WUv
Av`vb-c`vb nq ZvK BDwbKv Uvwgkb gvW ejv nq|
G Uvwgkb gvWK wZb fvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
wmgc (Simplex)
nvd-Wyc (Half Duplex)
dzj-Wyc (Full-Duplex)
wmgc (Simplex): WUv vbvii Kejgv GKw`K WUv ciYi gvW ev c_vK ejv nq
wmgc| G cwZZ Kejgv A nZ B Gi w`K WUv ciY Kiv hve wK B nZ A Gi w`K WUv
ciY Kiv hve bv| wmgc eevq h cv WUv ciY Kie m cv MnY KiZ cvie bv Ges MnY cvI
ciY KiZ cvie bv| D`vniY-iwWI, wUwf, PABX wmg |
A (ciK) gvag-(Medium) B (cvcK)
wP-2.3: Simplex
nvd-Wyc (Half Duplex): G eevq WUv vbvii Dfq w`K _K WUv ciY Kiv
hvq Ze Zv GKB mgq me bq| G cwZZ hKvbv cv GKB mgq Kejgv WUv MnY A_ev
ciY KiZ cvi, wK MnY Ges ciY GKB mv_ KiZ cvi bv| wbPi wP `Lv hvQ h, G
eevq A hLb WUv ciY Kie B ZLb Kejgv WUv MnY KiZ cvie, ciY KiZ cvie
bv| A Gi ciY cwqv mb nj B WUv ciY KiZ cvie wK WUv MnY KiZ cvie bv|
D`vniY: IqvwKUwK|
gvag (Medium)
A (ciK ev cvcK) B (cvcK ev ciK)
wP-2.4: Half Duplex
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 41
dzj-Wyc (Full-Duplex)
G eevq WUv vbvii GKB mgq Dfq w`K nZ WUv ciY I MnY Kiv hvq| G
hKvbv cv cqvRb WUv ciY Kivi mgq WUv MnY A_ev WUv MnYi mgq ciYI KiZ
cvie| wP dzj-Wyci , A hLb B Gi w`K WUv ciY Kie B I ZLb A Gi w`K
WUv ciY KiZ cvie| D`vniY-Uwjdvb, gvevBj I BUvibU|
gvag (Medium)
A (ciK ev cvcK) B (cvcK ev ciK)
wP-2.5: Full-Duplex
wmgc, nvd-Wyc I dzj-Wyc gvWK GK BDwbKv (Unicast) gvWI ejv nq|
1. eWKv (Broadcast)
G Uvwgkb eevq bUIqvKi Kvbv GKwU bvW cvcK
(KwDUvi, wcUvi ev Ab Kvbv hcvwZ) _K WUv ciY B
Kij Zv bUIqvKi Aaxb mKj bvWB MnY Ki| D`vniY ciK
wnme wUwf I iwWI mcPvi K` _K Kvbv Abyvb C
mcPvi Kij Zv mKjB DcfvM KiZ cvi| cvki wP A D
A bvW _K Kvbv WUv ciY Kij Zv bUIqvKi Aaxb
mKj bvWB (B,C,D I E KwDUvi) MnY Kie| E
wP-2.6: eWKv gvW
2. gvwKv (Multicast)
gvwKv Uvwgkb eevq bUIqvKi Kvbv GKwU bvW (KwDUvi, wcUvi ev Ab Kvbv hcvwZ)
_K WUv ciY Kij Zv bUIqvKi Aaxb mKj bvWB MnY cvcK
KiZ cvi bv| kyaygv wbw` GKwU Myci mKj m`m MnY KiZ B
cvi| hgb- UwjKbdviws I wfwWI Kbdviwsqi kyaygv ciK
hv`i AbygwZ _vKe ZvivB AskMnY KiZ cvie| cvki wP, A C
ciK bvW _K Kvbv WUv ciY Kij Zv bUIqvKi Aaxb B, A D
D I E bvW MnY Kie|
E
C bvW WUv MnY KiZ cvie bv KviY C bvW AvjvP wfwWI
Kbdviws Mci m`m bq| wP-2.7: gvwKv gvW

2.2 WUv KwgDwbKkb gvag (Data Communication Medium)


WUv KwgDwbKkbi cw qvq ciK KwDUvi Ges `~ieZx MvnK KwDUvii ga WUv
Av`vb-c`vbi Rb GK aibi mshvM cqvRb| G mshvMK mvaviYZ Pvbj (Channel)
ev gvag ejv nq| Pvbj evevqbi Rb eeZ wewfb cwZMyjvB nQ gvag| hgb-
mvaviY Uwjdvb jvBb, gvBvIqf wmg, dvBevi AcwUK Kvej, Kv-Gwqvj Kvej,
mvUjvBU KwgDwbKkb BZvw`|
42 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbg KqKwU Pvbj ev gvag mK AvjvPbv Kiv njv


1. Kvej ev Zvi (Cable or Wire) 4. gvBvIqf (Microwave)
2. mvaviY Uwjdvb jvBb (Telephone line) 5. f~-DcMn eev (Satellite)
3. eZvi Zi (Radio Wave) 6. BbdviW (Infrared) BZvw`|
Kvej ev Zvi (Cable or Wire)
WUv KwgDwbKkb Kvej GKwU iZc~Y gvag| mvaviYZ Kg `~iZi bUIqvwKs hgb- LAN
(Local Area Network) eevq WUv Uvwgkbi Rb wewfb aibi Kvej eeZ nq _vK|
Ze nvBwW WUv Uvwgkbi I Kvej eeZ nq _vK| wewfb bUIqvKi wewfb
aibi Kvej eeZ nq|
Ze wbwjwLZ Kvejjvi mePq ewk eenvi jYxq
Kv-Gwqvj Kvej (Co-axial cable)
UzBW cqvi Kvej (Twisted Pair Cable)
AcwUKvj dvBevi Kvej (Optical Fiber cable) BZvw`|
2.2.1 Kv-Gwqvj Kvej (Co-axial cable)
Kv-Gwqvj Kveji (Co-axial cable) Aci GKwU bvg nQ Kv-G (Coax)| GKwU mwjW Kcvi
Zvi Kv-Gwqvj Kveji K` w`q AwZg Ki|
Kv-Gwqvj Kvej `ywU cwievnx Zvii mg^q
MwVZ| cwievnx `ywU cuvPvbv Aevq bv _K GK
Acii wfZi _vK| cwievnx `ywUK c_K Ki ivLv
nq Ges fZii cwievnxK AvQvw`Z Kivi Rb
wP-2.8: Kv-Gwqvj Kvej
evwnii cwievnx I fZii cwievnxi gvSLvb
100
Acwievnx c`v_ _vK| fZii cwievnxwU mvRv _vK| evwnii cwievnxwU Pviw`K _K cuvPvbv _vK
Ges evBii cwievnKK Avevi cvwKi RvKU viv XK ivLv nq|80
Gaibi Kveji gaw`q Lye `Z WUv vbvi nq| Ze WUv 60vbvii nvi Zvii `Ni Dci East

West
wbfi Ki| mvaviYZ Kv-Gwqvj Kvej eenvi Ki GK wKjvwgUvi
40 ch `~iZ wWwRUvj WUv North

ciY Kiv hvq, G WUv Uvdvi iU 200 Mbps (Megabits per second) ch nZ cvi
20

0
Ges Uvwgkb jm& AcvKZ Kg nq| Kv-Gwqvj Kvej `ycKvi| h_v: 1. w_bbU (Thinnet),
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

2. w_KbU (Thicknet)
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 43
Kv-Gwqvj Kveji myweavmg~n
1. G aibi Kveji Uvwgkb jm& AcvKZ Kg nq|
2. WUv vbvii MwZ ewk|
3. AvbvjM Ges wWwRUvj Dfq WUv Uvwgkb G Kej eeZ nq|
4. UzBW cqvi Kej Acv G Keji gvag AwaK `~iZ Z_ cvVvbv hvq|
5. GwU dvBevi Kej Acv Kg eqej Ges mnR enbhvM|
Kv-Gwqvj Kveji Amyweavmg~n
1. WUv Uvdvi iU wbfi Ki Zvii `Ni Dci|
2. Kv-Gwqvj Kej UzBW cqvi Kej Acv wKQzUv eqej|
2.2.2 UzBW cqvi Kvej (Twisted Pair cable)
Uwjdvb jvBbi ga w`q Z_ I K^ii gvag hvMvhvM Kiv hvq| cw_exi cvq me `kB
hvMvhvMi Rb Gaibi gvag ejfve
eeZ nq| wmMbvj UvwgU Kivi Rb `ywU
cwievnx Kcvi ev Zvgvi ZviK cii mgfve
cuvwPq UzBW cqvi Kvej Zwi Kiv nq|
cuvPvbv Zvi `ywUK c_K ivLvi Rb G`i gvS
wP-2.9: UzBW cqvi Kvej
Acwievnx c`v_ eenvi Kiv nq| Gaibi
Kvej mvaviYZ gvU 4 Rvov Zvi eenvi Kiv nq| cwZ Rvov Zvii ga GKwU Kgb isqi
(mv`v) Zvi _vK Ges Aci Zvijv nq wfb isqi| Zvimg~n mshvRbi mgq 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
7, 8, b^ii wfwZ mshvM w`Z nq| cwZ Rvovi Zvi `ywUi GK GKwUi cy iZ nq 0.4 wgt wgt
_K 0.9 wgt wgt| Uwjdvb jvBb G Zvi eeZ nq| wWwRUvj wmMbvwjs Ges LAN-G GB
Kveji eenvi iqQ| WUv Uvdvii `~iZ evoj Gi WUv Uvdvii nvi Kg hvq| G
Kveji Uvwgkb j&m AbK ewk| Ze Abvb Kveji PvBZ UzBW cqvi Kveji `vg
Zzjbvg~jKfve Kg|
UzBW cqvi Kvej mvaviYZ `ycKvii nq| h_v:
K. AvbwkW UzBW cqvi Kvej ev BDwUwc (Unshielded Twisted Pair-UTP)
L. wkW UzBW cqvi Kvej ev STP (Shielded Twisted Pair-STP)
K. AvbwkW UzBW cqvi Kvej ev BDwUwc (Unshielded Twisted Pair-UTP)
UTP Kvej g~jZ GKvwaK Rvov UzBW cqvii mgw hv Avevi cvwK AveiY gvovbv
_vK| Zvii ga w`q hLb wmMbvj AwZg KiZ _vK ZLb Gi kw ev gvb gv^q jvc
cZ _vK| `yaibi UTP Kvej AvQ| h_v: UTP Catagory-5 I Catagory-6|
eZgvb jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvKi Catagory-5 I Catagory-6 AvbwkW UzBW
cqvi Kvej ev BDwUwc Kvej eenvi Kiv nq|
44 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

L. wkW UzBW cqvi Kvej ev STP (Shielded Twisted Pair-STP)


wkW UzBW cqvi Kvej GK ev GKvwaK UzBW Kvej _vK hv dqj (Foil) I
cUKwUf Kcvi wkws viv AveZ|
UzBW cqvi Kveji myweavmg~n
1. UzBW cqvi Kvej `vg LyeB mv Ges Bbj KivI mnR|
2. AvbvjM Ges wWwRUvj Dfq WUv Uvwgkb G Kvej eeZ nq|
UzBW cqvi Keji Amyweavmg~n
1. Gaibi Kvej eenvi Ki 100 wgUvii ewk `~iZ Kvbv WUv ciY Kiv KKi|
2. Uvwgkb j&m AbK ewk nq _vK|
2.2.3 AcwUKvj dvBevi (Optical Fiber)
AcwUKvj dvBevi njv KuvP A_ev cvwKi Zwi GK aibi WvB BjKwUK (AiK) c`v_,hv Avjv
cwienb mg| AcwUKvj dvBevii ga w`q Avjvi c~Y AfixY cwZdjbi gvag AwZ `Z WUv
ciY Kiv hvq| AcwUKvj dvBevii mePq eo ewk njv GwU BjKwUKvj wmMbvji cwieZ AvjvK
ev jvBU wmMbvj UvwgU Ki| eZgvb hme AcwUKvj dvBevi cvIqv hvq Zvi WUv Uvwgkb nvi 100
mbps _K 2 gbps |
AcwUKvj dvBevi wZbwU i wbq MwVZ| h_v:
1. Kvi: mePq fZii Ask nQ Kvi (Core) hv KuvP ev cvwKi Zwi| AvjvK iwk
mvjb Ki fZii Kvi| Kvii evm 8 _K 100 gvBvwgUvi ch nq _vK|
2. KvwWs: Kvii wVK evBii iwU nQ KvwWs (Cladding)| KvwWs KuvP ev cvwKi
Zwi hv Kvi _K wbMZ AvjvK iwk cwZdjb Ki Zv cybivq diZ cvVvq|
3. RvKU: evBii AskwU njv RvKU hv KvwWs Gi AveiY wnme KvR Ki|
AcwUKvj dvBevii MVb
dvBevi Zwii Rb mvWv eviv wmwjKU, mvWv jvBg wmwjKU, mvWv Avjywgbv wmwjKU BZvw`
gvw KvbU KuvPMyjv ewk eeZ nq| KLbI KLbI dvBevii KvwWs wnme cvwK eeZ
nq _vK|

wP-2.10: dvBevi AcwUK Kveji MVb


KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 45
AcwUKvj dvBevii ewk njv
dvBevi ZwiZ AiK c`v_ wnme wmwjKv I gvw KgcvbU Ku vP enyjfve eenvi Kiv
nq| eZgvb bUIqvK evKevbi gvag wnme AcwUKvj dvBevi eeZ nQ| G
Kveji ewk wbg ic
AZwaK DP MwZZ WUv UvwgU KiZ cvi|
GwU BjwKvj wmMbvji cwieZ AvjvK ev jvBU wmMbvj UvwgU Ki|
AwZ ^QZv|
ivmvqwbK mywiZv ev wbwqZv
GZ AvjvKi c~Y AvfixY cwZdjb cwZZ WUv Drm _K Me Mgb Ki|
kwi AcPq iva|
mnR cwqvKiY hvMZv|
bUIqvKi evKevb wnme dvBevi AcwUK Kvej AwaK eeZ nq|
AcwUKvj dvBevii myweavmg~n
wewfb aibi myweavi Rb AcwUKvj dvBevi AvR Z_ hvMvhvM eevq gB Rbwcq nq
DVQ| Zvi ga DjLhvM myweavjv njv
AvqZb QvU, IRb nvjKv I mnR cwienbhvM|
mnR cwqvKiY Kiv hvq|
kwi AcPq Kg|
we`yr P^K cfve nZ gy|
WUv Av`vb-c`vb wbfzj|
wP-2.11: AcwUKvj dvBevi
cwieki Zvc-Pvc BZvw` viv cfvweZ nq bv|
WUv msiYi wbivcv I MvcbxqZv mePq ewk|
eZgvb AcwUKvj dvBevii gvag AvjvKmv, mi I Qwe mv`bi KvR Kiv nq|
AcwUKvj dvBevii Amyweavmg~n njv
dvBevi AcwUK KvejK U AvKvi euvKvbv hvq bv|
AcwUKvj dvBevi AZ `vwg|
AcwUKvj dvBevi Kvej Bbj Kiv Abvb Kveji Pq Zzjbvg~jK KwVb|
dvBevii cKvif`
dvBevii MvVwbK Dcv`vbi cwZmivsKi Dci wfw Ki dvBeviK `yfvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
K. c BbW dvBevi (Step-index fiber)
L. MWW BbW dvBevi (Graded-index fiber)
46 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

K. c BbW dvBevi (Step-index fiber): c BbW dvBevi Kvii cwZmivsK me


mgvb _vK Ges evm ewk|
L. MWW BbW dvBevi (Graded-index fiber): MWW BbW dvBevi Kvii
cwZmivsK K` mePvBZ ewk Ges GwUi evmva eivei KgZ _vK|
Kvii evm Abyhvqx dvBevi AcwUKK Avevi `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. gvwgvW dvBevi (Multimode Fiber)
2. wmjgvW dvBevi (Singlemode Fiber)
AcwUKvj dvBevi KwgDwbKkb eev
AcwUKvj dvBevi KwgDwbKkb eev ek mnR Ges AbKUv UwjKwgDwbKkb eevi gZv|
dvBevi AcwUK KwgDwbKkb eev wZbwU g~j Ask wbq msMwVZ| h_v:
K. ciK h ev UvwgUvi
L. ciY gvag Ges
M. MvnK h|
ciK h Drm _K WUv msMn Ki dvBevii gvag Zv MvnK h cuQvq| dvBevii gvag
hme WUv cvVvbv nq Zv mvaviYZ AvbvjM
wmMbvj A_ev wWwRUvj wmMbvj nq _vK|
dvBevi mivmwi G aibi WUv cwienb
mg bq| ciK h AvbvjM wmMbvj
A_ev wWwRUvj wmMbvjK cqvRbxq
gWyjkbi gvag dvBevii ga w`q
Uvwgkbi DchvMx AvjvK Zi cwiYZ
Ki| WUvK AvjvK Zi i~cvii ci
h Zv dvBevii ga wbc Ki| ciK wP-2.12: AcwUKvj dvBevi KwgDwbKkb eev
h gWyjUi Ges AvjvK Drmi (jmvi ev jvBU BwgwUs WvqvW BZvw`) gvag GKvR mb Ki|
AcwUKvj dvBevi AvjvK iwki c~Y AvfixY cwZdjb Gi gvag WUv cwienb Ki _vK|
Gfve cwZdwjZ iwk mekl MvnK h cuQvq| MvnK h g~jZ `ywU Ask _vK| h_v:
(K) dUv wWUKUi I (L) cmwms BDwbU|

dUv wWUKUii KvR njv dvBevi _K WUv Dvi Kiv (Detection)| cmwms BDwbU WUvK
AvwjwdKkb, wdvikb I wWgWyjkbi gvag eenviKvixi KvQ cuQvq|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 47
Zviwenxb ev Iqvijm gvag (Wireless medium)
Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb njv Ggb GK aibi hvMvhvM eev hLvb WUv Av`vb-c`vbi
Rb Kvbv cKvi Kvej ev Zvii cqvRb nq bv| Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb iwWI Iqf
Gi gvag ciK h GK wWfvBm _K Ab wWfvBm ev GK KwDUvi _K Ab
KwDUvi mshvM vcb Ki _vK| AwaKvsk cw_exi evqyg jB WUv PjvPji
wdwRKvj c_ wnme KvR Ki| hLb WUv PjvPji c_ cwZeKZv _vK Ges Zvihy
gvag vcb mgmv mw nq ZLb Iqvijm wmg eenvi Kiv nq| Zviwenxb gvag wZb
aibi| h_v:
1. iwWI Iqf (Radio Wave)
2. gvBvIqf (Microwave)
3. mvUjvBU (Satellite)
2.2.4 iwWI Iqf (Radio Wave)
iwWI Iqfi gvag AbK `~i _K WUv ciY Kiv hvq| GKviY
hvMvhvM eevq Ni I evBi evcKfve iwWI Iqf eenvi Kiv
nq| iwWI Iqf mnR Zwi Kiv hvq| GwU AbK `~i ch hZ
cvi Ges `vjvbKvVv ch f` KiZ cvi| G hvMvhvM eevq
msKZ ciYi MwZeM 24 wKjvweU cvi mK| iwWI Iqfi
wdKvqw 10 wKjvnvUR _K 1 wMMvnvURi ga mxgve| 10
wKjvnvUR _K 1 wMMvnvURi ga mxwgZ BjKUvgvMbwUK wP-2.13: iwWI Iqf
KUvgK ejv nq iwWI Iqf|
iwWI Iqf wZbwU k wYZ wef| h_v:
Kg kwi GKK wdKvqw (Low Power Single Frequency): G aibi iwWI Iqf
ay GKwU wdKvqwZ KvR Ki| GwU bviv ev bvgI cwiwPZ| Gi Uvwgkb wmgi
LiP Zzjbvg~jKfve Kg| Uvwgkb MwZ 1 _K 10 GgwewcGm (Mbps)|
DP kwi GKK wdKvqw (High Power Single Frequency): G aibi iwWI Iqf
Kg kwi GKK wdKvqw kwYi iwWI Iqfi Pq ewk `~iZ AwZg KiZ cvi Ges
Pjvi c_ Kvbv cwZeKZv _vKj Zv f` KiZ cvi| DP kwmb nevi KviY `~iZ
AwZgi mv_ mv_ wmMbvji gvbi AebwZ Lye GKUv nq bv| wiwcUvi eenvii gvag
wmMbvji AvIZvfz mxgvbv evovbv hvq| Uvwgkb MwZ 1 _K 10 GgwewcGm (Mbps)|
weZ KUvg (Spread Spectrum): G wmg GKK wdKvqwi cwieZ GKwU wbw`
mxgv ev ii wdKvqwi ga w`q WUv wmMbvj cvVvbv nq| h cwZZ wmMbvjK
KvwWs (Coding) Kiv nq ZvK ejv nq wPcm (Chips)| G KvwWs chywi gvag
wmMbvji wbivcv wbwZ Kiv hvq|
48 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

2. gvBvIqf (Microwave)
Zvi ev Kvej Qvov WUv Av`vb-c`vbi cwZ nQ gvBvIqf| gvBvIqf GK aibi
BjvgvMbwUK Iqf hv mK cvq 1 wMMv ev Zvi Pq
ewkevi Kb wewk| Kwg DcMn eevi gvag gvBvIqfi
mvnvh ciK I MvnK KwDUvii ga hvMvhvM vcb Kiv hvq|
gvBvIqf mshvM eenvi Ki WUv, Qwe, k vbvi Kiv
me| gvBvIqf wmg g~jZ `yUv Uvwmfvi (Transceiver)
wbq MwVZ| Gi GKwU wmMbvj UvwgU (Transmit) Ges AbwU
wiwmf (Receive) Kivi KvR eeZ nq| gvBvIqfi
wdKvqw i nQ 300 MHz30GHz| gvBvIqfi GwUbv
wP-2.14: gvBvIqf
eo Kvbv feb ev UvIqvii Dci emvbv nq hvZ wmMbvj ewk
`~iZ AwZg KiZ cvi Ges c_ Kvbv e cwZeKZv mw KiZ bv cvi|
gvBvIqfi ewk
K. gvBvIqf euvKv c_ PjZ cvi bv|
L. gvBvIqf wmg g~jZ `yUv Uvwmfvi (Transceiver) wbq MwVZ| Gi GKwU
wmMbvj UvwgU (Transmit) Ges AbwU wiwmf (Receive) Kivi KvR eeZ nq|
M. gvBvIqf gvag ciK I cvcKi ga Kvbv evav _vKj WUv UvwgU KiZ cvi bv|
N. gvBvIqfi GwUbv eo Kvbv feb ev UvIqvii Dci emvbv nq hvZ wmMbvj ewk
`~iZ AwZg KiZ cvi|
gvBvIqf `yaibi| h_v:
1. Uiwqvj (Terrestrial) gvBvIqf
2. mvUjvBU (Satellite) gvBvIqf
1. Uiwqvj (Terrestrial) gvBvIqf
G aibi chywZ f~-cB UvwgUvi I wiwmfvi emvbv nq| GZ gMvnvUR wdKvqw mxgvi
wbPi w`K wdKvqw eenvi Kiv nq| UvwgUvi I wiwmfvi `wiLvq hvMvhvM Ki _vK Ges
wmMbvj Kvbv gB gaeZx Kvbv evav (hgb- DP feb) AwZg KiZ cvi bv ev ec_
AwZg Ki bv|
2. mvUjvBU (Satellite) gvBvIqf
mvaviYZ Kwg DcMn ev mvUjvBU ejZ GKwU e Ab AviKwU eK K` Ki c`wY KivK
eySvq| hgb-Puv` cw_exK c`wY Ki| hvMvhvMi mvUjvBU nQ cw_exi Pvwiw`K c`wY
Ki Ggb vb iKU viv vwcZ wekl aibi Zviwenxb wiwmfvi/ UvwgUvi| eZgvb kZ kZ
mvUjvBU eeZ nQ|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 49
G chywZ hvMvhvM DcMni mnvqZv wbZ nq| GZ cw_ex _K 36,000 wKjvwgUvi Dci
wRIwmbvbvm K hvMvhvM mvUjvBU cw_exi mgvb MwZZ NyiZ _vK| G mvUjvBUi Rb
f~-c h wiwmwfs GwUbv eenvi Kiv nq Zv nQ cvivewjK| ciK h mK cvq 600 KvwU
ev Zvi KvQvKvwQ evi Kbwewk gvBvIqf msKZ DcMn cvVvq| DcMn cuQvbvi ci G
msKZ AZ xY nq co| DcMn AbKjv Uvcvvi _vK| G Uvcvvi xY msKZK
wij Ki 400 KvwU evi Kbwewk msKZ cwiYZ Ki cw_exi MvnK h diZ cvVvq|
mvUjvBU Uvwgkb Hme eeZ nq hLvb mvaviY Kveji gvag hvMvhvM Kiv me
nq bv| wekl Ki hme `ki ga mgy` ev wekvjvKvi cvnvo AewZ Zv`iK bUIqvKfz
KiZ mvUjvBUi Kvbv weK bB| GQvov GKwU gv mvUjvBU eenvi Ki GKB mgq
AbKjv `ki mv_ hvMvhvM vcb Kiv me nq|
2.3 Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb wmg (Wireless Communication System)
e`ywZK Kvi ev Zvii cwieZ ev webv Zvi wbw` `~iZ Z_i vbvi Kivi cwZ|
Iqvijm ki A_ njv Zviwenxb| Kvbv
cKvi Zvi eenvi bv KiB Z_ Av`vb-c`vbi
gvag hvMvhvM Kivi cwZK Iqvijm
KwgDwbKkb wmg ej| Iqvijm
KwgDwbKkb KLbI Kg `~iZ Avevi KLbI
nvRvi nvRvi gvBj `~iZ nZ cvi| AwaK `~ieZx
vb hLvb ^vfvweK Zvi eenvi Ki hvMvhvM
Kiv me nq bv mLvb Iqvijm cwZZ mnR wP-2.15: Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb
hvMvhvM Kiv hvq| Gi mvnvh cw_exi hKvbv cv wewfbfwmg
ve Z_ Av`vb-c`vb Kiv hvq|
hgbgvevBj I Uwjdvb K_v ejv, UU gvmwRs, PvwUs BZvw` KvR Lye mnRB Kiv hvq|
Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb wmg Zvii mvnvh Qvov Z_ vbvi KiZ wewfb aibi kw hgb-
iwWI wdKvqw (Radio Frequency-RF), kkw (Acoustic Energy) BZvw` eeZ
nq| G cwZZ ^ I `xN Dfq `~iZB Z_ vbvi Kiv hvq|
wbgwjwLZ gvag Iqvijm KwgDwbKkb mb nq:
iwWI wdKvqw KwgDwbKkb|
gvBvIqf KwgDwbKkb| hgb- kUi KwgDwbKkb|
BbdviW (Infrared-IR) kU-i KwgDwbKkb|
hgb- wigvU KUvj (Remote Control)|
50 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

2.3.1 Iqvijm KwgDwbKkbi cqvRbxqZv


eZ g vb wek wewfb Iqvijm c h y w c qvRb nQ| Zvi ga Dj L hvM
KqKwU nQ:
wmwKDwiwU wmg: wewfb Awdm-Av`vjZ ev evmv evwoi wbivcvi Rb Iqvijm chyw
eenvi Kiv nq|
Uwjwfkb wigvU KUvj: eZgvb UwjwfkbMyjvi Iqvijm wigvU KUvj cqvRb nq|
mjyjvi Uwjdvb: eZgvb mjyjvi Uwjdvb I gWgmg~n Iqvijm chyw mePq
ewk eeZ nq| iwWI Iqe eenvi Ki mjyjvi Uwjdvb cwiPvjbv Kiv nq|
IqvB-dvB: IqvB-dvB njv ^ cwimii GKwU jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK hv enbhvM
KwDwUs wWfvBmMyjvK (hgb- jvcUc, gvevBj) Lye mnRB BUvibUi mv_ mshy
KiZ cvi|
Iqvijm GbvwR Uvdvi: GwU m~Y Zviwenxb| Iqvijm GbvwR Uvdvi Gi mvnvh
e`ywZK kw GKwU kw Drm nZ GKwU e`ywZK jvW UvwgU nq|
KwDUvi BUvidm wWfvBm: eZ g vb KwDUvi wWfvBm hgb- Kx-evW , gvDm
Iqvijm my w eav cvIqv hvq| eZ g vb KwDUvi wWfvBmMy jvZ e y U z _ c h y w i
my w eav cvIqv hvq| Iqvijm bUIqvwK s c h y w Z IqvBdvB wWfvB mmg~ n eeZ
nq _vK|

2.3.2 eyUz_ (Bluetooth)


eyUz_ nQ Zviwenxb ^ `~iZ WUv A`vb-c`vbi Rb eeZ GKwU cvcvqUvwi Icb Iqvijm
chyw| Gi gvag GKwU cvmvbvj Gwiqv bUIqvK
(PAN) mw nq hLvb DPuy gvbi wbivcv eRvq
_vK| Gi `~iZ mvaviYZ 10 _K 100 wgUvi nq
_vK| wewfb wWfvBm USB cvUi gvag eyUz_
mshvM `qv nq| 1994 mvj UwjKg fi
wP-2.16: e-yUz_
GwiKmb eyUz_ Dveb Ki| `kg kZvwi WbgvKi
ivRv nviv eyUz_ Gi bvg Abymvi G chywwUi bvg ivLv nqQ eyUz_| eZgvb gvevBj dvb _K
i Ki jvcUc, Uve, wcwWG, vU dvb, KwDUvi, gwWKvj wWfvBm Ges evmvevwoi webv`b
i AbK wWfvBm eyUz_ chywwU eeZ nQ| Gi gvag wWfvBmjvK mshy KiZ GLb
Avi Kvej mshvMi cqvRb coQ bv| enbhvM I vggvY hcvwZi Gaibi hvMvhvM
mnR nq| Gi WUv Uvdvi iU cvq 1 gMvweU/mK ev ZviPq ewk|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 51
eyUz_i ewk (Characteristics of Bluetooth)
1. ^ `~iZ `ywU wWfvBmi ga WUv vbvi e y U z _ iwWI Iqf eenvi Ki|
2. eyUz_ 2.4 wMMvnvUR (GHz) wdKzqwZ KvR Ki|
3. 10-100 wgUvii ga AevbKvix wWfvBmi mv_ hvMvhvM vcb KiZ cvi|
4. eyUz_ GKwU wcKv-bU Gi AvIZvq mevP 8wU hi mv_ wmMbvj Av`vb-c`vb KiZ
cvi|
5. gvevBj dvb, jvcUc, KwDUvi, wcUvi, wWwRUvj Kvgiv Ges wfwWI Mg KbmvjjvK
ciii mv_ mshy KiZ Ges Z_ wewbgq KiZ eyUz_ GKwU wbivc` Dcvq mieivn Ki
_vK|
6. eyUz_ eenviKvixi gaZv QvovB AUv KbwdMvi KiZ cvi|
eUy z_i eenvi (Application of Bluetooth)
1. dvbi mv_ nvm wd nWmUi mshvM mvD ev fqm WUv vbvi e y U z _ eeZ nq|
2. dvb _K KwDUvii dvBj vbvi G chyw eeZ nq|
3. eyUz_ eenvi Ki KwDUvii mv_ Abvb wWfvBmi mshvM
NUvbv hvq Ges Z_ Av`vb-c`vb Kiv hvq|
4. wcwmi BbcyU I AvDUcyU wWfvBmjvi mv_ Zviwenxb hvMvhvM
eyUz_ eeZ nq|
5. wRwcGm wiwmfvi, wPwKrmv hcvwZ, eviKvW vbvi I UvwdK
KUvj wWfvBmjvZ eyUz_ eeZ nq| wP-2.17: e-yUz_
6. WwWKUW Uwjnj_ wWfvBmjvZ nj_ mi WUvjvi kU i Uvwgkb eyUz_
eeZ nq|
7. cvqB BbdviW eeZ nq Ggb vb wbqYi eyUz_ eeZ nq|

2.3.3 IqvB-dvB (Wi-Fi)


Wi-Fi kwU Wireless Fidelity ki msw ic| IqvB-dvB njv Rbwcq GKwU Zviwenxb
bUIqvwKs chyw hv DP MwZi BUvibU I bUIqvK mshvMmg~n
mieivni Rb eZvi ZiK eenvi Ki _vK| e`ywZK
hcvwZjvK Zviwenxb Dcvq mshy Kivi GKwU Kkj njv
IqvB-dvB (Wi-Fi)| GwU Iqvijm jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK
(WLAN) Gi Rb IEEE(Institute of Electrical &
wP-2.18: IqvB-dvB
Electronics Engineers) 802.11 cYxZ vvW| Gi Gwiqv GKwU
K, GKwU feb wKsev KqK wK.wg. GjvKv Ryo nZ cvi|
52 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

mvaviYZ BbWvii G `~iZ 32 wgUvi Ges AvDUWvii 95 wgUvii gZv nq _vK|


IqvB-dvB Gbve Kvbv wWfvBm hgb- GKwU cvmvbvj KwDUvi, wfwWI Mg Kbmvj,
vUdvb wKsev wWwRUvj AwWI cqvi cfwZ GKwU Iqvijm bUIqvK AvKmm cqUi gvag
BUvibUi mv_ hy nZ cvi|
IqvB-dvB Gi ewk (Characteristics of Wi-Fi)
GwU IEEE 802.11 vvWi Iqvijm jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK (WLAN)
Wi-Fi chyw eenvi Ki GKB mv_ GKvwaK KwDUvi BUvibU mshvM `qv hvq|
IqvB-dvB Gi KfviR mxwgZ cwimi _K wbq weZ cwimi cvIqv me|
Wi-Fi chywi mvnvh BUvibU AvKmm Kiv hvq|
KfviR Gwiqv mvaviYZ BbWvii 32 wgUvi Ges AvDUWvii 95 wgUvii gZv
nq _vK|
bUIqvK mnR bZzb eenviKvix hy Ki bUIqvKi cwiwa evovbv hvq|
GKvwaK Avm cqUi Rb bUIqvK ivwgs myweav iqQ|
802.11b I 802.11g vvWi Rb wdKzqw nvwcs myweav c`vb Ki|
IqvB-dvB Gi myweav (Advantages of Wi-Fi)
Wi-Fi chyw eenvi Ki GKB mv_ GKvwaK KwDUvi BUvibU mshvM `qv hvq|
bUIqvKi Rb Kvbv jvBm ev KZci Abygv`bi cqvRb nq bv|
bUIqvK mnR bZzb eenviKvix hy Ki bUIqvKi cwiwa evovbv hvq|
evavgy wmMbvj Uvdvii Rb wewfb aibi Avbwckb myweav w`q _vK|
GKvwaK Avm cqUi Rb bUIqvK ivwgs myweav iqQ|
802.11b Ges 802.11g vvWi Rb wdKzqw nvwcs myweav c`vb Ki|
IqvB-dvB jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvKi Zzjbvq Zzjbvg~jKfve mv Ges Lye mnRB eenvi Kiv hvq|
IqvB-dvB Gi Amyweav (Disadvantages of Wi-Fi)
Wi-Fi bUIqvKi mxgvbv wbw` GjvKv ch mxgve _vK|
bUIqvKi `Zv I MwZ Zzjbvg~jKfve Kg|
we`yr LiP Abvb vvWi Zzjbvq ewk|
Abvb wWfvBm KZK wmMbvj Rvg ev cwZeKZv mw nZ cvi|
WUv I bUIqvKi wbivcv SzuwK _K hvq|
`~iZ ewk nj bUIqvKi MwZ I wmMbvji YMZ gvb DjLhvMnvi Kg hZ cvi|
AvZ ev Abygvw`Z ew KZK Avm cqU eenvii SzuwK _vK|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 53

2.3.4 IqvBgv (WiMAX)


WiMAX Gi c~Yic nQ Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access| IqvBgv
(WiMAX) chywi gvag DP MwZi eWev mev,
Zviwenxb eevq weZ GjvKvRyo BUvibU
AvKmm Kivi myhvM cvIqv hvq| 1998 mvj
IEEE 802.16 Mc Iqvijm gUvcwjUb Gwiqv
bUIqvK (WMAN) Gi Rb gvbwU Av`k wnme
MnY Kiv nq| GwU AcvKZ AwaK gvbmZ I
AwaK wbivcv myweav msewjZ Iqvijm cUvKj| G
cUvKji WUv Uvwgkb iU 70 gMvweU/ mK| wP-2.19: IqvBgv

WiMAX Gi cavb `ywU Ask iqQ| GKwU nQ WiMAX Gi em kb hv BbWvi I


AvDUWvi UvIqvi wbq MwVZ| AbwU nQ GwUbvmn WiMAX wiwmfvi, hv Kvbv KwDUvi ev
jvcUc mshy _vK| GKwU WiMAX em kb mvaviYZ 10 wKwg nZ i Ki 60 wKwg
ch eWev BUvibU Avm myweav w`q _vK|
IqvBgv bvgwU w`qQ IqvBgv dvivg hv MwVZ nqwQj 2001 mvji Ryb| IqvBgv
wWGmGj mevK `~i mwiq w`q BDwbfvmvj BUvibU AvKmmi myhvM Ki w`qQ|
IqvBgvi cKvif`: IqvBgv `yaibi nZ cvi| h_v:
1. wdW IqvBgv Ges 2. gvevBj IqvBgv|
1. wdW IqvBgv: wdW IqvBgv g~jmvkqx cqU-Uz-cqU Ges cqU-Uz-gvwcqU mjykb
cvIqv hvq|
2. gvevBj IqvBgv: gvevBj IqvBgv hKvbv aibi UwjhvMvhvMK gvevBj wWfvBm
eenvi DchvMx Ki| gvevBj IqvBgv wdW Iqvijm AvwcKkbjvK AviI GKavc
GwMq wbq mjdvbi gZv AvwcKkbjvK AviI wekvj cwimi eenvii myhvM Ki `q|
IqvBgv Gi myweav (Advantages of WiMAX)
1. KfviR Gwiqv mvaviYZ 10 wKwg nZ i Ki 60 wKwg ch nq _vK|
2. GKK GKwU kbi gvag nvRvi nvRvi eenviKvixK BUvibU mev `qv hvq|
3. wdKvqw ev jvBm ev jvBmwenxb DfqB nZ cvi|
4. cZ AjI mev cvIqv hvq; GgbwK hLvb dvbi mshvM cuQwb mLvbI|
5. KvqvwjwU Ae mvwfmi wbqZv `q|
6. Z_ I UwjhvMvhvM mevjv c`vb Kiv hvq|
7. GwUbvmn WiMAX wiwmfvi, hv Kvbv KwDUvi ev jvcUc mshy _vK|
54 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

IqvBgv Gi Amyweav (Disadvantages of WiMAX)


1. `~iZ ewk nj GKvwaK eR kbi cqvRb nq|
2. bUIqvKi Abvb Iqvijm wWfvBm wmMbvj cwZeKZv mw KiZ cvi|
3. msvcb Ges iYveY LiP ewk|
4. AbK eenviKvix GKB UvIqvi Avm Kivq mvwfmi mwVK YMZ gvb eRvq ivLv AbK
KwVb|
5. Abvb bUIqvK hgb- dvBevi AcwUK, mvUjvBU, Kvej BZvw`i mv_ Zzjbv Kij
IqvBgv Gi WUv iU AZ axiMwZi|
6. Lvivc AvenvIqv hgb ewi KviY Gi wmMbvj weN NUZ cvi|
7. ewk we`yrkw eenviKvix chyw hvi dj mvweK bUIqvK Pvjvbvi Rb chv we`yZi
mieivn wbwZ KiZ nq|
KvR: IqvB-dvB Ges IqvBgv Gi ga cv_K jL|

2.4 gvevBj Uwjdvb wmgi wewfb cRb


eZgvb wek Z_ chywi hyM gvevBj dvb GKwU AZvekKxq h wnme cwiMwYZ nqQ|
1940 mvji w`K hyiv mec_g gvevBj dvb mvwfm Pvjy nq| cieZxZ 1950 mvji iZ
BDivc gvevBj mvwfm Pvjy nq| 1973 mvj mvaviYZ gvbyli ga gvevBj dvbi eenvi i
nq| gvevBj dvbi geagvb eenvi I Dbqbi GK GKwU chvq ev avcK gvevBj dvbi
cRb ej| gvevBj dvb chywi geagvb DbwZ I eenvii Dci wfw Ki gvevBj dvb
Avwevii i _K eZgvb mgq ch PviwU cRb fvM Kiv nqQ| h_v:
1. c_g cRb (First Generation-1G)
2. wZxq cRb (Second Generation- 2G)
3. ZZxq cRb (Third Generation-3G)
4. PZz_ cRb (Fourth Generation-4G)

1. c_g cRb (First Generation-1G)


c _ g c R bi gvevBj dvbjv wQj mjy j vi bUIqvK wbf i Ges AvbvjM wmgi
Dci wfw Ki Zwi nqwQj| 1973 mvj mbvevwnbxi
evwni wbw` KqKwU gvevBj dvbi eenvi i
nq| 1979 mvj evwYwRKfve mvaviYZ gvby li ga
gvevBj dvbi eenvi i nq| m Rb 1979 mvjK
1g c R bi gvevBj dvbi m~ P bv Kvj ejv nq| 1979
mvj Gwkqvi me e n r UwjKwgDwbKkb Kvvwb Rvcvbi
NTTC (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone wP-2.20: 1G gvevBj
Corporation) mjy j vi Uwjdvb Drcv`b i Ki| 1980
mvji ii w`K KvbvWv, hyiv , gwKvZ mjyjvi Uwjdvbi wKQz wKQz eenvi i nq|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 55
1981 mvj NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) KZK WbgvK, wdbjv, biIq I myBWb
AvRvwZK ivwgs myweavmn 1g cRbi gvevBj bUIqvKi 2q hvv i nq| 1983 mvj Di
AvgwiKvq evwYwRKfve c_g cRb gvevBj dvb Pvjy Kiv nq hvi bvg wQj AMPS (Advanced
Mobile Phone System)| AMPS GbvjM wmMbvj eenvi Ki hvMvhvM vcb KiZ|
c_g cRbi gvevBj dvbi ewk :
bUIqvK iwWI wmMbvj wnme AvbvjM wmgi eenvi|
bUIqvK NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) vvW|
Pvbj Avm cwZ FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)|
gvevBj dvbmg~n AvKvi QvU Ges IRb nvjKv|
wmMbvj wdKvqw Zzjbvg~jKfve Kg|
K_vcK_b Pjv Aevq eenviKvixi Aevbi cwieZb nj Uvwgkb wewQb nq hvq|
GZ gvBvcmmi Ges mwgKvi chyw eeZ nq|
AcvKZ Kg wdKvqw evi eenvi|
D`vniY: GWfvW gvevBj dvb wmg (Advanced Mobile Phone System-AMPS), bwWK
gvevBj Uwjdvb (Nordic Mobile Telephone), UvUvj GKmm KwgDwbKkb wmg (Total
Access Communication System- TACS) BZvw`|
2. wZxq cRb (Second Generation-2G)
c_g cRbi AvbvjM wmgi gvevBj dvbi cwieZ wZxq cRbi wWwRUvj gvevBj
bUIqvK wmg Pvjy nq| 1990 mvj BDivc wZxq cRbi gvevBj
dvb mec_g eeZ nq| Uvwgkb KvqvwjwU, wmg KvcvwmwU Ges
wekvj GjvKv Ryo bUIqvK Mo Zvjvi j wZxq cRbi gvevBj
wmg Pvjy Kiv nq| fqmK Noise gy Kivi gvag wZxq cRb
gvevBj dvbi Avwefve NU| GwU fqm UvwgU Ki wWwRUvj cwZi
gvag| 1991 mvj wdbjv mec_g GSM bUIqvK Radiolinja
wP-2.21: 2G gvevBj
Pvjy nq| 1992 mvj hyivR gwkb wbqwZ Ges 1993 mvj
wdbjv Person to Person SMS UU gvmR mvwfm Pvjy nq| wdbjv 2000 mvj mec_g
gvevBj dvb eenvi Ki `wbK wbDR nWjvBb wevcb cPvi Kiv nq|
wZxq cRbi gvevBj dvbi ewk
wWwRUvj cwZi iwWI wmMbvj eeZ nq|
Pvbj Avm cwZ TDMA, FDMA Ges CDMA|
mxwgZgvvq AvRvwZK ivwgs myweav Pvjy nq|
GSM cwZZ WUv Ges fqm ciY Kiv me nq|
WUv vbvi Kivi MwZ AbK ewk|
K_vcK_b Pjv Aevq eenviKvixi Aevbi cwieZb nj Uvwgkb AwewQb _vK|
mec_g wccBW cwZ Pvjy nq|
GgGgGm (MMS-Multimedia Message Service) Ges GmGgGm (SMS-Short Message
Service) mvwfm Pvjy nq|
56 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY: wRGmGg 900, wRGmGg-Avi, wRGmGg 1800, wRGmGg 1900, wRGmGg


400, Digital AMPS (D-AMPS), CDMA BZvw`|
3. ZZxq cRb (Third Generation-3G)
wZxq cRb _K ZZ xq cRbi cavb chyw MZ cv_K nQ mvwKU myBwPs WUv Uvwgkbi
cwieZ ZZ xq cRb cvKU myBwPs WUv Uvwgkbi eenvi|
2001 mvji g gvm Rvcvbi UvwKI GjvKvq NTT WvKvgv
Pvjy Ki c_g A-evwYwRK I cixvg~j K 3G bUIqvK| G cRbB
Avayw bK gvevBj UKbvjwR HSPA (High Speed Packet
Access) Gi evevqb Kiv nq| W-CDMA cwZ eZgvb
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System)
bvg cwiwPZ| ZZxq cRb DP MwZi WUv Uvdvi I wP-2.22: 3G gvevBj
gvwwgwWqv WUv eenvimn CDMA I GPRS (General Packet
Radio Service) vvWi evcK DbwZ mvwaZ nq| dj mevwaK WUv Uv dvii gvevBj
UKbvjwR EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) Pvjy nq|
2002 mvj `wY Kvwiqv I hy iv WCDMA Gi cwZx EV-DO UKbvjwR Pvjy
njI 2002 mvji kl w`K Rvcvb Ges 2003 mvj BZvwj I hy ivR WCDMA
UKbvjwR eenvii cmvi evoZ _vK| 2007 mvj 3q cRbi bUIqvK eenviKvix
295 wgwjqb `uvovq, hv wQj gvU gvevBj eenviKvixi 9% gv| cvq `yB -ZZxqvsk
eenviKvix WCDMA UKbvjwR Ges GK-ZZxqvsk eenviKvix EV-DO vvW eenvi
KiZv|
ZZxq cRbi gvevBj dvbi ewk:
cvKU myBwPs I mvwKU myBwPs Dfq cwZZ WUv Uvwgkb|
gWg mshvRbi gvag gvevBj dvb BUvibUi eenvi|
iwWI wdKvqw W-CDMA Ges UMTS vvW|
EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) cwZ KvhKi nq| dj
AwaK cwigvY WUv vbvi me nq|
WUv vbvi DPMwZ mb| WUv iU 2 GgwewcGm Gi AwaK|
gvevBj evswKs, B-Kgvm BZvw` mev Kvhg Pvjy me nq|
G GSM, EDGE, UTMS Ges CDMA chyw eeZ nq|
AvRv wZK ivwgs myweav|
Pvbj AvKmm ev mj wmMbvj cwZ njv TD-SCDMA Ges TD-CDMA|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 57
ZZxq cRb gvevBj dvbi myweavmg~n:
1. memgq BUvibU mshvM `qv _vK, Avjv`v Ki BUvibU mshvM `qvi cqvRb nq bv|
2. wWwRUvj cwZZ fqm Ges WUv vbvwiZ nq|
3. hKvbv mgq BUvibU evDR Kiv hvq; BUvibU Mg Ljv Ges Mg WvDbjvW Kiv hvq|
4. wfwWI Kbdvi (Video Conferance) Kiv hvq|
5. Mvb kvbv, wUwf I wmbgv `Lv Ges Pvwn`v Abyhvqx WvDbjvW Kiv hvq|
6. weK cwZZ wej c`vb msv mev c`vb Kiv hvq|
D`vniY: UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), IMT (International Mobile
Telecommunication)-2000, MC- CDMA, TD-SCDMA, EDGE, HSPA BZvw`|

4. PZz_ cRb (Fourth Generation-4G)


AvMvwg w`bi gvevBj dvb wmg njv PZz_ cRbi gvevBj dvb wmg| G cRbi gvevBj
wmgi cavb ewk njv mvwKU myBwPs ev cvKU myBwPsqi
cwieZ BUvibU cUvKj (IP) wfwK bUIqvKi eenvi|
BUvibU cUvKj eenvii dj gvevBj Uwjdvb wmg (IP)
wfwK bUIqvK eenvii gvag WUv Av`vb-c`vb Kiv me
ne| PZz_ cRbi gvevBj dvb wmg AvjUv-eWev MwZi
wP-2.23: 4G gvevBj
BUvibU eenvi Kiv hve| `Z Pjbkxj wWfvBmi Gi WUv vbvi MwZ 100 gMvweU/
mK Ges wi wWfvBmi Gi WUv vbvi MwZ 1 MMvweU/ mK| D`vniY^ic,
jvcUc, vUdvb Ges Abvb gvevBj wWfvBmi mv_ BDGmwe Iqvijm gWg| PZz_ cRb
DvweZ chywi ga WiMAX, Flash-OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access), 3GPP LTE (3rd Generation Partnership Project Long Term Evolution) eeZ
nQ| 2010 mvji ii w`K Iqvijm BUvibU myweavmn Amazon Kindle, Nook bvg wewfb B-
wiWvi (E-reader) evRvi Avm| mekl Iqvijm BUvibU myweavmn Avcj Kvvwbi iPAD bvgK
UejU wWfvBm evRvi cvIqv hvQ|
PZz_ cRbi gvevBj dvbi ewk:
DP gZvmb cvKU WUv Uvwgkb|
DP MwZmb Iqvijm eWev mvwfm|
DP MwZi wdKvqw|
Iqvijm BUvibU myweavmn iPAD bvgK UejU wWfvBmi eenvi|
USB cvUi gvag mivmwi KwDUvi eenvi Kiv hvq|
w-gvwK Qwe c`kbi eev|
58 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

2.5 KwDUvi bUIqvKi aviYv (Concept of Computer Network)


eZgvb weki hvMvhvMi KwDUvi bUIqvK GKwU iZc~Y eev| wekevcx KwDUvi
bUIqvKi cmvi nQ KwDUvi chywi mevaywbK eenvi| eZgvb wewfb aibi cwZvb
wbR`i KvRi myweav_ wbR^ KwDUvi bUIqvK Zwi KiQ| KwDUvi bUIqvK ejZ eySvq
`yB ev ZZvwaK KwDUvii ga mshvM eev| A_vr wewfb KwDUvi Kvbv hvMvhvM eev
viv GKm hy _vKj ZvK ej KwDUvi bUIqvK| KwDUvi bUIqvKi myweav njv
AbKMyjv KwDUvi cii hy _vKvq `y-GKwU Lvivc nq MjI me KvR e nq hvq bv,
fvjvMyjv w`q m KvR Kwiq bqv hvq|
2.5.1 KwDUvi bUIqvKi eenvi/Dk (Use of Computer Network)
1. dvBj ev Z_ wewbgq (File or Information Sharing)
2. nvWIqvi wimvm kqvwis (Hardware Resource Sharing)
3. mdUIqvi wimvm kqvwis (Software Resource Sharing)
4. Z_ msiY (Information Preservation)
5. Z_ myiv (Information Protection)
6. evZv ev gmR Av`vb-c`vb (Exchanging Message)
2.5.2 bUIqvKi cKvif`
wbqY KvVvgv mvwfm c`vbi aibi Dci wfw Ki bUIqvKi cKvif`
bUIqvKi wbqY KvVvgv Ges mvwfm c`vbi aibi Dci wfw Ki GK cavbZ wZb fvM fvM
Kiv hvq| h_v:
K. KvqU-mvfvi bUIqvK (Client-Server Network)
L. wcqvi-Uz-wcqvi bUIqvK (Peer to Peer Network)
M. wgk ev nvBweW bUIqvK (Hybrid Network)
K. KvqU-mvfvi bUIqvK (Client-Server Network)
GK ev GKvwaK WwWKUW mvfvii mg^q G aibi bUIqvK MwVZ nq| G WwWKUW mvfvi
KvqU wcwmi Rb cqvRbxq mvwfm c`vb Ki| mvwfmmg~ni AvIZvq cavbZ hv _vK Zvnjv
dvBj, wcU gmR, WvUveR, GwcKkb BZvw`|

wP: 2.24 KvqU-mvfvi bUIqvKi D`vniY


KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 59
L. wcqvi-Uz-wcqvi bUIqvK (Peer to Peer Network)
wcqvi Uz wcqvi bUIqvK cwZZ wbw` Kvbv mvfvi _vK bv| G cKvii bUIqvK cwZwU
wcwm wimvm (Resource) kqvwis-Gi mgvb
f~wgKv cvjb Ki _vK| GLvb Kvbv WwWKUW
mvfvi _vK bv, dj GLvb wcwmMyjvi ga iZi
w`K _K Kvbv kwYwebvmI bB| cwZwU c_K
wcwm Zvi WvUvi wbivcv weavb wbRB `vqx _vK|
wcwmi eenviKvix G wbaviY Ki `b Zvi
Kvbv dvBj ev WUv bUIqvK Abvb`i eenvii wP-2.25: wcqvi-Uz-wcqvi bUIqvK
Rb Dby _vKe|
M. wgk ev nvBweW bUIqvK (Hybrid Network)
wgk ev nvBweW bUIqvK g~jZ KvqU mvfvi I wcqvi-Uz-wcqvi bUIqvKi GKwU mg^q|
mvaviYZ nvBweW bUIqvK KvqU mvfvi Aski cvavb _vK| Ze Gi cvkvcvwk GLvb ^
wevi wcqvi-Uy-wcqvi bUIqvKi Ask Rvov `qv nq _vK| G cwqvq KwDUvi ev
bvWMyjvK mivmwi K`xq KwDUvii m hy bv Ki wekl vb vcb Kiv nq I Zvici
MwZkxj mshvMc_ viv mshy Kiv nq|
AvKvi I wewZi Dci wfw Ki KwDUvi bUIqvKK cavbZ PvifvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
1. cvmvbvj Gwiqv bUIqvK ev cvb (Personal Area Network-PAN)
2. jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK ev jvb (Local Area Network-LAN)
3. gUvcwjUb Gwiqv bUIqvK ev gvb (Metropolitan Area Network-MAN)
4. IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvK ev Iqvb (Wide Area Network-WAN)
1. cvmvbvj Gwiqv bUIqvK ev cvb (Personal Area Network-PAN)
cvb (PAN) Gi c~Yic nQ Personal Area Network| Kvbv ewi wbKUeZx wewfb wWfvBmi
(Uwjdvb Ges cvmvbvj wWwRUvj GwmmUUm)
ga mshvM vcb Ki Z_ Av`vb-c`vbi
bUIqvK wmgK PAN ej| cvb ewMZ
wWfvBmjvi ga hvMvhvMi Rb eeZ nZ
cvi A_ev nvqvi jfj bUIqvK Ges BUvibUi
mv_ hvMvhvMi RbI nZ cvi| cvb Gi wew Z
mvaviYZ 10 wgUvi Gi ga mxgve| PAN G wP-2.26: cvmvbvj Gwiqv bUIqvK
eeZ wWfvBmjvi ga DjLhvM wWfvBm nQ jvcUc (Laptop), wcwWG (PDA) enbhvM
wcUvi, gvevBj (Mobile) BZvw`| cvb USB evm Ges Fireware evm viv mshy nZ cvi|
60 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

cvb Gi ewkvewj (Characteristics of PAN)


1. cvmvbvj KwDUvi wWfvBmmg~ni ga hvMvhvMi Rb eeZ nq|
2. evw mvaviYZ KqK wgUvii gaB mxgve _vK|
3. KwDUvi evmmg~n hgb- BDGmwe ev dvqviIqvi Gi gvag Zvi viv hy _vKZ cvi|
4. Iqvijm bUIqvK chyw viv GKwU Iqvijm cvmvbvj Gwiqv bUIqvK Zwi Kiv me|
2. jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK ev jvb (Local Area Network-LAN)
LAN Gi c~Yic nQ Local Area Network| jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK ev jvb ^ cwimii
RvqMvi Rb eeZ nq| mvaviYZ 10 wK.wg. ev Zvi Kg
cwimii RvqMvi ga cqvRbxq msLK KwDUvi
Uvwgbvj ev AbKvbv cwidivj wWfvBm (hgb- wcUvi)
mshy Ki h bUIqvK Zwi Kiv nq ZvK LAN ej|
ewki fvM LAN B wews ev `yB wZbwU cvkvcvwk AewZ
wews Gi ga bUIqvK cwZv KiZ eeZ nq| GwU
mvaviYZ zj-KjR ev wekwe`vjq, Kvbv eo Awdm wP-2.27: jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK
wewsq eenvi Kiv nq| LAN G AewZ cwZwU
KwDUviB wbR`i ga WUv, dvBj, wewfb `vwg wWfvBm hgb- vbvi, jRvi wcUvi BZvw`
kqvi KiZ cvi| LAN Gi UcvjwR mvaviYZ vi, wis wKsev eWKv Pvbj g_W nq _vK|
Gi Uvwgkb wgwWqv wnme mvaviYZ UzBW cqvi Kvej, Kv-Gwqvj Kvej ev AcwUKvj
dvBevi eenvi Kiv nq|
jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK Dei g~j KviY wQj-KwDUvii gvag wewfb eenviKvixi ga
cviwiK hvMvhvM vcb, WUv vbviKiY, GKRbi wmwcBD AbRb eenvi KiZ cvivi
myweav c`vb BZvw`|
jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvKi ewkvewj
1. mxwgZ `~iZi ga Gi Kvhg mxgve|
2. wmwiR (kwY) mshvMi gvag KwDUviMyjv mshy nq|
3. Dcv vbvii nvi mvaviYZ 10 gMvweU/mt _K 1000 gMvweU / mt|
4. G bUIqvK vcb I iYveY cwZ mnR I LiP Kg|
3. gUvcwjUb Gwiqv bUIqvK ev gvb (Metropolitan Are Network-MAN)
MAN Gi c~Yic nQ Metropolitan Area Network|
GKB knii wewfb vb AewZ KwDUvi Ges wWfvBm wbq
h bUIqvK MwVZ nq ZvK MAN ej| GwU LAN Gi _K
eo Area Gi bUIqvK| hviv Uvwgkb wgwWqv wnme
mvaviYZ Uwjdvb jvBb, gWg ev Kvbv Kvbv
gvBKvIqf eenvi Kiv nq| Gi `~iZ mvaviYZ Kvbv
kniwfwK nq _vK| gvwcvj ivDUvi, myBP Ges nve viv
wP-2.28: gUvcwjUb Gwiqv
MAN MwVZ| mvaviYZ Kvbv evsK, wkv cwZvb ev wk
bUIqvK
cwZvbi wewfb kvLv Awdmi ga hvMvhvMi Rb Gaibi bUIqvK cwZ eenvi Kiv nq|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 61
4. IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvK ev Iqvb (Wide Area Network WAN)
WAN Gi c~Yic nQ Wide Area Network| h KwDUvi bUIqvK AbK eo fMvwjK Aevb
Ryo _vK ZvK IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvK ej| G
bUIqvK GKwU `ki wewfb iZc~Y knii mv_
KwDUvi bUIqvwKs eev vcb Kiv nq| mvaviYZ
weki wewfb kni AewZ LAN ev MAN ev Ab
Kvbv KwDUvi wWfvBmI G bUIqvKi mshy _vKZ
cvi| Ze Iqvbi cyiv welqwU wbfi KiQ wdwRKvj
jvBb, dvBevi AcwUK Kvej, mvUjvBU Uvwgkb Ges
wP-2.29: IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvK
gvBvIqf Uvwgkbi Dci| eo eo `ki
hgb-fviZ, AvgwiKv BZvw` Uvwgkb wgwWqv wnme mvUjvBU wmgI eenvi Kiv nq|
KwDUvi wevbx Ges chywwe`MY IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvKi gvag mviv cw_exK GKm~ Mw_Z
KiQb| cw_exi mePq eo WAN Gi D`vniY njv BUvibU|

IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvKi myweav


1. wewfb cwimsLvbMZ Dcv, c-cwKv, eB, PjwP cfwZ msMn I eenvi Kiv hvq|
2. ^ mgqi gaB weki GKvb _K Abvb WUv Ges msev` cvVvbv hvq|
3. BjKUwbK gBj cwqvq weki hKvbv vb wPwVc ciY Kiv hvq|
4. ivMx Ni _K Wvvii m K_v ejZ cvieb Ges cqvRbxq wPwKrmv wbZ cvieb|
5. ewMZ ev mgwMZfve eyjwUb evW MVb Kiv hvq|
6. AbjvBb kwcs Kiv hvq|
7. mgM bUIqvK-wekK Uwej em cZ Kiv hvq|
8. Qv-Qvxiv zj-KjR bv wMqI Ab jvBb Kvm AskMnY KiZ cvi|

2.5.3 bUIqvK wWfvBm


mKj bUIqvK KZKjv gwjK Dcv`vb viv Zwi| bUIqvKi ga AvtmshvMi Rb
Modem, Hub, Routers, Gateway,Switches, Network Interface Card (NIC) BZvw`
wWfvBmi mv_ MvjfvwbK Kvej| hgb-ej eeZ Cats Cable, Microwork wjsK (hgb-
IEEE 802.11), AcwUKvj dvBevi Kvej cfwZ cqvRb nq|
62 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbP G`i mK wevwiZ AvjvPbv Kiv njv


gWg (Modem)
gWg nQ GKwU BjKUwbKm wWfvBm hv KwDUvii Z_K AviK KwDUvi Uwjdvb
jvBbi gvag cuQ `q| gWg kwU Modulator I Demodulator mswic| Modulator
ki Mo Ges Demodulator ki Dem wbq Modem kwU MwVZ nqQ| bUIqvwKsq
Z_vewj Av`vb-c`vbi gWg iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb Ki| Modulator Gi KvR nQ
wWwRUvj wmMbvjK AvbvjM wmMbvj icvi Kiv Ges Demodulator Gi KvR nQ AvbvjM
wmMbvjK wWwRUvj wmMbvj icvi Kiv| ciK KwDUvii mv_ hy gWg KwDUvii
wWwRUvj wmMbvjK AvbvjM wmMbvj icvi Ki Uwjdvb hvMvhvM eev viv MvnKi wbKU
WUv ev Z_ ciY Ki| Gfve Uwjdvb jvBbi DchvMx Ki wWwRUvj wmMbvjK AvbvjM
wmMbvj cwieZbi cwqvK gWzjkb (Modulation) ej| MvnK KwDUvii m hy gWg
mB AvbvjM wmMbvjK Avevi wWwRUvj wmMbvj cwiYZ Ki Zv KwDUvii eenvivchvMx
Ki| Gfve Uwjdvb jvBb _K cv AvbvjM wmMbvjK wWwRUvj wmMbvj icvii
cwqvK wWgWzjkb (Demodulation) ej|

Computer Modem Public Telephone Network Modem Computer

wP-2.30: WUv ciY gWgi eenvi


mshvM cwZi Dci wfw Ki gWgK `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v-
1. BUvibvj gWg (Internal Modem)
2. GUvibvj gWg (External Modem)
BUvibvj gWg (Internal Modem): BUvibvj gWg g~jZ GKwU KvW wekl| G KvW wcwmi
gv`vievWi Gcvbkvb U jvMvbv _vK|
GUvibvj gWg (External Modem): h gWg Kveji mvnvh KwDUvii KwgDwbKkb
cvUi mv_ evBii w`K _K mshy Kiv nq ZvK GUvibvj gWg ej|
nve (Hub):
nve njv bUIqvKi wWfvBmmg~ni Rb GKwU mvaviY KvbKkb cqU| `yqi AwaK cvU hy
wiwcUviK nve ej| nvei gvag KwDUvimg~n ciii
mv_ hy _vK| KwDUvii mshvM msLvi Dci nvei gZv
wbfi Ki| jvbi mMgUMyjv Kvb Kivi Rb mvaviYfve
eeZ nq| nvei ga AbKMyjv cvU _vK| WUv cvKU
GKwU cvU Avmj GwU Ab cvU Kwc nq hvZ me mMgU
me cvKUmg~n `LZ cvi| vi UcvjwRi nve nQ wP-2.31: nve
K`xq wbqYKvix wWfvBm|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 63
KvhKvwiZvi w`K _K nve cavbZ `ycKvi| h_v
1. mwq nve (Active Hub)
2. wbwq nve (Passive Hub)
mwq nve (Active Hub)
Gaibi nve msKZi gvbK ew Ki Ges g~j msKZ _K AcqvRbxq msKZ ev` w`q
cqvRbxq msKZ ciY Ki| AwaK gZvhy G aibi nveK AbK mgq Intelligent Hub
ejv nq|
wbwq nve (Passive Hub)
Gaibi nve KwDUvimg~ni ga Kejgv Z_ Av`vb-c`vb Ki| GwU msKZi gvb ew Ki bv|
G KviY Gme nveK Kvbv GvKwUf wWfvBmi mv_ hy Ki `qv nq|
nvei myweav (Advantages of Hub)
1. `vg Kg|
2. wewfb wgwWqvgK mshy KiZ cvi|
nvei Amyweav (Disadvantages of Hub)
1. bUIqvK UvwdK ew cvq|
2. WUv Av`vb-c`vb evavi mvebv _vK|
3. WUv wdvwis me nq bv|
myBP (Switch)
myBP GKwU bUIqvK wWfvBm hv bUIqvKi ga mvfvi, IqvKkb Ges wewfb cwidwiqvj
wWfvBmi ga mshvM c`vbKvix cavb wWfvBm wnme eeZ nq| nvei mv_ myBPi cv_K
njv myBP ciK cv _K cv WUv cvcK KwDUvii mywbw` cvUwUZ cvwVq `q| wK nve
H WUv wmMbvj cvcK KwDUvii meMyjv cvUB cvVvq|
myBPi myweav (Advantages of Switch)
1. WUv Av`vb-c`vbi evavi mvebv Kgvq|
2. fvPyqvj LAN eenvi Ki eWKv wbqY Kiv hvq|
myBPi Amyweav (Disadvantages of Switch)
1. nvei Zzjbvq g~j wKQzUv ewk|
2. WUv wdvwis me bq|
3. KbwdMvikb Zzjbvg~jKfve RwUj| wP-2.32: myBP
64 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

ivDUvi (Router)
GwU GKwU eywgvb BUvibUIqvK KvbKwUwfwU wWfvBm hv jwRKvj GWm eenvi Ki `yB ev ZZvwaK
bUIqvK mMgUi ga WUv Av`vb-c`vbi eev Ki| ivDUvi wewfb
KwgDwbKkb bUIqvKi ga WUv Av`vb-c`vb Ki| GwU GK bUIqvK
_K Ab bUIqvK WUv vbvi Ki| WUv Drm I Mei Dci wfw
Ki ivDUvi WUv vbvii Rb mnR, wbivc` I Kg `~iZi c_wU eQ
bq| ivDUvi Drm KwDUvi _K Me KwDUvi WUv cvKU (WUvi
wP-2.33: ivDUvi
mgw) cuQ `q|
ivDUvii myweavmg~n:
1. WUv Uvwgkbi evavi mvebv Kgvq|
2. WUv wdvwis me nq|
3. wewfb aibi bUIqvK hgb-B_vibU, UvKb, wis BZvw`K mshy KiZ cvi|
ivDUvii Amyweav:
1. ivDUvii `vg ewk|
2. ivDUvi GKB cvUvKj bUIqvK Qvov mshy nZ cvi bv|
3. KbwdMvikb Zzjbvg~jK RwUj|
4. axiMwZmb|
MUIq (Gateway)
MUIq eenvi Ki bUIqvK mmviYi KvR Kiv nq| MUIq GKwU bUIqvKK AviKwU
bUIqvKi mv_ mshy Ki| GwU GKwU bUIqvK
KvbwwfwU wWfvBm hv wewfb KwgDwbKkb cvUvKj
UvjU Ki A_vr GK cvUvKjK Ab AviK aibi
cvUvKji mv_ mshy Ki|
MUIqi myweavmg~n (Advantages of Gateway)
1. WUv Uvwgkbi evavi mvebv Kg| wP-2.34: MUIq
2. wewfb cUvKjwewk bUIqvK mshy KiZ cvi|
MUIqi Amyweavmg~n (Disadvantages of Gateway)
1. GwU axi MwZmb|
2. Abvb wWfvBmi Pq eqej|
3. KbwdMvikb Kiv Zzjbvg~jK RwUj|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 65

bUIqvK BUvidm KvW (Network Interface Card)


NIC Gi c~Yic nQ Network Interface Card| KwDUviK bUIqvKfy Kivi Rb h
BUvidm KvW eenvi Kiv nq ZvK bUIqvK BUvidm KvW ej| G KvWK jvb KvW ev
bUIqvK AvWvvi KvWI ej| GwU eenviKvixK GK Acii mv_ Kvej A_ev Iqvijmi
gvag mshy nZ mvnvh Ki| G KvW gv`vievWi wewfb AvKwZi Ui ga emvbv _vK|
AwaKvsk NIC KvW KwDUvii mv_ we-Bb _vK| AbK KvWi Dci bUIqvKi
`Zv I MwZ wbfi Ki| bUIqvK KvWi ewk njv GZ 48 weUi GKwU AwZxq KvW ev
wgK b^i _vK; hvi dj GKwU KvWi mv_ AciwUi Kvbv wgj _vK bv| GB wgK b^iK
gvK (MAC) AvWm ej| GB gvK AvWm KvWi ig msiwZ _vK| bUIqvK BUvidm
KvW wcwm Ges WUv Keji ga wmMbvj Av`vb-c`vbi KvRwU mg^q Ki _vK|
GQvovI NIC wbgewYZ `vwqZMyjv cvjb Ki _vK
1. WUv Kej Ges KwDUvii ga mshvM vcb|
2. wWwRUvj WUv wmMbvjK jwRKvj AvKvi A_vr 1 I 0 AvKvi Kveji ga w`q Av`vb-
c`vb Kiv|
3. bUIqvK WvBfvi _K Z_ MnY Kiv Ges WvBfvi c` wb`kvewj (Instruction) cvjb Kiv|
2.5.4 KwDUvi bUIqvKi KvR
1. KwDUvi bUIqvKi mvnvh Lye mnR weki GKvb nZ Abvb WvUv ev msev`
cvVvbv hvq| GZ mgqi AcPq Kg nq Ges LiPI Kg jvM|
2. cqvRb Z_mg~n msiY Ki ivLv hvq Ges mgqgZv MvnKi wbKU cvVvbv hvq|
3. KwDUvi bUIqvKi mvnvh Ni em `~i-`~ivi Wvvii mv_ hvMvhvM Kiv hvq|
4. Qv-Qvxiv KjR ev wekwe`vjq bv wMqB hKvbv Kvm AskMnY KiZ cvi Ges ck-
Dii gvag wkKi KvQ _K hKvbv mgmvi mgvavb wbZ cvi|
5. Ni em Zv Kbv-KvUv KiZ cvib|
6. ewMZ ev mgwMZfve eyjwUb evW MVb Kiv hvq|
7. B-gBj ciY ev MnY Kiv hvq|
2.5.5 bUIqvK UcvjwR (Network Topology)
wewfb KwDUvii ga mshvMi Rb h RvwgwZK mwbek Kiv nq ZvK UcvjwR (Topology)
ej| A_vr KwDUvi bUIqvK GKwU KwDUvii mv_ Ab KwDUvii mshvM eevKB
Topology ej| bUIqvKi KwDUvijv ciii mv_ Zvii gvag hy _vK| Ze
bUIqvKi KwDUvijvK Zvi w`q hy KijB nq bv| Zvii wfZi w`q wbweN WUv hvIqv-
Avmvi Rb hywwbfi mywbqwZ GKwU c_i cqvRb| bUIqvKi KwDUvijvK Zvii gvag
mshy Kivi bKkv Ges mshvMKvix Zvii wfZi w`q WUv hvIqv-Avmvi Rb hyw wbfi c_i h
cwiKbv G `yqi mgw^Z aviYvK ejv nq bUIqvK UcvjwR|
66 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

KwDUvi bUIqvK mvaviYZ wbwjwLZ msMVb eenvi Kiv hvq


K. vi bUIqvK UcvjwR (Star Network Topology)
L. wis bUIqvK UcvjwR (Ring Network Topology)
M. evm bUIqvK UcvjwR (Bus Network Topology)
N. wU bUIqvK UcvjwR (Tree Network Topology)
O. gk UcvjwR (Mesh Topology) ev ciii mshy bUIqvK
P. nvBweW bUIqvK UcvjwR (Hybrid Network Topology)
K. vi bUIqvK UcvjwR (Star Network Topology)
vi UcvjwR bUIqvK mejv KwDUvi GKwU K`xq KwDUvi (Rvskb) _K mshvM
`qv nq| K`xq KwDUvi (Rvskb) wnmve h
KwDUviwU eenvi Kiv nq ZvK ejv nq nve
(Hub)| vi bUIqvK cZKwU KwDUvi GKwU
nve (HUB) ev myBPi (Switch) gvag mivmwi hy
_vK| gvBvKwDUvijv nvei gvag GK
Abi mv_ hvMvhvM iv Ki I WUv Av`vb-
c`vb Ki| Kvbv KviY K`xq KwDUviwU
Kg`Zv nvivj bUIqvKwU Kg` Zv nvivq| wP-2.35 : vi bUIqvK UcvjwR

Kbbv K`xq KwDUvi Qvov KwDUvi I hcvwZjvi ga Kvbv mshvM _vK bv|
vi UcvjwRi myweavmg~n
1. bUIqvKi Kvbv KwDUvi b njI bUIqvKi evwK Aski KvRi evNvZ nq bv|
2. GKB bUIqvK wewfb aibi Kvej eenvi Kiv hvq|
3. vi bUIqvK Kvbv KwDUvi hvM Kiv ev ev` `qv hvq, ZvZ KvR Kvbv weN NU bv|
4. K`xqfve bUIqvK iYveY ev mgmv wbicY mnR|
vi UcvjwRi Amyweavmg~n
1. G cwZZ K`xq KwDUvi b nq Mj m~Y bUIqvK wmgB APj nq co|
KviY cyiv bUIqvK nvei gvagB ciii m hy _vK|
2. vi UcvjwRZ cPzi cwigvY Kvej eeZ nq weavq GwU GKwU eqej cwZ|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 67
L. wis bUIqvK UcvjwR (Ring Network Topology)
wis UcvjvwR bUIqvK mejv KwDUviK Kveji gvag Ggbfve mshy Kiv nq h GKwU
wis ev jyci mw nq| G UcvjwRZ Kvbv kyi ev kl
cv mxgv LyuR cvIqv hvq bv| wis bUIqvK
KwDUvijv bvW (KwDUvi h we`yZ hy _vK
ZvK bvW ej) Gi gvag evKvi c_ ciii mv_
mshy nq bUIqvK Mo Zvj|
wis UcvjwR bUIqvK KwDUvijvK mivmwi
ciii mv_ hy _vK bv weavq bUIqvKi Kvbv
KwDUvi Ab hKvbv KwDUvi mivmwi msKZ wP-2.36: wis UcvjvwR
cvVvZ cvi bv| msKZwU ciK KwDUvi I MvnK KwDUvii gaeZx Abme KwDUvii
fZi w`q hq ZeB MvnK KwDUvi cuQ| G cwZwU KwDUviK AekB msKZ MnY
I ciYg nZ ne| GRb bUIqvKi Kvbv KwDUvi msKZ cybtciYi gZv nvivj wKsev
Lvivc nq Mj A_ev wewQb Aevq _vKj, cyiv bUIqvKwU AKRv nq co| G Lvivc
KwDUviwU AcmviY Ki cybivq mshvM mb KiZ nq|
wis UcvjwR eenvii myweavmg~n
1. bUIqvK Kvbv mvfvi KwDUvii cqvRb nq bv| A_vr GwU GK aibi wWwweDUW
WUv cmwms wmg|
2. bUIqvK KwDUvi msLv evojI Gi `Zv Lye ewk cfvweZ nq bv|
3. G bUIqvK Kvbv bvWK WUv Av`vb-c`vbi Rb K`xq Kvbv KwDUvii Dci wbfi
KiZ nq bv| hw` Kvbv KwDUvi b _vK Ze mB KwDUviK wis nZ ev` `qv hvq|
wis UcvjwR eenvii Amyweavmg~n
1. G bUIqvK GKwU gv KwDUvi mgmvq Avv nj cyiv bUIqvK APj nq coe|
2. wis UcvjwRi bUIqvKi Kvbv mgmv wbiycY ek RwUj|
3. bUIqvK Kvbv KwDUvi hvM Kij ev mwiq wbj Zv cyiv bUIqvKi Kvhg evnZ Ki|
4. G bUIqvK KwDUvii msLv evoj WUv Uvwgkbi mgqI eo hvq|
5. wis UcvjwRi Rb RwUj wbqY mdUIqvi eeZ nq|
M. evm bUIqvK UcvjwR (Bus Network Topology)
h UcvjwRZ GKwU g~j Zvii mv_ meKqwU IqvKkb ev KwDUvi mshy _vK ZvK evm
UcvjwR (Bus Topology) ejv nq| evm UcvjwRi
cavb KvejwUK ejv nq evKevb (Backbone)| evm
bUIqvK msMVb GKwU mshvM jvBbi mv_ meMyjv
bvW hy _vK| mshvM jvBbK mvaviYZ evm ejv nq|
GKwU KwDUvi Ab KwDUvi bvWi mshvM jvBbi
gvag msKZ cvVvq| Abvb KwDUvijv Zv`i
bvW mB msKZ cixv Ki Ges Kejgv cvcK
bvW mB msKZ MnY Ki| wP-2.37: evm UcvjwR
68 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

evm UcvjwR eenvii myweavmg~n:


1. G bUIqvKi cavb myweav njv bUIqvK Lye mvaviY Ges wdwRKvj jvBbi msLv gv
GKwU|
2. bUIqvKi evKevb ev evm mnR mcmviY Kiv hvq|
3. G msMVbwU mnR mij Ges QvU AvKvii bUIqvK eenvi Kiv mnR|
4. evm bUIqvKi Kvbv KwDUvi b nq Mj Ab KwDUvi KvR KiZ Kvbv
Amyweav nq bv| mnRB Kvbv KwDUvi bUIqvK nZ wewQb Kiv me|
5. evm bUIqvK KwDUvi mshy KiZ Kg Zvii cqvRb nq dj LiP Kg nq|
evm UcvjwR eenvii Amyweavmg~n
1. g~j evm b nq Mj m~Y bUIqvK wmg APj nq hvq|
2. GB UcvjwRZ WUv Uvwgkbi Rb Kvbv mg^qi eev bB| hKvbv KwDUvi
hKvbv mgq WUv Uvwgkb KiZ cvi|
3. bUIqvK KwDUvi msLv ewk nj WUv Uvwgkb wewNZ nq|
4. evm UcvjwRZ m mgmv wbYq Zzjbvg~jK ek RwUj| evmi GKwU gv vb m ywU ev
eK (Break) cyiv bUIqvKK APj Ki `q|
5. WUv Uvwgkbi MwZ Kg|
N. wU bUIqvK (Tree Network)
g~jZ vi UcvjwRi mcmvwiZ i~cB njv wU UcvjwR| G UcvjwRZ GKvwaK nve (HUB)
eenvi Ki mg KwDUviK GKwU wekl vb mshy
Kiv nq hvK ej iyU (Root)| h UcvjwRZ
KwDUviMyjv ciii mv_ MvQi kvLv-ckvLvi gZv
web _vK ZvK wU UcvjwR ejv nq| G UcvjwRZ
GK ev GKvwaK ii KwDUvi nv KwDUvii
mv_ hy _vK| A_vr c_g ii KwDUviMyjv wZxq
ii KwDUviMyjvi nv nq| GKBfve wZxq ii
wP-2.38: wU UcvjwR
KwDUviMyjv ZZxq ii KwDUvijvi nv nq|

wU-UcvjwR eenvii myweav (Advantages of Tree Topology)


1. Awdm eevcbvi KvR G bUIqvK UcvjwR LyeB DchvMx|
2. kvLv-ckvLv mwi gvag wU-UcvjwRi bUIqvK mcmviY Kiv mnR|
3. bZzb Kvbv bvW mshvM ev ev` w`j bUIqvKi ^vfvweK KvRKgi Kvbv Amyweav nq bv|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 69
wU-UcvjwR eenvii Amyweav (Disadvantages of Tree Topology)
1. G UcvjwR wKQzUv RwUj aibi|
2. iU ev mvfvi KwDUvi zwU `Lv w`j wU bUIqvKwU APj nq hvq|
O. gm ev cii mshy bUIqvK (Mesh Network)
G UcvjwR bUIqvK cwZwU IqvKkbi mv_ Avjv`v Avjv`v wjsK ev evm _vK| ZvB cwZwU
IqvKkb mivmwi hKvbv IqvKkbi mv_ WUv Av`vb-
c`vb KiZ cvi| gm UcvjwRi bUIqvKi Aaxb
cZK KwDUvi cZK KwDUvii m mivmwi hy _vK|
hw` Kvbv mgq hvMvhvMi GKwU c_ b nq Ze weK AviKwU
c_ _vK hvMvhvMi Rb| wP _K `Lv hvQ, hKvbv GKwU
KwDUvi Ab KwDUvijvi m cZfve hy|
gm UcvjwR eenvii myweavmg~n wP-2.39: gm UcvjwR
1. hKvbv `ywU bvWi ga AZ `yZMwZZ msKZ Av`vb-c`vb Kiv hvq|
2. Kvbv KwDUvi ev mshvM jvBb b nq Mj Zgb Kvbv Amyweav nq bv| A_vr mnR
bUIqvK Lye eo aibi mgmv mw nq bv|
3. GZ WUv KwgDwbKkb AbK ewk wbqZv _vK|
4. bUIqvKi mgmv Lye mnR mgvavb Kiv hvq|
gm UcvjwR eenvii Amyweavmg~n
1. G UcvjwRZ bUIqvK Bbjkb I KbwdMvikb ek RwUj|
2. bUIqvK AwZwi wjsK vcb KiZ nq weavq GZ LiP eo hvq|
P. nvBweW bUIqvK (Hybrid Network)
vi, wis, evm BZvw` bUIqvKi mg^q h bUIqvK MwVZ nq ZvK nvBweW bUIqvK ej|
D`vniY^ic BUvibUK Gaibi UcvjwR wnme AwfwnZ Kiv hvq| BUvibU GKwU nvBweW
bUIqvK Kbbv BUvibU njv enr cwimii GKwU bUIqvK hLvb me aibi UcvjwRi wgkY `Lv
hvq| nvBweW bUIqvKi myweav I Amyweav wbfi KiQ H bUIqvK eeZ UcvjwRjvi Dci|
vi UcvjwR

evm
vi UcvjwR
UcvjwR

wis UcvjwR
vi UcvjwR
wP-2.40: nvBweW bUIqvK|
70 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

nvBweW UcvjwR eenvii myweav (Advantages Hybrid Topology)


1. G UcvjwRZ cqvRbvbyhvqx bUIqvK ew Kivi myhvM iqQ|
2. Kvbv mgmv `Lv w`j Zv mnRB wbYq Kivi me nq|
3. Kvbv GK Ask b nq Mj m~Y bUIqvK b bv nq Askwekl b nq hvq|
nvBweW UcvjwR eenvii Amyweav (Disadvantages Hybrid Topology)
1. G UcvjwRZ eeZ nvemg~n me`v mPj ivLZ nq|
2. bUIqvK vcb RwUj I eqmva|
2.5.6 KvDW KwDwUs (Cloud Computing)
KvDW gvb gN, icKagx wnme hv eenvi Kiv nqwQj| 1960 mvj _K KvDW KwDwUs Gi
BwZnvm kyi nq| 2010 mvj The Rackspace Ges NASA gy AvwcKkb cvMvwgs BUvidm
eenvi kyi Ki| Gfve RbmvaviYi nvZi gyVvq KvDW KwDwUs AvmZ kyi Ki|
KvDW KwDwUs GKwU wekl cwimev| G DbZ cwimevwU wKQz KwDUviK wMW wmg Gi
gvag mshy ivL| KvDW KwDwUs AbjvBb cwimev, KwDwUs kw, WvUv Avm Ges WvUv
m c`vb Ki hLvb cwimevMyjv eenvi KvDW KwDwUs welq Mfxifve Rvbvi `iKvi co
bv| cwimev wnme h KD KvDW KwDwUs eenvi KiZ cvib| we`yr eenvi KiZ we`yr Kx
Ki msMnxZ nq Zv Rvbvi hgb cqvRb nq bv wVK Zgwb BUvibUi gvag m~Yic weZiY
mev eenvi Ki KwDUvi KvRMyjv mv`b KiZ KvDW KwDwUs mK wek` Rvbvi
cqvRb nq bv|
Cloud Gi aviYv ejZ eySvq wewfb Network mshvMmg~n Ges KwDUvi eevmg~n hv Online
Services Gi Afy|
KvDW KwDwUs ejZ Avgiv Ggb GK chywK
eyw S hv WvUv Ges Gi cqvMmg~n K wVK ev wbqY
Kivi Rb Internet Ges Gi Central remote
Servers (`~ieZx mvfv img~n K) eenvi Ki|
KvDW KwDwUs BUvibU mshvMi gvag
fvv`iK ev MvnK`iK ewMZ cekvwaKvii
myhvM Gb `q hv cw_exi h cvi KwDUviB nvK
bv Kb| wP-2.41: KvDW KwDwUs
KvDW KwDwUs KwDUvi eenvii KZKMyjv mgw^Z Dcv`vbi mwwjZ cq vm hv wKQz
mvaviY Dk mvabi Rb KvR Ki| KvDW KwDwUs Gi cKZ D`vniY nQ Yahoo
mail, Gmail A_ev, Hotmail Ze G Rb aygv BUvibU mshvM cqvRb hv _vKj
Avgiv gBj cvVvZ cvwi|
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 71
KvDW KwDwUs (Cloud Computing) Gi cKvif`:
1. AevbMZ `wKvY _K (Location of the cloud computing)
2. mev c`vbi wfwZ (Type of services offered)
AevbMZ `wKvY _K KvDW KwDwUsK wbgvfve wefvRb Kiv nq _vK
1. cvewjK KvDW (Public Cloud): cvewjK KvDW eevq Computing AeKvVvgvi
eevcbvi `vwqZ _vKb Cloud vendor fvvMYi / MvnKMYi G evcvi Kvbv
mswkZv ev wbqYi KZZ bB|
2. cvBfU KvDW (Private Cloud): G eevq Computing Infrastructure Gi `vwqZ GKwU
wbw` msMVbi KvQ b _vK| Abvb msMVbi mv_ Zv fvMvfvwM Kiv nq bv|
3. nvBweW KvDW (Hybrid Cloud): hw` cvBfU Ges cvewjK KvDW GK mv_ wgkY NUvbv nq
ZvK nvBweW ej| G eevK Abfve Cloud BurstingI ejv nq _vK|
4. KwgDwbwU KvDW (Community Cloud): KwgDwbwU KvDW ejZ Avgiv eywS, GKB auvPi
msMVbMyjvi ga Computing AeKvVvgvi fvMvfvwMK mev c`vbi wfwZ wefvRb|
KvDW KwDwUs (Cloud Computing) Gi myweav:
1. cwiwgZKiY ARb: ^ Kgkw eenvi Ki Drcv`bkxjZv I Drcv`bi cwigvY ew Ki
cK I cY GKK cwZ Drcv`b LiP nvm Ki|
2. chywi cwiKvVvgv eq nvm: mewbg LiP mvc Z_ mnR cekvwaKvi eRvq ivL|
mvvwnK, gvwmK ev evrmwiK Pvwn`vi Dci wfw Ki cwikvai myhvM ivL|
3. mvq KgkwZ wekvwqZ Kiv: BUvibU myweav _vKv mvc weki h KD Cloud G
cek ev eenvi KiZ cvie|
4. KvhK i eq msKvPb cw qv: m ve mswZg mgq Kg Rbej eq AwaK Kg
mv`b Ki|
5. g~jab wewbqvM nvm: nvWIqvi, mdU&Iqvi ev jvBm LiP gUvbvi Rb AwaK A_ eq
AcqvRbxq|
6. mnR cekZv wbwZKiY: hKvbv vb _K hLb Lywk GZ cek myweav RxebK AviI
mnR Ki|
7. AwaK KvhKi cK wbixY: mgvwi mgq Pi AvMB Kvh mv`b Kivq evRUi gaB
mxgve _vKv hvq|
8. Kgx cwkY eq AbwaK: nvWIqvi I mdUIqvi welq AbwaK vb mK ^msLK
Kgkw eenvi KiI ewk KvR Kiv me|
9. bZzb mdUIqvi jvBm: eqej mdU&Iqvi jvBm ev cvMvg q QvovB Gi wevi
NUvbv hvq|
10. bgbxqZv: MyiZc~Y KgkwK ev A_ m`K wec`vcb bv KiB MwZaviv cv
djv hvq|
72 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

eenvi:
KvDW KwDwUs AvRKi w`b Lye MyiZc~Y| MyMj Gi wewfb cqvM- hgb wRgBj, wcKvmv _K
kyi Ki cw_exi AvenvIqv ev Kvbv `ki Av`gkygvwii gZv wekvj Z_ eevcbv, eemvwqK,
evwbK BZvw` bvbvb Gi Acwimxg eenvi| mevcwi hvMvhvM GwU wPwKrmv I
gvbeKjvYI GwU GK Abb mx| GK K_vq KvDW KwDwUs GbQ Abb wece|

Abykxjbx

mRbkxj ck:
1| wmwm KjRi KwDUvi jve 50wU KwDUvi AvQ| wK Zv`i 1wU wcUvi iqQ, Gi
dj Kvbv WKzgU wcU KiZ nj cb-WvBf eenvi Ki H wbw` KwDUvi vbvi
Ki wcU KiZ nq| GZ wewfb mgmv `Lv `q| KjRi mKj Qv-Qvx jvcUc eenvi
KiQ| KjR KZc mKjK BUvibU eenvii myweav c`vbi wmv MnY KiQb|
K. ev DB_ Kx?
L. KwDUvi bUIqvK Kx?
M. Kxfve mKj mivmwi wcUviwU eenvi KiZ cvie Zv eYbv Ki|
N. KjR IqvBdvB mshvMi c hyw `vI|
2| BkwZqvK mvne GKwU Riix B-gBj Kivi Rb KwDUvi Ab Kijb| wK wZwb `LZ
cjb BUvibU KvR KiZ cviQb bv| GKRb nvWIqvi UKwbwkqvbK `Lvj wZwb
Rvbvb h, gWg wVK gZ KvR KiQ bv| GUv cwieZb KiZ ne|
K. WUv KwgDwbKkb wK?
L. eW ev wK?
M. gwWDjkb I wW-gwWDjkb cwqv evLv Ki|
N. WUv ciY gWgi f~wgKv wPmn eYbv Ki|
ewbevPwb ck:
1| wmwm KjRi GKwU feb 47wU K AvQ| cZK ig GKwU Ki wKvi mshy AvQ|
hKvbv bvwUm ev NvlYv GKhvM mevBK Rvbvbv hvq| GLvb
i. wmgc gvW WUv UvwgU nQ
ii. eWKv cwZZ WUv UvwgU nQ
iii. gvwKv cwZZ WUv UvwgU nQ
wbPi KvbwU mwVK?
K. i L. i I ii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii
KwgDwbKkb wmgm I bUIqvwKs 73
AbyQ`wU co Ges 2 I 3 bs cki Di `vI-KjRi cvkvcvwk PviwU feb AewZ mKj
KwDUvi bUIqvKi AvIZvq Avbvi wmv MnY Kiv nqQ|
2| Zv`i bUIqvKwU Kvb aibi ne?
K. ISDN L. LAN
M. MAN N. WAN
3| bUIqvK Pvjy Kivi ci Zuviv
i. mKj GKwU wcUvi eenvi KiZ cvie|
ii. GK KwDUvii wWfvBm Ab KwDUvi vbvi KiZ cvie|
iii. mdUIqvi wimvm kqvi KiZ cvie|
wbPi KvbwU mwVK?
K. i L. i I ii
M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii
4| wbPi Kvb bUIqvK UcvjwRZ mePq ewk Kvej cqvRb nq
K. wis UcvjwR L. gk UcvjwR
M. evm UcvjwR N. wU UcvjwR
ZZxq Aavq
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm
NUMBER SYSTEM & DIGITAL DEVICE
gvbe mfZvi m~PbvjM nZ i Ki GwUi gweKvki mv_ mv_ gvbyl MYbv Z_v wnmve-wbKvmi
cqvRbxqZv Abyfe KiZ _vK| cvPxbKvj MYbvi Rb nvZi Avyj, bywo cv_i, wSbyK, KvwV,
iwki wMU, `qvj `vM KvUv BZvw` eenvi KiZv| mgqi weeZb DbwZi avivevwnKZvq MYbvi
hy njv wewfb cZxK I wPi eenvi| eZgvb gvbyl MYbvi Rb `kwgK msLv cwZ
eenvi Ki| KwDUvi KvR Ki evBbvwi msLv cwZZ| GQvovI KwDUvi KvR Ki AKUvj,
nvWwmgj I wewfb KvWi gvag| KwDUvii hveZxq MvwYwZK I hywg~jK KvR eySvi Rb
eywjqvb AvjReiv, jwRK MBU, wW-giMvbi Dccv`, GbKvWvi, wWKvWvi, AvWvi, iwRvi I
KvDUvi BZvw` mK Rvbv cqvRb|

G Aavq cvV kl wkv_xiv


msLv Avwevii BwZnvm eYbv KiZ cvie|
msLv cwZi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
msLv cwZi cKvif` eYbv KiZ cvie|
wewfb aibi msLv cwZi AvtmK wbYq KiZ cvie|
evBbvwi hvM-weqvM mb KiZ cvie|
wPhy msLvi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
2 Gi cwic~iK wbYq KiZ cvie|
KvWi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
wewfb cKvi KvWi Zzjbv KiZ cvie|
eywjqvb AvjReivi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
eywjqvb Dccv`mg~n cgvY KiZ cvie|
jwRK AcviUi eenvi Ki eywjqvb AvjReivi eenvwiK cqvM KiZ cvie|
eywjqvb AvjReivi mv_ mwKZ wWwRUvj wWfvBmmg~ni KgcwZ weklY KiZ cvie|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 75

3.1 msLv Avwevii BwZnvm (History Of Inventing Numbers)


gvbe mfZvi m~PbvjM nZ i Ki GwUi gweKvki mv_ mv_ gvbyl MYbv Z_v wnmve-wbKvmi
cqvRbxqZv Abyfe KiZ _vK| cvPxbKvj MYbvi Rb bvbv iKg DcKiY eenvi Kiv nZv|
h_v: nvZi Avyj, bywo cv_i, wSbyK, KvwV, iwki wMU, `qvj `vM KvUv BZvw`| mgqi weeZb
DbwZi avivevwnKZvq MYbvi hy njv wewfb cZxK I wPi eenvi| wLc~e 3400 mvj
nvqvivwMwd (Hieroglyphics) wP ev msLv cwZi gvag mec_g MYbvi KvR wjwLZ msLv ev
wPi cPjb i nq| Gici chvqg gqvb (Mayan) I ivgvb (Roman) msLv cwZ
eenvii cPjb i nq| cieZxZ fviZel I Avie `kwgK msLv cwZi cPjb i nq- hv
eZgvb evsjv`kmn mviv weki wewfb `k wnmve-wbKvmi Rb evcK RbwcqZv ARb Ki Ges
AvRI ewea MvwYwZK KvR ej eeZ nQ|
3.2 msLv cwZ (Number System)
Kvbv msLv cKvk Kivi cwZK ej msLv cwZ| Ab K_vq, h cwZi gvag msLv cKvk I
MYbv Kiv nq ZvK msLv cwZ ej| msLv cKvk Kivi wewfb cZxKB nQ A| hgb125
msLvwU 1, 2, I 5 G wZbwU A viv MwVZ|
mfZvi i _K AvR ch hme msLv cwZi cPjb nqQ Zv`iK cavbZt `ywU fvM fvM
Kiv hvq| h_v:
bb-cwRkbvj (Non-Positional) msLv cwZ|
cwRkbvj (Positional) msLv cwZ|
bb-cwRkbvj (Non-Positional) msLv cwZ
GKwU cvPxbZg cwZ nQ bb-cwRkbvj msLv cwZ| eZgvb G cwZi cqvM LyeB Kg|
h msLv cwZZ Kvbv msLvq eeZ wP ev Amg~n Kvbv vbxq gvb ev Aevbi Dci
wbfi Ki bv, ZvK bb-cwRkbvj msLv cwZ ej| msLvi ga eeZ Ajv Kvb
Aevb AvQ Zvi Kvbv cfve bB| msLvq eeZ A hLvbB _vKzK bv Kb G`i wbR^
gvb vivB msLvwUi gvb wbaviY Kiv nq| hgb- cvPxb nvqvivwMw d msLv cwZ|
cwRkbvj (Positional) msLv cwZ
eZgvb mePq iZc~Y I ej cPwjZ msLv cwZ nQ cwRkbvj msLv cwZ| h msLv cwZ
cKvk Kivi Rb msLv cwZZ eeZ gwjK wP, eR ev wfw Ges Gi Aevb ev vbxqgvb _vKZ
nq ZvK cwRkbvj msLv cwZ ej| hgb evBbvwi msLv cwZZ 0 I 1 G `ywU gwjK wP eeZ nq
Ges eR nQ 2| wWwRUi Aevbi Dci msLvi gvb wbfi Ki| GRb evBbvwi msLv cwZK
cwRkbvj msLv cwZ ej| cwRkbvj msLv cwZZ Kvbv GKwU msLvi gvb ei Kivi Rb wZbwU
Dcv`vbi cqvRb nq| h_v
1. msLvwUZ eeZ Ajvi wbR^ gvb,
2. msLv cwZi eR (Base) ev wfw,
3. msLvwUZ eeZ Ajvi Aevb ev vbxq gvb|
cwRkbvj msLv cwZZ cwZwU msLvK ivwW (Radix) cqU (.) w`q c~Yvsk (Integer) I
fMvsk (Fraction) G `yAsk fvM Kiv nq|
76 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

hgb: 125.625| GLvb 125 c~Yvsk, (.) ivwW cqU I .625 fMvsk|
c~Yvsk fMvsk
MSB 1 2 5 . 6 2 5 LSB

mevP iZi A ivwW cqU mePq Kg iZi A


(Most Significant Bit) Radix Point (Least Significant Bit)

D`vniY^ic `kwgK msLv cwZi 125 msLvwU weePbv Kwi


GLvb `kwgK 125 msLvwUZ 1, 2, 5 A wZbwU c_K c_Kfve eenvi Kiv nqQ|
hnZz DjwLZ msLvwU `kwgK msLv cwZi GKwU msLv, myZivs GwUi eR ev wfw njv 10|
Avevi hnZz 125 = 1100+210+ 51 msLvwUi eeZ Ajv 5, 2, 1 K h_vg GKK, `kK I
kZK viv Y Kiv nqQ, myZivs GMyjvi vbxq gvb h_vg 5- GKK, 2- `kK Ges 1- kZK|
msLv cwZi eR (Base) ev wfw:
Kvbv msLv cwZi eR ev wfw nQ H msLv cwZZ eeZ gwjK wPmg~ni gvU msLv|
hgb- evBbvwii eR 2| KviY G cwZZ gvU 2wU gjK wP AvQ| hgb- 0 I 1|
Ab K_vq, Kvbv GKwU msLv cwZZ eeZ gwjK cZxK ev Ai gvU msLvK D msLv
cwZi eR (Base) ev wfw ejv nq| eR viv Kvbv GKwU msLv, Kvb msLv cwZi
msLv Zv wbicY Kiv nq| hgb-`kwgK msLv cwZi eR 10 , evBbvwi msLv cwZi
eR 2 , AKUvj I nvWwmgvj msLv cwZi eR h_vg 8 I 16 |
3.2.1 KvRi aib I wnmve-wbKvmi my w eav_ wewfb c K vi msLv cwZ c P jb I eenvi
iqQ| h_v:
1. `kwgK msLv cwZ (Decimal Number System)
2. evBbvwi msLv cwZ (Binary Number System)
3. AKUvj msLv cwZ (Octal Number System)
4. nvWwmgvj msLv cwZ (Hexadecimal Number System)
`kwgK msLv cwZ (Decimal Number System)
mvaviY wnmve-wbKvmi Rb `kwgK msLv cwZ eenvi Kiv nq| h msLv cwZZ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8, 9 G `kwU A ev wP eenvi Kiv nq ZvK `kwgK msLv cwZ ej|
hnZz `kwgK msLv cwZZ 0 nZ 9 ch `kwU A ev wP eenvi Kiv nq| myZivs G eR
10| D`vniY: (125)10
evBbvwi msLv cwZ (Binary Number System)
evBbvwi msLv cwZ GKwU mijZg msLv cwZ| KwDUvii Af i xY KvR mb nq
evBbvwimsLv cwZZ| 0 I 1 G `ywU AK Binary +5Volts
ON
digit ev msc Bit ejv nq| h msLv cwZZ 0 I 1 1 1
G `yw U gwjK A eenvi Kiv nq ZvK evBbvwi msLv 0 0
OFF
cwZ ej| evBbvwi msLv cwZZ hnZz 2wU A wP: wWwRUvj msKZ
eenvi Kiv nq| myZ ivs GwUi eR ev wfw 2|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 77

D`vniY: (1011)2
G 0 K we`yZi AbycwwZ (OFF) Ges 1 K
we`yZi DcwwZ (ON) wnme MY Kiv nq hv `kwgK evBbvwi `kwgK evBbvwi
msLv msLv msLv msLv
gwkbi Rb mnRB evaMg nq| Dwbk kZKi 0 0 8 1000
gvSvgvwS mgq Bsjvi MwYZwe` RR eywj evBbvwi 1 1 9 1001
2 10 10 1010
msLv cwZ Dveb Kib| GRb RR eywjK evBbvwi 3 11 11 1011
msLv cwZi RbK ejv nq| 4 100 12 1100
5 101 13 1101
mvaviYZ 0 _K + 0.8 fv ch jfjK jwRK 0 6 110 14 1110
Ges +2 fv _K +5 fv ch jfjK jwRK 1 7 111 15 1111
aiv nq| wWwRUvj Bjwb +0.8 fv _K +2.0 wP: `kwgK msLvi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb
fv jej msvwqZ bq weavq eenvi Kiv nq bv|
wP `yB Aevwewk we`yr Zi `Lvbv nqQ| GLvb 0 fv viv jwRK 0 Ges +5 fv viv
jwRK 1 wb`k Kiv nqQ|

D`vniY: (11110)2 GKwU evBbvwi msLv|


evBbvwi msLvwUZ eeZ Ajvi Aevb ev vbxq gvb
MSB ... 25 24 23 22 21 20 2-1 2-2 2-3 ... LSB
MSB ... 32 16 8 4 2 1 .5 .25 .125 ... LSB

AKUvj msLv cwZ (Octal Number System)


evBbvwi msLv 2 Gi wfwZ MwVZ ej GwU ewk `xN| GK mnR I QvU Kivi Rb Aviv `ywU
msLv cwZi De nq| Gi GKwU AKUvj `kwgK msLv evBbvwi msLv AKUvj msLv
msLv cwZ| AvaywbK wWwRUvj KwDUvi 0 000 0
AKUvj msLv cwZ eeZ nQ| h 1 001 1
2 010 2
msLv cwZ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 G 3 011 3
AvUwU A ev wP wbq MwVZ ZvK 4 100 4
AKUvj msLv cwZ ej| G 8wU gwjK 5 101 5
6 110 6
A ev wP wbq hveZxq MvwYwZK KgKv
7 111 7
mv`b Kiv nq ej Gi eR ev wfw njv 8| wP : `kwgK, evBbvwi I AKUvj mgK msLv|
G cwZZ 8 Ges 9 Gi Kvbv AwZ
bB| AKUvj msLv cwZZ GKwU AKUvj msLv wZbwU Binary digit K Represent Ki|
78 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY^ic: (375)8 GKwU AKUvj msLv| AKUvj msLv MYbvi myweav_ c~ei cvZvq `kwgK
msLvi mgZzj AKUvj gvb `Lvbv nqQ| AKUvj msLv cwZZ eeZ Ajvi Aevb ev
vbxq gvb:
MSB 83 82 81 80 . 81 82 83 ... LSB
MSB 512 64 8 1 . 1 1 1 ... LSB
8 64 512

nvWwmgvj msLv cwZ (Hexadecimal Number System)


h msLv cwZZ 16wU wP ev A AvQ, mB msLv cwZK nvWwmgj msLv cwZ ej|
nvWwmgvj msLv cwZi gwjK A ev `kwgK nvWwmgvj `kwgK nvWwmgvj
cZxK gvU 16wU| h_v: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, msLv msLv msLv msLv
7, 8, 9 Ges, A, B, C, D, E F| G 16wU 0 0 8 8
1 1 9 9
gwjK cZxK ev A eenvi Ki mKj 2 2 10 A
cKvi MvwYwZK wnmve- wbKvm mv`b Kiv 3 3 11 B
nq| hnZz GLvb 16wU A ev cZxK 4 4 12 C
eenvi Kiv nq| ZvB nvWwmgvj msLv 5 5 13 D
cwZi eR ev wfw njv 16| mycvi 6 6 14 E
7 7 15 F
KwDUvi, gBbdg KwDUvi wP: `kwgK I mgK nvWwmgvj msLv
nvWwmgvj msLv cwZ eeZ nQ|
cvki mviwYZ `kwgK msLvi mgZzj nvWwmgvj msLvi gvb `Lvbv njv

GLvb, A = 10, B = 11, C = 12 , D = 13 , E = 14 Ges F = 15|


D`vniY: (3FC. 2B)16 GKwU nvWwmgvj msLv| eZgvb wewfb aibi KwDUvi wmg
nvWwmgvj msLv cwZ eenvi nQ|
nvWwmgvj msLv cwZZ eeZ Ajvi Aevb ev vbxq gvb
MSB 162 161 160 . 161 162 163 ... LSB
MSB 256 16 1 . 1/16 1/256 1/4096 ... LSB

AKUvj I nvWwmgvj cwZi cqvRbxqZv


KwDUvi evBbvwi msLv cwZZ Zvi AvfixY Kvh mv`b Ki| AvfixY KvR mv`bi
Rb `iKvi nq AmsL 0 Ges 1 weUi wqv-cwZwqvi eYbv| 0 Ges 1 w`q G aibi eYbv jLv
LyeB KKi Ges ZvZ fyji mvebvI ewk| m Rb AKUvj I nvWwmgvj cwZqK
mvaviYZ evBbvwi msLvi msw msKZ wnme eenvi Kiv nq| KviY Kvbv cKvi RwUj wnmve-
wbKvm QvovB evBbvwi _K AKUvj I nvWwmgvj cwieZb Kiv hvq|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 79

wbg wewfb msLv cwZZ eeZ gwjK A, eR I D`vniY `Lvbv njv


msLv cwZi bvg gwjK wP ev A eR ev wfw D`vniY
`kwgK 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 10 (5678)10
evBbvwi 0, 1 2 (11010)2
AKUvj 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 8 (7567)8
nvWwmgvj 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, 16 (8FC5)16
wbg 0-20 ch `kwgK msLv cwZi mv_ Abvb msLv cwZi Zzjbvg~jK mgZzj gvb `Lvbv njv
`kwgK msLv mgZzj evBbvwi gvb mgZzj AKUvj gvb mgZzj nvWwmgvj gvb
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
2 10 2 2
3 11 3 3
4 100 4 4
5 101 5 5
6 110 6 6
7 111 7 7
8 1000 10 8
9 1001 11 9
10 1010 12 A
11 1011 13 B
12 1100 14 C
13 1101 15 D
14 1110 16 E
15 1111 17 F
16 10000 20 10
17 10001 21 11
18 10010 22 12
19 10011 23 13
20 10100 24 14

KwDUvi wWRvBb evBbvwi msLv cwZ eenvii myweav


evBbvwi msLv cwZ njv, GKwU mnRvZ MYbv cwZ| G cwZZ 0 Ges 1 G `ywU weU eenvi
Kiv nq| MYbvi Kvh mv`bi myweav_ wewfb cKvi msLv cwZ eenvi Kiv nq| h_v: `kwgK,
evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj msLv cwZ| mvaviYfve KwDUvi ejZ wWwRUvj
KwDUviKB evSvbv nq| KwDUvi wewfb WUv ev Dcv (h_v: eY, A, msLv, wP) msiY
Kiv nq evBbvwi KvWi gvag| wbg KwDUvi wWRvBb Abvb msLv cwZ Acv evBbvwi
msLv cwZ eenvii AbZg KviY I myweav mK AvjvPbv Kiv njv
1. evBbvwi msLv cwZ Abvb msLv cwZ Acv mijZg msLv cwZ|
80 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

2. KwDUvi wewfb Z_ msiY Kiv nq wewfb BjKUwbK/ BjKwUKvj KvbU h_v:


UvbwRi, mwgKvi (Aacwievnx), gvMbwUK Dcv`vb BZvw`i gvag| DjwLZ mKj
Dcv`vb mvaviYfve `ywU kZ (Condition) ev Aev (State) wb`k Ki| GKwU 1 (ON) AciwU
0 (OFF)| GLvb ON, OFF viv h_vg we`yZi DcwwZ I AbycwwZK evSvbv nqQ|
3. KwDUvi KvR Ki BjKwUKvj wmMbvji wfwZ| evBbvwii eeZ 0 I 1 Gi Rb
`ywU Avjv`v Avjv`v BjKwUKvj wmMbvj Zwi Kiv hZUv mnR Wwmgvj wmgi 10 wU
I nvWwmgvji c_K c_K 16 wU wmMbvj Zwi Kiv Zzjbvg~jK ewk RwUj|
4. evBbvwi msLv cwZ eZxZ Abvb cwZZ mvwKU wWRvBb Zzjbvg~jK RwUj I eqej|
5. KwDUvi wmg eeZ Abvb wWwRUvj wWfvBm h_vwWwRUvj Kvgiv, wWwRUvj dvb BZvw`
evBbvwi gvW KvR Ki| dj Zv`i Lye mnR KwDUvii mv_ BUvidwms Kiv hvq|
myZivs KwDUvi wWRvBb I GwU wewfb eenvii `Lv hvq, Abvb msLv cwZ Acv
evBbvwi msLv cwZi eenvi AwaKZi myweavRbK|
3.2.2 msLvi icvi (Conversion of Number)
msLv cwZjv icvi Kiv hvq| icvii gvag msLv cwZi Avmj ic D`&NvwUZ nq| A_vr
GK msLv cwZK Ab msLvq icvi Kij Kx aibi msLv nq, Zv Rvbv hvq| dj msLv
cwZi mg^q mvab Kiv mnR nq| `bw`b Rxebi mvaviY wnmve-wbKvmi Avgiv mvaviYZ
`kwgK msLv cwZ eenvi Kwi| wK Ggb KZKjv AvQ hLvb `kwgK msLv cwZ
Acv Abvb msLv cwZi eenvi myweavRbK| ZvB wewfb msLvi icvi I Gi h_vh_ cqvM
GKwU iZc~Y welq| wbg wewfb msLvi icvi mK wevwiZ AvjvPbv Kiv njv
`kwgK msLvK evBbvwi msLvq icvi (Decimal to Binary Conversion)
`kwgK msLvK evBbvwi msLvq icvii wewfb cwZ AvQ| Kvbv msLvi `ywU A _vKZ
cvi| h_v: c~Yvsk I fMvsk| wbP c~Yvsk I fMvsk icvii mvaviY wbqg `Lvbv njv| GLvb
fvM-Aewk (Division Remainder Technique) cwZ wbq AvjvPbv Kiv njv
c~Y msLvi (Incase of Integer Number)
1. `kwgK c~Y msLvK evBbvwi eR w`q chvqg fvM KiZ ne hZY bv ch fvMdj k~b nq|
2. cZKevi fvM Kivi ci Aewk msLvjvK chvqg wjwce KiZ ne|
3. AZtci Aewk (Remainder) msLvjvK wbP nZ Dci w`K chvqg (Bottom to Top)
mvwRq wjLj `kwgK c~Y msLvwUi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb cvIqv hve|
D`vniY^ic: (125)10 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq Kiv njv|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 81

L. fMvski (Floating Point Number)


fMvski wbgi cwqv AbymiY KiZ nq
1. fMvskwUK evBbvwi eR 2 viv Y Ki c~Y A (`kwgK we`yi c~ei A) I fMvsk (`kwgK
we`yi cii) c_K KiZ ne|
2. bZzb cv fMvskwUK cybivq eR 2 w`q Y Ki GKB cwqvq c~Y A I fMvsk c_K KiZ ne|
3. DcwiD cwqv AevnZ _vKe hZY bv ch fMvskwU cwic~Y 1 ne (A_vr fMvsk wbtkl
ne) ZLb Y Kiv e KiZ ne|
4. wKQz wKQz cybivew msLv Avmj Y Kiv e KiZ ne|
5. GgbI wKQz wKQz msLv AvQ hjvi cybivew msLv bvI AvmZ cvi| A_vr Amxg ch PjZ _vKe|
m `kwgK we`yi ci h Kq Ni ch wbZ ejv ne ZZevi 2 viv Y Ki e KiZ ne|
6. AZtci c~Y msLvjvK Dci nZ wbPi w`K (Top to Bottom) mvwRq wjLj fMvskwUi
mgZzj evBbvwi gvb cvIqv hve| wbgi D`vniYjv weklfve jYxq
D`vniY-1: (.625)10 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq D`vniY-2: (.105)10 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb
wbYq

MSB

LSB

D`vniY-3: (225.75)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi gvb wbYq Ki|


c~Yvski , fMvski ,

MSB

LSB

(225.75)10 = (1110001.11)2
82 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

`kwgK msLvK AKUvj icvi (Decimal to Octal Conversion)


`kwgK msLvK AKUvj msLvq icvii Rb `kwgK msLvK chvqg 8 w`q fvM Ki
AewkjvK mevP iZi A _K mewbg iZi A ch chvq g wjL `kwgK
msLvwUi AKUvj mgK msLv cvIqv hvq| c_g Ges kl Aewk `ywU msLvK h_vg AKUvj
msLvi mewbg I mevP iZi A ej| (G icviI `kwgK _K evBbvwiZ icvii gZvB)
D`vniY-1: (125.625)10 Gi mgK AKUvj gvb wbYq Ki|
c~Yvski , fMvski ,
8 125 c~Yvsk fMvsk
8 15 - 5 (LSB) .625
8 1 -7 8
0-1 (MSB) 5 . 000
(125)10 = (175)8 (.625)10 = (.5)8
(125.625)10 = (175.5)8
`kwgK msLvK nvWwmgvj icvi (Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion)
`kwgK msLvK nvWwmgvj msLvq icvii Rb `kwgK msLvK chvqg 16 w`q fvM Ki
AewkjvK mevP iZi A _K mewbg iZi A ch chvqg wjL `kwgK msLvwUi
nvWwmgvj mgK msLv cvIqv hvq| c_g Ges kl Aewk `ywU msLvK h_vg nvWwmgvj
msLvi mewbg I mevP iZi A ej| GLvb `kwgK c~Y msLvK chvqg 16 viv fvM Ges
fMvskK evi evi 16 viv Y KiZ nq| (G icviI `kwgK _K evBbvwiZ icvii gZvB)|
nvWwmgvj icvii D`vniYwU weklfve jYxq
D`vniY1: (125.625)10 Gi mgZzj D`vniY-2: (2528.875)10 Gi mgK
nvWwmgvj gvb wbYq Ki| nvWwmgvj gvb wbYq Ki|
c~Yvski , fMvski ,
c~Yvski , fMvski ,
c~Yvsk fMvsk 16 2528 c~Yvsk fMvsk
16 125
.625 16 158 - 0 LSB .875
16 7 - 13 (D) LSB
16 16 9 -14 (E) 16
0-7 MSB
0 - 9 MSB (E)14 .000
(A)10 .000
(125)10 = (7D)16 (.625)10 = (.A)16
(2528)10 = (9E0)16 (.875)10 = (.E)16

(125.625)10 = (7D.A)16 (2528.875)10 = (9E0.E)16


msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 83

wbg eKwPi gvag `kwgK msLvK evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj icvii cwqv `Lvb
njv Binary Number
2
Decimal Number Octal Number
8
10 Hexadecimal Number
16
wP: `kwgK msLvK evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj msLvq icvi|
evBbvwi msLvK `kwgK icvi (Binary to Decimal Conversion)
K. c~Y msLvi : Kvbv evBbvwi c~Y msLv `kwgK icvi KiZ nj wbgwjwLZ avcjv AbymiY
KiZ ne
1. msLvwUK LSB (Least Significant Bit) weU nZ i Ki MSB (Most Significant
Bit) weU ch cwZwU AK chvqg 2 p viv Y KiZ ne| GLvb P = 0, 1, 2, 3
............
2. AZtci Ydjjvi hvMdj wbYq KiZ ne|
3. c` hvMdjB ne evBbvwi msLvwUi mgZzj `kwgK gvb|
D`vniY1: (110101)2 Gi mgZzj `kwgK gvb wbYq Ki|
MSB 110101 LSB
(110101)2 = 125 + 1 24 + 0 23 + 122 + 0 21 + 1 20
= 1 32 + 1 16 + 0 8 +1 4 + 0 2 + 1 1
= 32 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1
= 53
(110101)2 = (53)10
fMvski :
1. fMvski msLvwUK MSB weU nZ i Ki D`vniY2: (0.1010)2 Gi mgZzj `kwgK
LSB weU ch cwZwU AK chvqg 2p viv Y gvb wbYq Ki|
KiZ ne| GLvb P = 1, 2, 3 ............ 1 2 3 4
(0.1010)2 = 1 2 + 0 2 + 1 2 + 0 2
1 1
hgb P = 1 nj 2 = 2 = .5 1 1 1 1
=12+0 +1 +0
1 1 4 8 16
P=2 nj 22 = 22 = 4 = .25
1 1
1 1 =2 +0+ +0
P=3 nj 23 = 23 = 8 = .125 8
1 1 = .5 + .125
P=4 nj 24 = 4 = = .0625
2 16 = .625
2. AZtci YdjMy jvi hvMdj wbY q KiZ
ne| (.1010)2 = (.625)10
3. c ` hvMdjB ne fM v skwUi mgZz j
`kwgK fM v sk gvb|
84 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY3: (11101.110)2 Gi mgZzj `kwgK gvb wbYq Ki|


c~Yvski , fMvski ,
(11101)2 = 124+123+122+021+120 (.110)2 = 121+1 22 + 0 23
1 1
= 116 + 1 8 + 1 4 + 0 + 1 1 = 1 2 +1 4 + 0
= 16 + 8 + 4 + 1 1 1
=2 +4
= 29
(11101)2 = (29)10 = .5 + .25
= .75
(11101.110)2 = (29.75)10 (.110)2 = (.75)10
AKUvj msLvK `kwgK icvi (Octal to Decimal Conversion)
evBbvwi msLvK `kwgK icvii Rb h cwqv ev wbqg AbymiY Kiv nqQ AKUvj msLvK
`kwgK icvii Rb Abyic cwqv ev wbqg AbymiY KiZ ne| ay evBbvwii eR 2 Gi j
AKUvji eR 8 viv wnme KvR mv`b KiZ ne| A_vr 2p Gi j 8p eme| GLvb 8
njv AKUvji eR, p njv Zvi NvZ ev Power|
D`vniY1: (375.125)8 K `kwgK msLvq icvi Ki|
c~Yvski , fMvski ,
2 1 0
(375)8 = 38 + 78 + 5 8 (.125)8 = 181+282+583
1 1 1
= 364 + 78 + 51 = 1 + 2 2 + 5 3
8 8 8
= 192 + 56 + 5 1 2 5
= 253 = 8 + 64 + 512

(375)8 = (253)10 = .125 + .03125 + .0097656


= .16601563
(375.125)8 = (253.166015)10 (.125)8 = (.16601563)10
D`vniY2: (175.50)8 Gi `kwgK gvb wbYq Ki|
c~Yvski , fMvski ,
(.50)8 = 581+082
(175)8 = 182+781+58
1 1
= 164+78+51 = 58 + 082
= 64+56+5 5
= 8+0
= 125
(175)8 = (125)10 = .625
(175.50)8 = (125.625)10 (.50)8 = (.625)10

nvWwmgvj msLvK `kwgK icvi (Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion)


nvWwmgvj msLvK `kwgK msLvq icvii Rb nvWwmgvj AjvK wbR^ vbxq gvb
w`q Y Ki cv YdjK hvM Kij nvWwmgvj msLvwUi mgZzj `kwgK msLv cvIqv hve|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 85

D`vniY: (3FC.2B)16 Gi mgZzj `kwgK gvb wbYq Ki|


c~Y Aski , fMvski ,
(3FC)16 = 3 162 + F 161 + C 160 (.2B)16 = 2 161 + B 162
= 3 256 + 15 16 + 121 2 11
= 16 + 256
= 768 + 240 + 12
32+11 43
= 1020 = 256 = 256
(3FC)16 = (1020)10 = .167968
myZivs (3FC.2B)16 = (1020.167968)10 (.23)16 = (.167968)10

D`vniY: (ABCD.EF)16 Gi mgZzj `kwgK gvb wbYq Ki|


c~Y Aski , fMvski ,
(ABCD)16 = A 163 + B 162 + C 161 + D 160 (.EF)16 = E161 + F162
= 10163 + 11162 + 12161+13160 = 14161+15162
= 104096 + 11256 + 1216 + 13 1 14 15
= 16 + 162
= 40960 + 2816 + 192 + 13
= .875+.0585940
= 43981 = .933594
(ABCD)16 = (43981)10 (.EF)16 = (.9335940)10
myZivs (ABCD.EF)16 = (43981.933594)10
evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj msLvK Wwmgvj/ `kwgK msLvq icvii eKwP wbg Dcvcb Kiv njv
Binary Number
2
Octal Number Decimal Number
8
Hexadecimal Number 10
16
wP: evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj msLvK `kwgK msLvq icvii eKwP|
AKUvj msLvK evBbvwiZ icvi (Octal to Binary Conversion)
Kvbv AKUvj msLvK evBbvwiZ icvi KiZ nj AKUvj mgZzj evBbvwi gvb
AKUvj msLvwUi cwZ GKwU wWwRUK mUvi mgZzj
wZbwU evBbvwi wWwRU w`q cKvk KiZ ne| cvki
msLv 4 2 1
mviwYZ AKUvj msLv cwZZ eeZ 0 nZ 7 ch 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
Ajvi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb `Lvbv njv 2 0 1 0
D`vniY1: (375.24)8 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq Ki| 3 0 1 1
(3 7 5 . 2 4)8 4 1 0 0
5 1 0 1
6 1 1 0
= (011 111 101 . 010 100)2 7 1 1 1
(375 . 24)8 = (11111101 . 010100)2 wP: AKUvj I mgZzj evBbvwi gvb|
86 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY2: (615.273)8 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq Ki|


(6 1 5 . 2 7 3)8

=(110 001 101 . 010 111 011)2


(615.273)8 = (110001101.010111011)2
evBbvwi msLvK AKUvj icvi (Binary to Octal Conversion)
evBbvwi msLvK AKUvj msLvq icvi njv AKUvj msLvK evBbvwiZ icvii wecixZ cwqv|
G cwZ wZbwU evBbvwi wWwRU w`q GKwU Ki mgZzj AKUvj wWwRU Zwi Kiv nq| c~Y msLvi
Wvb nZ evgw`K wZbwU Ki wWwRU c_K Ki wbZ ne Ges wZbwUi Kg nj evg cvk cqvRbxq
msLK k~b ewmq wZbwU wWwRU c~Y Kiv nq| Avi fMvski evg nZ Wvb w`K wZbwU Ki wWwRU
Avjv`v Ki wbZ nq Ges wZbwUi Kg nj cqvRbxq msLK k~b Wvb cvk ewmq wZbwU wWwRU c~Y
KiZ nq| wbg D`vniY `qv njv
D`vniY1: (11101011 . 1011011)2 Gi mgZzj AKUvj gvb wbYq Ki|
(011 101 011 . 101 101 100)2
=( 3 5 3 . 5 5 4 )8
(11101011 . 1011011)2 = (353 . 554)8
D`vniY2: (1011011101 . 00110)2 Gi mgZzj AKUvj gvb wbYq Ki|
(001 011 011 101 . 001 100)2
=(1 3 3 5 . 1 4 )8
(10110111101 . 001100)2 = (1335 . 14)2
nvWwmgvj msLvK evBbvwiZ icvi (Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion)
Kvbv nvWwmgvj msLvK evBbvwiZ icvi KiZ nj nvWwmgvj evBbvwi msLv
nvWwmgvji cwZ GKwU nvWwmgvj wWwRU/ cZxKK PviwU msLv 8 4 2 1
mgZzj evBbvwi wWwRU viv cKvk KiZ nq| cvki mviwYZ 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1
nvWwmgvji mgZzj evBbvwi gvb `qv njv 2 0 0 1 0
3 0 0 1 1
D`vniY1: (35D.3F)16 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq Ki| 4 0 1 0 0
(3 5 D . 3 F)16 5 0 1 0 1
6 0 1 1 0
7 0 1 1 1
=(0011 0101 1101 . 0011 1111)2 8 1 0 0 0
(35D . 3 F)16 = (001101011101. 00111111)2 9 1 0 0 1
A (10) 1 0 1 0
D`vniY2: (DEA . 4BC)16 Gi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq Ki| B (11) 1 0 1 1
C (12) 1 1 0 0
(D E A . 4 B C)16 D (13) 1 1 0 1
E (14) 1 1 1 0
F (15) 1 1 1 1
= (1101 1110 1010 . 0100 1011 1100)2 wP: nvWwmgvj I mgZzj evBbvwi msLv
(DEA . 4BC)16 = (110111101010 . 010010111100)2
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 87

evBbvwi msLvK nvWwmgvj icvi (Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion)


evBbvwi msLvK nvWwmgvj icvi evBbvwi msLvK AKUvj msLvq icvii Abyic|
nvWwmgvji PviwU Ki evBbvwi wWwRU eenvi Ki GKwU nvWwmgvj A/ wWwRU MVb Kiv
nqQ| c~Y Aski Wvb nZ evg w`K PviwU Ki evBbvwi wWwRU c_K Ki GKwU Ki
nvWwmgvj wWwRU MVb KiZ ne| PviwU Wvb nZ evg cvk cqvRbxq msLK k~b ewmq PviwU wWwRU
c~Y KiZ ne| Avi fMvski evg nZ Wvb w`K PviwU Ki wWwRU c_K Ki nvWwmgvj A/ wWwRU
Zwi KiZ nq| PviwUi Kg nj Wvb cvk cqvRbxq msLK k~b ewmq PviwU c~Y KiZ ne|
D`vniY1: (11100101110 . 101010111)2 Gi mgZzj nvWwmgvj gvb wbYq Ki|
(0111 0010 1110 . 1010 1011 1000)2 A = 10
B = 11
=(7 2 E . A B 8 )16 C = 12
(11100101110 . 111010111)2 = (72E . AB8)16 D = 13
E = 14
D`vniY2: (111111001011 . 10101101)2 Gi mgZzj nvWwmgvj wbYq Ki| F = 15
nWwmgvji
(1111 1100 1011 . 1010 1101)2 mgZzj Wwmgvj
=( F C B . A D )16
(111111001011 . 10101101)2 = (FCB.AD)16
AKUvj msLvK nvWwmgvj icvi (Octal to Hexadecimal Conversion)
AKUvj msLvK nvWwmgvj icvii GKvwaK cwZ iqQ|
h_v: AKUvj `kwgK nvWwmgvj|
AKUvj evBbvwi nvWwmgvj cwZwU Zzjbvg~jK mnR I myweavRbK ej wbg D cwZ
mK AvjvPbv Kiv njv
i. Kvbv AKUvj msLvK nvWwmgvj icvi KiZ nj c_g msLvwUi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb
wbYq KiZ ne|
ii. AZtci evBbvwi msLvK nvWwmgvj icvii Rb PviwU Ki evBbvwi wWwRU w`q GKwU
Ki nvWwmgvj A/ wWwRU MVb KiZ nq|
D`vniY: (375 . 246)8 Gi nvWwmgvj gvb wbYq Ki|
(3 7 5 . 2 4 6 )8

= (011 111 101 . 010 100 110)2


= ( 0000 1111 1101 . 0101 0011 0000 )2
=( 0 F D . 5 3 0 )16
(375 . 246)8 = (F D . 530)16
88 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

nvWwmgvj msLvK AKUvj icvi (Hexadecimal to Octal Conversion)


nvWwmgvj msLv nZ AKUvj msLvq icvi AKUvj nZ nvWwmgvj msLvq icvii
wecixZ cwqvq| nvWwmgvj `kwgK AKUvj; nvWwmgvj evBbvwi AKUvj
evBbvwi msLvK AKUvj icv ii Rb wZbwU Ki evBbvwi wWwRU w`q GKwU Ki
AKUvj msLv MVb KiZ nq|
D`v-1: (8B . FCD)16 Gi AKUvj gvb wbYq D`v-2: (2FC . BD)16 Gi AKUvj gvb wbYq
Ki| Ki|
(8 B . F C D )16 (2 F C . B D)16

=(1000 1011 . 1111 1100 1101)2 = (0010 1111 1100 . 1011 1101)2
=(010 001 011. 111 111 001 101)2 = (001 011 111 100 . 101 111 010)2
= (2 1 3 . 7 7 1 5)8 = (1 3 7 4 . 5 7 2)8
(8B . FCD)16 = (213 . 7715)8 (2FC . BD)16 = (1374.572)8
nvWwmgj _K AKUvj icvi Kivi Rb mgZzj 4 weU Ki evBbvwiZ icvi KiZ
nq| evBbvwi msLvK mgZzj 3 weU Ki wbq AKUvj icvi KiZ nq|
D`v1: (35. 625)10 msLvwUK evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj cKvk Ki|
i) (35.625)10 msLvwUK evBbvwiZ icvi Ki: ii) (35.625)10 msLvwUK AKUvj icvi:
c~Y Aski , fMvski , c~Y Aski , fMvski ,
.625
2
LSB
MSB 1 .250
2 MSB

(35)10 = (43)8 (.625)10 = (.5)8


0 .500
2 (35 . 625)10 = (43.5)8
LSB 1 .000

(35)10 = (100011)2 (.625)10 = (.101)2

(35.625)10 = (100011.101)2
iii) (35.625)10 msLvwUK nvWwmgvj icvi:
c~Y Aski , fMvski ,

LSB

MSB
(.625)10 = (.A)16
(35)10 = (23)16

(35.625)10 = (23.A)16
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 89

D`vniY2: 3FC Kvb aibi msLv? msLvwUi mgK evBbvwi, AKUvj I `kwgK gvb wbYq Ki|
mgvavb: 3FC GKwU nvWwmgvj msLv|
i) 3FC msLvwUK evBbvwiZ icvi: ii) 3FC msLvwUK AKUvj icvi: iii) 3FC msLvwUK `kwgK icvi:
(3 F C)16 (3 F C)16 (3FC)16 = 3162 + F161+C160
= 3256 + 15 16 + 12 1
= (0011 1111 1100)2 = 768 + 240 + 12
= (0011 1111 1100)2 = (001 111 111 100)2
= (1020)10
(3FC)16 = (1111111100)2 = (1 7 7 4)8 (3FC)16 = (1020)10
(3FC)16 = (1774)8

KvR: (175.75)10 msLvwUK evBbvwi, AKUvj I nvWwmgvj icvi Ki|


evBbvwi MwYZ (Binary Arithmetic): wewfb MvwYwZK cwZi ga evBbvwi MwYZ Zzjbvg~jK mnR I
mij| G cwZZ gv `ywU wWwRU ev A eenvi Kiv nq, h_v: 0 I 1| aygv G `ywU wWwRU eenvi Ki
hveZxq MvwYwZK cwqv I wnmve-wbKvm mb Kiv nq| G KviY KwDUvimn hveZxq wWwRUvj BjKUwbK
hcvwZi wWRvBb Ges Dnv`i MvwYwZK wnmve-wbKvmi KvR evBbvwi cwZZ mv`b Kiv nq| wbg evBbvwi
hvM (Binary Addition) I evBbvwi weqvM (Binary Subtraction) wbq AvjvPbv Kiv njv
3.3 evBbvwi hvM-weqvM (Binary Addition-Subtraction)
evBbvwi hvM (Binary Addition): evBbvwi hvM evBbvwi msLv hvMdj Kvwi
`kwgK cwZi hvMi Abyic| evBbvwi hvMi
wbgwjwLZ wbqgjv chvR| h_v: 0+0 = 0 0
evBbvwi cwZZ 1 njv mevP wWwRU| G KviY 0+1 = 1 0
hvMi mgq 1 Gi ewk nj Kvwi GK (Carry 1+0 = 1 0
One) Zwi ne Ges G h_vwbqg c~ei (evgi) 1+1 = 0 1
wWwRUi mv_ hvM ne| hgb- 1 + 1 = 10 (`k) 1+1+1 = 1 1
ne bv| ejZ ne k~b Ges nvZ _vK GK hv
cKZtc `kwgK cwZi 2 (`yB) Gi mgvb|
D`vniY:
1. (1001110)2 I (110111)2 hvM Ki: 2. (11011.101)2I (10110.110)2 hvM Ki:
(1001110)2 (11011 . 101)2
(110111)2 (10110 . 110)2
(10000101)2 (110010 . 011)2
wbYq hvMdj = (10000101)2 wbYq hvMdj = (110010 . 011)2
evBbvwi weqvM (Binary Subtraction): evBbvwi
evBbvwi msLv weqvMdj Avi/Kvwi
msLv cwZi weqvM Wwmgvj msLv cwZi weqvMi
00 = 0 0
Abyic| evBbvwi weqvM PviwU wbqg gb Pj| h_v:
10 = 1 0
`kwgK cwZZ QvU msLv nZ eo msLv weqvM 11 = 0 0
Kij hgb c~eeZx A nZ 10 avi wbZ nq, Zgwb 01 = 1 1
evBbvwi msLvi QvU msLv nZ eo msLv weqvM
Kij (0 nZ 1) nvZ (Borrow One) avi Kiv GK _vK|
90 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

eZgvb cRbi KwDUvi mvaviY wbqg weqvM Kiv nq bv| AwaKZi myweavi KviY AvaywbK
KwDUvi wmg weqvMi Rb cwic~iK wbqg (Complement Subtraction) eenvi Kiv nq|
D`vniY: 1. (110101)2 nZ (10110)2 weqvM D`v: 2. (110101.101)2 _K (10110.110)2 weqvM
Ki| Ki|
110101.101
110101
10110.110
10110
011110.111
011111
wbYq weqvMdj = (011111) wbYq weqvMdj = (011110.111)2
2

3.4 wPhy msLv (Signed Number)


wewfb MvwYwZK mgmv mgvavbi abvZK (Positive) I FYvZK (Negative) msLv eenvi Kiv nq|
evBbvwi gwkbjvZ A_vr KwDUvi msLv AvU weU web nq| hLb Kvbv msLv QvU nq A_vr 8 weUi
Kg nq ZLb Wvbw`K _K msLv em evgw`Ki evwK Ni k~b (0) w`q c~iY Ki| msLvwU abvZK bvwK
FYvZK Zv eySvbvi Rb mvaviYZ msLvi cKZ gvbi AvM GKwU AwZiw weU (Bit) hvM Kiv nq| G
AwZwi weUK wP weU (Sign bit) ej| wP weU 0 nj msLvwU abvZK Ges wPweU 1 nj msLvwUK
FYvZK aiv nq|
Avi wPhy msLvK wPwZ msLv ev mvBbW b^i (Signed number) ejv nq| abvZK msLvi
wP-weU Qvov evwK AwU msLvi gvb vcb Ki|
wbg GKwU 8 weU iwRvii eKwP `qv njv:

wP weU (Sign bit) gvb

Kvbv GKwU msLv KZ weUi ne Zv wbfi Ki iwRviwUi k `Ni Dci| hgb- 4 weU, 8
weU, 16 weU, 32 weU, 64 weU, 128 weU BZvw` iwRvi|

D`vniY ^ic: +25 I 25 msLv `ywUK h_vg 8 weU iwRvii gvag cKvk `Lvbv njv:
+25 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
wP weU (Sign bit)

25 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
wP weU (Sign bit)
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 91

FYvZK msLv cKvki wZbwU cwZ iqQ| h_v:


1. cKZ gvb MVb (Signed magnitude form)
2. 1 Gi cwic~iK MVb (1s Complement form)
3. 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb (2s Complement form)
cKZ gvb MVb (Signed magnitude form)
cKZ gvb MVb cwZZ wP cKvki Rb mvBb weU (Sign Bit) eenvi Kiv nq| msLvwU abvZK
nj mvBb weU 0 Ges FYvZK nj mvBb weU 1 nq|
wK cKZ gvb MVb wmg 0 Gi Rb `ywU evBbvwi k ( + 0 I 0) eeZ nq hv eve
Ame| G KviY eZgvb G cwZi Kvbv cqvM bvB|

1 Gi cwic~iK MVb (1s Complement form)


Kvbv evBbvwi msLvi 1 Gi cwic~iK ev 1s Complement ejZ H msLvi 1 Gi j 0 Ges
0 Gi j 1 viv cwZvcb (Replacement) KiZ nq| D`vniY^ic
njv

A_vr (100110) Gi 1s Complement njv = 011001


wbg KqKwU msLvi 1s Complement 8 weUwewk iwRvi `Lvb njv
Binary Bit 1s Complement

AvaywbK KwDUvi I Abvb wWwRUvj wmg 1s Complement Gi eenvi cwijwZ nq|


3.5 2 Gi cwic~iK (2s Complement):
2 Gi cwic~iK MVb (2s Complement Form)
Kvbv evBbvwi msLvi 2 Gi cwic~iK ev 2s Complement ejZ H msLvi 1s
Complement Gi mv_ 1 hvM KivK evSvq| A_vr MvwYwZKfve 2s Complement = 1s
Complement + 1
92 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY^ic: 110110 msLvwUi 2s Complement


001001 (1s Complement)
+1
001010 (2s Complement)
D`vniY: (+25)10 Gi 8 weU iwRvi eenvi Ki 2s Complment wbYq Ki|
(+25)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi gvb = ( 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1)2 (8 weU iwRvi)

11100110 (1s Complement)


+1
11100111 (2s Complement)
myZivs (+25)10 Gi 8 weUwewk 2s Complement = 11100111
2 Gi cwic~iKi iZ
cKZ gvb, 1 Gi cwic~iK, 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb abvZK msLvi Kvbv Zdvr bB; me
wP-weU 0 nq I msLvwUi Rb ^vfvweK evBbvwi MVb eenvi Kiv nq| Ze FYvZK msLvi Rb
wfb wfb MVb; hgb- cKZ gvb MVb, 1 Gi cwic~iK MVb I 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb eenvi Kiv nq|
2 Gi cwic~iK MVbi iZ wbg eYbv Kiv njv
i) cKZ-gvb I 1 Gi cwic~iK MVb 0 Gi Rb `ywU evBbvwi k (+0 I 0) me| wK eve +0
I 0 ejZ wKQz bB| eve ay 0 AvQ| 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb G aibi Kvbv mgmv bB|
ii) 2 Gi cwic~iK msLvi Rb MvwYwZK mij eZbx cqvRb| mij eZbx `vg mv Ges `Z MwZZ
KvR Ki|
iii) 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb wPhy msLv Ges wPwenxb msLv hvM Kivi Rb GKB eZbx eenvi Kiv
hvq|
iv) 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb hvM I weqvMi Rb GKB eZbx eenvi Kiv hvq| ZvB AvaywbK
KwDUvi 2 Gi cwic~iK cwZ eenvi Kiv nq|
wecixZKiY/ wbMkb (Negation)
wecixZKiY ev wbMkb ejZ Kvbv abvZK msLvK FYvZK Ges FYvZK msLvK abvZK
KivK evSvq| wecixZKiY ev wbMkbi Rb Kvbv evBbvwi msLvK 2s Complment G
icvi Kiv nq| wecixZKiY Kij Kvbv msLvi gvbi cwieZb nq bv aygv wPi cwieZb
nq| hgb- 8 weUwewk + 27 I 27 Gi evBbvwi gvb h_vg + 27 = 00011011 Ges 27
= 10011011|
+ 27 Gi wbMkb + 27 = 00011011 Gi 2s Complement = 11100101= 27
+27 Gi cybtwbMkb = 00011011 = + 27
myZivs Kvbv msLvi cybtwbMkb Kij mwUi gvbI wPi Kvbv cwieZb nq bv|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 93

2s Complement nZ evBbvwi msLvq icvi


hw` Kvbv msLv 2s Complement ev 2 Gi cwic~iK Aevq _vK Ze ZvK evBbvwi
msLvq icvi KiZ nj c_ g msLvwUK 1s Complement G icvi KiZ ne|
AZtci cv msLvwUi mv_ 1 hvM KiZ ne| Zvnj msLvwUi mgZz j evBbvwi gvb cvIqv
hve| A_vr Kvbv msLvi evBbvwi gvb = msLvwUi 1s Complement + 1
D`vniY: 01011011 msLvwU 2s Complement G AvQ| msLvwUi mgZzj evBbvwi gvb wbYq Ki|
mgvavb: 01011011msLvwU 1s Complement gvb = 10100100
+1
= 10100101
myZivs 01011011 msLvwUi evBbvwi gvb = 10100101
2s Complement eenvi Ki hvM (2s Complement Addition)
KwDUvii gvag MvwYwZK wewfb gwjK wqv (hvM, weqvM, Y, fvM) mv`bi
2s Complement GKwU ej Rbwcq cwZ|
2 Gi cwic~iK hvM
2 Gi cwic~iK hvMi mgq weUi msLv mgvb nZ nq| G wbPi wbqgjv gb Pj
1. mvaviY evBbvwi hvM Ki|
2. FYvZK msLvK 2 Gi cwic~iK Ki hvM Ki|
3. wP weUi ci Kvwi weU ev` `qv nq|
4. djvdj FYvZK nj (wP weU 1 nj) Zv 2-Gi cwic~iK AvKvi nq|
2 Gi cwic~iK hvM Ges weqvM msLvi wP-weUK cwigvY vcK A nZ c_Kfve weePbv
Kiv nq bv| DjL h, MvwYwZK hvM I weqvMi mgq Dfq msLvq weUi msLv mgvb nZ nq|
wbg 8 weU msLvi Rb hvMi cwqv `Lvbv njv|
mgmv I mgvavb: `ywU abvZK msLv:
wbg 8 weU iwRvii Rb (+25)10 I (+ 12)10 Gi hvMdj wbYq Kiv njv|
(+ 25)10 : (00011001)2
(+ 12)10 : (00001100)2
(+ 37)10 : (00100101)2

hnZz hvMdji wPweU 0, mnZz djvdj abvZK| myZivs hvMdj (00100101)2 ev (+ 37)10|
eo abvZK I QvU FYvZK: wbg 8 weU iwRvii Rb (+ 25)10 I (12)10 Gi hvMdj wbYq Kiv
njv|
(+ 25)10 : (00011001)2 12 (00001100)2
(12)10 : (11110100) 11110011 (1s complement)
1
(+13)10 : 1(00001101)2
(12)10 (11110100) (2s complement)
Kvwi weU wP weU wP weU
94 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

AwZwi Kvwi weU weePbv Kiv nq bv| hnZz sign Bit 0 mnZz djvdj abvZK|
myZivs hvMdj (00001101)2 ev (+ 13)10
eo FYvZK I QvU abvZK: wbg 8 weU iwRvii Rb (25)10 I (+ 12)10 Gi hvMdj wbYq
Kiv njv|
(25)10 (11100111) (+25)10 (00011001)2
(+12)10 (00001100)2 (11100110) (1s complement)
(13)10 (11110011) 1
(25)10 (11100111) (2s Complement)

hnZz hvMdji Sign bit 1 mnZz djvdj FYvZK| FYvZK djvdj memgq 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb _vK|
AZGe 2 Gi cwic~iK Ki cKZ djvdj cvIqv hve| AZGe 11110011 Gi 2 Gi cwic~iK
00001101|
wbYq djvdj = (11110011)2 ev (13)10|
`ywU FYvZK msLv: wbg 8 weU iwRvii Rb (25)10 I ( 12)10 Gi hvMdj wbYq Kiv njv|
+25 I +12 Gi 2 Gi cwic~iK h_vg 11100111 I 11110100
(25)10 (11100111)
(12)10 (11110100)
(37)10 1 (11011011)

AwZwi KvwiweU weePbv Kiv nq bv| hnZz Sign Bit 1 mnZz djvdj FYvZK Ges 2 Gi cwic~iK MVb
AvQ| myZivs 11011011 Gi 2 Gi cwic~iK 00100101 A_vr djvdj (11011011)2 ev (37)10|
wecixZ wPi mgvb msLv: (+25)10 (00011001)2
(25)10 (11100111)
0 1 (00000000)
AwZwi KvwiwU weePbv Kiv nq bv| KvRB djvdj 0 |
2s Complement eenvi Ki weqvM (2s Complement Subtraction)
1. `yqi cwic~iKi weqvM cwZ: (eo _K QvU)
i. h msLv weqvM Kiv ne, Zvi evgw`K k~b ewmq, hB msLv (hvnv) _K weqvM Kiv
ne, mB msLvi mgvb KiZ ne|
ii. hv weqvM Kiv ne, Zvi GKi c~iK ei KiZ ne|
iii. GKi c~iKi mv_ 1 hvM Ki `yqi c~iK ei KiZ ne|
iv. G `yqi c~iK, hv _K weqvM Kiv ne, Zvi m hvM KiZ ne|
v. hw` carry _vK (nvZ hw` 1 _vK) Zv wbYq hvMdj _K ev` w`Z ne| A_vr `yqi
c~iK carry ev` w`Z ne|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 95

D`vniY-1: 2 Gi cwic~iK cwZ eenvi Ki (+35)10 _K (+17)10 weqvM Ki|


mgvavb: (+35)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi msLv = (00100011)2 (8 weU iwRvi)
(+17)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi msLv = (00010001)2 (8 weU iwRvi)
(11101110)2 (1s Complement)
+1
(17)10 = (11101111) (2s Complement)
(+35)10 = (00100011)2
(17)10 = (11101111)
(+18)10 = 1 (00010010)2
AwZwi KvwiweU weePbv Kiv nq bv| hnZz Sign bit k~b mnZz djvdj abvZK|
wbYq weqvMdj = (00010010)2 ev (+18)10
D`vniY-2: 2 Gi cwic~iK cwZ eenvi Ki (+17)10 _K (+35)10 weqvM Ki|
mgvavb: (+17)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi msLv = (00010001)2 (8 weU iwRvi eenvi Ki)
(+35)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi msLv = (00100011)2 (8 weU iwRvi eenvi Ki)
(11011100) (1s Complement)
+1
(35)10 = (11011101) (2s Complement)
(+17)10 = (00010001)2
( 35)10 = (11011101)
( 18)10 = (11101110)
hnZz Sign bit 1 mnZz djvdj FYvZK| AZGe 2 Gi cwic~iK Ki cKZ djvdj cvIqv hve|
(11101110)2
(00010001) (1s Complement)
+1
(00010010) (2s Complement)
wbYq weqvMdj = (11101110) ev (18)10
D`vniY-3: 2 Gi cwic~iK cwZ eenvi Ki (80)10 _K (35)10 weqvM Ki|
( + 80)10 Gi mgK evBbvwi msLv = (01010000)2
(+ 35)10 = (00100011)2
10101111 (1s Complement)
+1
(+ 80)10 Gi 2 Gi cwic~iK = (10110000) (2s Complement)
96 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

00100011 Gi Re-Complement = 00100011


(80)10 = (10110000)
(+ 35)10 = (00100011)2
( 45)10 = (11010011)
hnZz Sign bit 1 mnZz djvdj FYvZK| AZGe 2 Gi cwic~iK Ki cKZ djvdj cvIqv hve|
11010011
00101100 (1s Complement)
1
00101101 (2s Complement)
wbYq weqvMdj = (11010011)2 ev ( 45)10
D`vniY-4: 2 Gi cwic~iK cwZ eenvi Ki (110101)2 _K (10110)2 weqvM Ki (8 weU iwRvi
mvc)|
mgvavb :10110 = 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Avmj evBbvwi msLv (8 weU iwRvi eenvi Ki)

11101001 (1s Complement)
+1
11101010 (2s Complement)
110101 00110101
10110 11101010 (2s Complement)
1 (00011111)
AwZwi KvwiweU weePbv Kiv nq bv| hnZz Sign bit k~b mnZz djvdj abvZK|
wbYq weqvMdj = (00011111)2
KvR: 2 Gi cwic~iK cwZ eenvi Ki (+85)10 _K (+40)10 weqvM Ki|
3.6 KvW (Code)
Avgiv KwDUvi hme WUv I Z_ BbcyU Kwi KwDUvi Zv mivmwi eySZ cvi bv| KviY
KwDUvimn mKj AvaywbK wWwRUvj hmg~ni AfixY KvR Kiv nq evBbvwi msLv cwZ eenvi
Ki| Gi KviY evBbvwi msLv cwZi 0 Ges 1 K BjKUwbK chywi gvag Dcvcb Kiv me|
Abvb msLv cwZZ eeZ cZxKi msLv ewk ej Zv cPwjZ BjKUwbK chyw w`q Dcvcb
AbKUv Ame| hnZz KwDUvi GKwU AvaywbK wWwRUvj BjKUwb h Ges Gi AfixY KvR
evBbvwi msLv cwZ eenvi Ki Kiv nq, dj KwDUvi eeZ wewfb eY, A, msLv, wP, cZxK
BZvw`K evBbvwi cwZZ Dcvcb Kivi cqvRb nq|
eY, A, cZxK I wPmg~nK evBbvwiZ icvii G cwqvK ejv nq GbKvwWs| A_vr KwDUvi
wmg eeZ cwZwU eY, A, msLv, cZxK ev wekl wPK Avjv`vfve CPU K
evSvbvi Rb evBbvwi weUi (0 ev 1) wewfb webvmi AwZxq (Unique) msKZ Zwi Kiv nq| G
AwZxq msKZK KvW (Code) ejv nq| KwDUvi G KvWi mvnvh cwqvKiY mb Kivi ci
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 97

cv djvdjK gvbyli evaMg Kivi j Avevi eY, A, msLv I wekl wP icvi Kiv nq|
icvii G cwqvK wWKvwWs (Decoding) ej| KwDUvi GbKvwWs wewfb Dcvq Kiv nq _vK|
Kx-evW GbKvWvi T K GbKvW Ki ASCII KwDUvi T Gi
T UvBc Kiv nj KvW 01010100 Z icvi cqvRbxq cmwms i
evBbvwi msLv cwZi `ywU gwjK A 0 I 1 Gi gvag wewfb AwZxq msKZ Zwi Kiv nq|
hgb- 2, 4, 7 Ges 8wU weU w`q mevP 4(= 22), 16 ( = 24), 128 (= 27) Ges 256 (= 28) wU
c_K AwZxq msKZ MVb Kiv me| GLvb DjL h, KwDUvii Rb cwZwU A, eY ev wekl
wPK GK GKwU Kvivi (Character) ev wP wnme MY Kiv nq| GKwU Kvivii Rb
KqwU weU cvUvbi cqvRb Zv wbfi Ki Kvb cwZi KvW eenvi Kiv nQ Zvi Dci|
cqvMi i Dci wfw Ki wewfb aibi KvWi De nqQ| hgb
1. wewmwW (BCD) KvW
2. BwewmwWK (EBCDIC) KvW
3. AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW (Alphanumeric code)
4. AvmwK (ASCII) KvW
5. BDwbKvW (Unicode) BZvw`|
wbg ej eeZ wewfb aibi KvW wbq msw AvjvPbv Kiv njv:
wewmwW (BCD) KvW
BCD Gi c~Y ic njv Binary Coded Decimal| BCD KvW viv Kejgv `kwgK cwZi
cZxKjvK KvW Kiv nq| eYgvjvi eY ev Ab wKQzi Rb BCD KvW bB ev eenvi nq bv|
`kwgK msLvi cwZwU AK ( 0 _K 9) ch Gi mgZzj 4 (Pvi) weU evBbvwi wWwRU viv cwZvcb
KivK BCD KvW ej| 4 weU eenvii KviY BCD KvWi gvag 24 ev 16wU wfb Aev wb`k
Kiv hvq| AbK_vq BCD KvW GKwU 4 (Pvi) weU evBbvwiwfwK KvW| G Pvi weUi mg^q AbK
cKvi BCD KvW Zwi Kiv hvq| wbg KqK aibi BCD KvWi bvg `qv njv|
BCD 8421 KvW `kwgK cZxK wewmwW 8421 `kwgK cZxK wewmwW 8421
BCD 5421 KvW 0 0000 5 0101
BCD 2421 KvW 1 0001 6 0110
BCD 7421 KvW 2 0010 7 0111
3 0011 8 1000
BCD 6423 KvW BZvw`|
4 0100 9 1001
wP: `kwgK cZxK I mgZzj evBbvwi msLv|
Ze BCD 8421 KvW weklfve DjLhvM Ges ej eeZ KvW|
GLvb BCD 8421 KvW Natural Binary Coded Decimal (NBCD) KvW AvjvPbv Kiv njv|
1010, 1011, 1100, 1101 Ges 1111 KvWjv AeeZ _vK ej wewmwWZ G`i
eenvi Aea|
98 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wewmwWZ cKvwkZ (icvwiZ bq) Kvbv `kwgK msLv cKZtc GKwU Dcvcb gv, GwU Kvbv
msLv wb`k Ki bv| m KviY h Kvbv msLvi meevgi k~b hgb A_nxb Ges ev` `qv hvq,
wewmwWZ cKvwkZ Kvbv msLvi ejvq Zv Kiv hve bv|
D`vniY-1: 25310 K wewmwWZ cKvk Ki| D`vniY-2: 100101110010BCD K `kwgK cKvk Ki|
mgvavb: 2 5 3 mgvavb:
1001 0111 0010
0010 0101 0011
(253)10 = (001001010011) BCD 9 7 2
(100101110010)BCD = (972)10

KvR: wewmwW (BCD) KvW I evBbvwi msLvi ga cv_K jL|


BwewmwWAvBwm (EBCDIC) KvW
EBCDIC KvWi c~Y A_ nQ Extended Binary Coded Decimal Information
Code| GwU GKwU 8 weUi KvW| GK GUbWU BewmwWAvBwm KvWI ejv nq| G KvW viv
28 A_vr 256 wU A, Ai Ges wekl wP cKvk Kiv hvq| G KvW cv_wgKfve AvBweGg
360 Ges 370 wmwiRi KwDUvi eeZ nZv| G KvW 0 _K 9 msLvi Rb 1111, A
_K Z eYi Rb 1100, 1101 I 1110 Ges wekl wPi Rb 0100, 0101, 0110 I 0111
Rvb weU eenvi Kiv nq| `kwgK msLvjvK 8421 KvWi gvag cKvk Ki cZK msLvi
mv_ 1111 Rvb weU hvM Ki BwewmwWAvBwm KvW cKvk Kiv nq| gb Kwi 5, K BwewmwWAvBwm
KvW cKvk KiZ ne| Zvnj 5 Gi wewmwW 8421 KvW gvb ne 0101| myZivs, 5 Gi
BwewmwWAvBwm KvW gvb ne 11110101|
AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW
KwDUvi msLvm~PK wPi cvkvcvwk Abvb eY ev wPI eeZ nq| Gme msLv, wP ev eYi
Rb h KvW eeZ nq ZvK AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW ej| GKwU m~Y AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW
26wU QvU Ai (az), 26wU eo Ai (AZ), `kwU A (09) mvZwU weivg wP (Kgv,
mwgKvjb) BZvw`, MvwYwZK wPmn ( +, , , ) I Abvb wP ( !, @, #, $, %, *, /)
BZvw` iqQ| G KviYB AvjdvwbDgwiK KvWi De nqQ| ZvQvov AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW
WUv KwgDwbKkb I WUv Uvdvii kLjvI Avbqb KiQ|
KZKjv Rbwcq AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW njv
AvmwK (ASCII) KvW
BwewmwWK EBCDIC KvW I
BDwbKvW (Unicode) BZvw`|
KvR: AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW I BCD KvWi ga cv_K jL|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 99

AvmwK (ASCII) KvW


AvmwK AvaywbK KwDUvi ej eeZ KvW| Gi cKvkK AvgwiKvb bvkbvj vvW
BwwUDU (ANSI)| ASCII-Gi c~Y bvg American Standard Code For Inofrmation
Interchange. 1965 mvj ievU wegvi 7 weUi AvmwK KvW Dveb Kib| wgwb I gvBv
KwDUvi G KvWi ej cPjb iqQ| KwDUvi Ges BbcyU/AvDUcyU mivgi ga Z_
vbvii Rb G KvW eeZ nq| AvmwK KvW `yaibi nq _vK| h_v: AvmwK-7 I AvmwK-
8| AvmwK-7 Gi 7 weU viv gvU 27= 128 wU AwZxq (Unique) wP wbw` Kiv hvq| G
AvmwK KvWi evgw`Ki wZbwU weUK Rvb (Zone) weU Ges Wvbw`Ki PviwU weUK msLvm~PK
(Numeric) weU ej| hgb
A= 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Zone bit Numeric bit
AvmwK-7 KvWi evg GKwU AwZwi weU hy Ki AvmwK-8 Zwi Kiv nqQ| G AwZwi weUwU
cvwiwU weU bvg cwiwPZ| AvmwK-8 Gi 8 weU viv gvU 28 = 256 AwZxq (Unique) wP
wbw` Kiv hvq| G AvmwK KvWi evgw`Ki wZbwU weUK Rvb (Zone) weU Ges Wvb w`Ki PviwU
weUK msLvm~PK (Numeric) weU ej| eZgvb AvmwK KvW ejZ 8 weU wewk AvmwK-8KB
eySvbv nq| hgb
A= 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Parity Zone bit Numeric bit
Bit
wbPi AvmwK mviwYZ 0 _K 31 ch Kvivii Rvb weU 000, Ges G Kvivijvmn
127 K wbqY Kvivi ej, 32 _K 64 nQ wekl Kvivi, 65 _K 96 nQ eo nvZi
Ai I wKQz wP, 97 _K 127 nQ QvU nvZi Ai I wKQz wP|
mviwY: wKQz ASCII KvWi ZvwjKv
ASCII Decimal ASCII Decimal
Character Character
Code Equivalent Code Equivalent
0000 0 _K 31 wewfb aibi Kgv hv wekl 01001110 78 N
0000 Ki wcUvi wKsev WUv 01001111 79 O
_K 01010000 80 P
KwgDwbKkb eenvi Kiv nq|
0000 01010001 81 Q
0000
00100000 32 Blank Space 01010010 82 R
00100001 33 ! 01010011 83 S
00100010 34 01010100 84 T
00100011 35 # 01010101 85 U
00100100 36 $ 01010110 86 V
00100101 37 % 01010111 87 W
00100110 38 & 01011000 88 X
00100111 39 ' 01011001 89 Y
00101000 40 ( 01011010 90 Z
00101001 41 ) 01011011 91 [
100 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

00101010 42 * 01011100 92 \
00101011 43 + 01011101 93 ]
00101100 44 , 01011110 94 ^
00101101 45 - 01011111 95 _
00101110 46 . 01100000 96 `
00101111 47 / 01100001 97 a
00110000 48 0 01100010 98 b
00110001 49 1 01100011 99 c
00110010 50 2 01100100 100 d
00110011 51 3 01100101 101 e
00110100 52 4 01100110 102 f
00110101 53 5 01100111 103 g
00110110 54 6 01101000 104 h
00110111 55 7 01101001 105 i
00111000 56 8 01101010 106 j
00111001 57 9 01101011 107 k
00111010 58 t 01101100 108 l
00111011 59 ; 01101101 109 m
00111100 60 < 01101110 110 n
00111101 61 = 01101110 111 o
00111110 62 > 01101111 112 p
00111111 63 ? 01110000 113 q
01000000 64 @ 01110010 114 r
01000001 65 A 01110011 115 s
01000010 66 B 01110100 116 t
01000011 67 C 01110101 117 u
01000100 68 D 01110110 118 v
01000101 69 E 01110111 119 w
01000110 70 F 01111000 120 x
01000111 71 G 01111001 121 y
01001000 72 H 01111010 122 z
01001001 73 I 01111011 123 {
01001010 74 J 01111100 124 |
01001011 75 K 01111101 125 }
01001100 76 L 01111110 126 ~
01001101 77 M 01111111 127 Delete

BDwbKvW (Unicode): cw_exZ Kej BsiwR-evsjvB bq Aviv AbK fvlv iqQ| Gme
fvlvq Avevi eYi msLvI AbK| hgb- Pxbv fvlvq cvq 85 nvRvi eY iqQ| Unicode Gi
c~Ybvg njv Universal Code ev mveRbxb KvW| weki mKj fvlvK KwDUvi KvWfy Kivi
Rb eo eo Kvvwbjv GKwU gvb Zwi KiQb hvK BDwbKvW ejv nq| 1991 mvj Apple
Computer Corporation Ges Xerox Corporation Gi h_ GK`j cKkjx BDwbKvW
Dveb Kib| BDwbKvW g~jZ 2 evBU ev 16 weUi KvW| G KvWi gvag 65,536 ev 216 wU
AwZxq wPK wbw` Kiv hvq| dj hme fvlvK KvWfy Kivi Rb 8 weU Achv wQj (hgb-
PvqwbR, Kvwiqvb, RvcvwbR BZvw`) mme fvlvi mKj wPK mnRB KvWfy Kiv mnRZi
njv| eZgvb G KvWi cPjb i nqQ|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 101

i _KB BDwbKvWK AviI DbZ Kivi j Unicode Consortium KvR Ki hvQb| Gi


djkwZZ 1997 mvj BDwbKvW fvmb 3 ewiqQ| AbK ci njI evsjv fvlvK BDwbKvWfy
Kivi Rb evsjv`k miKvi Unicode Consortium Gi m`m nIqvi wmv wbqQb|
BDwbKvWi ewk ev myweav:
1. GwU 16 weUwewk KvW| dj 65536wU AwZxq wPK wbw` Kiv hvq|
2. weki QvU-eo mKj fvlvK KwDUvii KvWfy Kiv hvq|
3. KviviK KvW Kivi Rb 16 weUB eenvi Kiv hvq|
4. BDwbKvW _K Abvb vvW KvW cwieZb Kiv hvq|
3.7 eywjqvb AvjReiv (Boolean Algebra)
eywjqvb AvjReivi DveK njb Bsjvi GKwU wekwe`vjqi cLvZ BsiR MwYZwe` RR eywj
(George Boole)| 1854 mvj RR eywj mec_g Avwevi Kib h,
MwYZ I hywi ga my mK iqQ| MwYZ I hywi hvMm~
cgvYi Rb MBU I hyw eZbx eenvi Kiv nq|
RR eywj Mathematics of logic bvg Zuvi MelYv M cKvk
Kib| H MelYv M hywi h aviYv cvIqv hvq Zvi Dci wfw Ki
Mo DVjv bZzb AvjReiv| Zuvi bvg Abymvi G AvjReivK
bvgKiY Kiv nq eywjqvb AvjReiv| GwU hyw AvjReiv ev eywjqvb
wP: RR eywj
exRMwYZ bvgI cwiwPZ| eywjqvb AvjReiv g~jZ jwRKi mZ A_ev
wg_v- G `ywU ii Dci wfw Ki Zwi Kiv nqQ| eywjqvb AvjReivi G `ywU Aevi (State)
Rb cieZx mgq hLb KwDUvi evBbvwi msLv cwZ eenvi i nq, ZLb eywjqvb AvjReivi
mZ I wg_vK evBbvwii "1" Ges 0 viv cwieZb Ki wbZB KwDUvii mg MvwYwZK
mgmv eywjqvb AvjReivi mvnvh Kiv me nq|
Kvbv mvwKU we`yZi DcwwZK 1 aiv nq Ges we`yZi AbycwwZK
0 aiv nq| wWwRUvj wmg fvR jfj 0 _K .8 fvK
jwRK 0 aiv nq Ges fvR jfj 2 _K 5 fvK jwRK 1 aiv
nq| wWwRUvj wmg +0.8 fv _K +2 fv jfj msvwqZ
bq weavq eenvi Kiv nq bv|
eywjqvb PjKi `ywU gvb _vKvq eywjqvb AvjReiv `kwgK AvjReivi
Zzjbvq AbK mnR cwZ| eywjqvb AvjReivi Kvbv aibi fMvsk,
jMvwi`g, eM, FYvZK msLv, KvwbK msLv BZvw` eenvi Kiv nq bv|
eywjqvb AvjReivi wZb aibi gwjK wqv mv`b Ki| wqvjv njv
1. Ai Acvikb (OR Operation) ev hwK hvM (Logical Addition)
2. Av Acvikb (AND Operation) ev hwK Y ( Logical Multiplication)
3. bU Acvikb (NOT Operation) ev hwK Dvbv (Logical Inversion)
102 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

G wZbwU gwjK wqvi Rb wZb aibi jwRK eZbx eenvi Kiv nq| G jwRK eZbxjv njv Ai
(OR), Av (AND) Ges bU (NOT)| Gme jwRK eZbxjv gwjK jwRK MBU bvg cwiwPZ|
eywjqvb AvjReivi ewk (Characteristics of Boolean Algebra)
1. eywjqvb AvjReivq gv `ywU A 0 Ges 1 eeZ nq|
2. eywjqvb PjKi `ywU gvb _vKvq eywjqvb AvjReiv `kwgK AvjReivi Zzjbvq AbK mnR cwZ|
3. eywjqvb AvjReivq Kvbv aibi fMvsk, jMvwi`g, eM, FYvZK msLv, KvwbK msLv
BZvw` eenvi Kiv hvq bv|
4. eywjqvb AvjReivq aygv hvM I Yi gvag mg MvwYwZK KvR Kiv hvq|
5. eywjqvb AvjReivq Kvbv aibi RvwgwZK ev wKvYwgwZK m~ eenvi Kiv hvq bv|
eywjqvb PjK I aeK (Boolean Variable and Constant)
eywjqvb AvjReivq `ywU evBbvwi A 0 Ges 1 eenvi Kiv nq| wWwRUvj BjKUwb eeZ e`ywZK
msKZK `ywU c_K we`yr cevn viv wbw` Kiv hvq| A_vr wWwRUvj eZbxi Kvbv vbi cevwnZ we`yr ev
fvRi cwigvYi wfwZ ejv hvq h, vbwU DP i cevwnZ nQ A_ev wbg ii fvR cevwnZ
nQ| G `ywU iK wbw` Kiv nq h_vg 1 Ges 0 viv| eywjqvb AvjReivq hvi gvb mgqi mv_
AcwiewZZ _vK ZvK eywjqvb aeK ej| hgb- A = 0 + 1, GLvb 0 Ges 1 nQ eywjqvb aeK|
eywjqvb AvjReivq hvi gvb mgqi mv_ cwiewZZ nq ZvK eywjqvb PjK ej| hgb- C = A +B,
GLvb A I B nQ eywjqvb PjK| aeKi gvb me mgq AcwiewZZ _vK wK PjKi gvb mgqi mv_
mv_ cwiewZZ nq| wewfb BjKUwbK eZbxi BbcyU I AvDUcyUi jwRK Aev wbw` Kivi Rb eywjqvb
PjK I aeK eenvi Kiv nq|
eywjqvb ^Ztwm (Boolean Postulates)
eywjqvb AvjReivq mg MvwYwZK KvR Kiv nq hwK hvM Ges hwK Yi mvnvh| eywjqvb
AvjReivq aygv hwK hvM I hwK Yi wbqgjvK eywjqvb ^Ztwm ej| eywjqvb
^ZtwmjvK `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. hvMi eywjqvb ^Ztwm (Boolean Postulates of OR)
2. Yi eywjqvb ^Ztwm (Boolean Postulates of AND)
hvMi eywjqvb ^Ztwm (Boolean Postulates of OR)
hvMi mgq eywjqvb AvjReiv hme wbqg gb Pj ZvK hvMi eywjqvb ^Ztwm ej| hvMi
mgq eyywjqvb PjKjvi gvbi ga h hvM wP (+) eenvi Kiv nq Zv cPwjZ hvMi wP bq|
eywjqvb AvjReivq G hvM wPK jwRKvj hvM ev (Logical OR) wnme eenvi Kiv nq|
hvMi PviwU wbqg cPwjZ| h_v
(1) 0 + 0 = 0
(2) 0 + 1 = 1
(3) 1 + 0 = 1
(4) 1 + 1 = 1
c_g wZbwU mgxKiY mvaviY exRMwYZi wbqg gb PjQ wK 4bs mgxKiY 1+1=1 Gi mv_
mvaviY exRMwYZi Kvbv wgj bB| myZivs cZxqgvb nQ h, eywjqvb hvM (+) wP Ges mvaviY
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 103

+ wPK eySvq bv| eywjqvb hvMK ejv nq jwRKvj AvwWkb (Logical Addition) A_ev
jwRKvj Ai Acvikb (Logical OR Operation)|
Dcii eywjqvb ^Ztwm _K ejv hvq h, eyywjqvb AvjReivq hvMi (OR) hKvbv
GKwUi gvb 1 nj hvMdj 1 ne, Ab_vq 0 ne|
Yi eywjqvb ^Ztwm (Boolean Postulates of AND)
Yi mgq eyywjqvb AvjReiv hme wbqg gb Pj ZvK Yi eywjqvb ^Ztwm ej| Yi mgq
eywjqvb PjKjvi gvbi ga Y wP (.) eenvi Kiv nq| jwRK Yi PviwU wbqg cPwjZ| h_v:
(1) 0 . 0 = 0
(2) 0 . 1 = 0
(3) 1 . 0 = 0
(4) 1 . 1 = 1
Dcii eywjqvb ^Ztwm ejv hvq h eywjqvb AvjReivq Yi (AND) hKvbv GKwUi
gvb 0 nj Ydj 0 ne, Ab_vq 1 ne| eywjqvb YK jwRKvj gvwwcKkb (Logical
Multiplication) A_ev jwRKvj Av Acvikb (Logical AND Operation) ejv nq|
eywjqvb c~iK (Boolean Complement)
eywjqvb AvjReivq hKvbv PjKi gvb 0 A_ev 1 nq| G 0 Ges 1 K GKwU AciwUi eywjqvb
c~iK ejv nq| eywjqvb c~iK ev ' wPi gvag cKvk Kiv nq| hgb: 0 Gi eywjqvb
c~iK 1 Ges 1 Gi eywjqvb c~iK 0| MwYZi fvlvq jLv nq eywjqvb c~iKi m~:
A Gi c~iK A ev A __
hw` A Gi gvb 0 nq Ze A = 1 1. 0 = 1
__
hw` A Gi gvb 1 nq Ze A = 0 2. 1 = 0
eywjqvb exRMwYZ c~iKi eenvi LyeB iZc~Y| eywjqvb exRMwYZ
3. A = A
A KiZ Mj cvqB c~iK wbYq KiZ nq|
eywjqvb Z bxwZ (Boolean Duality Principle)
ey w jqvb AvjReivq eeZ mKj Dccv` ev mgxKiY h `y w U wbqg gb GKwU ea
mgxKiY _K Avi GKwU ea mgxKiY wbY q Kiv hvq ZvK ey w jqvb Z bxwZ ej| A_ v r
ey w jqvb AvjReivq Ai (OR) Ges Av (AND) mv_ mK h y mKj Dccv` ev
mgxKiY Z bxwZ gb Pj| G wbqg `y w U njv
1. 0 Ges 1 cii wewbgq Ki A_vr 0 Gi cwieZ 1 Ges 1 Gi cwieZ 0 eenvi Ki|
2. Ai (+) Ges Av (.) cii wewbgq Ki A_vr Ai (+) Gi cwieZ Av (.) Ges Av
(.) Gi cwieZ Ai (+) eenvi Ki|
D`vniY: 1 + 1 = 1 mgxKiY
1 Gi cwieZ 0 Ges (+) Gi cwieZ (.) ewmq cvB
0.0 = 0 GUvI GKwU ea mgxKiY|
Avevi, 0.1 = 0 mgxKiY 0 Gi cwieZ 1 I 1Gi cwieZ 0 Ges (.) Gi cwieZ (+) ewmq
cvB 1 + 0 =1 GUvI GKwU ea mgxKiY|
104 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

3.7.1 eywjqvb Dccv` (Boolean Theorems)


eywjqvb Dccv`i mvnvh hyw ivwkgvjvi mijxKiY ev ivwkgvjvi MVb cwieZb mvab Kiv hvq|
eywjqvb PjKi gvb 1 A_ev 0 w`q Gme Dccv`jv mnRB cgvY Kiv hvq| wbP iZc~Y
wKQz eyywjqvb Dccv` `qv njv
gwjK Dccv` (Basic Theorems)
1. i) A + 1 = 1 ii) A .1 = A 5. mnvqK Dccv` (Auxiliary Theorems):
2. i) A + 0 = A ii) A . 0 = 0 i) A + AB = A + B
ii) A + AB = A + B
3. i) A + A = 1 ii) A . A = 0 iii) A + AB = A + B
4. i) A + A = A ii) A . A = A iv) A + AB = A + B
6. wewbgq Dccv` (Commulative Theorems)
i) A + B = B + A ii) A . B = B . A
7. Abyl Dccv` (Associative Theorems)
i) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C ii) A . (B .C) = (A . B) . C
8. wefvRb Dccv` (Distributed Theorems)
i) A(B + C) = AB + AC ii) (A + B) (A + C) = A + BC
9. wW-giMvbi Dccv` (De-Morgans Theorems)
i) A + B = A . B ii) A . B = A + B
10. mnvqK Dccv` (Secondary Theorems)
i) A + AB = A ii) A(A + B) = A
11. A = A
DcwiD Dccv`mg~nK PjKi gvb 0 ev 1 ai hKvbv Dccv` cgvY Kiv hvq|
D`vniY-1: cgvY Ki, A + 1 = 1 hw` A = 0 nq Ze
cgvY: hw` A = 1 nq Ze evgc = A + 1
evgc = A + 1 = 0 +1
= 1+1 = 1 = Wvbc
=1 eywjqvb PjK A Gi hKvbv gvbi Rb A + 1 = 1 (cgvwYZ)
= Wvbc
D`vniY-2: cgvY Ki, A + A = 1
cgvY: hw` A = 1 nq Ze A = 0 hw` A = 0 nq Ze A = 1
evgc = A + A evgc = A + A
=1+0 =0+1
=1 = 1 = Wvbc
= Wvbc eywjqvb PjK A Gi hKvbv gvbi Rb A + A =1 (cgvwYZ)
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 105

D`vniY-3: cgvY Ki, A . A = 0

cgvY: hw` A = 1 nq Ze A = 0 hw` A = 0 nq Ze A = 1

evgc = A . A evgc = A . A
= 0. 1
= 1. 0 =0
=0 = Wvbc
= Wvbc
eywjqvb PjK A Gi hKvbv gvbi Rb A . A = 0 (cgvwYZ)

D`vniY-4: cgvY Ki, A + BC = (A + B) (A + C)


Wvbc = (A + B) (A + C)
= A.A + A.C + A.B + BC
= A + AC + AB + BC
= A(1 + C) + AB + BC [ A.A = A]
= A.1 + AB + BC
= A + AB + BC
= A (1 + B) + BC [1 + A = A]
= A.1 + BC
= A + BC
= evgc
Wvbc = evgc (cgvwYZ)
3.7.2 wW-giMvbi Dccv` (De-Morgans Theorems)
wW-giMvb wQjb GKRb bvgKiv divwm MwYZwe`| wZwb eywjqvb
AvjReivi `ywU wekl m~ Dveb Kib| Zuvi bvgvbymvi G
wekl m~ `ywU wW-giMvbi Dccv` bvg cwiwPZ|

A I B `ywU PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv` `ywU wbgic

c_g Dccv`: A + B = A . B
wZxq Dccv`: A . B = A + B
wP: wW-giMvb
c_g Dccv`: A + B = A . B

wP: wW-giMvbi c_g Dccv`i jwRK wP|


106 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

c_g Dccv` Abymvi, A I B MnY msKZi Rb GKwU bi MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ hv nq,
Zvnjv A I B MnY msKZi Rb GKwU Av MBUi AvDUcyU msKZi mgvb|
wZxq Dccv`:

wP: wW-giMvbi wZxq Dccv`i jwRK wP|


wZxq Dccv` Abymvi, A I B MnY msKZi Rb GKwU bv MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ hv nq
Zvnjv A I B MnY msKZi Rb GKwU Ai MBUi AvDUcyU msKZi mgvb|
wW-giMvbi Dccv`i cgvY: mZK mviwYi mnvqZvq AwZ mnR Dcvcv` `ywU cgvY Kiv hvq| eo
eo jwRK ivwkgvjv mijxKiYi Rb Dccv` `ywU wekl mnvqK| G cwZZ cgvYi Rb m~i evg
w`K I Wvb w`Ki PjKmg~ni mve gvb mZK mviwYZ jLv nq| PjKmg~ni mKj gvbi Rb
m~i evg w`K I Wvb w`Ki gvb GKic nj m~wU cgvwYZ nq| wbg `ywU PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi
Dccv` `ywU cgvY Kiv njv|
A B A B A+B A+B A.B A.B A.B A+B
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
Uwej: `yB PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv`i mZK mviwY
DcwiD mZK mviwY nZ cZxqgvb nq h, A I B Gi mKj gvbi Rb
1g Dccv`: A + B = A . B
2q Dccv`: AB = A + B
myZivs `yB PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv` `ywU cgvwYZ njv|
wZbwU PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv`:
[

c_g Dccv`: A + B + C = A.B.C


wZxq Dccv`: A.B.C = A + B + C

wP: wW-giMvb Dccv`i jwRK wP|


msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 107

mZK mviwYi mnvqZvq AwZ mnR Dccv` `ywU cgvY Kiv me| wZbwU PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi
Dccv` cgvY Kivi Rb wbg GKwU mZK mviwY Zwi Kiv njv:
A B C A B A+B+C ABC
C A + B+C ABC ABC A + B+C
0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

Uwej: wZb PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv`i mZK mviwY|


DcwiD mZK mviwY nZ cZxqgvb nq h, A, B Ges C wZbwU PjKi hKvbv gvbi Rb
1g Dccv`: A + B + C = A.B.C

2q Dccv`: ABC = A + B + C

myZivs wZb PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv` `ywU cgvwYZ njv|


Dccv` `ywU n msLK PjKi Rb chvR| n msLK PjKi Rb wW-giMvbi Dccv` `ywU
wbgic:
A1 + A2 + A3 + .............. + An = A1. A2 . A3 ..........An
A1 . A2 . A3 . .............. . An = A1 + A2 + A3 .......... + An

3.7.3 mZK mviwY (Truth Table)


eywjqvb AvjReivq jwRK mvwKU GK ev GKvwaK BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU _vK| GB BbcyUMyjvi
Dci jwRK mvwKUi AvDUcyU wbfi Ki| myZivs h mviwYi gvag wewfb BbcyUi Dci wfw
Kvbv jwRK mvwKUi AvDUcyU c`kb Ki ZvK mZK mviwY (Truth Table) ej| cwZwU jwRK
MBUi mZK mviwY wfb|
hw` mZK mviwYZ n msLK PjK _vK Ze BbcyU Gi Aev ne 2n msLK| hgb Kvbv jwRK
eZbxZ `ywU BbcyU PjK A I B nj Gi BbcyUi Aev ne 22 = 4wU| cwZwU BbcyUi gvb 0 ev
1 nZ cvi|
108 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbg mviwYZ BbcyU PjK A I B Gi mve gvb `qv njv Ges AvDUcyU Y Gi gvb BbcyUi Dci
wbfi Ki|
BbcyU AvDUcyU
BbcyU AvDUcyU
A B Y A B Y =A+B
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1
1 1
wP: `yB BbcyUi mZK mviwY wP: `yB BbcyUi Ai MBUi mZK mviwY
jwRK MBU (Logic gate): eywjqvb AvjReivq gwjK KvRjv evevqbi Rb h BjKUwbK
eZbx eenvi Kiv nq ZvB jwRK MBU| A_vr jwRK MBU njv GK aibi BjKUwbK eZbx hv
GK ev GKvwaK BbcyU MnY Ki Ges ay GKwU AvDUcyU c`vb Ki| Abfve ejv hvq h, hme
wWwRUvj mvwKU hywg~jK msKZi cevn wbqY Ki _vK mme mvwKUKB jwRK MBU ej|
jwRK MBU

gwjK MBU hwMK MBU

Av MBU Ai MBU bU MBU mveRbxb MBU wekl MBU

bv MBU bi MBU G Ai MBU G bi MBU

wP: jwRK MBUi kwYwefvM


gwjK jwRK MBU: hme MBU Ab Kvbv MBUi mvnvh Qvov Zwi Kiv hvq Zv`iK gwjK
jwRK MBU ejv nq| gwjK jwRK MBU wZbwU| h_v
1. Ai MBU (OR gate)
2. Av MBU (AND gate)
3. bU MBU (NOT gate)
hwMK MBU: hme jwRK MBU gwjK MBUi mvnvh Zwi Kiv nq Zv`iK hwMK jwRK
MBU ejv nq| wZbwU gwjK MBUi gvag wewfb aibi hwMK MBU Zwi Kiv hvq|
cavb Pvi aibi hwMK MBU
1. bv MBU (NAND gate)
2. bi MBU (NOR gate)
3. G-Ai MBU (X-OR gate)
4. G-bi MBU (X-NOR gate)
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 109

3.7.4 gwjK MBU (Basic gate)


AvMB ejv nqQ, KwDUvimn hKvbv wWwRUvj wmgi g~j iqQ wZb aibi gwjK
MBU| wbP gwjK MBUjvi Kvh cwZ wbq AvjvPbv Kiv njv
1. Ai MBU (OR gate):
Ai MBU nQ hwK hvMi MBU| Ai MBUi `y B ev ZZvwaK Bbcy U _vK Ges
GKwUgv AvDUcyU _vK| AvDUcyUwU BbcyUjvi hwK
BbcyU AvDUcyU
hvMdji mgvb| G MBUi hKvbv GKwU BbcyUi A B Y= A+B
gvb 1 nj AvDUcyU 1 ne| hLb mejv BbcyUi gvb 0 0 0 0
ne ZLb AvDUcyU 0 ne| gb Kwi, GKwU Ai MBUi Rb 0 1 1
1 0 1
`ywU BbcyU msKZ A I B Ges Zv`i AvDUcyU msKZ Y| 1 1 1
A I B Gi eywjqvb PjKi gvbi Rb c_K PviwU (2 2 = wP: `yB BbcyUi Ai MBUi mZK mviwY
4) Aevb nZ cvi|

A I B Gi eywjqvb PjKi wewfb gvbi Rb AvDUcyU msKZ Y ne, A I B Gi hwK hvMi


mgvb| G eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression) ne
Y = A OR B
=A+B
GLvb + wPwU mvaviY `kwgK AvjReivi hvM wP bq| + wPwU viv jwRK hvMK eySvbv nqQ|
myBP eZbx (Switch Circuit)
Ai MBUK GKwU mgvivj myBP (Parallel
switch) eZbxi gvag `Lvbv hvq, hv Ai
MBUi mZK mviwYi mZZv cgvY Ki| wP
eZbxwUi A I B myBP `ywUi hKvbv GKwU e
_vKj evwZwU Rj DVe| eZbx ZvwKfve wP: mvgivj myBP eZbx
hKvbv BbcyU wewk Ai MBU Zwi Kiv hvq|
wbgi wZbwU BbcyU wewk Ai MBUi cZxK I eywjqvb mgxKiY `qv njv
A
B Y= A+B+C
C
c Z xK (Symbol)

eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y = A+B+C


110 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

2. Av MBU (AND Gate)


Av MBU nQ hwK Yi MBU| Av MBUi `yB ev ZZvwaK BbcyU _vK Ges GKwU
gv AvDUcyU _vK| AvDUcyUwU BbcyUjvi hwK Ydji BbcyU AvDUcyU
mgvb| G MBUi hKvbv GKwU BbcyUi gvb 0 nj A B Y= A .B
AvDUcyU 0 ne| hLb mejv BbcyUi gvb 1 ZLb AvDUcyU 1 0 0 0
ne| gb Kwi, GKwU Av MBUi Rb `ywU BbcyU msKZ A I 0 1 0
B Ges Zv`i AvDUcyU msKZ Y| A I B Gi eywjqvb PjKi 1 0 0
2
gvbi Rb c_K c_K PviwU (2 =4) Aevb nZ cvi| 1 1 1
Gaibi jwRK YK GKwU mgxKiYi gvag cKvk Kiv hvq wP: `yB BbcyUi AND Gate Gi mZK mviwY|
hvK ejv nq Av Gi eywjqvb mgxKiY|
G mgxiKYwU ne
= A.B
Y = A AND B
=A.B wP: `yB BbcyU wewk AND Gate Gi cZxK
=AB
GLvb . wPwU mvaviY `kwgK AvjReivi Y wP bq| . wPwU viv jwRK Y
ey S vbv nqQ|
myBP eZbx (Switch Circuit)
Av MBUK GKwU wgK myBP (Serial switch) eZbxi gvag `Lvbv hvq, hv Av MBUi
mZK mviwYi mZZv cgvY Ki| wP eZbxwUi A I B
myBP `ywUi hKvbv GKwU Lvjv _vKj evwZwU e _vKe|
ZvwKfve hKvbv BbcyU wewk Av MBU Zwi Kiv
hvq| wbg wZb BbcyU wewk Av MBUi cZxK, eywjqvb
mgxKiY `qv njv: wP: wgK myBP eZbx
A
B Y= A.B.C
C
wP: wZb BbcyU wewk Av MBUi cZxK
eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y = A .B .C
3. bU MBU (NOT Gate)
eywjqvb exRMwYZi bU Acvikb evevqbi Rb bU MBU eeZ
nq| G MBU GKwU gv BbcyU Ges GKwU gv AvDUcyU _vK| =A
AvDUcyU ne BbcyUi wecixZ| A_vr BbcyU msKZ 1 nj
AvDUcyU msKZ 0 ne A_ev BbcyU msKZ 0 nj AvDUcyU msKZ 1|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 111

GRb G MBUK BbfvUvi (Inverter) ejv nq| gb Kwi, GKwU bU MBUi BbcyU msKZ A Ges
AvDUcyU msKZ Y| eywjqvb PjK A Gi gvbi Rb c_K c_K `ywU (21 = 2) Aevb nZ cvi|
G eywjqvb mgxKiY ne: BbcyU AvDUcyU
A Y=A
Y = NOT (A ) 0 1
= A (A_vr A Gi gvb A Gi Dv) 1 0
mZK mviYx (Truth table)

KvR: 3 BbcyU wewk Av MBU, Ai MBU I bU MBUi mZK mviwY jL|


hwMK MBU: `yB ev ZZvwaK gwjK MBUi mvnvh h MBU Zwi Kiv nq ZvK hwMK MBU
ej| hgb-AND I NOT MBUi mvnvh NAND MBU, OR I NOT MBUi mvnvh
NOR MBU Zwi Kiv hvq| NAND I NOR MBUK hwMK MBU ejv nq|
bi MBU (NOR Gate): NOR MBU njv OR MBU I NOT MBUi mg^q MwVZ| OR
MBUi AvDUcyUK NOT MBU w`q cevwnZ Kij NOR MBU cvIqv hvq| A_vr OR Gate +
NOT Gate = NOR Gate. hw` A I B BbcyU nq Ze AvDUcyU Y = A + B | NOR MBUi
hKvbv GKwU BbcyUi gvb 1 nj AvDUcyU 0 ne|
A_vr bi MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ Ai MBUi AvDUcyU msKZi wecixZ nq| bi MBUi gvag
jwRK eZbx Zwii Rb GB MBUwU evcKfve eenvi Kiv nq| G `ywU BbcyU wewk bi
MBUi cZxK, mgK eZbx, eywjqvb mgxKiY Ges mZK mviwY `Lvbv njv
A
A+B A
Y=A+B Y=A+B
B B

wP: 2 BbcyU wewk NOR MBU Gi cZxK wP: 2 BbcyU wewk NOR MBU Gi mgK eZbx
BbcyU AvDUcyU
A B A+B Y= A + B
eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y= A + B 0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0
wP: mZK mviwY
ZvwKfve hKvbv BbcyU wewk bi MBU Zwi Kiv hvq| G wZbwU BbcyU wewk bi MBUi
cZxK, mgK eZbx, eywjqvb mgxKiY `qv njv:
A A
A+B+C
B Y = A + B+ C B Y = A + B+ C
C C
wP: 3 BbcyU wewk NOR MBU Gi cZxK
112 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y = A + B + C


Av MBUi bv MBUi
bv MBU (NAND Gate) AvDUcyU AvDUcyU

NAND Gate njv AND MBU I NOT MBUi BbcyU AvDUcyU


mg^q MwVZ| AND MBUi AvDUcyUK NOT A B AB Y = AB
MBU w`q cevwnZ Kij NAND MBU cvIqv hvq| 0 0 0 1
A_vr AND Gate +NOT Gate = NAND Gate| 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
hw` A Ges B `ywU BbcyU nq Zvnj bv MBUi 1 1 1 0
AvDUcyU Y = AB | bv MBUi hKvbv wP: 2 BbcyU wewk NAND MBU Gi mZK mviwY
GKwU BbcyUi gvb 0 nj AvDUcyU 1 ne| bv mviYx
MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ Av MBUi AvDUcyU msKZi wecixZ|
G `ywU BbcyU wewk bv MBUi cZxK, mgK eZbx, eywjqvb mgxKiY Ges mZK mviwY `Lvbv
njv
A AB A
Y=AB Y=AB
B B

wP: 2 BbcyU wewk NAND MBU Gi cZxK wP: 2 BbcyU wewk NAND MBUi mgK eZbx
eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y = A.B
ZvwKfve hKvbv BbcyU wewk bv MBU Zwi Kiv hvq| wbP wZbwU BbcyU wewk bv MBUi
cZxK Ges eywjqvb mgxKiY `Lvbv njv
A
B Y = A . B.C
C

wP: 3 BbcyU wewk NAND MBU Gi cZxK


eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y = A . B.C

3.7.5 bv I bi MBUi mveRbxbZv (Universality of NAND & NOR gate)


h MBU w`q gwjK MBUmn (AND gate, OR gate I NOT gate) Abvb mKj MBU evevqb
Kiv hvq ZvK mveRbxb MBU ej| NAND gate I NOR gate K mveRbxb MBU ejv nq|
KviY bv MBU I bi MBU w`q gwjK MBUmn hKvbv jwRK MBU evevqb Kiv hvq|
Ai, Av Ges bU G wZbwU gwjK MBUi mg^q hKvbv jwRK mvwKU Zwi Kiv me| Ze
ay bv MBU w`qI hKvbv jwRK mvwKU Zwi me| Gi KviY bv MBU w`q Ai, Av Ges
bU MBU evevqb me| ZgbwU ay bi MBU w`qI hKvbv jwRK mvwKU evevqb me| GwU
bv I bi MBUi mveRbxbZv bvg cwiwPZ|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 113

bv MBU w`q gwjK MBU evevqb


bv MBU w`q bU MBU evevqb:
A
wPi `ywU BbcyU (A) mgvb| myZivs, Y= A.A = A

Y = A.A
wP: NAND gate w`q NOT gate evevqb
=A
dj bv MBUwU GKwU bU MBU wnme KvR Ki|

bv MBU w`q Av MBU evevqb


wP `ywU bv MBUi mshvM GKwU Av MBU Zwi Kiv nqQ| Av MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ Y nj-

Y = AB.AB Y = AB.AB
= A.B = A .B
= AB wP: NAND gate w`q AND gate evevqb| = AB

DjL h, wZxq avci MBUwU GKwU bU MBU wnme KvR Ki|


bv MBU w`q Ai MBU evevqb
wP bv w`q Ai MBUi evevqb `Lvbv nqQ| G evgi bv MBU `yw U bU MBU
wnme KvR Ki| GLvb,
Y = A.B
=A+B [wW-giMvbi Dccv` Abyhvqx]
=A + B
wP: NAND gate w`q OR gate evevqb

myZivs wPi mvwKUwU GKwU Ai MBU wnme KvR Ki|


bv MBU w`q 3wU gwjK MBU (Av MBU, Ai MBU Ges bU MBU) evevqb Kiv njv|
AZGe bv MBUi mveRbxbZv cgvwYZ njv|
bi MBU w`q gwjK MBU evevqb
bi MBU w`q bU MBU evevqb
wP bi MBUi `ywU BbcyU (A) mgvb| myZivs,
Y=A+A wP: NOR gate w`q NOT gate evevqb
=A
dj bi MBUwU GKwU bU MBU wnme KvR Ki|
114 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

bi MBU w`q Ai MBU evevqb


wP `ywU bi MBUi mshvM GKwU Ai MBU Zwi Kiv nqQ|
GLvb AvDUcyU,
Y = A+ B + A+ B Y = A+ B + A+ B
= A+ B
= A+ B = A+ B
= A+ B
DjL h, cii bi MBUwU GKwU bU MBU wnme KvR Ki|
bi MBU w`q Av MBU evevqb
wP bi MBU w`q Av MBUi evevqb `Lvbv nqQ| G c_g ii bi MBU `ywU bU
MBU wnme KvR Ki| GLvb, A
A
Y=A+B
Y=A+B B
B = A.B
= A.B [wW giMvbi Dccv` Abymvi] = A.B
= A.B wP: NOR gate w`q AND gate evvevqb
bi MBU w`q 3wU gwjK MBU (Av MBU, Ai MBU Ges bU MBU) evevqb Kiv njv|
AZGe bi MBUi mveRbxbZv cgvwYZ njv|
3.7.6 wekl MBU
G-Ai MBU (X-OR gate)
Exclusive OR MBUK msc X-OR MBU ejv nq| G MBU
Kvbv ewmK MBU bq KviY GwU Av, Ai I bU BZvw` MBUi mvnvh BbcyU AvDUcyU
A B Y = AB
Zwi Kiv nq| Avevi GwU BwUMUW mvwKU (AvBwm) ev GKxf~Z mvwKU 0 0 0
AvKviI cvIqv hvq| G MBUi BbcyUjv Amgvb nj AvDUcyU 1 nq| 0 1 1
1 0 1
Ab_vq AvDUcyU 0 ne| X-OR MBUi `yB ev ZZvwaK BbcyU _vK
1 1 0
Ges GKwU gv AvDUcyU _vK| wP: XOR gate Gi mZK mviYx
G MBUi gvag wewfb BbcyU weU Zzjbv Ki AvDUcyU msKZ
cvIqv hvq| GKwU G Ai MBUi BbcyU msKZ A I B Ges AvDUcyU msKZ Y nj eywjqvb
mgxKiY (Boolean expression) ne A
Y= A B
Y = A B = AB + AB B
GLvb viv G OR Gi KvRK eySvbv nqQ| wP: XOR gate Gi cZxK
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 115

ZvwKfve hKvbv BbcyU wewk G-Ai Zwi Kiv hvq| wbP wZb BbcyU wewk G-Ai MBUi
cZxK I eywjqvb mgxKiY `Lvbv njv A
B Y=ABC
eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y=ABC C

ay gwjK MBU w`q X-OR MBU Gi jwRK wP evevqb:


`ywU BbcyU A I B Gi X-OR MBUi
AvDUcyU mgxKiY
Y = A B
= AB + AB

wP: gwjK MBU w`q X-OR MBU evevqb|


ay bv MBU viv X-OR MBUi evevqb
G-Ai MBUi Avgiv Rvwb, A B

Y = AB A
= AB + A B AB

Y = AB.AB
= AB + A B AB
B
= ( AB) . (A B)
wP : bv MBU w`q X-OR MBU evevqb|
G-Ai dvskbwU cheY Ki ay bv MBU viv Dcii G-Ai MBUi jwRK mvwKU Zwi Kiv njv|
ay NOR MBU w`q X-OR MBU Gi jwRK wP evevqb:
`ywU BbcyU A I B Gi X-OR MBUi AvDUcyU
Y = AB + A B A B

A+B
= AB + A B B
(A+B) + (A+B)
(A+B) + (A+B)
= (AB) (A B) A =(A+B) + (A+B)
A+B

= (A + B) . (A + B)
wP : NOR MBU w`q X-OR MBU evevqb
= (A + B) . (A + B)
= ( A + B) + ( A + B)
116 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

G-bi MBU (X-NOR gate)


Exclusive NOR MBUK msc X-NOR MBU ejv nq| X-OR MBUi AvDUcyUK
NOT MBU w`q cevwnZ Kij X-NOR X-OR MBUi AvDUcyU X-NOR MBUi AvDUcyU
MBU cvIqv hvq| A_vr X-OR Gate + NOT
Gate = X-NOR Gate| X-NOR MBUi
BbcyU AvDUcyU
`yB ev ZZvwaK BbcyU _vK Ges GKwUgv
A B AB Y = AB
AvDUcyU _vK| BbcyU `ywU mgvb nj AvDUcyU 1
ne| Avevi wewfb weU Zzjbv Ki AvDUcyU 0 0 0 1
msKZ cvIqv hvq A_vr G MBUi BbcyU 0 1 1 0
msKZi gvb weRvo msLK 1 nj AvDUcyU 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
msKZ 0 nq| Ab_vq AvDUcyU msKZ 1
ne| A_vr G Ai MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ wP: 2 BbcyU wewk X-NORGi mZK mviwY
GKwU bU MBUi ga w`q cevwnZ Kij G
bi MBUi AvDUcyU msKZ cvIqv hvq|
A Y=AB
Y= AB
B

A
Y= AB
B
wP: 2 BbcyU wewk X-NORGi cZxK

eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression):


GKwU G bi MBUi BbcyU msKZ A I B Ges AvDUcyU msKZ Y nj eywjqvb mgxKiY ne
Y=AB

= AB + A B

ZvwKfve hKvbv BbcyU wewk G-bi MBU Zwi Kiv hvq| wbP wZb BbcyU wewk G-bi
MBUi cZxK I eywjqvb mgxKiY `Lvbv njv

A
B Y= ABC
C

wP: wZb BbcyU wewk X-NOR MBUi cZxK


eywjqvb mgxKiY (Boolean expression): Y = A B C
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 117

ay gwjK MBU w`q X-NOR MBU Gi jwRK wP evevqb


`ywU BbcyU A I B Gi X-NOR MBUi AvDUcyU mgxKiY
A B
Y=AB
= AB + A B A B

AB
Y = AB + A B
AB
wP: gwjK MBU w`q X-NOR MBU evevqb
ay bv MBU viv X-NOR MBUi evevqb
G-bi MBUi Avgiv Rvwb,
A B
Y = AB
= AB + A B AB

= AB + A B
A
= (AB) . (A B) (AB ).(A.B )
AB
B

wP: ay bv MBU viv X-NOR MBU evevqb


Dcii G-bi dvskbwU cheY Ki ay bv MBU viv G-bi MBUi jwRK mvwKU Zwi Kiv njv|
ay NOR MBU w`q X-NOR MBU Gi jwRK wP evevqb:
`ywU BbcyU A I B Gi X-NOR MBUi AvDUcyU mgxKiY
Y=AB AB
Y = AB + A B
A
A+B
= AB + A B B Y = ( A + B ) + ( A + B)

= ( AB) . ( A B)
= ( A + B + ( A + B)
= ( A + B) . ( A + B)
A+ B
= ( A + B) . ( A + B)
wP: NOR MBU w`q X-NOR MBU evevqb
= ( A + B) + ( A + B)
118 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

3.7.7 GbKvWvi (Encoder)


GbKvWvi GK aibi wWwRUvj eZbx hvi KvR njv eenviKvixi eeZ fvlvK KwDUvii evaMg
hvwK fvlvq icvwiZ Kiv| G eZbxi mevwaK 2n wU BbcyU _K Q0 E
Q1
N
n-wU AvDUcyU jvBb cvIqv hvq| hKvbv gyn~Z GKwU gv BbcyU Q2
C A
Q3
1 Ges evwK me BbcyU 0 _vK| A_vr 23 = 8wU BbcyU jvBb _K Q4 O B
Q5 D C
wZbwU AvDUcyU jvBb cvIqv hvq| KwDUvi h fvlvq BbcyU Q6 E
c`vb Kiv nq m fvlv KwDUvi mivmwi eySZ cvi bv| ZvB Q7 R

GbKvWvi eenviKvixi `qv AvjdvwbDgwiK I wbDgwiK eYK wP: 8 to 3 jvBb GbKvWvii e-KwP
BCD, ASCII Ges EBCDIC KvW icvwiZ Ki _vK| GbKvWvi mvaviYZ BbcyU wWfvBm A_vr
Kx-evWi mv_ hy _vK|
gvbyli eeZ fvlv GbKvWvi KwDUvii evaMg fvlv
wbg 8wU BbcyU jvBb _K 3wU AvDUcyU jvBb GbKvWvii eKwP ev mZK mviwY `qv njv:

Input Output
Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 A B C
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
wP: 8 to 3 line GbKvWvii jwRK mvwKU wP: 8 to 3 line GbKvWvii mZK mviwY

GbKvWvii eenvi:
i. GbKvWvi AvjdvwbDgwiK KvWK ASCII I EBCDIC KvW icvi Ki|
ii. `kwgK msLvK wewfb KvW icvi Ki|
iii. GbKvWvii mvnvh `kwgK msLvK mgZzj evBbvwi msLvq icvi Ki|
3.7.8 wWKvWvi (Decoder)
wWKvW ki A_ njv KvWgy Kiv| wWKvWvi njv Ggb
GKwU mgevq mvwKU hvi mvnvh nwU BbcyU _K 2n wU
AvDUcyU jvBb cvIqv hvq| wZbwU BbcyU jvBb _K
mevwaK 8wU AvDUcyU jvBb cvIqv hvq| h Kvbv GKwU
AvDUcyU jvBbi gvb 1 nj evwK meKwU AvDUcyU jvBbi
gvb 0 ne| KLb Kvbv AvDUcyU jvBbi gvb 1 ne Zv
wbfi Ki BbcyUjvi gvbi Dci| wP: 3 to 8 jvBb wWKvWvii eK
WvqvMvg
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 119

wWKvWvii mvnvh KvW fvlvq (hgb- BCD) jLv msLvK `kwgK msLvq cKvk Kiv, RwUj
KvWK mnR KvW cwiYZ Kiv ev KvW Input Output
fvlvq jLv eYK mvaviY fvlvq cKvk Kiv A B C D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(hgb-Avw KvWi 100000 K A Z 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
icvwiZ Kiv) hvq| 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
KwDUvii AvDUcyU BDwbU KvW fvlvq 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
jLv Z_K mvaviY AvKvi cKvk KiZ 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
cqvRb nq wWKvWvii| wWKvWvii KvR wP: 3 to 8 jvBb wWKvWvii mZK mviwY
njv KwDUvi eeZ fvlvK gvbyli
evaMg fvlvq icvi Kiv|
gwkb fvlv wWKvWvi gvbyli evaMg fvlv
wWKvWvi logic mvwKU evevwqZ KiZ Avgv`i AvUwU AND gate (3-input) Ges 3wU bU MBU
jvMe| A B C

wWKvWvii eenvi: D0 = A B C

i. KwDUvi eeZ fvlvK gvbyli evaMg D1 = A B C


fvlvq icvi Ki| D2 = A B C
ii. RwUj KvWK mnR KvW icvi Ki| D3 = A B C
iii. ASCII I EBCDIC KvWK D4 = A B C
AvjdvwbDgwiK KvW icvi Ki|
D5 = A B C
iv. wWKvWvi eeZ nq wWmc BDwbU|
D6 = A B C
v. wWKvWvii mvnvh evBbvwi msLvK
D7 = A B C
mgZzj `kwgK msLvq icvi Ki|
wP: 3 to 8 line wWKvWvii jwRK mvwKU
3.7.9 AvWvi (Adder) ev hvMi eZbx
AvWvi (Adder) ki A_ hvM Kiv| KwDUvii mKj MvwYwZK KvR evBbvwi
hvMi gvag mb Kiv nq| GKviYB KwDUvi wevb evBbvwi hvM Ly e i Z c ~ Y
Acvikb| AvWvi njv jwRK MBU viv Zwi Ggb GKwU wWwRUvj Kw^ bkbvj
(Combinational) BjKU w bK mvwK U hvi gvag hvMi KvRwU `Zvi mv_ mv`b
Kiv hvq| Y njv evi evi hvM Kiv Ges fvM njv evi evi weqvM Kiv| Avevi c~ i K
cwZZ evBbvwi hvMi gvagB weqvM Kiv hvq| KvRB hvM KiZ cvivi gvbB njv
Y, weqvM Ges fvM KiZ cviv|
120 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

h mgevq mvwKU viv hvM Kiv hvq ZvK ej AvWvi| wWwRUvj Bjwb `yaibi AvWvi AvQ| h_v:
1. nvd-AvWvi (Half Adder) ev AahvMi eZbx
2. dzj-AvWvi (Full Adder) ev c~Y hvMi eZbx
nvd-AvWvi (Half Adder) ev Aa hvMi eZbx
`ywU evBbvwi weU hvM Kivi Rb eeZ eZbxK Aa-hvMi eZbx ej| Abfve ejv hvq, h
AvWvi `yUv weU hvM Ki hvMdj (Sum) I nvZ _vK msLv ev Kvwi (Carry) ei KiZ cvi
ZvK nvd AvWvi ej| AahvM ev nvd AvWvi w`q `ywU msLv hvM Kivi mgq PviwU wfb Aev
chewZ nq| wbg PviwU wfb Aev `Lvbv njv:
BbcyU AvDUcyU
X Y S C
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
wP: nvd AvWvii mZK mviwY|
Dj L , ey j xq hvM I mvaviY hvM GK bq| ey j xq hvM
1+1=1| my Z ivs Ai MU viv ey j xq hvM Kiv MjI mvaviY hvM Kiv hvq bv| AR
X, AvW Y, hvMdj S I Kvwi C nj nvd-AvWvii mZKS mviwY_K = X Y + Xwbg
Y i
mgxKiY
X Y cvIqv hvq| = X Y
C = XY
XY
S = XY + X Y

XY
C = XY

wP: kyay gwjK MBU w`q H/A ev


evqb wP: nvd AvWvii jwRK mvwKU
dzj-AvWvi (Full Adder) ev c~Y hvMi eZbx
dzj AvWvi njv Ggb GK aibi jwRKvj mvwKU hv wZbwU evBbvwi weU hvM KiZ cvi| h
eZbxi gvag wZbwU evBbvwi weU (`ywU BbcyU weU I GKwU
c~ei Kvwi weU) hvM Ki GKwU hvMdj Ges eZgvb X S
F/A
KvwiweU cvIqv hvq ZvK dzj AvWvi (Full Adder) ev Y C0
c~Y hvMi eZbx ej| Kvwimn Aci `ywU weU hvM Kivi Ci
Rb dzj-AvWvi eenvi nq| `yUv nvd-AvWvi viv GKwU wP: dzj AvWvii mvsKwZK wP|
dzj-AvWvii KvR Kiv hvq| dzj AvWvii BbcyU X, Y
Ges AvMi (Carry In) Kvwi Ci hvMdj S I eZgvb (Carry Out) Kvwi C0 nj dzj AvWvii
mZK mviwY _K `Lv hvq
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 121

AvDUcyU mgxKiY: BbcyU AvDUcyU


S = X YCi + XY Ci + XY Ci + XYC i
X Y Ci S C0
C 0 = XYC i + XYC i + XY Ci + XYC i 0 0 0 0 0
dzj AvWvii hvMdjK (S) wbgwjwLZfve 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
mijxKiY Kiv hvq| 0 1 1 0 1
S = X YC i + XYCi + XY Ci + XYC i 1 0 0 1 0
= X(YC i + YCi ) + X(Y Ci + YC i ) 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
= X(Y C i ) + X( Y C i ) 1 1 1 1 1
= XP X P awi, P = Y wP: dzj AvWvii mZK mviwY|
Ci
= XP [ P Gi gvb ewmq ]
X Y Ci
=
dzj AvWvii AvDUcyU Kvwi ( C 0 ) wbgwjwLZfve mijxKiY Kiv hvq
C0 = XYC i + XYCi + XY Ci + XYC i

= XYC i + XYC i + XYCi + XYC i + XY Ci + XYC i

= YC i (X + X) + XCi (Y + Y) + XY( Ci + Ci )
[ A + A = 1 ]
= YC i .1 + XC i .1 + XY.1 = YC i + XCi + XY

dzj AvWvii hvMdj S Ges AvDUcyU Kvwi C0 K dzj AvWvii hvMdj


mijxKiY Kiv nj wbgwjwLZ mgxKiY cvIqv hvq| S = XYCi + XYCi + XYCi + XYC i
S = X Y Ci Ges AvDUcyU Kvwi C = XY + YC + XC
o i i
C = XY + YC + XC w`q dyj AvWvii jwRK mvwKU Zwi Kiv nj|
o i i
X Y Ci
X Y Ci

wP: dyj AvWvii jwRK mvwKU


wP: ay gwjK MBU w`q dzj AvWvii jwRK mvwKU
122 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

nvd-AvWvii mvnvh dzj-AvWvi evevqb


nvd-AvWvii mvnvh GKwU dzj-AvWvi Zwii Rb `ywU nvd-AvWvi I GKwU Ai MBU jvM| c_g
nvd-AvWvii BbcyU X I Y _K hvMdj S1
I Kvwi C1 cvIqv hvq| wZxq nvd-AvWvii Ci S1
S2
X S
BbcyU S1 Ges Ci _K hvMdj S2 I Kvwi C2 Y
cvIqv hvq| wZxq nvd AvWvii hvMdjB ne C1
C2 C1+C2
dzj AvWvii hvMdj| 1g I 2q nvd AvWvii Co
Kvwi hvM Ki cvIqv hve dzj AvWvii Kvwi|
c_g nvd-AvWvii - S1 = X Y Ges wP: nvd AvWvii mvnvh dzj AvWvi
C1 = XY evevqbi jwRK mvwKU
wZxq nvd-AvWvii
S 2 = S1 Ci Ges C 2 = S1C i
dzj-AvWvii BbcyU X, Y, Ci Ges AvDUcyU hvMdj S I Kvwi Co nj
S = X Y Ci S2
Ci S
= S1 C i S1
H/A
C2
= S2 X H/A
C1 Co
Y
Avevi, Co = X YCi + X Y Ci + XY C i + XYC i
= C i (XY + X Y) + XY (C i + C i )
wP: nvd AvWvii mvnvh dzj AvWvi
= C i (X Y) + XY.1 evevqbi e-K WvqvMvg
= S1Ci + C1
= C 2 + C1
myZivs Full Adder Gi AvDUcyU hvMdj S = S2 Ges Kvwi Co = C2 + C1
`ywU nvd AvWvi I GKwU Ai MBU eenvi Ki GKwU dzj AvWvi evevqb Kiv njv|
3.7.10 iwRvi (Register)
iwRvi njv GKMyQ wdc-dci mg^q MwVZ mvwKU hv Avqx ggwi wnme KvR Ki| Gi
cZKwU wdc-dc GKwU Ki evBbvwi weU msiY KiZ cvi| K`xq cwqvKiY Ask cvMvg
wbevni mgq Dcv Avqxfve Rgv ivLvi Rb iwRvi eeZ nq| wdc-dc QvovI iwRvi
Kw^bkbvj (Combinational) MBU _vKZ cvi hv Kvbv WUv cmwmsqi KvR KiZ cvi|
evcK A_ iwRvi njv GKMyQ wdc-dc Ges MBUi mg^q MwVZ mvwKU|
n weUi GKwU evBbvwi Z_ aviYi Rb n msLK wdc-dcwewk GKwU iwRvi cqvRb| Kvbv
GKwU iwRvi Kx cwigvY Z_ aviY Kie Zv wbfi Ki iwRvii `Ni Dci, hgb 8- weU
iwRvi, 16- weU iwRvi, 32-weU iwRvi BZvw`- hviv h_vg 8, 16, 32 weU Z_ aviY
KiZ cvie| dj KwDUvii MwZ Ges Z_ cwqvq gZv AbKUv iwRvii Dci
wbfikxj| iwRvi bZzb Z_ ivLvK jvwWs ej|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 123

iwRvii eenvi (Uses of Register)


iwRvi njv CPU-i AMZ mq eev| GZ Z_ ev wb`k mvgwqKfve mwZ ivLv hvq|
iwRvi cvMvgvi Kvbv wKQz Rgv ivLZ cvi bv, GKgv CPU-B MYbvi cqvRb iwRvi
Kvbv wKQz mwZ ivLZ cvi| iwRvii MVb cavb ggwii Abyic| wewfb aibi wcUvi
iwRvi eeZ nq, Kx-evW evdvi eeZ nq|
iwRvii cKvif` (Types of Register)
MVb Abymvi iwRvi wewfb cKvi nZ cvi| h_v:
1. cvivjvj jvW iwRvi (Parallel Load Register)
2. wkd&U iwRvi (Shift Register)
KvRi cKwZ Abymvi iwRvi wewfb cKvi nZ cvi| h_v:
1. AvwKDgyjUi iwRvi (Aucumulator Register)
2. mvaviY iwRvi (General Register)
3. wekl iwRvi (Special Register)
iwRvii MVb (Structure of Register)
KvRi cKwZ I MVb Abymvi iwRvi wewfb cKvi nq| Ze mij I mvaviY iwRvijv
aygv wdc-dc mvwKU viv Zwi Kiv nq| G Kvbv Kw^bkbvj jwRK mvwKU eenvi Kiv nq
bv| wbgi wPwU GKwU mijZg 4-weU iwRvii MVb `Lvbv nqQ| GwU ay D-wdc-dc viv
Zwi Kiv nqQ| GwU 4 weUi evBbvwi msLv aviY I msiY KiZ cvi|
iwRviwUi Kgb KK BbcyU (Common Clock) cvjm& (Pulse) w`j I0, I1, I2, I3 BbcyUi WUv
iwRvi vbvwiZ nq| iwRvii WUv Zvi AvDUcyU A0, A1, A2, A3 nZ h Kvbv mgq
MnY Ki| hLb cwZwU wdc-dci Clear (C) 0 nq ZLb wdc-dcwU wimU (Reset) nq| Ze
bigvj (Normal) Acvikbi mgq Clear input AekB 1 ivLZ nq| iwRvi bZzb Z_
mvjbi cwqvK ejv nq iwRvi jvwWs| iwRvii Z_ AcwiewZZ ivLZ nj mvwKUi
KK cvj&m Ad/e KiZ ne|
cvivjvj jvW iwRvi (Parallel Load Register)
wbP GKwU mvaviY mijZg cvivjvj jvW iwRvi ev evdvi iwRvii eK WvqvMvg `Lvbv
njv| GwU 4 weUi evBbvwi Z_ msiY KiZ cvi| cvivjvj jvW iwRvi njv Ggb GK
aibi iwRvi hLvb GKwU Kgb cvjm& wmg _vK| Kgb cvjmi hKvbv GKwU Uvwgbvj
cvj&m cvevi mv_ mv_ mejv iwRvi mwq nq Ges Z_ aviY Ki|
I3 I2 I1 I0

SET SET SET SET


D Q D Q D Q D Q

CLR CLR CLR CLR

CLK
CLR
A3 A2 A1 A0
wP: GKwU 4-weU cvivjvj jvW iwRvi
124 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wkd&U iwRvi (Shift Register)


h iwRvi evBbvwi weU aviYi cvkvcvwk avibKZ weUK Wvbw`K ev evgw`K ev Dfq w`K mivZ
cvi ZvK wkd&U iwRvi ej| wkdU iwRvi g~jZ GKQ wdc-dc viv Zwi| wdd-dcjv
PBb AvKvi GKwUi AvDUcyU AviKwUi BbcyUi mv_ mshy _vK| GKwU Kgb cvj&mi gvag me
wdc-dc BbcyU MnY Ki GK U nZ Aci U WUv wkdwUs Gi KvR Ki| GKwU mij 4-weU
wkd&U iwRvii eK wP `Lvbv njv| GwU kyaygv D wdc-dc viv Zwi Kiv nqQ| GLvb GKwU
wdc-dci AvDUcyU cieZx wdc-dci BbcyUi mv_ mshy iqQ| mKj wdc-dci mv_ GKwU
Kgb cvj&m wmg hy nqQ| dj GK GKwU cvj&m GK GKwU weU vbvii KvR Ki|
Serial SET SET SET SET Serial
Input D Q D Q D Q D Q Output

CLR CLR CLR CLR

CLK
wP: GKwU 4-weU wkd&U iwRvi

3.7.11 KvDUvi (Counter)


KvDUvi kwU GmQ KvDU _K hv MYbv Kiv eySvq| KvDUvi njv Ggb GKwU wmKzqwqvj
wWwRUvj BjKUwb mvwKU hv ZvZ `qv BbcyU cvjmi
Q 2 Q1 Q0
msLv YZ cvi| KvDUvi GK aibi iwRvi hv wekl
KvRi Rb eenvi Kiv nq| KvDUvi wdc-dc Ges jwRK
MBU w`q MwVZ| h KvDUvi evBbvwi wmKzq AbymiY 000
Ki ZvK evBbvwi KvDUvi ej| GKwU KvDUvi KZ _K
KZ MYbv Kie Zv KvDUvi Gi wWRvBbi Dci wbfi Ki| 111 001
myZivs, GKwU n weU evBbvwi KvDUvi o _K 2n 1 ch
chvqwgK YZ cvi Ges GUv n msLK wdc-dc viv 1 1 0 010
MVb Kiv nq| D`vniY wnme 3 weUi GKwU evBbvwi
KvDUvii MYbv P `Lvbv njv| evBbvwi MYbvi avc
101 011
000 _K 111 MYbvi ci cieZxZ 000 avc Pj Avm|
Ab AviK cKvi BCD KvDUvi cvIqv hvq mevwaK avc 100
10wU| GwU 000 _K 1001 ch MYbv Kiv hvq| wP: UvbwRkb WvqvMvg

gvW bv^vi (Mode Number)


KvDUvii gvW bv^vi ev gwWDjvm njv KvDUviwU mevP KZ msLv YZ cvi| hw` Kvbv
GKwU KvDUvii weU msLv n nq Ze GwU nwU wdc-dc wbq Zwi ne Ges Zv wmKzqwqvj ev
avivevwnKfve 0 nZ 2n1 msLK msLv MYbv KiZ cvie|
A_vr n-weU KvDUvii gwWDjvm msLv nQ 2n| Ze KvDUvii wdc-dci msLv nvm-ew Ki
gwWDjvmi msLv nvm-ew Kiv hvq|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 125

KvDUvii cKvif` (Classification of Counter)


KvDUvi

wmbvbvm KvDUvi Avwmbvbvm KvDUvi

Avc KvDUvi WvDb KvDUvi wicj Avc KvDUvi wicj WvDb KvDUvi

wmbvbvm KvDUvi:
h KvDUvi GKwU gv KK cvjm& mejv wdc-dci Aevi cwieZb NUvq ZvK wmbvbvm
KvDUvi ej| hgb-wis KvDUvi, MOD-10 KvDUvi BZvw`|
Avwmbvbvm KvDUvi:
h KvDUvi GKwU wdc-dci AvDUcyU AbwUi KK cvjm wnme eeZ nq ZvK Avwmbvbvm
KvDUvi ej| hgb-wicj KvDUvi| Avwmbvbvm KvDUvi `ycKvi| h_v:
wicj Avc KvDUvi: h KvDUvi QvU b^i _K eo b^ii w`K chvqwgK MYbv Kiv nq ZvK
wicj Avc KvDUvi ej| hgb: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ---------
wicj WvDb KvDUvi: h KvDUvi eo _K chvqwgKfve wbPi w`K MYbv Kiv nq ZvK wicj
WvDb KvDUvi ej| hgb: 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
KvDUvii MVb (Structure of Counter)
mePq mnR I mij KvDUvi njv evBbvwi wicj KvDUvi| wicj KvDUvi njv Avwmbvbvm
KvDUvi| A_vr cZKwU wdc-dc Zvi AvDUcyU viv Zvi cvki wdc-dcK wUMvi
(Triggering) KiZ mvnvh Ki| wicj KvDUvi UvMj wdc-dc viv Zwi Kiv hvq hv me mgq
UvMj gvW KvR Kie| T UvBc wdc-dc GKwU UvMj wdc-dc|
126 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

FF0 wdc-dc KK cvj&m w`j wdc-dc UvMj Kie A_vr wdc-dcwUi AvDUcyU cwZ evi 0 _K
1 ev 1 _K 0 ne| Q0 K FF1 Gi KKi mvnvh mshy Kivi Q0 hLb 1 ne ZLb FF1
UvMj Kie| A_vr cwZ `yevi Ai FF1 UvMj Kie| Abyicfve Q1 K FF2 KKi mv_
mshy Kivq Q1 hLb 1 ne ZLb FF2 UvMj Kie| A_vr FF2 cwZ Pvi evi Ai UvMj
Kie|
KvDUvii cwZ (System of Counter)
evBbvwi msLv Kxfve MYbv Kiv nq KK AvDUcyU
Zv `kwgK I evBbvwi msLvi Zzjbv cvj&mi Q2 Q1 Q0
Ki KvDUvii KvR `Lvbv njv| msLv
0 0 0 0
KvDUvii eenvi 1 0 0 1
(Uses of Counter): 2 0 1 0
3 0 1 1
1. KK cvjmi msLv MYbvi Rb 4 1 0 0
2. UvBwgs wmMbvj c`vbi Rb 5 1 0 1
3. wWwRUvj KwDUvi 6 1 1 0
4. wWwRUvj NwoZ 7 1 1 1
5. e`ywZK `b MYbvi cwZ Pvi evi cwZ `yevi cwZevi
6. cvivjvj WUvK wmwiqvj WUvq cici UvMj cici UvMj UvMj Ki
icvi KiZ| Ki Ki
wP: 3- weU Avwmbvbvm (3- weU wicj KvDUvi) KvDUvii mZK
mviwY

Abykxjbx
mRbkxj ck:

1| wPwU j Ki

K. DcwiD wPwU Kvb gwjK MUK wb`k Ki?


L. mvwKUwUi mZK mviwY wbYq Ki|
M. Gi jwRK mvwKU Ab Ki|
N. jwRK mvwKUi iZ AvjvPbv Ki|
msLv cwZ I wWwRUvj wWfvBm 127

2| `yBwU evBbvwi weU hvM Kivi Rb nvd AvWvi eenvi Kiv nq| wK wZbwU weU hvM Kivi
Rb dzj AvWvii cqvRb nq| Avevi nvd AvWvi w`qI dyj AvWvi evevqb Kiv hvq|
K. gwjK MBU KqwU?
L. AvWvi wK? eYbv Ki|
M. nvd AvWvii mZK mviwY Zwi Ki|
N. nvd AvWvii mvnvh dzj AvWvi evevqb Ki|

ewbevPwb ck:
1| Avgv`i evmvq eW myBm Kvb MBUi kZ gb Pj?
K. AND L. OR M. NOT N. X-OR
2| (15)10 Gi mgK wewmwW KvW KvbwU?
K. 00001111 L. 00001101 M. 00010101 N. 00001001
wbPi mviwYwU `L Ges 3 I 4 bs cki Di `vI:
Input Output
A B S C
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1

3| mZK mviwYwU Kvb jwRK mvwKUK wb`k Ki?


K. bv MBU L. G Ai
M. nvd AvWvi N. Ai MBU

4| mZK mviwYwU Kvb eywjqvb mgxKiYqK wb`k Ki?


K. S = A, C = B
L. S = A + B, C = AB
M. S = AB, C = AB
N. S = AB, C = B
PZz_ Aavq
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj
INTRODUCTION TO WEB DESIGN AND HTML

eZgvb hyM Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi hyM| www Z_v BUvibUi gvag mgM cw_ex GKmv_
Muv_v| Gi gvag Avgiv wekvj Z_ fvvii mv_ hy nZ cvwi| BUvibU eenviKvwi`i evDR
Kivi Rb wewfb Iqe mvfvi ivLv dvBjK Iqe cR ej | G cR mvaviYZ HTML viv jLv
nq| BUvibU eenviKvwiiv hvZ Lye mnR KvwZ Z_ LyuR cvq G Rb evemZ Ges
evjW Iqe mvBU wWRvBb KiZ nq| myZivs Iqe wWRvBb GKwU iZc~Y KvR eenviKvwi`i
AvK Kivi Rb|

G Aavq cvV kl wkv_xiv


Iqe wWRvBbi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv eYbv KiZ cvie|
GBPwUGgGj Gi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|

eenvwiK:

GBPwUGgGj eenvi Ki Iqe cBR wWRvBb KiZ cvie|

Iqe mvBU cvewjk KiZ cvie|


Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 129

4.1 Iqe wWRvBbi aviYv


BUvibU eenviKvwi`i evDR Kivi Rb wewfb Iqe mvfvi ivLv dvBjK Iqe cR ej|
cii mshy ev wjsK Kiv KZKjv Iqe cRi mg^q Iqe mvBU MwVZ| MVb ewPi
Dci wfw Ki Iqe mvBUK `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v: vwUK I WvqbvwgK| hme Iqe
mvBUi WUvi gvb Iqe cR jvwWs nIqvi ci cwieZb Kiv hvq bv ZvK vwUK Iqe mvBU
ej | HTML viv GwU Zwi Kiv hvq| hme Iqe mvBUi WUvi gvb Iqe cR jvwWs nIqvi
ci cwieZb Kiv hvq ZvK WvqbvwgK Iqe mvBU ej| G Iqe mvBU Zwii Rb HTML Gi
mv_ wcGBPwc A_ev GGmwc cqvRb|
4.1.1 Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv
Kvbv Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv ev vKPvi ejZ mvaviYZ Iqe mvBUi Kv_vq Kvbv Z_
(Information) ivLv AvQ Zvi msMVbK eySvq| Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv Zvi bUIqvK wjsK eRvq
ivLZ mvnvh Ki| Iqe mvBUi KUUjv my`ifve Dcvcbi Rb Gi KvVvgv iZc~Y
f~wgKv cvjb Ki Ges Iqe mvBU eenvieve Ki Zvj|
Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv KZKjv wfb wfb mKkbi mg^q MwVZ| mKkbjvZ mnR wePiYi
(Navigation) eev _vK| GKwU Iqe mvBU cavbZ wZbwU cii mshy (Linked) mKkb wbq MwVZ-
Home Page
1. nvg cR (Home Page)
2. gBb mKkb (Main section) Main Sections
3. mve-mKkb (Sub-section)
Subsections

wP: ewmK Iqe mvBU KvVvgv|


Iqe mvBU bUIqvK :
GKwU Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv AbKUv GKUv wewsqi KvVvgvi gZv| wews Zwii mgq hgb wfb
wfb Ask h_vvb ciii Home Page
mv_ mshvMi dj my`i, (Index)
AvKlYxq evmhvM wews Zwi Main
nq Zgwb GKwU Iqe mvBUi (Site Index)
wewfb mKkb, mve-mKkb I
cR bUIqvKi gvag my`i
Subsections
dg I wewfb dvskb hy nq
eenviKvwii mvgb DcvwcZ (Content)
nq| wbP wPi gvag GKwU wP: Iqe mvBU MVb|
Iqe mvBUi j-AvDU `Lvbv njv|
130 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

bwfMkb (Navigation):
GKwU Iqe mvBU ZLbB mv_K nq hLb eenviKvwi ZvZ Lye mnR wePiY (Navigation) KiZ
cvi Ges Zvi cqvRbxq Z_ LuyR ei KiZ cvi| GKwU eenviKvwi eve Iqe mvBU AekB
cviwiK gZ wewbgqi myhvM _vKv DwPr| GKwU mvaviY wbqg njv eenviKvwi Zvi cqvRbxq
Z_ cZ AekB `yevii ewk wKK KiZ ne bv|
Uz wKK bwfMkb:
Dcii wP Z_i wZbwU i eenvi Kiv nqQ (Three Tier of Content) GLvb nvg cR _K
gBb mKkb (c_g wKK) Ges Gi ci mve-mKkb (wZxq wKK) hv Lye mnR| Ze Aviv GKwU
i mshy Kiv hZ cvi wewfb aibi WUvi Rb| Gi ewk iwewk Iqe mvBU eenviKvwiK
wavM Ki Ges weiwi KviY nq| ZvQvov AwaK iwewk Iqe mvBU wePiY (Navigation) mvP
Bwbi RbI RwUj|
nvg cR (Home Page):
K_vq AvQ, gvbyli gyL gbi K_v ej| Zgwb Kvbv Iqe mvBUi welq, KUU, Z_i cvPyhZv
BZvw`i aviYv eenviKvwiiv nvgcR _K cq _vK| GwU mvBUi wewfb mKkb I wjsK
mK ^Q aviYv c`vb Ki| GLvb aygv gBb mKkbi wjsK _vKv DwPr| nvgcR GKwU
mvBW gvc _vKZ ne hvZ eenviKvixiv Lye mnR Zv`i cqvRbxq Z_ mK RvbZ cvi|
eenviKvixiv hLb AwZ A mgq Zv`i cqvRbxq Z_ cvq ZLb Iqe mvBU wfwRU Zv`i Rb
nq DV Avb`gq|
mxwgZ UU Ges wjsK:
nvgcR Lye ewk jLv/ UU _vKv DwPr bq| GZ cR Zvi m`h nvivq Ges eenviKvixiv
wavM nq| mvaviYZ Kvbv nvgcR 400 (PvikZ) ki ewk _vKv DwPr bq| AbK
eenviKvix AvQ hviv Lye A mgq wbq Iqe mvBU evDR Ki, Zv`i c ewk jLv _vKj Zv
cov me nq bv| ZvQvov nvgcR AwaK jLv _vKj mvP Bwbi KvRI RwUj nq| myZivs mvP
Bwb Ges eenviKvix Dfqi RbB Avgv`i DwPr nvgcR h_vme Kg UU eenvi Kiv|
ZvQvov eenviKvixiv mvaviYZ nvgcR jevi Ub coZ ^vQ` eva Ki bv| myZivs GK
cR hZUzKz jLv me ZZUzKzB wjLv DwPr|
4.2 HTML Gi gwjK welqmg~n
HTML njv GKwU wcwUs fvlv| g~jZ wewfb aibi UvM eenvi Ki KvW wjLZ nq| myZivs
HTML viv Iqe cR Zwii Rb wKQz gwjK welqKvVvgv, wewfb aibi UvM, nvBcvi wjsK,
wP, Uwej BZvw` mshvRbi cwZ mK AvjvPbv Kiv njv|
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 131

4.2.1 HTML Gi aviYv


BUvibU eenviKvix`i evDR Kivi Rb wewfb Iqe mvfvi
ivLv dvBjK Iqe cR ej| Avi G Iqe cRjv BUibUi
gvag Iqe evDRvi mdUIqvi eenvi Ki `Lv hvq| BUvibU
eenvihvM Gme Iqe cRK mvaviYZ HTML viv jLv nq|
HTML Gi c~Yic nQ Hyper Text Markup Language.
Markup Language GK mU markup UvMi mg^q MwVZ| GKUv
Iqe cRi wewfb Ask evDRvii gvag Kxfve c`wkZ ne Zv
HTML G markup UvMmg~n eenvi Ki cKvk Kiv nq|
evwbK MelYvi Z_, Dcv `Z cw_exi wewfb vb Av`vb-c`vbi wP: wUg evbvm-jx|
Dk wUg evbvm-jx HTML ev Hyper Text Markup
Language Zwi Kib| 1990 mvji w`K gvRvBK evDRvii gvag HTML cwiwPwZ jvf Ki| 1997
mvj WC3 KZK HTML3.2 cKvwkZ nq Ges GKB eQi HTML 4.2 cKvwkZ nq| 2010 mvj cPwjZ
HTML Gi mekl fvmb HTML 5 cwiwPwZ jvf Ki|
4.2.2 HTML Gi myweav
HTML eenvi KiZ Ges eySZ AZ mnR| GwU mKj evDRvi mvcvU Ki| Ab hKvbv
cvMvwgs fvlvi Zzjbvq HTML ewki fvM evDRvi mvcvU Ki| Gi dj hLb Avgiv HTML
viv Iqe cR Zwi Kwi cw_exi cvq mKj evDRvi GwU c`wkZ nq| HTML eRW Iqe cR
AcwUgvBR Kiv AZ mnR| HTML Ges XML Gi MVb GKB iKg, eZgvb WUv msiYi
Rb XML evcKfve eeZ nQ| HTML Ges XML Gi MVb/ wmbU GKBiKg nIqvi
KviY G `ywU cvUdg KvR Kiv mnR nq|
HTML Gi mePq eo myweav njv h GwU webv g~j cvIqv hvq| Gi Rb Kvbv cKvi
mdUIqvi ev cvMvg wKbZ nqbv| kyaygv bvUcW eenvi Ki HTML KvW wjLjB cvMvgwU
wbevn Ki| Kvbv wbw` Kgv fyj nj kyay H wb`k KvR Ki bv evwK wb`k h_vh_fve KvR
Ki| G KviY G fvlvq KvW jLv hKvbv cvMvwgs fvlv _K mnR| Gi dj Iqe mvBU
ZwiZ AbK mvkq nq| mKj WfjcgU Uzjm& HTML K mvcvU Ki- hnZz GwU GKwU
dUcR, Abvb Iqe mvBU Dbqb Uyjm& viv Ges cvMvwgs fvlv viv mvcvU Ki| GwU mKj mvP
Bwb dwj ,mKj Iqe cvMvwgs fvlvi ga HTML mKj mvP Bwbi KvQ mePq ewk
dwj| mKj mvP Bwbi Rb HTML cov Ges Gm Kiv mnR| dj Gm UvBg ev Iqf cR
jvW nZ mgq Kg jvM| Gi dj mvwPs G fvjv djvdj cIqv hvq|
4.2.3 HTML UvM I wmbU cwiwPwZ
HTML G cvMvg wjLvi mgq <> Ges </> wP I Gi ga KxIqvW
hgb- html, head, title, body BZvw` eenvi Kiv nq| <> Ges </> wP
mn gvSLvbi KxIqvWK GK UvM ejv nq| HTML G kyi <> Ges kl
</> UvM Gi gvSLvbi AskK HTML BwjgU ejv nq|
hgb: <h1> This is Element</h1>
GLvb This is Element GKwU BwjgU|
132 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbP HTML G eeZ wKQz mvaviY UvM Ges G`i eenvi eYbv Kiv njv-
UvMmg~n eYbv
<html> .. </html> HTML WKzgU wb`k Ki
<head> ..</head> cvMvgi Head wb`k Ki
<title> ..</title> cR UvBUj wb`k Ki
<body> ..</body> g~j Content Ask wb`k Ki
<a> ..</a> Anchor UvM
<abbr> ..</abbr> Abbriviation UvM
<b> ..</b> Kvbv UU bold KiZ eeZ nq
<i> ..</i> Kvbv UU italic KiZ eeZ nq
<big> ..</big> Kvbv UU ^vfvweKi Pq eo KiZ eeZ nq
<strong> ..</strong> Kvbv UU bold/strong KiZ eeZ nq
<sub> ..</sub> Subscripted UU wb`k Ki
<sup> ..</sup> Superscripted UU wb`k Ki
<blockquote> ..</blockquote> Kvbv D&wZ cKvk KiZ eeZ nq
<table> ..</table> Uwej Zwi KiZ eeZ nq
<col> ..</col> Uweji Kjvg Zwi KiZ eeZ nq
<td> ..</td> Uweji mj Zwi KiZ eeZ nq
<th> ..</th> Uweji wkivbvg wjLZ eeZ nq
<tr> ..</tr> Uweji mvwi Zwi KiZ eeZ nq
<form> ..</form> dig ZwiZ eeZ nq
<input> ..</input> digi BbcyU wd ZwiZ eeZ nq
<li> ..</li> wj ZwiZ eeZ nq
<ol> ..</ol> AWviW wj ZwiZ eeZ nq
<ul> ..</ul> Avb-AWviW wj ZwiZ eeZ nq
<p> ..</p> cvivMvd ZwiZ eeZ nq
Uwej: 4.1
HTML GwUweDUm: HTML UvM Gi KvhgZvK ewaZ Kivi Rb GwUweDUm eenvi Kiv nq| HTML
GwUweDUm BwjgUi cvmwK Z_ A_vr BwjgUi wKQz ewk wbw` Ki `qv nq| hgb- <font>
</font> UvMi GwUweDU wnme dUi wKQz ewk DjL Kiv nq| wbPi D`vniY dUi size, face, color
wbw` Ki `qv nqQ: <font size=13 face= Tahoma color=green> ILove my Country</font>
UvM GwUweDUm
<font> Size = face = color =
<h1> ...<h6>, <p> Align center/ left/ right
<img>, <table> Height = width = border =
<frameset> border = frameborder = framespacing =
<frame> noresize scrolling = yes/no/auto
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 133

4.2.4 HTML bKkv I KvVvgv


Iqe cR Zwii mgq m~Y KvW/ cvMvgK KqKwU Ask/ mKkb fvM Kiv nq| wewfb UvM
wewfb Ask wjLZ nq hgb- Head, body BZvw`| KvW ev UvM jLvi c~e Avgv`i RvbZ ne
Kvbv Ask Kvbv UvM wjLZ nq|
HTML cvMvgi gwjK Askmg~n:
<html>
<head>
<title> My first web page</title>
</head>

<body>
This is my first web page. I am learning now HTML.
</body>
</html>
<html> ev html UvM:
<html> Ges </html> UvM Gi ga m~Y cvMvg wjLZ nq A_vr <html> Ges </html> UvM
h_vg Iqe cR Gi i Ges kl wb`k Ki|
<head> ev head UvM:
G Ask wewfb aibi nWvi BwjgU _vK | Gjv Iqe cR ev WKzgUi bvg, vBj, wjsK,
WUvi Z_ BZvw` eYbv _vK| G Ask wbg wjwLZ UvMjv mshy Kiv hvq, Ze Dcii cvMvg
ay title UvM mshy Kiv nqQ-
<title>, <style>, < meta>, <link>, < script>, <noscript>, and <base>. Gjvi gvag evDRvi
cR mwKZ ekwKQz iZc~Y Z_ c`kbi cvkvcvwk mvP Bwb AcwUgvBRkbi gZv iZc~Y KvR
m~Y nq|
<body> ev body UvM:
<body> ev body UvM Kvbv cvMvgi mePq iZc~Y Ask| GKwU Iqe cRi g~j Content mg~n
body UvMi ga Aevb Ki| Iqe cRi h Ask Avgiv `LZ cvB / c`wkZ nq Zvi Rb mKj UvM G
Ask wjLv nq|
HTML G cvMvg wjLvi cwZ:
hKvbv c v M v g jLvi Rb Kvbv GwWUi eenvi Ki KvwWs KiZ nq| HTML G
c v M v g jLvi Rb c v _wgKfve bvUcW eenvi Kiv hZ cvi| Ze, evowZ my w eav
cvIqvi Rb Adobe Dreamweaver, Micresoft Expression Web, Coffee Cup
HTML Editor eenvi Kiv hvq|
134 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbP GKwU GBPwUGgGj HTML cvMvg jLvi avcjv eYbv Kiv njv
avc-1: c_g Start All Program Accessoriesy Noteped G wKK Ki bvUcW
Icb KiZ ne|
avc-2: bvUcW cqvRbxq HTML KvW jLZ ne
avc-3: dvBj gby _K Save as G wKK KiZ ne| dvBji GKwU bvg w`q .html GUbkb
Ki Save KiZ ne|
avc-5: Save nq Mj dvBji Dci Wvej wKK KijB hKvbv Iqe evDRvi viv Iqe cRwU
c`wkZ ne|

4.2.5 digvwUs (Formating)


Avgiv hLb Kvbv cvivMvd wjwL ZLb Z_ ev eYbvK my`ifve Dcvcb Kivi Rb wewfb aibi
digwUs Uzjm eenvi Kwi| hgb- gvBvmdU IqvW Gi -Bold, Italic, Underline,
Strikethrough, Subscript, Superscript BZvw`|
HTML Gi wewfb aibi digwUs UvM iqQ| hLb h UvM eenvi Kiv nq ZLb UvMi gaeZx
jLv ev UU H UvM Abyhvqx cwiewZZ nq|
UvM eYbv
<abbr> ..</abbr> Abbriviation UvM
<b> ..</b> Kvbv UU bold KiZ eeZ nq
<i> ..</i> Kvbv UU italic KiZ eeZ nq
<big> ..</big> Kvbv UU ^vfvweKi Pq eo KiZ
eeZ nq
<strong> ..</strong> Kvbv UU bold/strong KiZ eeZ nq
<sub> ..</sub> Subscripted UU wb`k Ki
<sup> ..</sup> Superscripted UU wb`k Ki
<u> . </u> Avvi jvBb Kivi Rb
<strike>(Strike) </strike> Strike Kivi Rb eeZ nq

HTML nwWs: Avgiv hLb Kvbv cvivMvd wjwL ZLb mB cvivMvdi GKwU my`i wkivbvg
w`q _vwK| cvivMvdi wkivbvg `qvi Rb <h> </h> UvM eenvi Kiv nq| G wkivbvg
jLvi Rb 6 aibi UvM iqQ| Gjv njv- <h1> </h1>, <h2> </h2>, <h3>
</h3>, <h4> </h4>, <h5> </h5>, <h6> </h6>|

<h1> </h1> mePq eo wkivbvg jLvi Rb eenvi Kiv nq| Abvb UvMjv gv^q QvU
AvKvii wkivbvg `qvi Rb eenvi Kiv nq|
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 135
D`vniY:
< h1>This is a heading</h1>
< h2>This is a heading</h2>
< h3>This is a heading</h3>
HTML cvivMvd: Iqe cR Kvbv Z_ ev eYbv my`ifve Dcvcbi Rb GKvwaK cvivMvd
AvKvi jLv nq| HTML G cvivMvd jLvi Rb <p> </p> UvM eenvi Kiv nq| evDRvii
gvag cZK cviv Gm Kivi Rb cZK cvivkl <br /> UvM w`Z nq| <br /> UvM bZzb
jvBb i Ki| cvivMvdi gaI Avgiv <br /> UvM eenvi Ki jvBb eK Zwi KiZ cvwi|
D`vniY:
<p>
This is a paragraph.
This is a paragraph.
This is a paragraph.
This is a paragraph.
</p>
<p>
This is a paragraph.<br />
This is a paragraph.<br />
This is a paragraph.<br />
This is a paragraph.<br />
</p>

HTML Lines:
Iqe cR Abyf~wgK iLv Zwi Kivi Rb <hr> UvM eenvi Kiv nq|
KvR: GKwU HTML cR Zwi Ki Zvgvi KjR mK wZbwU cviv (cZK cvivq Kgc
Pvi jvBb _vKe) wjL|
HTML <body> bgcolor Attribute:
Kvbv HTML WKzgUi evKMvD Gi is Kx ne Zv wb`k Kivi Rb G UvM eenvi Kiv nq|
<html>
<body bgcolor="#E6E6FA">
<h1>Hello world!</h1>
</body>
</html>
136 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Iqe cR Kvjvi eenvii Rb Kvjvi KvW eenvi Kiv nq| G Kvjvi KvW Avevi wZbfve
jLv hvq-
mivmwi Kvjvii bvg wjL| hgb- red
Kvjvii nvWwmgvj KvW eenvi Ki| hgb- #ff0000
Kvjvii AviwRwe (rgb) KvW eenvi Ki| hgb- rgb (255,0,0)
Ze Iqe cRK my`i I AvKlYxq Kivi Rb wewfb aibi Kvjvii eenvi Kiv nq| G Kvjvi nZ
cvi evKMvD A_ev jLvZ| Kvjvi eenvii Rb nvWwmgvj KvW eenvi Kiv mnR| Ze me
Kvjvi Iqe cRi Rb Dchy bq| ZvB Iqe cRi Rb Kvjvi wbevPbi mZKZv Aej^b
KiZ ne|
wbP KZKMyjv Kvjvii KvW `qv njv| KvWi b^iMyjv cwieZb Kij KvjviI cwieZb nq|
myZivs BQvgZv Kvjvi KvW Zwi Kiv hvq|

Color Name Color Code Color Name Color Code


Red #FF0000 White #FFFFFF
Cyan #00FFFF Silver #C0C0C0
Blue #0000FF Grey #808080
DarkBlue #0000A0 Black #000000
LightBlue #ADD8E6 Orange #FFA500
Purple #800080 Brown #A52A2A
Yellow #FFFF00 Maroon #800000
Lime #00FF00 Green #008000
Fuchsia #FF00FF Olive #808000
Marquee UvM:
Iqe cR Kvbv UU ev QweK Wvb, evg, Dci, wbP Pjgvb Kivi Rb <marquee> UvM eenvi Kiv
nq-
D`vniY: <marquee> I Love My Country</marquee>
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 137
GLvb, I Love My Country jLvwU Iqe cR Pjgvb ne| GLvb Wvb, evg, Dci, wbP
Kvbv w`K Pjgvb ne Zv wbw` Ki `qv hvq| hgb-
<marquee direction= left> I Love My Country</marquee>
GLvb, direction= left `qv nqQ, left Gi cwieZ right, up, down BZvw` `qv hvq|
Marquee UvM BgR evenvi: <marquee> UvM eenvi Ki BgR ev QweKI Pjgvb Kiv hvq-
D`vniY: <marquee> <img scr = image.jpg</marquee>
GLvb, Iqe cR image.jpg BgRwU Pjgvb ne| Qwe I BgRi UvMi ga wbgwjwLZ
GwUweDUjv eenvi Kiv hvq-Width, height, direction, behavior, scrolldelay,
scrollamount, loop, bgcolor, hspace, vspace.

4.2.6 nvBcviwj
nvBcviwj Gi gvag GKwU Iqe cRi mv_ Ab GKwU Iqe cR / WKzgUi mshvM Kiv nq|
Iqe cRK eenvi eve Kivi Rb nvBcviwjsK GKwU MyiZc~Y fwgKv cvjb Ki| nvBcviwjsK nQ
GKwU k/kQ/Qwe hvi Dci wKK Kij Ab GKwU Iqe cR / WKzgU Icb nq| Iqe cR evDR
Kivi mgq Avgiv hLb nvBcviwjsK k / kQ / Qwe Gi Dci gvDm Kvmi bB ZLb Kvmi Gi AvKwZ
cwieZb nq| HTML G <a> </a> UvM eenvi Ki nvBcviwjsK Kiv nq|
MVb: <a href= url> link text<a/>
GLvb, url viv h Iqe cR/ WKzgUwU Icb KiZ PvB ZvK eySvbv nqQ, Ges link
text nj nvBcviwjsK k hvi Dci wKK Kij KvwLZ cR/ WKz gU Icb ne|
nvBcviwjsK wnmve ay k bq, Qwe ev Ab Kvbv GBPwUGgGj (HTML) BwjgU
eenvi Kiv hvq|
D`vniY: <a href= http://www.dhakaeducationboard.gov.bd> Dhaka
Board<a/>
Dcii KvW wjLv Iqe cRwU Icb Kij, cR Dhaka Board UwU `Lv hve Ges Gi
Dci wKK Kij XvKv wkvevWi Iqe mvBUwU Icb ne|
nv&BcviwjsK (UviMU GwUweDU):
UviMU GwUweDU wjsK Kiv cR/ WKzgUwU Kv_vq Icb ne Zv wbw` Ki `q|
D`vniY: <a href= http://www.dhakaeducationboard.gov.bd target = _blank> Dhaka
Board<a/>
Dcii D`vniY viv XvKv wkvevWi Iqe mvBUwU GKwU bZzb DBv ev Uve G Icb ne| GKB
WKzgUi wewfb RvqMvq Rv Kivi Rb ev eyKgvK Zwi Kivi Rb AvBwW GwUweDU eenvi Kiv nq|
hgb <a id=tips> Usefull Tips Section </a>
GLvb GKB WKzgUi Usefull Tips Section bvgi cvivMvd Rv Kie|
KvR: GKwU Iqe cR wkv evW, wkv gYvjq, Zvgvi wkv evWi Uc wj vb
138 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

ARbKvwi wZbwU KjRi Iqe mvBUi wjsK Zwi Ki|


HTML G <framset> UvM:
GKwU Iqe cRK GKvwaK fvM wef Kivi Rb G UvM eenvi Kiv nq| Gi dj GKwU Iqe
cRK Abyf~wgK Ges Dj^fve `yB ev ZZvwaK fvM fvM Kiv hvq Ges wewfb fvM (Ask) wfb
wfb Iqe cR mshy Kiv hvq| <FRAMESET> UvM <body> ... </body> UvMi ga
wjLZ nq|
QvU QvU D`vniY Gi gvag Dcvcb Kiv njv-
D`vniY-1: Iqe cRK Dci- wbP mgvb `yfvM fvM Kivi Rb wbPi KvW wjLZ nq-
<FRAMESET rows="50%, 50%">
...the rest of the definition...
</FRAMESET>
GLvb ...the rest of the definition... j Iqe cRi
fvM Kiv Aski Kvbv Ask Kvbv cR/ wP _vKe Zv wjLZ
nq|
D`vniY-2: Iqe cRK Wvb-evg mgvb `yfvM fvM Kivi Rb wbPi KvW wjLZ nq-
<FRAMESET cols="50%, 50%">
...the rest of the definition...
</FRAMESET>
GLvb ...the rest of the definition... j Iqe cRi
fvM Kiv Aski Kvbv Ask Kvbv cR/ wP _vKe Zv wjLZ nq|
D`vniY-3:
wbPi KvW Iqe cRK wZbwU Kjvg fvM Kie hLvb, 2q Kjvg 250 wcj wbw` Ki `qv
nqQ, Aewk Aski 25% 1g Kjvg Ges 75% 3q Kjvg ne |
250 wcj

<FRAMESET cols="1*, 250, 3*">


1g Kjvg

3q
...the rest of the definition... Kjvg
</FRAMESET>
GLvb ...the rest of the definition... j Iqe cRi
fvM Kiv Aski Kvbv Ask Kvbv cR/ wP _vKe Zv wjLZ nq|
D`vniY-4: wbPi KvW Iqe cRK 2 3 wMW fvM Kie
<FRAMESET rows="30%, 70%" cols="33%,34%,33%">
...the rest of the definition...
</FRAMESET>
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 139
GLvb ...the rest of the definition...j Iqe cRi fvM Kiv Aski Kvbv Ask Kvbv
cR/ wP _vKe Zv wjLZ nq|
D`vniY-5: wbPi KvW Iqe cRK mgvb wZbwU Kjvg fvM Kie, ci 2q (gvSi) KjvgK
Avevi mgvb `yfvM fvM Kie-
<FRAMESET cols = "33%, 33%, 34%">
...contents of first frame...
<FRAMESET rows="50%, 50%">
...contents of second frame, first row...
...contents of second frame, second row...
</FRAMESET>
...contents of third frame...
</FRAMESET>
D`vniY-6
<frameset rows=20%,* > top.html
<frame name=top src=top.html>
index.html

<frameset cols=20%,* >


body.html
<frame name=index src=index.html>
<frame name=body src=body.html>
</frameset >
</frameset >
KvR: top.thml Ges bot.html bvg `ywU Iqe cR Zwi Ki| Ab GKwU Iqe cRK
Dj^fve mgvb `yfvM fvM Ki | top.thml Ges bot.html cR `ywU wjsK Ki|

4.2.7 HTML G wP hvM Kiv


Avgiv Iqe cRK my`i Ges mnReva Kivi Rb Iqe cR wewfb cKvi wP ev Qwe hy Kwi|
HTML G Kvbv wP ev Qwe hy Kivi Rb <img> UvM eenvi Kiv nq| GUv Rvbv AZ Riwi h
wP Iqe cRi Kvbv UKwbKvj Ask bq| GwU GKwU Avjv`v dvBj, hLb Kvbv eenviKvix
cRwU c`kbi Rb Icb Ki ZLb wP ev Qwe H Iqe cRi Afy nq| myZivs GwU mnR eySv
hvq h, GKwU Qwemn Iqe cR gvb njv `ywU dvBj| GKwU Iqe cR Ges AbwU Qwei Rb| hLb
140 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Kvbv evDRvii gvag Iqe cR c`wkZ nq ZLb GwU Qwei dvBjK Abyiva cvVvq Ges wbw`
RvqMvq mU Ki| G KviY Src GKwU iZc~Y GwUweDU hvi A_ njv Source hv evDRviK ej
`q Qwei dvBjwU Kv_vq iqQ|
MVb: <img src=image file name with path>
D`vniY: <img src= z1.jpg>
GLvb, z1.jpg njv dvBji bvg, Qwe / wPi dvBjwU GKB dvvi _vKj ay bvg wjLjB
Pj| Ab_vq dvBji m~Y cv_ wjLZ nq|
Size GwUweDU: Dcii D`vniY Qwei Rb aygv dvBji bvg jLv nqQ, Gi dj Qwe / wPwU
h mvBRi AvQ AweKj mB mvBRiB c`wkZ ne| wK wewfb cqvRb wfb wfb mvBRi Qwe
Iqe cR hvM KiZ nq, ZvB UvMi ga Qwei `N Ges DPZv DjL Ki `qv hvq| hgb
<img src= z1.jpg width=200 height=150>
GLvb, `N 200 wcj Ges DPZv 150 wcj DjL Kiv nqQ| Gi dj Qwei Avmj mvBR
hv-B nvK DjwLZ mvBRB Iqe cR c`wkZ ne|
Aling GwUweDU: G GwUweDUm Gi gvag Qwe / wPi Aevb wbaviY Kiv nq A_vr QwewUi
Aevb Iqe cRi Wvb / evg / Dci/ wbP/ gvSLvb BZvw` Kv_vq Aevb Kie Zv
wb`k Ki|
D`vniY: <img src= z1.jpg width= 200 height = 150 align= left>
GLvb wPi Aevb left DjL Kiv nqQ| right, top, middle, bottom, absmiddle,
absbottom, baseline. Texttop BZvw` AckbI eenvi Kiv hvq|
Border GwUweDU: Avgiv hLb <img src= image file name with path> UvM eenvi Ki
Iqe cR Kvbv Qwe hvM Kwi ZLb Qwe / wPi Kvbv eWvi _vK bv| evBwWd eWvi k~b
wnmve aiv nq| Avgiv BQv Kij Qwe/ wPi eWvi hy KiZ cvwi ZvI Avevi BQv gZv gvUv
ev mi Ki|
D`vniY: <img src= z1.jpg width=200 height=150 border = 1>
GLvb, eWvi = 1 `qv nqQ| AcvKZ gvUv eWvii Rb 2/3/4 /... ... w`Z ne|
evbvi hy Kiv: Kvbv Iqe cR evbvi hy KiZ wbg DjwLZ avcmg~n AbymiY KiZ ne-
avc-1: c_g h QwewU evbvi wnmve eenvi Kiv ne Zv wbw` KiZ ne| awi dvBjwUi bvg
banner.jpg
avc-2: Iqe cRi HTML KvW <body></body> UvM wbgwjwLZ KvW wjLZ ne-
<a href=http://www.dhakaeducationboard.gov.bd/> <img src=banner.jpg
width=200 height=95 border=0 alt= Dhaka Education Board></a>
GLvb banner.jpg wPwU evbvi wnmve _vKe| evbvi wKK Kij XvKv wkv evWi Iqe mvBU
Icb ne|
4.2.8 HTML G Uwej
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 141
Iqe cR Zwi Kivi mgq wewfb WUv Ges Z_ mnR, my`ifve Dcvcb Kivi Rb Uweji
cqvRb nq| Uwej njv KZKjv mvwi (Row) Ges (Column) Gi mg^q MwVZ| GKwU
Uweji mKj Dcv`vbjv <TABLE> </TABLE> UvM Gi ga _vK| Uweji cZK mvwii
iZ <TR> Ges cZK mvwii kl </TR> UvM nq|
Syn: <TABLE>
<TR>
</TR>
</TABLE>

Uwej Kjvg ev WUv/ AeR hvM Kivi Rb <TD> </TD> Rvo UvM eenvi Kiv nq|
D`vniY:
KvW AvDUcyU wbgic `Lv KvWi eLv-
hve-
<table> c_g <table> UvM viv Uweji i eySvbv
<tr> 100 200 300 nqQ|
<td>100</td> <tr> viv iv ev mvwii i eySvbv nqQ|
400 500 600
<td>200</td>
cieZx 3 jvBb <td> </td> viv 3 wU
<td>300</td>
</tr> Kjvg eySvbv nqQ|
<tr> ...... Giga WUv/ AeR jLv nqQ
<td>400</td> ( 100, 200, 300)
<td>500</td> </tr> viv iv ev mvwii kl eySvbv nqQ|
<td>600</td>
</tr>
2q mvwii Rb GKB KvW Avevi wjLv nqQ
</table> (WUv cwieZb Ki)
Uwej eWvi mshy Kiv:
Uwej eWvi mshy KiZ UvMi ga eWvi mvBR DjL KiZ nq| wbPi D`vniY eWvi mvBR
1 jLv nqQ| GLvb BQvgZv eWvi mvBR cwieZb Kiv hvq|
KvW AvDUcyU wbgic `Lv hve-
142 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

<table border="1">
<tr> 100 200 300
<td>100</td>
<td>200</td> 400 500 600
<td>300</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>400</td>
<td>500</td>
<td>600</td>
</tr>
</table>

Uwej wkivbvg mshy Kiv:


Uwej wkivbvg mshy KiZ Uweji c_g mvwiZ WUv mshy Kivi mgq <td>Gi cwieZ
<th> wjLZ nq| GKBfve fvwUKvj wkivbvgi Rb cZK mvwii c_g Kjvg WUv mshy Kivi
mgq <td>Gi cwieZ <th> wjLZ nq|
KvW AvDUcyU
<h4>Table headers:</h4> Table headers:
<table border="1"> Name Telephone Telephone
<tr>
Bill
<th>Name</th> 555 77 854 555 77 855
Gates
<th>Telephone</th>
<th>Telephone</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Bill Gates</td>
<td>555 77 854</td>
<td>555 77 855</td>
</tr>
</table>
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 143

<h4>Vertical headers:</h4> Vertical headers:


<table border="1"> First Name: Bill Gates
<tr>
Telephone: 555 77 854
<th>First Name:</th>
<td>Bill Gates</td> Telephone: 555 77 855
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Telephone:</th>
<td>555 77 854</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Telephone:</th>
<td>555 77 855</td>
</tr>
</table>

Uwej Kvckb `Iqv:


Kvbv Uwej Kvckb mshy KiZ <table > UvMi ci <caption> </caption> UvM eenvi Kiv nq
KvW AvDUcyU wbgic `Lv hve
144 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

<table border="1">
<caption>Monthly
savings</caption>
<tr> Monthly savings
<th>Month</th>
<th>Savings</th> Month Savings
</tr> January Tk.100
<tr> February Tk.50
<td>January</td>
<td>Tk.100</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>February</td>
<td> Tk.50</td>
</tr>
</table>

Uweji GKvwaK iv A_ev Kjvg gvR (GKxf~Z) Kiv:


GKvwaK Kjvg gvR KiZ <th colspan="n">..</th> Ges GKvwaK iv gvR KiZ <th
rowspan = "n">..</th> UvM eenvi Kiv nq| GLvb n hKvb c~Y msLv|
KvW AvDUcyU
<h4>Cell that spans two
columns:</h4> Cell that spans two columns:
<table border="1"> Name Telephone
<tr>
Bill
<th>Name</th> 555 77 854 555 77 855
Gates
<th colspan="2">Telephone</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Bill Gates</td>
<td>555 77 854</td>
<td>555 77 855</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h4>Cell that spans two rows:</h4> Cell that spans two rows:
<table border="1"> First Name: Bill Gates
<tr>
<th>First Name:</th> Telephone: 555 77 854
<td>Bill Gates</td>
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 145
</tr> 555 77 855
<tr>
<th rowspan="2">Telephone:</th>
<td>555 77 854</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>555 77 855</td>
</tr>
</table>
D`vniY: Uweji wfZi Uwej Zwi Ges wj eenvi
KvW AvDUcyU
<table border="1">
<tr> This is a paragraph This cell contains
<td> This is another paragraph a table:
<p>This is a paragraph</p> A B
<p>This is another paragraph
</p> C D
</td> This cell contains a list
<td>This cell contains a table: apples
<table border="1"> bananas HELLO
<tr> pineapples
<td>A</td>
<td>B</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>C</td>
<td>D</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>This cell contains a list
<ul>
<li>apples</li>
<li>bananas</li>
<li>pineapples</li>
</ul>
</td>
<td>HELLO</td>
</tr>
</table>
146 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY: mji gaeZx wfb wfb `~iZ| Ges Kvjvii eenvi


KvW AvDUcyU
<h4>Without cellspacing:</h4>
<table border="1"> Without cellspacing:
<tr> First Row
<td>First</td>
Second Row
<td>Row</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Second</td> With cellspacing="0":
<td>Row</td> First Row
</tr> Second Row
</table>
<h4>With cellspacing="0":</h4>
<table border="1" cellspacing="0"> With cellspacing="10":
<tr>
<td>First</td> First Row
<td>Row</td> Second Row
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Second</td>
<td>Row</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h4>With cellspacing="10":</h4>
<table border="1" cellspacing="10">
<tr>
<td>First</td>
<td>Row</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Second</td>
<td>Row</td>
</tr>
</table>
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 147

<table
style="width:180px;height:100px;background- Table Table
color:lightblue;"> header header
<tr style="background- Table cell Table cell
color:blue;color:white;"> 1 2
<th>Table header</th><th>Table header</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Table cell 1</td><td style="background-
color:lightgreen;">Table cell 2</td>
</tr>
</table>

KvR: ivj bs, bvg, wRwcG wkivbvgwewk wZb Kjvgi GKwU Uwej Zwi Ki 5 (cuvP) wU
iKW Afy Ki|

Uwej WUvi cwieZ Qwe/ BgR mshy Kiv hvq


KvW AvDUcyU
<TABLE BORDER="7"
CELLPADDING="7"
CELLSPACING="10">
<TR BGCOLOR="#00FF00"> Image is a
<TD><IMG SRC="rrose.gif" transparent
ALT="rose"></TD> .gif.
<TD>Image is a transparent .gif.</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>

4.4 Iqe cBR wWRvBb Kiv


my`i, AvKlYxq Ges A_c~Y Iqe cR Zwi KiZ nj Avgv`i wbw` g AbymiY Ki KvR
KiZ nq| wbg avcjv eYbv Kiv njv|
wmv MnY: Iqe cR wWRvBb Kivi Rb mec_g Avgv`i wmv MnY KiZ ne
cwiKbv: GKwU Iqe mvBU Zwi Kivi wmv MnYi ci Iqe mvBUi j / Dk, mve
eenviKvwii msLv, c`wkZe welqe, Iqe mvBUi YMZgvb BZvw` welq gv_vq iL GKwU
cwiKbv cYqb KiZ nq|
148 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wWRvBb:
Avgiv hLb Kvbv Iqe cR wWRvBb Kwi ZLb Avgv`i wKQz iZc~Y welq gb ivLZ ne|
cqvRbxq mKj DcKiY/ KUU msMn KiZ ne| A_vr cR Zwi KiZ UU, wP BZvw`|
c_gB my`i I A_evaK GKwU UvBUj w`Z ne hvZ eenviKvwi mnR eySZ cvi| nvg cR
eo AvKvii eYbv `qv wVK bq, QvU QvU cviv AvKvi `qv DwPr|
w_g (Them):
w_g wnme my`i, A_c~Y, ewk cKvkK Kvbv UU/ BwjgU Iqe mvBUi cZK cR GKB
vb c`wkZ nq| Navbar, Header, Footer BZvw` cZK cR GKB wRwbm c`wkZ nq| Mc
AvBUgjv GKmv_ ivLv DwPr Ges h_v me duvKv vb (White Space) ivLv DwPr hvZ
eenviKvwi mnR eySZ cvi| iZc~Y wjsKUUjv ev Kiv Ges Qwe I UU evKMD
Kvjvi _K Avjv`v nIqv DwPr hvZ mnR eenviKvwii `w AvKlY Kiv hvq|
AvjvBbgU (Alignment):
Iqe cR Zwii mgq gBb BwjgU Gi UU Gi AvjvBbgU (Alignment) GKwU iZc~Y
welq| Ze m~Y cR GKB aibi AvjvBgU eenvi KiZ ne GgbwU bq| Iqe cRi
m`h ewi cqvRb wfb wfb AvjvBbgU eenvi Kiv hZ cvi|
vBwms:
Iqei BUvidR Zwii AvM KvMR- Kjg GKwU Lmov wWRvBb Ki wbj g~j wWRvBb Zwii
mgq DcKvi Avm| BUvidRi evbvi Kv_vq Kx gvci ne, evUb, wP Kv_vq Kx gvci ne
Zv wbw` KiZ ne| cRK GKvwaK iv Ges Kjvg wef Kiv hvq| KqwU Ask wef ne
Kvbv Ask KZUzKz eo ne Ges Kvbv Ask Kx c`wkZ ne Zv c~eB wVK Ki wbZ ne|
evjW Iqe cR:
cvki wP GKwU evjW Iqe cR| c_g j Kwi cRwUK Qq fvM fvM Kiv nqQ|
cZKwU fvM mgvb bq eis Zv`i cqvRb iZ
Abyhvqx Zv`i AvKvi Kiv nqQ| me mgq Qq
fvM fvM KiZ ne GgbwU wVK bq, cqvRb I
iZ Abyhvqx hKvbv msLK fvM Kiv hZ ci|
cRwUZ chv duvKv vb iqQ, hvi dj
UUjv eenviKvwii KvQ Ges AvKlYxq
nqQ| j ivLZ ne, KUUjv hb cR
myweb _vK| UU ev wjsK h_v me Kg nIqv
fvjv| nvg cR _K mKj wjsK hb gBb wP: evjW IqecR
mKkb _vK| eenviKvwi hb mevP `yB wKK Zvi KvwZ Z_ cvq|
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 149
KvW jLv I GwWU Kiv:
Iqe cRi ewki fvM KvRB HTML eenvi Ki Kiv hvq, Ze WvqbvwgK Iqe cR wWRvBb
KiZ PvBj wewfb aibi Iqe cvMvwgs jvsqR eenvi KiZ nq| Gjvi ga AbZg njv
Rvfvw, cvB_b, GGmwc (ASP), RGmwc (JSP) BZvw`| HTML G jLv KvW hKvbv
GwWUi eenvi Ki mskvab ev cwieZb Kiv hvq|
WUveR Afz Kiv:
Iqe cR _K eenviKvixi wewfb cqvRbxq Z_ cvevi Rb WUveR Afz Kiv nq| Avevi
eenviKvixi KvQ _K wewfb Z_ Rvbv Ges msiY Kivi RbI WUveR cqvRb| GRb
eZgvb Iqe wWRvBb KiZ Mj WUveR eenvii K_v gb ivLZ ne|
Iqe cR Uws:
Iqe cR wWRvBbi ci KvwWs Kiv Ges WUveR Afz Kivi ci GwU cixv KiZ ne| GRb hKvbv
Iqe evDRvi eenvi Ki cRwU evi evi c`kb Ki `LZ ne| G UU, Qwe, wjsK BZvw` cixv
KiZ ne|
`jxq KvR: Zvgv`i KjRi wewfb Kvhg, ewk, bvwUk, dUv Mvjvwi BZvw` mshy Ki
Kgc 10 (`k) wU Iqe cR Zwi Ki| Zvgvi wkv evW wjsK Ki GKwU evbvi mshy
Ki| cRMyjv wjsK Ki GKwU Iqe mvBU wWRvBb Ki Zvgvi wkKi wbKU Dcvcb Ki|
4.5 Iqe mvBU cvewjk Kiv:
Avgiv Iqe mvBUi KvVvgv mK Rvbjvg| KZKjv Iqe cR wbw` wbqg ciii mv_
hy (wjsK) nq Iqe mvBU Zwi nq| Avgiv Iqe cR Zwi Kiv, wjsK Kiv wkLjvg| myZivs
Avgiv Iqe mvBU Zwi KiZ cvwi| ay Zwi KijB nebv GwU cvewjk KiZ ne| GLb Avgiv
Rvbe Kxfve Iqe mvBU cvewjk Kiv nq-
Kvbv Iqe mvBU cvewjk Kivi Rb wbgwjwLZ avcjv mb KiZ nq|
1| WgBb bBg iwRkb KiZ ne
c_g Iqe mvBUi GKwU my`i bvg wVK Ki mB bvgi WvgBb iwRkb KiZ ne|
WvgBb iwRkb Ki Ggb AbK Kvvwb iqQ| KvvwbMyjvi wbR^ wKQz wbqgKvbyb Ges
wd wbavwiZ AvQ| h KD wd cwikva Ki cQ` gZv bvg WvgBb bBg iwRw KiZ cvi|
iwRkbi c~e hme welq mK RvbZ ne
h bvg iwRw KiZ BQzK m bvg Ab KD eenvi Ki wKbv? GKB bvg `ywU iwRkb
nq bv|
iwRkbwU wbRi bvg bvwK Kvvwbi bvg ne|
WvgBbi mKj ckvmwbK gZv, wej BZvw` Kvi bvg ne|
Kvi gvag WvgBb iwRkb Kivbv ne|
WvgBbi Primary Ges Secondary DNS wK ne Zv wbaviY KiZ ne|
wewjs cwZ Kx ne Zv wbaviY|
150 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

WvgBb bg Gi `ywU Ask _vK, WU Gi cii AskK Ucjfj WvgBb ejv nq| GwU `L
cwZvbi aib eySv hvq| hgb
Ucjfj WvgBb WvgBbi aib
com evwYwRK cwZvb
mil gvwKb mbvevwnbxi Rb msiwZ
edu wkv cwZvb
net bUIqvK mvwfm
org AMvbvBRkb
Int AvRvwZK msv
gov ivxq cwZvb
AbK WvgBb bg Gi ci `yAiwewk AwZwi KvW hy _vK| GwU viv WvgBb bBg wU
Kvb `ki Zv eySv hvq| hgb: evsjv`ki Rb .bd hy nq|
2| Iqe cBR wWRvBb KiZ ne:
G mKj wbqg gb my`i I AvKlYxq Iqe cR Zwi KiZ ne|
3| Iqe mvfvi cR nvws:
Iqe cR wWRvBb Kivi ci Zv Iqe mvfvi nv KiZ nq| WvgBb bvgwU iwRkb
Kivi ci Zv Iqe nvws KvvwbZ vbvi KiZ nq| Iqe mvfvi ejZ wekl aibi
nvWIqvi I mdUIqviK eySvq hvi mvnvh H mvfvi ivLv Kvbv Dcv/Z_ BUvibUi
gvag Gm Kiv hvq|

Abykxjbx

mRbkxj ck:
1| wkv gYvjq `ki mKj wkv cwZvbK wbR^ Iqe mvBU Zwi Kivi Rb wb`k w`q
cwic Rvwi KiQb| Gi dj Gg Gg KjR Zv`i wbRm Iqe mvBU Zwi Kivi D`vM
MnY KiQb| KjRi Aa gnv`q G KvRi Rb wZb m`mi GKwU KwgwU MVb
KiQb| wZbRb Iqe mvBU Zwii cqvRbxq KvRjv fvM Ki wbq Iqe mvBU Zwii
KvR i Kijb|

K. HTML UvM Kx?


L. HTML Zwii Dk Kx wQj?
M. KjRi Iqe mvBU Zwii Rb Kx Kx avc KvR KiZ ne Zv eYbv Ki|
N. KjRi Iqe mvBU Zwii dj Kx Kx myweav cvIqv hve Zv evLv Ki|
Iqe wWRvBb cwiwPwZ I GBPwUGgGj 151
2| Markup language GK mU Markup UvMi mg^q MwVZ| GKUv Iqe cRi wewfb Ask
evDRvii gvag Kxfve c`wkZ ne Zv HTML G Markup UvMmg~n eenvi Ki cKvk
Kiv nq|
K. HTML GwUweDUm wK?
L. HTML cvMvgi gwjK Askjv wK wK?
M. Zvgvi KjR mK GKwU cvivMvd jL hLvb Kgc 5wU digUW UvM eeZ nq|
N. HTML UvMi myweavjv eYbv Ki|
ewbevPwb ck:
1| Kvbv Iqe mvBUi nvg cR AwaK UU _vKj
i. cR m`h nvivq|
ii. eenviKvix wavM nq|
iii. mvP Bwbi Rb LuvRv RwUj nq|
wbPi KvbvwU mwVK?
K. i L. i I ii M. i I iii N. i , ii I iii
2| nvBcviwjsK UvM UviMU mU bv Kij
i. GKB DBvZ Icb nq|
ii. bZzb DBvZ Icb nq|
iii. nvBcviwjsK UvM KvR Ki bv|
wbPi KvbvwU mwVK ?
K. i L. i I ii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii
3| Uwej mj Zwii Rb Kvbv UvM eeZ nq?
K. <th> L. <td> M. <td> N. <col>
4| Kvbv Iqe cRK GKvwaK fvM fvM Kivi Rb Kvbv UvM eenvi Kiv nq?
K. <frame> L. <frameset> M. <form> N. <framei>
cg Aavq
cvMvwgs fvlv
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

eZgvb gvbyl cwZwbqZ mgmvi myLxb nQ| gvbyli Gme mgmv mgvavbi Rb KwDUvii
mvnvh cvMvg iPbv Ki| cvMvwgs fvlv nQ KwDUvii gvag mgmv mgvavbi Rb Zwi
cvMvgi msKZ ev KvW| cvMvgvi KwDUviK w`q mgmv mgvavb Kivi Rb cvMvgi fvlv,
gwkb fvlv, Avm^wj fvlv, DPii fvlv, Abyev`K cvMvg, cvMvgi msMVb, cvMvg Zwii
avcmg~n, AvjMwi`g, dvPvU I cvMvg wWRvBb gWj BZvw` mK Rvbv cqvRb| wm GKwU
Rbwcq KwDUvi cvMvwgs fvlv| 1970 mvj AvgwiKvi ej jveiUwiZ Wwbm wiwP wm fvlvi
Dveb Kib| wm cvMvwgs fvlv Rvbvi Rb Gi cv_wgK aviYv, ewk, cvMvg KvBwjs,
cvMvgi MVb, WUv UvBc, ivwkgvjv, Kx IqvW, BbcyU-AvDUcyU UgU, Kwkbvj UgU, jyc
UgU, Avi I dvskb mK vb jvf Kiv cqvRb|

G Aavq cvV kl wkv_xiv


cvMvgi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
wewfb ii cvMvwgs fvlv eYbv KiZ cvie|
Abyev`K cvMvg eYbv KiZ cvie|
cvMvgi msMVb c`kb KiZ cvie|
cvMvg Zwii avcmg~n evLv KiZ cvie|
cvMvg AvjMwi`g I dvPvU cZ KiZ cvie|
cvMvg wWRvBb gWj eYbv KiZ cvie|
wm cvMvwgs fvlv eenvi Ki cvMvg cZ KiZ cvie|
152 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

5.1 cvMvgi aviYv (Concept of Program)


cw_exi KvwU KvwU gvbyl AbK iKgi fvlv eenvi Ki _vK| KwDUvi GZ me fvlvi GKwUI
evS bv| KwDUviK Zvi wbR^ evaMg fvlvq wb`k c`vb KiZ nq| Kvbv mgmv mgvavbi
Rb KwDUvii fvlvq avivevwnKfve wjwLZ KZKjv Kgv ev wb`ki mgwK cvMvg ejv
nq| Avi cvMvgi fvlv ejZ Avgiv eywS wKQz wb`kvewj hv KwDUviK wbqY Kie Ges
KwDUvi Kx aibi KvR Kie, Kv_vq WUvmg~n ivLe, djvdj Kx ne cfwZ wbaviY Ki|
KwDUvi GKwU AZvaywbK BjKUwbK h| KwDUvi gvbyli gZv eY, msLv, wP Gme wKQz eySZ
cvi bv| KwDUvii fvlv ay KwDUviB eyS| KwDUvii fvlv vb AZ mxwgZ| cKZc
nuv ev bv Qvov Avi wKQzB evS bv G hwU| BjKUwbK msKZi Dci wfw Ki Zwi Kiv nqQ
KwDUvii fvlv| G fvlvK evBbvwi cwZi 0 Ges 1 viv cKvk Kiv hvq| KwDUvi Kej
BjKUwbK msKZ A_vr mvwKU we`yr AvQ wK bB Zv evS| evBbvwi 1 viv we`yr AvQ (ON) Ges
0 viv we`yr bB (OFF) Gi Dci wfw KiB KwDUvii fvlv Zwi Kiv nqQ|
cvMvgi fvlv (Programming Language)
KwDUviK wb`k c`vb Kivi Rb k, eY, msKZ Ges Gjv webvmi wbqg cqvRb nq|
KwDUviK Av`k-wb`k c`vbi Rb KwDUvi eySZ cvi Ggb wKQz msKZ Ges KwZcq wbqg
Kvbyb eenvi Ki cvMvg Zwi Kiv nq| cvMvg Zwii Rb eeZ Gme wbqg Kvbyb I
msKZjvK GK cvMvgi fvlv ej| KwDUvii wb`k c`vbhvM cvMvgi fvlv mywbw`
Ges wbfyj bv nj KwDUvi Kvbv KvR Ki bv| KwDUvii GKwU wbR^ fvlv AvQ| GwU
BsiwR, evsjv, Aviwe, D`y, wnw` BZvw` Kvbv fvlvB evS bv| ay Zvi wbRi fvlvq cvMvg
wjLjB m eySZ cvi, Ab_vq cvi bv| KwDUvi cvMvg iPbvi AbKjv fvlv AvQ|

5.2 wewfb ii cvMvgi fvlv


KwDUvi cvMvgi Rb AbK iKg Kwg fvlvi De nqQ| 1945 mvj _K i Ki G ch
KqKkZ cvMvwgs jvyqR ev fvlv AvweZ nqQ| Gme fvlvK ewk Abyhvqx cuvPwU i ev
cRb fvM Kiv hvq| h_v
c_g cRb ev dv Rbvikb fvlv (1945): gwkb fvlv (Machine Language)
wZxq cRb ev mK Rbvikb fvlv (1950): Avm^wj fvlv (Assembly Language)
ZZxq cRb ev _vW Rbvikb fvlv (1960): DPZi (High Level Language)
PZz_ cRb ev dv_ Rbvikb fvlv (1970): AwZ DPZi (Very High Level Language)
cg cRb ev wdd&_ Rbvikb fvlv (1980): ^vfvweK ev bvPvivj (Natural) fvlv|
cvMvwgs fvlv 153

cvMvg iPbvi ewki wfwZ cvMvgi fvlvmg~nK cavb `yfvM fvM Kiv nq|
h_v: wbg ii fvlv (Low Level Language) Ges DPii fvlv (High Level Language)|
KwDUvi ev Abyic hjv mivmwi eySZ cvi Gic fvlvK wbgii cg cRb ev bvPvivj
fvlv ejv nq|
PZz_ cRbI fvlv
wbgii fvlv Avevi `ycKvi| h_v: gwkbi ev hi fvlv
(Machine Language) Ges Avm^wj fvlv (Assembly DPii fvlv
Language)| cvk Gme fvlvi Aevb `Lvbv nqQ| gwkb fvlv
Avmgwej fvlv
I Avm^wj fvlvK jv-jfj fvlv ej| KviY Gjv
KwDUvii fvlvi (0 ev 1) KvQvKvwQ| Abw`K nvB jfj ev gwkbi fvlv
DPZi fvlv gvbyli fvlvi KvQvKvwQ, hgbBsiwR| DjL h wP: cvMvgi fvlvi
wbevni Rb cvMvgK gwkbi fvlvq icvi KiZ nq| i|

5.3 c_g cRb ev dv Rbvikb fvlv (1945)


hvwK fvlv ev gwkb fvlv (Machine Language): KwDUvii mivmwi evaMg fvlvK gwkb
fvlv ev wbgii fvlv ej| hvwK fvlvi mnR A_ nQ hi wbR^ fvlv A_ev nvcwZ eenvi Ki
mewKQz jLv nq| myZivs 1 I 0 G `ywU A eenvi Ki wb`k mvwRq cvMvg jLvi cwZK gwkbi
fvlvq cvMvg ej| gwkb fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvgK AeR (Object) cvMvg ej| gwkb fvlv ewZZ
Ab hKvbv fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvgK ej Source (Drm) cvMvg| KwDUvi aygv gwkb fvlvB eySZ
cvi| Ab Kvbv fvlvq cvMvg iPbv Kij KwDUvi Kvh-wbevni AvM Dchy Abyev`Ki mvnvh
ZvK gwkb fvlvq icvi Ki| gwkb fvlvq (0 ev 1) cvMv g wjLv AZ RwUj I kgmva
evcvi| gwkb fvlvq cwZwU wb`ki `ywU Ask _vK| h_v:
1| AcKvW (Opcode)
2| Acvi (Operand)
1| AcKvW (Opcode): AcKvW Gi c~Yic njv Acvikb KvW (Operation Code)| Gi mvnvh
KwDUvi wK aibi KvR Kie Zv eySvbv nq| hgb- ADD I DIV w`q h_vg hvM I fvM
KivK eySvq|
2| Acvi (Operand): Acvi KwDUviK wK Acvikb ne Zv wb`k Ki| mvaviYfve
Acvi AcviU Kiv ne Ggb WUv AvWm w`q _vK|
gwkb fvlvq hme wb`k `Iqv nq Zv`i PvifvM fvM Kiv hvq| hgb
1. MvwYwZK (Arithmetic) A_vr hvM, weqvM, Y, fvM|
2. wbqY (Control) A_vr jvW (Lode), vi (Store) I Rv (Jump)
3. BbcyU-AvDUcyU(Input-Output) A_vr co (Read) I jLv (Write)
4. cZ eenvi (Direct use) A_vr i Kiv (Start) Ges kl Kiv (End)
154 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

gwkb fvlvi myweav


1. G fvlvi mvnvh AwZ msw AvKvi cvMvg jLv hvq|
2. G fvlv wmwcBD mivmwi eySvZ cvi ej Ab fvlvi Zzjbvq Kg mgq jvM|
3. cvMvg wbevn Kg mgq jvM|
4. G fvlvq cvMvg wbevn ewk ggwii cqvRb nq bv|
gwkb fvlvi Amyweav
1. G fvlvq cvMvg Zwi Kiv AZ RwUj Ges kgmva|
2. G fvlvq cvMvg wjLZ nj AbK mgqi cqvRb nq|
3. G fvlvq fyj mbv Kiv I wWevwMs Kiv ek Kmva|
4. G fvlvq GK KwDUvii Rb wjwLZ cvMvg Ab KwDUvi Pvjvbv hvq bv|
5. G fvlvq cvMvg jLvi Rb KwDUvii AfixY msMVbi aviYv _vKv GKv cqvRb|
5.4 wZxq cRb ev mK Rbvikb fvlv (1950)
Avm^wj fvlv (Assembly Language)
wewfb aibi msKZ ev bgvwbK KvW eenvi Ki h cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq, ZvK Avm^wj fvlv
ej| Avm^wj fvlvi cPjb i nq 1950 mvj _K| wZxq cRbi KwDUvi G fvlvi evcK
cPjb i nq| G Avm^wj fvlvK gwkbi fvlvq icvwiZ Kivi Rb GK aibi UvjUi
eenvi Kiv nq hvi bvg Avm^jvi| G fvlv wewfb msKZi mg^q jLv nq _vK| GRb G
fvlvK mvsKwZK fvlvI ejv nq| KviY Avm^wj fvlvi wb`k I WUvi AvWm evBbvwi ev
nv msLvi mvnvh bv w`q msKZi mvnvh `qv nq| G msKZK ej mvsKwZK KvW
(Symbolic Code) ev bgvwbK (Nemonic)| A_vr h msKZi mvnvh Kvbv eo msLv ev
K_vK gb ivLvi myweav nq| hgb-AvwKDgyjUi ivLv, bgvwbK (LDA)| gwkbi fvlvi gZv
evBbvwi msLv mivmwi eenvi bv Ki eis KZKjv weUi mgwK KqKwU BsiwR eYi mvnvh
wekl KvW cKvk Ki KwDUviK evSvbv nq| G KvWjvK Avm^wj KvW ev Avm^wj
fvlv ejv nq| hgb- hvM Kivi Rb KwDUviK wb`k `qvi Rb ADD Ges weqvM Kivi
Rb SUB BZvw` eenvi Kiv nq|
Avm^wj fvlvi cwZwU wb`k PviwU Ask _vK
1. jej (Lebel)
2. AcKvW (Opcode) jej AcKvW Acvi KgU
3. Acvi (Operand)
4. ge (Comment)
jej (Lebel)
jej G wd w`q mvsKwZK AvWmK eySvbv nq| hgbRvi mgq cieZx wb`ki wVKvbv
jej `Iqv nq, Ze jej me mgq bvI _vKZ cvi| jeji GK nZ `ywU
AvjdvwbDgwiK eY _vK, G eYi ga Kvbv duvK _vK bv| wb`k bgvwbK (hgb LDA) I
iwRvii bvg jej wnme eenvi Kiv hvq bv| jeji iZ AekB Ai _vKZ nq|
cvMvwgs fvlv 155

AcKvW (Opcode)
GZ wb`k bgvwbK _vK| AvcKvW ev Acvikb KvW w`q eySvbv nq wK Acvikb ev KvR KiZ
ne| hgb- Sum Ges Sub AvcKvW w`q h_vg hvM Ges weqvMi KvR eySvbv nq|

wb`k
DPviY I c~Yic evLv
bgvwbK

Load Accumulator cavb ggwii Kvbv wbw` Aevbi msLv AvwKDgyjUi


LDA
jvW AvwKDgyjUi ivLvi wb`k `Iqv nq|

ADD AvW ADD w`q `y w U Acvi-Gi ga hvM Kivi wb` k


ADD
ey S vbv nq|

CLR CLEAR wKqvi AvwKDgyjUi Lvwj Kivi Kgv|

STA Store Accumulator Gi A_ njv AvwKDgyjUi WUv msiY KiZ ne|

SUB SUBtract weqvM SUB w`q `ywU Acvi-Gi ga weqvM Kivi wb`k eySvbv nq|

MUL MULtiply Y MUL w`q `ywU Acvi Gi ga Y Kivi wb`k eySvbv nq|

DIV DIVide fvM DIV w`q `ywU Acvi Gi ga fvM Kivi wb`k eySvbv nq|

OR OR Ai OR w`q `ywU Acvi Gi ga jwRKvj Ai Acvikb eySvq|

JMU JUMP Rv wbtkZ fve cvMvgi wbw` vb hvIqvi wb`k|

INP INPUT BbcyU WUv ev wb`k MnY Ki ggwii wbw` vb ivLv|

OUT OUTPUT AvDUcyU ggwii Kvbv wbw` welqK AvDUcyU cvVvbvi wb`k|

STP STOP _vg cvMvgK _vgvbvi wb`k|

Acvi (Operand):
AcKvW hvi Dci KvR Ki ZvK Acvi ej| Acvii Aevbi wVKvbv eySvbvi Rb GLvb
mvaviYZ AvjdvwbDgwiK eY eenvi Kiv nq| hgb: A, B, A1, B1, AM, XY BZvw`|
156 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

ge (Comment):
KgU ev ge wb`ki Kvbv Ask bq| ge Avmj cZK wb`ki evLv hvZ fwelZ cvMvgvi
ev Ab KD cvMvgi mwVK A_ mnR eySZ cvi| cvMvgi wbRi myweavi Rb eeZ nq|
Acvi wdi ci Kvjb (t) ev mwgKvjb (;) w`q ge jLv hvq|
D`vniY: A I B hvM Ki C Aevb ivL| GLvb A ev B Gi Aevbi AvWmKI h_vg A
ev B ejv nq| wbP A I B hvM Ki C Aevb ivLvi Rb Avm^wj fvlvi cvMvg `Iqv njv|
CLR AvwKDgyjUi Lvwj Ki|
INP: A A msLvwUK BbcyU _K cavb ggwi A Aevb ivL|
INP: B B msLvwUK BbcyU _K cavb ggwi B Aevb ivL|
LDA: A AvwKDgyjUi A ivL|
ADD: B B K AvwKDgyjUii msLvi mv_ hvM Ki hvMdj AvwKDgyjUi ivL|
STA : C AvwKDgyjUii msLv C Aevb ivL|
OUT : C djvdj C PjKi gvag c`kb Ki|
STP _vg|
Avm^wj fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvg KwDUvi mivmwi eySZ cvi bv| GRb G RvZxq cvMvgK gwkb
fvlvq icvi KiZ nq| G icvii KvR wekl cvMvg eenvi Kiv nq| h cvMvgi mvnvh
Avm^wj fvlvi cvMvgK gwkb fvlvq icvi Kiv nq ZvK Avm^jvi ej| wbgi wP
Avm^wj fvlvq cvMvg wbevn cwqv `Lvbv njv
Avm^wj fvlvq cvMvg fvlv Avm^jvi AeR cvMvg

Avm^wj fvlvi myweav


1. Avm^wj fvlvq cvMvg iPbv Kiv hvwK fvlvi Zzjbvq AbK mnR|
2. cvMvg iPbv KiZ Kg mgq jvM|
3. cvMvg cwieZb Kiv mnR|
4. gwkbi fvlvi Zzjbvq wWevwMs mnRZi|
Avm^wj fvlvi Amyweav
1. cvMvg iPbvi mgq cvMvgviK gwkb mK aviYv _vKZ nq|
2. GK aibi gwkbi Rb wjwLZ cvMvg Ab aibi gwkb eenvi Kiv hvq bv|
3. GwU h wbfi fvlv|
4. Abyev`K cvMvgi cqvRb nq|
cvMvwgs fvlv 157

5.5 gag ii fvlv (Mid-Level Language)


KwDUvii nvWIqvi wbqY I wmg cvMvg iPbvi Rb weU chvqi cvMvwgs fvlv nQ gag ii
fvlv| G fvlvq DPZi fvlvi myweav cvIqv hvq Avevi wbg ii fvlvqI cvMvg iPbv Kiv hvq| wm (C) G
ii fvlv|

5.6 ZZxq cRb ev _vW Rbvikb fvlv (1960)


DPii ev nvB jfj (High Level) fvlv
cvMvg iPbvi Rb mnR evaMg mveRbxb fvlvK DPii fvlv ejv nq| DPii fvlvq
Avgv`i cwiwPZ evK, eY I msLv eenvi Ki cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq| DPii fvlv AbKUv
BsiwR fvlvi gZv| G fvlvq Lye `Z Ges mnR cvMvg jLv hvq| DPii fvlvi mePq eo
myweav njv wjwLZ cvMvg hKvbv KwDUvii eenvi Kiv hvq| A_vr G fvlv h ev gwkb wbfi
bq| gwkb I Avm^wj fvlvi cavb Amyweav njv h, GK aibi KwDUvii Rb iwPZ cvMvg
Ab aibi KwDUvi eenvi Kiv hvq bv| ZvQvov jv-jfj fvlvq (gwkb I Avm^wj fvlv)
cvMvg wjLv KKi I kgmva KvR| KwDUvii c jv-jfj fvlv evSv me njI gvbyli
c jv-jfj fvlv evSv mnRmva bq| G Amyweav _K AevnwZi cPvi dj DPZi fvlvi
De nq| G ii fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvg wewfb aibi gwkb eenvi Kiv me| A_vr G cvMvg
KwDUvi msMVbi wbqYi D, dj Gme fvlvK DPZi fvlv ejv nq| DPii fvlv gvbyli
fvlvi (hgb-BsiwR fvlv) mv_ wgj iL Zwi Kiv nqQ| DPii fvlvi ga cavb njv
C,C++, VISUAL BASIC, JAVA, ORACLE, ALGOL, FORTRAN BZvw`|
cqvMi wfwZ DPii fvlvK mvaviYZ wbgwjwLZ `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq:
1. mvaviY KvRi fvlv (General Purpose Language)
2. wekl KvRi fvlv (Special Purpose Language)
hme fvlv me aibi KvRi DchvMx Ki Zwi Kiv nq Zv mvaviY KvRi fvlv bvg cwiwPZ|
hgb- BASIC, PASCAL, C BZvw`| Avi hme fvlv wekl wekl KvRi DchvMx Ki Zwi
Kiv nq Zv wekl KvRi fvlv bvg cwiwPZ| hgb- COBOL, ALGOL, FORTRAN BZvw`|
DPii fvlvi myweav
1. DPii fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvg hKvbv KwDUvi eenvi Kiv hvq|
2. jv jfj fvlvi Pq nvB jfj fvlv kLv ewk mnR|
3. cvMvg iPbv mnR I hywwbfi|
4. nvB jfj fvlvq ^vfvweK fvlvi AbK k eenvi Kiv hvq|
5. cvMvg jLvi mgq KwDUvii AfixY MVb mK aviYvi cqvRb bB|
6. G fvlvq jLv cvMvg mnR cwieZb ev fyj mskvab Kiv hvq|
158 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

DPii fvlvi Amyweav


1. DPii fvlvi cvMvg mivmwi KwDUvi eySZ cvi bv|
2. G fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvg KwDUvi PvjvZ nj Abyev`K cvMvgi cqvRb nq|
3. cvMvg ivb KiZ AwaK ggwii cqvRb nq|
4. cvMvg ivb KiZ ewk mgq cqvRb nq|
DPii fvlvi eenvi
1. enr WUv cmwms Gi KvR eeZ cvMvg Zwi KiZ|
2. hme cPzi ggwii cqvRb mme i mdUIqvi Zwii KvR|
3. RwUj MvwYwZK wnmve- wbKvm mdUIqvi Zwii KvR|
4. GvwcKkb cvKR mdUIqvi Zwii KvR|
5. wewfb aibi AUvgwUK cmm KUvji KvR|

DPii fvlvi cwiwPwZ


Description of High Level Language
wm (C):
wm bvgUv GmQ gvwUb wiPvWm (Martin Richards) Gi DvweZ wewmwcGj (BCPL-Basic
Combined Programming Language) fvlv _K hv cv_wgKfve KvgweR BDwbfvwmwU wimvm
AwiqUW KvR eeZ nq|
AvgwiKvi ej jveiUwii Wwbm wiwP 1970 mvj G fvlvi Dveb Kib| fvlvwUi bvg C ivLv
nqQ KviY, B bvgi Aci GKwU fvlv AvMB Zwi nqQ| wgW jfj ev gvag i fvlv wnmve
wm AZ Rbwcq| wm w`q DPii fvlvq myweav cvIqv hvq| wm w`q mnR DPii Ges
wbgii fvlvi ga mg^q mvab Kiv hvq| wm K vKPvW ev cvwmwWDi AwiqUW fvlv ejv
nq| KviY wmZ g~j mgmvK KZKjv QvU QvU Ask wef Ki cwZwU Aski Rb
Avjv`vfve fwiqej, vKPvi, dvskb BZvw` eYbv Kiv hvq Ges cqvRb if, while, for, goto
BZvw` KUvj UgUi gvag wewfb Aski ga mg^q mvab Kiv hvq, wKsev Kvbv dvskb ev
vKPvi cybteenvi Kiv hvq| C fvlvK KwDUvi fvlvi RbK ejv nq _vK| G fvlviI AbK
msiY iqQ| hgb-C, C++, ANSI C, Visual C, Turbo C cfwZ| eZgvb Kvji AwaKvsk
cvKR cvMvgB G fvlvi gvag Zwi Kiv nQ| hKvbv md&UIqvi Dbqbi G fvlv
eenvi Kiv hZ cvi|
cvMvwgs fvlv 159

GK ev GKvwaK dvskb wbq wm cvMvg MwVZ| Ze wm cvMvg main () bvgi GKwU BDRvi
wWdvB dvskb AekB _vKZ nq| main () dvskb Abvb jvBewi Ges BDRvi wWdvB dvskb
Kj Ki| KvBj Ges wbevni mgq wm cvMvg main () dvskb _K i Ki|

wm++ (C++)
wm ++ GKwU ej eeZ AeR AwiqUW cvMvg fvlv| 1980 mvj hyivi GwU G wU ej
jveiUwiZ Rb vDmUc (Bjarne Stroustrop) wmgyjv 67 Gi Kvm Ges wm cvMvwgs cwZi
mg^q AeR AwiqUW cvMvwgs Gi ewk mb GKwU bZzb fvlv Dveb Kib| wZwb G
fvlvq bvg `b wm DB_ Kvm| cieZxZ bZzb wKQz ewk hvM Ki 1983 mvj Gi bvgKiY Kiv
nq wm++| wm++ hgb wm Gi cvwmwWDi cvMvwgs Gi myweav c`vb Ki Zgwb AeR AwiqUW
cvMvwgs cwZ Abygv`b Ki| GRb wm++ K nvBweW cvMvg fvlv ej|
wm++ Gi bvgi mv_ wm Gi BbwgUvj AcviUi (++) hy, ZvB mvaviYfve wm++ K wm Gi
ewaZ msiY ejv nq| Avevi wm++ K wm Gi mycvimU ejv nq| KviY wm Gi cvq me ewk
wm++ G we`gvb|
wm cvMvgi gZv cwZwU wm++ cvMvg GK ev GKvwaK dvskbi mgwi Ges cwZwU wm++
cvMvg main () bvg GKwU BDRvi wWdvB dvskb AekB _vK| hKvbv wm++ cvMvg
wbevni mgq Zv main () _KB i nq| main () dvskb Abvb jvBew i Ges BDRvi
wWdvB dvskb eenvi Ki|
wfRyqvj ewmK
wekweLvZ gvBvmd&U Kvvwb KZK cYxZ GUI (Graphical User Interface) cwieki Rb
Zwi ewmK jvsqRi AvaywbK msiY njv wfRyqvj ewmK| mnR jvsqR, AmvaviY wWevwMs
myweav Ges GKwUf G jvBewi eenvii Abvb myhvM wfRyqvj ewmKK Lye A mgqi ga
wecyj LvwZ Gb w`qQ| DBvR cvMvwgs jvsqR wnmve GwU eZgvb RbwcqZvi kxl Aevb
KiQ| c_g _K KqKwU fvmb AwZg Ki wfRyqvj ewmK 4, 5 Gici GmQ wfRyqvj ewmK
6| wfRyqvj ewmK 5 Gi wZbwU GwWkb iqQ:
i. Learning Edition ii. Professional Edition iii. Enterprise Edition.
wfRyqvj ewmK wkLvi Rb h welqjv Rvbv cqvRb| hgb- cR (Project), dg (Form) gwWDj
(Module), AeR (Object), cvcvwUR (Properties) gW_ (Method) I BfU (Event)|
Rvfv (Java)
1995 mvj hyivi mvb gvBvwmg KvvwbZ (Sun Microsystem) GK`j wekli
mwwjZ cPvq cPwjZ cvMvg fvlvjv wWwq bZzb PgK wbq Avm Rvfv cvMvg fvlv| eZgvb
BUvibU I B-gBji hyM bUIqvK cvMvg fvlv wnme Rvfv fvlvi weK bB|
160 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

iwWI, Uwjwfkb, wfwmAvi cfwZ BjKUwbK hvsk eenvii Dk hyivi mvb


gvBvwmg 1990 mvj GKwU cvMvg fvlv Dvebi cwiKbv bq| m j wMb cR
(Green Project) bvg GKwU wekl cKi AvIZvq Rgm Mmwjs (James Gosling) Gi bZZ
GK`j wekli cwUK wbDUb (Petric Naughton), wm Iqv` (Chris Warth), GWIqvW dv
(Ed. Frank) I gvBK kwiWvb (Mike Sheridan) cgyL `xN 18 gvmi mwwZj MelYvi dj
1991 mvji kl w`K IK (Oak) bvg GKwU bZzb cvMvg fvlv DvweZ nq| wMb cRi cavb
Rgm Mmwjs Gi Rvbvjvi avi GKwU IK MvQ wQj ejB nqZv Gi Gic bvgKiY Kiv nq|
Ze mB mgq IK bvg AviI GKwU cvMvg fvlv Pvjy _vKvq cieZxZ 1994 mvj w`K Gi bvg
cwieZb Ki Rvfv ivLv nq| cieZxZ Rvfv Dbqb AbKB AbK Ae`vb ivLb| Ze wMb
cRi cavb Rgm MmwjsK Rvfvi RbK ejv nq|
Rvfv fvlvq wm Ges wm ++ Gi weN mwKvix ewkvewj ev` w`q bZzb AbK ewki mg^q NUvb
nq, dj Rvfv mwZKvi A_ GKwU mnR-mvejxj, wek I mymnbxq cvMvg fvlvq cwiYZ nq|
Rvfv fvlvi cavb ewk njv cvUdg AwbfikxjZv|
IivKj (Oracle)
IivKj Kcvikb eZgvb GKwU meenr WUveBR Kvvwb| Avi IivKj Kvvwbi WUveBR
cvMvg IivKj GKwU mevwaK kwkvjx WUveBR cvMvg wnme cw_exi me eeZ nQ|
IivKj G Kvvwbi GKwU cvWv hLvb wijkbvj WUveBR gvbRgU wmg mvcvU Ki|
IivKj Kcvikb c_g Kvvwb hviv evwYwRKfve GKwU wiqj wijkbvj WUveBR cvMvg
evRvi QoQ| IivKj wmg WUveBR Kvibji m Kvb KiZ bb-cwmwWDivj
GmwKDGj ev vKPviW Kvqwi jvsqR eenvi KiQ| IivKj eZgvb wek bUIqvK emW
WUveBR cvMvg wnme MnYhvMZv ARb KiZ mg nqQ| dj WUveBR cvMvg wnme
IivKj iZc~Y f~wgKv ivLQ| IivKji cvkmwbK eev AZ gReyZ| ZvQvov Gi wmwKDwiwU
wmg LyeB kwkvjx| eZgvb IivKj WUveBR WfjcviMYi wbKU GKwU Av`k WUveBR
cvMvg wnme weewPZ|
IivKj GKwU RDBMS ev wijkbvj WUveBR cvMvg| wek wijkbvj WUveBR GLb vvW
nq `uvwoqQ| RDBMS WUveBR cvMvgi GKwU iZc~Y avc| W. B.Gd.KW RDBMS 12wU
Rule Zwi KiQb Zvi my`xN MelYvi djkwZ wnme| GLb ch IivKj WUveBR cvMvg
RDBMS Gi mevwaK ijm& cqvM Kiv hvq| RDBMS Gi g~j welqey nQ WUveBRi mKj
WUvmgw GK Acii mwnZ cii mKhy|
AvjMj (ALGOL)
ALGOL ki A_ nQ ALGOrithmic Language| 1958 mvj mveRbxb fvlv wnme me KwDUvi
eenvi hvMfve evwbK I cKkwjK mgmv mgvavbi Rb G fvlvi De nq| BDivci evBi Gi
RbwcqZv jvf Kiwb| Ze cieZxKvj DvweZ fvlvmg~n G fvlvi iZc~Y cfve j Kiv hvq|
cvMvwgs fvlv 161

diUvb (Fortran)
FORTRAN ki A_ nQ Formula Translation. 1957 mvj wevb I cKkj mg~n dg~jvi
MvwYwZK weklYi gvag mgmv mgvavbi Rb AvBweGg Kvvwb KZK G DPii fvlvi Dveb nq|
cieZxZ 1977 mvj ch G fvlvi ek KqwU msiY ei Kiv nq| hgb- FORTRAN II, FORTRAN
IV, FORTRAN 77 BZvw`|
cvB_b (Python) : cvB_b GKwU mvaviY Dk evLv, BUviwf, AeR IwiqUW Ges
DPii cvMvwgs fvlv| cvB_b GKwU cvMvwgs fvlv hv mgmv mgvavbi Rb GKRb cvMvgvii
eeZ Uzj| cvB_b mnR Ges ^vZ kwkvjx fvlv| cvB_bK cvqB TCL, cvj, iwe, cK ev
Rvfvi m Zzjbv Kiv nq|
cavb ewkjv nj: (i) Lye cwivi, cvVhvM wmbUv| (ii) kwkvjx A`kb gZv|
(ii) ^vZ eyi wwZwebvm|
cvB_b hmg cavb AcviwUs wmg cvIqv hvq mjv njv DBvR, wjbv/BDwb,
AcviwUs wmg/2| GQvovI bU I Rvfv fvPzqvj gwkbI cvB_b AvQ|
5.7 PZz_ cRbi fvlv (4th Generation Language)
PZz_ cRbi fvlvK (Fourth Generation Language) msc 4GL ejv nq| mfZvi
gweKvki mv_ mv_ wewfb cRbi fvlvi De nqQ| eZgvb ej eeZ KqKwU PZz_
cRbi fvlv nQ SQL, NOMAD, RPG III, FOCUS, Intelect BZvw` KqKwU PZz_ cRbi
fvlv| PZz_ cRbi fvlv gvbyli fvlvi gZv| Gaibi fvlv DPii fvlvi PqI evaMg
Ges mnR eenvihvM| mvaviY eenviKvixi KvQ KwDUvii eenvi mevP chvq mnR
Kivi Dk Gaibi fvlv Zwi Kiv nqQ|
KwDUvi eeZ wekl KqKwU fvlvK 4GL ejv nq| hgb
bvPvivj jvsqR AwZ DPii fvlv
AvKUivj fvlv eenvi ev cqvMwfwK fvlv
4GL Gi ewk
1. G fvlvq wjwLZ Kvbv cvMvg wewfb Kvvwbi Zwi KwDUvi GKB mv_ Kvbvic
cwieZb QvovB eenvi Kiv hvq|
2. G fvlvq cyLvbycyL ev wevwiZ cwqvKiYi eYbv w`Z nq bv|
3. G fvlvq cvMvg jLvi ci cyivUv KvBj Kivi cqvRb nq bv| GKwU Kgv jLvi mv_
mv_B KvBj nq hvq|
4. G fvlv eenvi Ki WUvemi cqvRb Abyhvqx WUv msiY, Kzqwi, wicvU BZvw` KvR Kiv hvq|
5. K_vcK_b ixwZZ ck Dii gvag eenviKvix WUvemi mv_ mshvM vcb Ges
WUv Av`vb-c`vb KiZ cvi|
5.8 Abyev`K cvMvg (Translator Software)
KwDUvii Avw` fvlv njv 0 I 1| KwDUvi evBbvwi msKZ 0 I 1 Qvov Ab wKQz eyS bv| Avgiv
hKvbv cvMvwgs fvlvZB cvMvg iPbv Kwi bv Kb; gwkbi gvag wbevn KiZ nj AekB ZvK
gwkbi fvlvq icvi KiZ ne| DPii Ges Avm^wj fvlvq iwPZ cvMvgK Drm cvMvg ej|
DPii fvlv ewZZ Ab hKvbv fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvgK ej AeR (Object) cvMvg ej| Abyev`K
mdUIqvi njv GK aibi KwDUvi cvMvg hv GK cvMvwgs fvlvq wjwLZ mvm cvMvgK (Source
Program) Ab cvMvwgs fvlvi AeR cvMvg (Object Program) icvi Ki| Abfve ejv hvq, h
162 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

cvMvg Drm cvMvg K gwkbi fvlv ev hi fvlvq Abyev` Ki (e cvMvg icvi Ki) m
cvMvgK Abyev`K cvMvg ej| hgb- wKDewmK GKwU cvMvg jLv njv wK KwDUvi G cvMvgwU
eySe bv, G cvMvgwUK Abyev` Ki gwkbi fvlvq (evBbvwiZ) eywSq w`Z nq| G Abyev`i KvR
Abyev`K cvMvg eeZ nq| KwDUvi GKgv gwkb fvlv eySZ cvi ej Ab fvlvq jLv Drm
cvMvgK gwkb fvlvq Abyev` bv Ki wbj Zv KvhKi KiZ cvi bv|
Abyev`K cvMvg wZb cKvi
1. KvBjvi (Compiler)
2. BUviwcUvi (Interpreter)
3. Avm^jvi (Assembler)
5.8.1 KvBjvi (Compiler)
DPii fvlvq jLv Drm cvMvgK e cvMvg icvwiZ Kivi cvMvgK KvBjvi ej| KvBjvi m~Y
cvMvgwUK GKmv_ co Ges GKmv_ Abyev` Ki| KvBjvi mnvqK ggwiZ _vK| cqvRbi mgq
Zv`i ivg Avbv nq| wfb wfb nvB jfj fvlvi Rb wfb wfb KvBjvi jvM| Kvbv wbw` KvBjvi
GKwU gv nvB jfj fvlvK gwkb fvlvq cwiYZ KiZ cvi| hgb- h KvBjvi ewmKK gwkb fvlvq
Abyev` KiZ cvi Zv wK KvejK gwkb fvlvq Abyev` KiZ cvi bv| KvBjvi cyiv Drm cvMvgi
Dci GKmv_ KvR Ki| G KviY KvBjvi Pvjbvi Rb ewk cwigvY ggwii cqvRb co|
mvaviYZ DPii fvlvi GKwU UgU hfvlvi Pvi cuvPwU wb`k cwiYZ nq| KvBjvi Abyev`
Kiv QvovI Drm cvMvgi YvY wePvi KiZ cvi|
High level Language Program Compiler Machine Language Program
Drm cvMvg (DPii fvlv) Abyev`K cvMvg e fvlv (hvwK fvlv)
wP: KvBjvii KvRi aviv|
KvR 1. Drm cvMvgK e cvMvg Abyev` Kiv|
2. cvMvgK wjsK Kiv|
3. cvMvg Kvbv fyj _vKj Zv Rvbvbv|
4. cavb ggwiZ cqvRbxq wZ Aevbi eev Kiv|
5. cqvRb e ev Drm cvMvgK Qvwcq ei Kiv|
KvBjvii myweav
1. KvBjvi m~Y cvMvgwUK GKmv_ Abyev` Ki dj cvMvg wbevni MwZ ` Z nq|
2. cvMvg wbevn Kg mgq jvM|
3. KvBjvii gvag icvwiZ cvMvg m~Yic gwkb cvMvg icvwiZ nq|
4. GKevi cvMvg KvBj Kiv nj ciewZZ Avi KvBji cqvRb nq bv|
5. cvMvg Kvbv fyj _vKj Zv gwbUi GKmv_ c`kb Ki|
KvBjvii Amyweav
1. KvBjvi cvMvgi mejv fyj GKmv_ c`kb Ki dj cvMvg mskvab ewk mgq jvM|
2. KvBjvi eo aibi cvMvg nIqvq GwU msiY ggwiZ ewk RvqMv jvM|
3. cvMvg wWevwMs I Uws Gi KvR axiMwZ mb|
cvMvwgs fvlv 163

5.8.2 BUvicUvi (Interpreter)


DPii fvlvq jLv Kvbv cvMvgK mivmwi wbevni Rb eeZ nq BUvicUvi| BUvicUvii
KvR njv nvB jej fvlvK gwkb fvlvq icvi Kiv| BUvicUvi Drm cvMvgi cwZwU jvBb
co Ges gwkb fvlvq Abyev` Ki| GKwU jvBb wbevn kl nj BUvicUvi Drm cvMvgi cieZx
jvBb hvq| GwU eenvi cvMvgi fyj mskvab Kiv ev cvMvg cwieZb Kiv mnR nq|
BUvicUvi cvMvg AvKvi QvU ej Gi eenvi ggwi Aevb RvqMv euvP| ZvQvov QvU
KwDUvi mvaviYZ BUviwcUvi eeZ nq|
wbPi wP BUvicUvii KvR `Lvbv njv
Source Program Interpreter Result
KvR 1. nvB jfj fvlvK gwkbi fvlvq icvi Kiv|
2. GwU GK jvBb co I Abyev` Ki|
3. GwU cwZwU jvBbi fyj c`kb Ki Abyev` KvR e Ki `q|
4. wWevwMs I Uws Gi `Z KvR Ki|
BUvicUvii myweav
1. GwU eenvi cvMvgi fyj mskvab Kiv Ges cwieZb Kiv mnR nq|
2. Interpreter Program AvKvi QvU nq Ges ggwi vb Kg RvqMv `Lj Ki|
3. GwU mvaviYZ QvU KwDUvi eenvi Kiv nq|
4. BUvicUvi Lye ezfvevcb (User Friendly)|
BUvicUvii Amyweav
1. BUvicUvi eenvi cvMvg KvhKix KiZ KvBjvii Zzjbvq ewk mgq jvM|
2. Gi gvag icvwiZ cvMvg m~Yic gwkb cvMvg icvwiZ nq bv|
3. cwZwU KvRi c~e Abyev` Kivi cqvRb nq|
5.8.3 Avm^jvi (Assembler)
Avm^wj fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvgK gwkb fvlvq icvi Kivi Rb h Abyev`K cvMvg eenvi Kiv
nq ZvK Avm^jvi ej| wbPi wP Avm^jvii KvR `Lvbv njv:
LDA A 1010110
STA A Assembler 1011101
JMP 1100100

Drm cvMvg (Avm^wj fvlv) Abyev`K cvMvg e fvlv (hvwK fvlv)


wP: Avm^jvii KvRi aviv|
KvR: 1. bgvwbK KvWK gwkb fvlvq Abyev` Ki|
2. Avm^wj AvWmK gwkb fvlvq jLv AvWm cwiYZ Ki|
3. cZK wb`k wVK AvQ wKbv cixv Kiv, wVK bv _vKj wVK Kiv|
4. me wb`k I WUv cavb ggwiZ ivL|
KvR: KvBjvi I BUviwcUvi Gi ga cv_K wjL|
164 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

5.9 cvMvgi msMVb (Program Structure)


cvMvgi msMVb ejZ cvMvgi MVb kjxK evSvq| cZK cvMvgiB cavbZ wZbwU Ask _vK|
h_v: BbcyU, cmwms Ges AvDUcyU| cvMvgi MVbK wbgv QK AvKvi Dcvcb Kiv hvq:
Input Processing Output

BbcyU: djvdj jvfi Dk hme WUv I Bbdigkb ev Z_ KwDUvi `qv nq mjvB njv BbcyU|
cmwms: cmwms njv cvMvg `qv wb`k Abymvi c`q Z_K cwqvKiY Kiv|
AvDUcyU: AvDUcyU ejZ cwqvKiYi dj cv djvdjK evSvq|
wbg D`vniYi mvnvh GKwU cvMvgi wZbwU Ask `Lvbv njv:
A = 50
Input
B = 60

C = A+B Processing

PRINT Total = ; C Output

5.10 KwDUvii mvnvh mgmv mgvavbi Rb cvMvg iPbvi avcmg~n


cvMvg Zwii avcmg~n (Steps of a program): KwDUvii mvnvh Kvbv mgmv mgvavbi Rb
c_g GKwU cwiKbv Kiv nq Ges cwiKbvwUK avc avc evevqb Kiv nq| Avgiv KwDUvi
cvMvg wbevn Ki mgmvi mgvavb Kwi| cvMvg Zwii avcmg~n cvk wPi mvnvh `Lvb njv
1. mgmv mbvKiY/wbw`KiY (Problem identification)
Kvbv mgmv mgvavb Kivi Rb c_g mgmvwUK fvjvfve eySZ ne| Kx mgmvi Rb Avgiv
mgvavb Zwi KiwQ m mwKZ aviYv Avgv`i fvjv mgvavb Zwi KiZ mvnvh Ki|
2. mgmv weklY (Problem Analysis):
mgmv wbw`KiY
mgmv wbw`KiYi ci ZvK QvU QvU Ask fvM KiZ ne, wewfb
Aski ga mK wPwZ KiZ ne Ges Kx BbcyUi Rb Avgiv Kx mgmv weklY
AvDUcyU Avkv Kwi, Zv wbw` KiZ ne| cvMvg wWRvBb
GRb Avgv`i wbgwjwLZ welqjv weePbv KiZ ne: cvMvg WfjcgU
1. mgmvwUi KvVvgvMZ eYbv cZKiY| cvMvg Uws Ievevqb
2. MvwYwZK gWj cZKiY| cvMvg WKzgUkb
3. BbcyU mbvKiY|
cvMvg ibveY
4. AvDUcyU mbvKiY| wP: cvMvg Zwii avcmg~n
5. cqvRbxq ggwi wbaviY|
cvMvwgs fvlv 165

3. cvMvg wWRvBb (Program design)


mgmvi mve mgvavbi iciLv wbaviY KiZ ne| mgmvwU Av` mgvavbhvM wKbv Zv `LZ
ne| mgmvwUK mwVKfve QvU QvU Ask weklY Kivi ci Zvi wewfb Aski mgvavb KiZ
ne, mvgwMK mgvavbI wPv KiZ ne, mve mgvavbjvi gvb wePvi KiZ ne mvaviYfve
eenvKvix Kx aibi mgvavb cZvkv Ki, ZvI weePbv KiZ ne|
cvMvg wWRvBbi DjLhvM Ask njv
1. BbcyU wWRvBb (Input design)
2. AvDUcyU wWRvBb (Output design)
3. BbcyU I AvDUcyUi mK wWRvBb (design of relationship between input and output)
mgmv mgvavbi avcmg~nK Avgiv wewfbfve cKvk KiZ cvwi| mgvavbi avcmg~nK evaMgfve
AvjMwi`gi gvag cKvk KiZ cvwi| G avcmg~nK wPi mvnvh cKvk KivK ej dvPvU ev
cevn wP|
4. cvMvg WfjcgU (Program development)
mgvavbi avcmg~n (AvjMwi`g ev dvPvU) K cvMvwgs fvlvq icvi KivK ej cvMvg
WfjcgU| cvMvgvi Zvi cQ` Abyhvqx Kvbv fvlvq (wm. wm + +, Rvfv) icvi Ki|
Ze mdUIqvi iPbvq mvaviYZ Abvb PjKi Dci wbfi Ki fvlv wbaviY Kiv nq|
cvMvg iPbvK mvaviYfve KvwWs (Coding) ej|
5. cvMvg cixY I evevqb (Program Testing & Development)
Kvbv cvMvgK KwDUvi UvBc Kivi ci cvMvg Pvwjq cixv Ges cieZxZ fyjmg~n wbaviY
Ki mskvab KiZ nq| KwDUvii wZZ G cvMvgK UvBc Kivi ci GK ejv nq Drm
cvMvg (Source program)| G Drm cvMvg hKvbv cKvi Abyev`K eenvi Ki gwkbi
fvlvq Abyev` KiZ nq| G cvMvgK ej e cvMvg (Object Program)|
cvMvg memgq wKQz bv wKQz fyj _vK| cvMvgi fyjK ejv nq evM (Bug) ev cvKv| Avi G evM
ev cvMvgi fyj-wUmg~n LyuR ei Ki mskvab KivK wWevwMs ejv nq| wbgwjwLZ Dcvq
cvMvg cixY I mskvab Kiv hvq| h_v:
K. cvMvg Uws (Program Testing)
cvMvg WUvi wKQz wekl gvb ewmq KwDUvii mvnvh Qvov wbRiv MYbv Ki djvdj ei
KiZ nq| G cwZK Dry Run ej| Gevi KwDUvi WUvi G wekl gvbjv BbcyU Ki
cvMvg Pvwjq `Lv nq, KwDUvii djvdj MYbvi dj fyj nj evSv hvq m Ask fyj AvQ|
mB Ask ZLb fvjv Ki cixv KiZ nq|
L. cvMvgi fyj (Program Bugs)
cvMvg Zwii mgq cvMvg wKQz bv wKQz fyj _K hvq| cvMvgi fyjK ej evM (Bugs)| fyj
hvZ bv _vK Zvi Rb mZKfve cvMvg Zwi KiZ nq| GRb j ivLZ nq cvMvg hb
RwUj jwRK MVb bv _vK Ges Uvdvi Ae KUvj wb`k Kg _vK|
166 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

cvMvgi fyjK wZbfve fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:


1. wPvw`i fyj ev wmbUv fyj (Syntax Error)
2. jwRKj ev hywMZ fyj (Logical Error)
3. WUv ev Z_ fyj (Data Error) |
wmbUv fyj (Syntax Error)
cvMvgi ga fvlvi evKiYMZ hme fyj _vK ZvK ejv nq wmbUv fyj| hgb- evbvb fyj;
Kgv, evKU wVKgZv bv `qv; Kvbv Pji gvb bv Rvbvbv cfwZ| Gme fyj mskvab Kiv LyeB
mnR, KviY wmbUv fyji ejvq KwDUvi GKwU fyji evZv Qvcvq| cvMvg ivb Kivj
KwDUvii fyji evZvi gvag Kvbv jvBb wK aibi wmbUv fyj AvQ Zv Rvbve| hgb-
cvMvg Print Kgvi cwieZ Priont wjLv|
jwRKj ev hywMZ fyj (Logical Error)
cvMvg hywi fyj _vKj ZvK ej jwRKj fyj| mvaviYZ mgmv wVKgZv bv evSvi RbB G
fyj nq| hgb- A < B Gi j A > B ev P = A+B Gi vb P = A B wjLj jwRKj fyj
nq| wmbUv fyji MYbv me bv nIqvq Kvbv Di cvIqv hvq bv| wK jwRKj fyji
GKwU Di cvIqv hvq hw`I Zv fyj| KwDUvi Kvbv fyji evZv cvVvq bv ej jwRKj fyj
mskvab Kiv Lye KwVb| hgbk~b w`q fvM Kiv wKsev FY msLvi eMg~j ev jMvwi`g ei Kiv|
WUv ev Z_ fyj (Data Error)
KwDUviK fyj Z_ Rvbvj Zv njv Z_ fyj| GI KwDUvi Kvbv fyji evZv Qvcvq bv|
6. WKzgUkb (Documentation)
cvMvg WfjcgUi mgq fwelZi K_v fe wewfb welq wjwce Ki ivLZ nq| G wjwce
KivK cvMvg WKzgUkb ej| cvMvg iYveY WKzgUkbi iZ Acwimxg| WKzgUkb
wbgwjwLZ welqmg~n Afy Kiv nq
K. cvMvgi eYbv
L. dvPvU
M. wjwLZ cvMvg
N. wbevni Rb cqvRbxq KvRi ZvwjKv
O. cixY I djvdj|
7. cvMvg iYveY (Program maintenance)
cvMvg eenvi KiZ wMq eenviKvix wewfb mgmvi gyLvgywL nZ cvi| Avevi eenviKvixi
Pvwn`viI cwieZb nZ cvi| Kvbv Kvbv welq cvMvg DbqbiI cqvRb nZ cvi, ZvB
cqvRb Abyhvqx cvMvg iYveY KiZ nq hb eenviKvixi hKvbv Pvwn`v c~iY Kiv me
nq| iYveYi Dchy cwiKbv bv _vKj eo Kvbv mdUIqvi evwYwRKfve mdj nZ cvi
bv| AbK mgq cvMvg iYveY Abme avci Pq ewk LiP nq| ZvB, iZi mv_ cvMvg
iYveY KiZ ne|
cvMvwgs fvlv 167

5.10.1 AvjMwi`g (Algorithm)


Kvbv KvR Kivi c~e Avgiv KvRwUi cwiKbv Ki _vwK| cwiKbvgvwdK KvR AMmi nj KvRwU myzfve
mb nq| AvjMwi`g A_ avc avc mgmv mgvavb| A_vr GKwU mgmvK KqKwU avc f cZKwU
avc cici mgvavb Ki mgM mgmvi mgvavb Kiv| AvjMwi`g kwU Avie `ki MwYZwe` Avj LvwiRgx Gi
bvg _K Drcw nqQ| wZwb Zuvi MwYZ eBZ AvjMwi`g kwUi evLv `b wbgic: AvjMwi`g nQ
GKwU wbw` mgmv mgvavb Kivi Rb GKUv wekl cv|
Abfve ejv hvq h, KwDUvii mvnvh Kvbv mgmv mgvavbi Rb mgmvwUK QvU QvU
avc wef Ki hywmZfve chvqg wjwce KivK AvjMwi`g ej| A_vr AvjMwi`g nQ
cvMvg iPbv I wbevni i _K kl ch avcjv chvqwgKfve wjwce Kiv| KwDUvii
mvnvh Kvbv mgmv mgvavb cvMvwgs Gi AvjMwi`gi f~wgKv AZ iZc~Y|
AvjMwi`g Zwii kZ ev wbqg
1. AvjMwi`gwU mnReva ne|
2. cZKwU avc nZ ne hvZ mnR eySv hvq|
3. mmxg msLK avc mgmvi mgvavb nZ ne|
4. AvjMwi`g evcKfve cqvM Kivi DchvMx nZ ne|
AvjMwi`gi myweav
1. mnR cvMvgi Dk evSv hvq|
2. mnR cvMvgi fyj wbYq Kiv hvq|
3. cvMvgi cevni w`K eySv hvq|
4. RwUj cvMvg mnR iPbv Kiv hvq|
5. cvMvg cwieZb I cwieab mnvqZv Ki|
D`vniY-1: wZbwU msLvi hvMdj I Mo wbYqi AvjMwi`g wbg `qv njv
avc1: KvR i Ki|
avc2: msLv 3wU co|
avc3: msLv 3wUi hvMdj ei Ki|
avc4: hvMdjK 3 viv fvM Ki Mo wbYq Ki|
avc5: hvMdj Ges Mo QvcvI|
avc6: KvR kl Ki|
5.10.2 dvPvU (Flowchart) ev cevn wP
dvPvU (Flow Chart) ev cevn wP nQ wmvg ev AvjMwi`ggi wPic| dvPvU njv Ggb
KZKjv Qwe hv _K evSv hvq mgmv mgvavb KiZ nj cici wKfve AMmi nZ ne| GK
dvPvU ejvi KviY G _K cvMvgi cevn wKfve nQ Zv eySv hvq| wmvg ev AvjMwi`gi
avcjv wP AvKvi Zzj aivB nQ cevnwPi KvR| dvPvUi gvag Kvbv wmg ev
cvMvgi KvR ev Zvi MwZivaK Dcvcb Kiv| wfb AvKwZi KZKjv RvwgwZK wP eenvi Ki
dvPvU Ab KiZ nq| dvPvU cvMvgi cKwZ eySZ mvnvh Ki| dvPvUi Dci wbfi Ki
cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq| dvPvU Kvbv wbw` cvMvwgs fvlvq jLv DwPr bq|
168 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

dvPvUi ewk:
GKwU DbZgvbi dvPvU wbgwjwLZ ewkmg~n _vK
1. mnR cvMvgi Dk eySv hvq|
2. cvMvgi fyj wbYq mnvqZv Ki|
3. cvMvg iPbvq mnvqZv Ki|
4. cvMvg cwieZb Ges cwieab mnvqZv Ki|
5. mnR I msc RwUj cvMvg jLv hvq|
dvPvU Zwi Kivi wbqgvewj (Rules of drawing flowchart):
1. dvPvU Zwi Kivi Rb cPwjZ cZxK eenvi Kiv DwPr|
2. Zxi wP w`q Dci _K wbP ev evg _K Wvb w`K cevn `Lvbv DwPr|
3. dvPvU Zwi Kivi mgq mshvM wP hZv Kg nq ZZvB fvjv|
4. dvPvU mnR evaMg nIqv DwPr|
5. dvPvU wbw` Kvbv cvMvgi fvlvq jLv DwPr bq|
6. wPjv QvU eo nj wZ bvB Ze AvKwZ wVK _vKZ ne|
7. cqvRb wPi mv_ ge w`Z ne|
8. GKvwaK cevniLv cii Q` KijI Zv`i ga Kvbv jwRKvj mK eySvq bv|
9. dvPvUi Kvbv Aski wevwiZ eYbv cqvRb nj m Aski Rb c_Kfve dvPvU
eenvi Kiv hZ cvi|
10. dvPvU hZ`~i me GK cvq AuvKv DwPZ| GKvwaK cvi cqvRb nj c~eeZx cvq c~e
wbavwiZ cwqvi Rb eeZ wbavwiZ wP w`Z ne|

dvPvUi cKvif`:
dvPvUK cavbZ `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| hgb
1. wmg dvPvU Ges
2. cvMvg dvPvU|

1. wmg dvPvU: wmg dvPvU Dcv MnY, cwqvKiY, wZZ msiY I djvdj c`kbi
cevn `Lvbv nq| A_vr h dvPvUi gvag Kvbv eevi msMVbK mnR Zzj aiv hvq
ZvK wmg dvPvU ej|
cvMvwgs fvlv 169

cZxK A_ cZxK A_ cZxK A_


Ab-jvBc
cwqvKiY gvbyqj BbcyU
wZ
cvKvW gvbyqj KvR c`kb

mwUs ev
WKzgU Kx Acvikb
mvRvb
gvR ev
P^K Uc cevni w`K
GKwKiY
mnvqK
Ad-jvBb wZ MnY/ wbMgb
wqv
hvMvhvM
KvjU ev mshyw cv Uc
gvag

wP: wmg dvPvU eeZ cZxK|


2. cvMvg dvPvU:
cvMvg dvPvU cvMvgi wewfb avci wevwiZ weeiY wPi gvag c`wkZ nq| cvMvg dvPvU
eenvi Ki cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq| GQvov cvMvgi fyj wbYq I mskvabi Rb G dvPvU eenvi
Kiv nq| cevn wP AbK iKg cZxK wP eenvi Kiv nq|
Zvi ga ej eeZ wPjv wbP `qv njv:
cZxK A_ cZxK A_

Start/End Process

Decision Predefined process

Input/Output Connector

Direction of flow Sort note

dvPvUi gwjK MVb


1. mij Abyg (Simple sequence)
2. wbevPb (Selection)
3. jyc ev P (Repetition or loop)
4. Rv (Jump)
170 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

1. mij Abyg (Simple sequnce)


GwU GKwU mij vKPvi| G vKPvi mKj wb`k wbevni
Abyg mvRvbv _vK|

2. wbevPb (Selection)
hme wmvi cqvRb nq ev Zzjbv Ki Kvh
wbevn KiZ nq m G vKPvi eeZ nq|

3. jyc ev P (Repetition or loop)


cvMvg GKB aibi KvR evievi Kivi cqvRb nj
jyc ev P eenvi Kiv nq|

4. Rv (Jump)
cvMvg mij AbygK f Ki cvMvgi ga GK jvBb
_K cieZx jvBb bv wMq Dci ev wbP Ab Kvbv
jvBb _K KvR i Kij ZvK Rv ej|
KvR: AvjMwi`g I dvPvUi ga cv_K jL|

D`vniY-1: wZbwU msLvi ga eo msLv wbYqi AvjMwi`g I dvPvU Ab Ki|


AvjMwi`g: dvPvU:
avc1: kyi Ki|
avc-2: msLv wZbwU a, b, c Gi gvag co|
avc-3: a Gi gvb b _K eo nj avc-6 G hvI Ab_vq cieZx avc hvI|
avc-4: b Gi gvb c _K eo nj avc-9 G hvI Ab_vq cieZx avc hvI|
avc-5: avc-7 G hvI|
a c
avc-7: eo msLv c QvcvI|
avc-8: avc-12 G hvI|
avc-9: eo msLv b QvcvI|
avc-10: avc-12 G hvI|
avc-11: eo msLv a QvcvI|
avc-12: kl Ki|
cvMvwgs fvlv 171

D`vniY-2: dvibnvBU ZvcgvvK mjwmqvm Zvcgvvq icvii AvjMwi`g I dvPvU Ab Ki|


AvjMwi`g: dvPvU:
avc-1: i Ki|
avc-2: dvibnvBU j (F) Zvcgvvi gvb MnY Ki|
avc-3: mjwmqvm j C = (F32) * 5/9
avc-4: mjwmqvm j C c`kb Ki|
avc-5: kl Ki|

D`vniY-3: 1 + 2 + 3 + ----- + N wmwiRi hvMdj wbYqi AvjMwi`g I dvPvU Ab Ki|


AvjMwi`g:
dvPvU:
avc-1: i Ki|
avc-2: BbcyU wnme N-Gi gvb MnY Ki|
avc-3: awi S = 0 Ges I = 1
avc-4: awi S = S + I
avc-5: awi I = I + 1
avc-6: Zzjbv: I Gi gvb wK N Gi Pq eo?
K. hw` eo bv nq Ze 4 b^i avc hvI|
L. hw` eo nq Ze 7 b^i avc hvI|
avc-7: wbYq djvdj S PjKi gvag c`kb Ki|
avc-8: kl Ki|
D`vniY-4: `ywU msLvi M. mv. wbYq Kivi Rb AvjMwi`g I dvPvU Ab Ki|

AvjMwi`g: dvPvU:
avc-1 : i Ki|
avc-2 : `ywU msLv wbaviY Ki, GKwU eo AbwU QvU| =
=
avc-3 : QvU msLvwU w`q eowUK fvM Ki fvMkl wbYq Ki|
avc-4 : fvMkl hw` 0 nq Ze 5 bs avc hvI Ab_vq 3bs avc hvI|
avc-5 : M. mv. wbYq Ki|
avc-6 : djvdj QvcvI|
avc-7 : kl Ki|
172 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY-5: GKwU abvZK msLvi dvKUvwiqvj wbYq Kivi Rb AvjMwi`g I dvPvU Ab Ki|
AvjMwi`g: dvPvU:
avc-1 : i Ki|
avc-2 : N Gi gvb co|
avc-3 : F=1 ; i=1
avc-4 : F = F * i
i=i+1
avc-5 : hw` i < = N, Ze 4bs avc hvI|
avc-6 : F Gi gvb QvcvI|
avc-7 : kl Ki|

KvR: AvjMwi`g I dvPvUi ga cv_K wjL|

5.11 cvMvg wWRvBb gWj (Program Design Model)


cvMvgi gWj ejZ cvMvgi MVbkjxK eySvq| my`ifve cvMvg jLv I mnR eySvi Rb
cvMvg iPbvi KqKwU gWj eenvi Kiv nq| wbw` GKwU wekl gWj eenvi Ki cvMvg
iPbv Kij Zv mnR Abyaveb Kiv hvq|
eZgvb ek KqKwU cvMvwgs gWj nQ
1. vKPvW cvMvwgs
2. wfRyqvj cvMvwg
3. AeR AwiqUW cvMvwgs
4. BfU wWfb cvMvwgs|
vKPvW cvMvwgs (Structure Programming)
vKPvW cvMvwgs njv GKwU cvMvgi UgUjv wfb wfb kwYZ wef Ki jLv|
UgUi msLv GK GK kwYi Rb GK GK iKg nZ cvi| Gi cZKwU kwY ^Zfve wfb
wfb KvR Ki _vK| GKUv cwZMZ cvq cvMvg iPbv Kij ZvK vKPvW cvMvwgs ej|
vKPvW cvMvg wbgewYZ cwZi Dci wfw Ki iPbv Kiv nq| h_v
1. KUvj vKPvi (Control Structure)
2. gWyjvi cvMvwgs (Modular Programming)
3. Uc-WvDb cwZ (Top-down approach in program design)
KUvj vKPvi (Control structure): vKPvi cvMvwgs G wZb aibi KUvj vKPvi eenvi
Kiv nq|
K. chvqwgK MVb (Sequential Structure)
L. AveZ MVb (Loop Structure)
M. wmvg~jK MVb (Decision Structure)
cvMvwgs fvlv 173

gWyjvi cvMvwgs (Modular programming)


`xN Ges RwUj cvMvg, cvMvgvii c iPbv, cixv I fyj wbYq Kiv Kmva| myZivs `xN I
RwUj cvMvgK QvU QvU cvMvg wef Kiv nq| G QvU cvMvgK gwWDj ej| GKUv gwWDj
wbRB GKUv cvMvg hvK c_Kfve Avevi mve gwWDj wef Kiv nq| gwWDj wef Ki
cvMvg jLvi cwZK gWyjvi cvMvwgs ejv nq|
Uc-WvDb cwZ (Top-down approach in program design)
Uc-WvDb cwZZ mg cvMvgwUK GKUv cvMvg aiv nq Ges cieZxZ Kg RwUj, QvU Ges
mnR AbyavebhvM nq Ggwbfve Dc-wef Kiv nq dj cvMvg wbevn Kiv mnR nq| vKPvW
cvMvwgs Gi ewk:
1. GwU mnR AbyavebhvM|
2. GwU wWevwMs Kiv mnR |
3. mnR iYveY Kiv hvq|
4. GwU mnR iPbv Kiv hvq|
AeR AwiqUW cvMvwgs (Object Oriented Programming)
AeR ev wPwfwK Kgvi mvnvh PvwjZ cvMvgK AeR AwiqUW cvMvwgs ejv nq| GwU
Avmj wfRyqvj cvMvwgs Gi Pvjbv cwZ ^Z GKK cwiYZ nq wbR^ cwiPq jvf Ki|
AeR AwiqUW cvMvwgs Gi ewk
AeR IwiqUW cvMvwgs wbgewYZ ewkjv gb Pj:
1. GbKvcmyjkb Ges WUv nvBwWs (Encapsulation and data hiding)
2. BbnwiU Ges cybteenvi (Inheritance & Reuse)
3. cwjgiwdRg (Polymorphism)
GbKvcmyjkb Ges WUv nvBwWs: GKUv ^Z GKKi ewkK GbKvcmyjkb ej Ges GB
ewk Mvcb ivLvK WUv nvBwWs ej|
BbnwiU Ges cybteenvi (Inheritance and Reuse)
BbnwiU Ges cybteenvi njv GKUv existing ei ag I ewkK KvR jvwMq bZzb
AviKwU ei mw Kiv|
cwjgiwdRg (Polymorphism): cwj A_ AbK Ges gidn (MORPH) A_ dg| A_vr GKB
bvgK wewfb A_ eenvi Kij ZvK cwjgiwdRg ej|
D`vniY: C++, J ++ BZvw` AeR AwiqUW cvMvwgs Gi D`vniY|
BfU WvBfb cvMvwgs (Event Driven Programming)
wPwfwK cvMvwgsjv njv BfU WvBfb cvMvwgs A_vr h cvMvwgs Gi wewfb wb`k ev
BUvKkb wPi gvag `Iqv nq ZvK BfU WvBfb cvMvwgs ej| Kx evWi Kvbv Key
Press Kiv Kvbv wekl KUvji Dci gvDm Gi cqUvi wKK Kiv BZvw` KvR njv BfU|
eenvKvix hLb Kvbv Kgv evUb Gi Dci wKK Kib ZLb mB wb`kwU KvhKi nq|
174 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

hgbeenvKvix hw` KvBj (Compile) G wKK Ki Ze cvMvgwU KvBj ne| G


Kgv evUb nQ wbqY ev KUvj Ges wKK Kiv nQ BfU| wfRyqvj cvMvwgs Gi G
cvMvwgs evcKfve eenvi nQ|
wfRyqvj cvMvwgs (Visual Programming)
DBvR wfwK cvMvgwU wfRyqvj ev `kgvb cvMvwgs ejv nq| G cvMvgi Kgv ev wb`k
gby ev wPi mvnvh `Iqv nq, GRb GUv eenviKvixi wbKU LyeB Rbwcq| cvMvwgs mK
b~bZg aviYv _vKjB cvMvg iPbv Kiv hvq| G cvMvgi GKUv DjLhvM ewk nQ AbK Kg
BUvKkb ev UgU eenvi Ki cvMvg iPbv Kiv hvq| hgb wfRyqvj ewmK cvMvwgs Gi
eenviKvix (Control Button) KUvj evUb eenvi Ki cvMvg iPbv Ki _vK|
wfRyqvj cvMvgi D`vniY: wfRyqvj ewmK, wfRyqvj wm/wm++, wfRyqvj dcv BZvw`|
Av`k cvMvgi Yvewj
Av`k cvMvg ejZ h cvMvg KwDUvi cvMvgi hveZxq ewk ev Yvewj eZgvb m aibi
cvMvgK eySvq| mvaviYZ mgmv mgvavbi Rb cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq| GKwU Av`k cvMvg mgmv
mgvavbi iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb Ki| GKwU Av`k cvMvg iPbvi 7wU avc iPbv Kvh
mgv KiZ nq| avcjv G Aavqi c_g AvjvPbv Kiv nqQ| G 7wU avc cv Mvg iPbv Kij
iPbvKvh wUi mvebv Kg _vK| ZvQvov GKwU Av`k cvMvgi mvaviYZ 5wU ce _vK|
1. cwiPq ce
2. eYbv
3. BbcyU
4. cmm
5. AvDUcyU
1. cwiPq ce: G ce cvMvgi welqe, cvMvgvii bvg, cvMvgi mgqKvj, cvMvg eeZ
wewfb PjKi eYbv BZvw` wjwce _vK|
2. eYbv : G ce cvMvgi mgmvi eYbv, mgvavbi Kkj, wmv, hyw BZvw` DjL _vK|
3. BbcyU: GKwU Av`k cvMvgi fZi Z_ BbcyUi myweav _vKe A_ev cvMvg PjvKvj evBi
_K Z_ hvMvbi myweav _vKe|
4. cmm: Z_ cwqvKiYB cvMvgi g~j Dk| AZGe, GKwU Av`k cvMvg AekB Z_
cwqvKiYi myweav _vKe|
5. AvDUcyU: hKvbv cvMvgi Rb djvdj AekB evbxq| GKwU Av`k cvMvg djvdj
cvwi eev _vKe|
6. cvMvgwU wbfyj, hywc~Y webvm, mij I msw nZ ne|
7. mnR cvMvgwUi cwieZb, cwigvRb I fyj mskvab Kiv hve|
cvMvwgs fvlv 175

5.12 wm fvlvi cv_wgK aviYv (Primary Concept of C Language)


1970 mvj AvgwiKvi Bell Telephone Laboratory Z Wwbm wiwP (Dennis Ritchie) BDwb AcviwUs
wmg eenvi Ki wm cvMvwgs fvlv Dveb Kib| wZwb mec_g DEC PDP-
11 gwkb Unix Operating System G C fvlv cqvM Kib| wm nQ
GKwU DPZi cvMvwgs fvlv| GK nvB-jfj vKPvW cvMvwgs fvlvI ejv nq
_vK| 1960 mvj gviwUb wiPvW (Martin Richard) BCPL (Basic
Combined Programming Language) bvg GKwU cvMvwgs fvlv Wfjc
Kib hv g~jZ cv_wgKfve BDivc eenvi Kiv nqwQj| cieZx mgq
BCPL _K B bvgK Aci GKwU cvMvwgs fvlv Dveb nqwQj| 1978 mvj
Wwbm wiwPi jLv `v wm cvMvwgs jvsqR eBwU cKvki ci Ges
gvBvKwDUvii RbwcqZv evovi mv_ mv_ wm Gi evcK cPjb i nq| m
mgq wm Gi RbwcqZv cavb KviY wQj GK KwDUvi jLv cvMvg Ab wP: Wwbm wiwP
KwDUvi eenvii myweav|
wm fvlvK KwDUvi fvlvi RbK ejv nq _vK| wm fvlvi AbK msiY iqQ| hgb- C, C++, ANSI
C, Visual C I Turbo C cfwZ| C fvlvi mvnvh h aibi cvMvg jLv hvq Zvnjv
Operating System Computer Games
Assemblers Utilities
Compilers Network Drivers
Interpreters Data Base Program
Editors Virus and Antivirus BZvw`|
AwZ `Z C fvlv Lye Rbwcq nq IV| dj wewfb cwZvb Zv`i wbR^ fvmb C eenvi i Ki|
GZ eenviKvix`i wewfb mgmvi mw nq| 1983 mvj ANSI (American National Standard
Institute) C Gi GKUv Av`k gvb wbaviY Ki hv ANSI-C bvg cwiwPwZ jvf Ki| C/C ++ Gi
wewfb KvBjvijvi ga Turbo C, Quick C, Borland C++ BZvw` AbZg| C++ nQ Gi
AeR IwiqUW fvmb| c_g fvmb 1985, 2q fvmb 1990 Ges ZZxq fvmb 1995 mvj
Windows 95 I Windows NT Gi Rb Zwi nq| cvMvwgs fvlvq b~bZg KZKjv Library
Function _vK Ges Zv (American National Standard Institute) wbaviY Ki `q| WUv MnY,
WUv eenvi Ges WUv c`kbi Rb BASIC I C Gi Library Function Gi Zzjbv `Lvbv njv
KvR C BASIC
getcher ( ) INPUT
scanf ( ) READ DATA
WUv MnY (INPUT) gets ( ) GET
sscanf ()
fscanf ()
if / else IF / ELSE
for FOR
WUv cwqvKiY (PROCESSING) NEXT
while
do-while
putchar ( ) PRINT
puts ( ) LPRINT
djvdj c`kb (OUTPUT) WRITE
printf ( )
fprinf ( ) PRINT USING
176 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

5.12.1 wm fvlvi ewk (Characteristics of C Language)


1. cwZwU C cvMvgi fvlv i nq GKwU dvskb main( ) Gi gvag| GKwU cvMvg GKvwaK
main () Function _vKe bv| cwZwU cvMvgi KvR G dvskb _K i ne|
2. dvskbi ga hme UgU _vK mjvK wZxq ebx { } Gi ga ivLZ ne| ebx
i Kij AekB kl KiZ ne|
3. cwZwU UgU Gi kl mwgKvjb (;) w`Z ne|
4. cwZwU PjK eenvii c~e Zv`i WUv UvBc DjL KiZ ne|
5. Header dvBjjv # include viv hy KiZ ne|
6. cvMvgi ga h ge `qv ne ZvK AekB /* Ges */ GB wPi ga ivLZ ne|
7. C jvsqR chv cwigvY jvBewi dvskb, evws UgU I KUvj UgUi myweav iqQ|
8. C Z chv cwigvY KvD AcviUi, hgb: + =, =, *= BZvw` iqQ|
9. C fvlvq cvMvg jLv nq QvU nvZi Ai viv Ze Symbolic name I output string
mvaviYZ eo nvZi Ai jLv nq|
10. C fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvg GK KwDUvi _K Ab KwDUvi Lye mnRB eenvi Kiv hvq|
KviY GwU hKvbv nvWIqvi mnRB Lvc LvIqvZ cvi|
5.12.2 cvMvg KvBwjs (Program Compiling)
KvBjvi njv Ggb GKwU cvMvg, hv KwDUvii wbKU evaMg Kivi Rb DPZi fvlvq wjwLZ
cvMvgi UgUjvK gwkb fvlvq 0 Ges 1 G cwieZb Ki| wfb wfb DPZi fvlvi
cvMvgi Rb wfb wfb KBjvi eeZ nq| hgb-h KvBjvi wm cvMvgK KvBj KiZ
cvi mB KvBjvi ewmK cvMvgK KvBj KiZ cvi bv| DPZi fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvgK
KwDUvii evaMg fvlvq icviK KvBwjs ej| wm-Z mvm cvMvg Zwii ci Zv wbevn
Kivi Rb c_g Zv KvBj KiZ nq| GKwU wbw` KvR C cvMvwgs fvlvq jLv ev KvW KivK
mvm KvW (Source code) ej| KwDUvi w`q ^qswqfve KvRwU Kivi Rb cvMvgK
gwkbi fvlvq icvi KiZ nq| GKB AeR (Object code) KvW ej| KvBji wbqg
gvZveK cvMvg iPbv Kij KvRwU wbLyZfve Kiv hvq| GQvov cvMvg KvBwjs Gi mgq cPzi
fzj `Lvq| cwZwU fzj mskvabi ci cvMvg wbevn Kiv nj wb`k gvZveK djvdj cvIqv hvq|
C cvMvg KvBjvi KZK cwiPvwjZ weavq cvMvgi mKj fzj GKevi c`kb Ki| Gi dj
cvMvg wbevni mgqI Kg jvM| C Z cvMvg jLv I wbevn Kivi Rb wewfb aibi mdUIqvi
cvIqv hvq| hgb- Turbo C, ANSI C, Boarland C++, Dev C BZvw`|
KvBwjsqi cavb KvR (Main functions of compiling)
1. mvm cvMvgK Abyev` Ki AeR cvMvg Zwi Kiv|
2. cvMvgi m cqvRbxq iwUb (cvMvgi QvU Ask) K wjsK Kiv|
3. cvMvg Kvbv fyj _vKj Zv Rvbvbv|
4. cvMvgi Rb cavb ggwiZ cqvRbxq ggwi Aevb Zwi Kiv|
cvMvwgs fvlv 177

5. cvMvgi hKvbv fzj wU mskvab Kiv|


C cvMvg KvBj Kivi avcmg~n:
1. c_g C cvMvg cek Kivi ci File gbyZ Click Kij GKwU Kgv wj `Lv hve|
2. New Ackb Click Kivi ci GKwU Lvwj xb `Lv hve|
3. GLb hKvbv GKwU cvMvg wjL msiY Kiv nj G cvMvgK Source Code ej|
4. cvMvg jLvi ci gbyevi _K Run-G Click KiZ ne| A_ev KxevW _K Ctrl+F9 PvcZ ne|
5. cvMvg KvBj Kivi ci cvMvg fzj _vKj Zv mskvab KiZ ne|
6. Run-Kivi ci fzj bv _vKj djvdj c`kb Kie|
5.12.3 cvMvgi MVb (Structure of a program)
cwZwU cvMvgi wZbwU Ask _vK Ges G wZbwU Aski cviwiK mK wbPi wP `Lvbv njv|

BbcyU cmwms AvDUcyU

wP: cvMvgi mvaviY MVb|


BbcyU: BbcyU ejZ djvdj cvwi Rb hme WUv ev wb`k KwDUvi `qv nq mjvK eySvq|
cmwms: cmm njv BbcyU Abymvi cwqvKiY Kiv|
AvDUcyU: AvDUcyU ejZ cvMvgi djvdjK eySvq|
C cvMvg MVb:
C cvMvg GK ev GKvwaK dvskbi mg^q MwVZ| Documentation Section
C cvMvg jLvi Rb c_g GK ev GKvwaK dvskb Link Section
MVb KiZ nq| Zvici dvskbjvK GKwZ
Defination Section
KiZ nq| hvi ga GKwU Kgb dvskb nQ
main ( ) dvskb| main ( ) dvskbwU C cvMvg Global Declaration Section
AekB Afy ne| GKwU C cvMvg GK ev main() Function Section
GKvwaK mKkb wbq MwVZ| {
Documentation Section: Declaration Part
GwU wm cvMvgi HwQK Ask| G Ask GK ev Execution Part
GKvwaK ge, cvMvgi bvg, cvMvgi welqe,
}
cvMvg iPwqZvi bvg, cvMvg eenvii wbqg
Subprogram Section
mshy Kiv nq|
Link Section: Function 1
G Ask KvBjvii mv_ wewfb jvBe wi Function 2
dvskbi mshvM vcb Kiv nq A_vr nWvi .
dvBj mshy Kiv nq| .
Defination Section: Function n
G Ask cvMvgi Rb cqvRbxq Symbolic
wP: GKwU C cvMvgi gwjK MVb|
constant K # define Kiv nq|
178 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Global Declaration Section: G Ask GKvwaK dvskb ev cvMvgi meLvb eeZ nq Ggb
PjK ev fwiqej NvlYv Kiv nq|
main() Function Section: GKwU Kgb dvskb nQ main () dvskb| main () dvskbwU C
cvMvg AekB Afy ne| main() Function Gi `ywU Ask iqQ| h_v:
1. Declaration Part: G Ask cqvRbxq PjK hv wbevn Ask eenvi Kiv ne Zv NvlYv KiZ nq|
2. Execution Part: G Ask cvMvg wbevn Ki| main () Function G `ywU Ask `ywU wZxq
ebxi ga ivLZ nq|
Subprogram Section:
G Ask GK ev GKvwaK eenviKvixi Zwi dvskb _vKe hv main() Function G Call Kiv
ne| mvaviYZ main() Function Gi kl Gme dvskb _vK, Ze G`iK main() dvskbi
AvMI wjLv hvq|
GLvb GKwU mvaviY D`vniYi mvnvh Dcii `qv C cvMvgi MVb AvjvPbv Kiv njv|
D`vniY-1 : `ywU msLvi hvMdj wbYq Ki msLv `ywU mn hvMdj wcU Kivi Rb cvMvg wjL|
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
main()
{
int x, y, sum;
x = 15;
y = 10;
sum = x +y;
printf (1st Number = %d\n,x);
printf (2nd number = % d\n, y);
printf( summation = % d\n, sum);
getch();
}
djvdj: 1st Number = 15
2nd Number = 10
Summation = 25
cvMvg weklY:
1. #include<stdio.h> cvMvgi wfZi printf () GKwU jvBewi dvskb eenvi Kiv nqQ| G
dvskbwU stdio.h bvgK nWvi dvBj iqQ| wm cvMvg hme jvBewi dvskb eenvi Kiv
nq mjv h nWvi dvBj iqQ cvMvgi kyiZ m nWvi dvBji bvg #include Gi
mv_ mshy KiZ cvi|
2. #include<conio.h> cvMvg wfZi getch ( ) jvBewi dvskb eenvi Kiv nqQ| G
dvskbwU GKwU conio.h bvgK nWvi dvBj iqQ| ZvB #include Gi mv_ D nWvi
dvBjwUi bvg mshy Kiv nqQ|
3. main ( ) cvMvgi g~j dvskb| main ( ) _KB cvMvgi KvhKvwiZv i nq| cwZwU cvMvg
main () dvskb AekB _vKe|
cvMvwgs fvlv 179

4. { wZxq evKUwU main () dvskb jLvi ci G dvskbwUi Kvhg kyieySvbvi Rb kyiZ


wZxq evKU eenvi Kiv nq|
5. int w`q x, y, sum variable jvi WUv UvBc integer NvlYv Kiv nqQ| integer A_ nQ
c~YmsLv|
6. printf( ) dvskbwU KwDUvii c`vq Kvbv wKQz wcU ev c`kbi Rb eeZ nq|
7. %d njv integer WUv UvBci format specifications |
8. \n duvKv jvBb wcU Kivi Rb eeZ nq|
9. } evKUwU dvskbi Kvhg kl eySvbvi Rb eenvi Kiv nqQ|
5.12.4 WUv UvBc (Data Type)
KwDUvi BbcyU Aski gvag hme A, eY, wP BZvw` `Iqv nq Ges hvi Dci wbfi Ki
cwqvKiY Kiv nq ZvK WUv ej| hgb- Qv-Qvx`i cixvi djvdj Zwii Rb msMnxZ Zv`i
bvg, ivj b^i, wewfb welq cv b^i njv GK GKwU WUv| wm cvMvg g~jZ KZKjv UgU Gi
mg^q MwVZ| Avi G UgU Zwii g~j Dcv`vb njv wewfb aibi WUv, aeK, PjK BZvw`|
WUvi aibK WUv UvBc ejv nq| C cvMvwgs-G wewfb cKvi WUv wbq KvR Kiv nq| cvMvg Pvjbvi
mgq mKj WUv ggwiZ msiwZ nq| wewfb UvBci WUv ggwiZ wfb wfb evBUi RvqMv `Lj Ki|
wm-jvsqR WUvi kwY wefvM: wm cvMvwgs Zvi WUv UvBci Rb ek mg| mvaviYZ WUv UvBc
gwkbi Dci wbfikxj| ANSI (American National Standard Institute) KZK wbavwiZ wm fvlvq
eeZ WUvmg~nK Pvi fvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
1. cvBgvwi ev dvvgUvj WUv UvBc (Primary or Fundamental data type)
2. BDRvi wWdvB WUv UvBc (User defined data type)
3. wWivBfW WUv UvBc (Derived data type)
4. GgwU WUv UvBc (Empty data type)
Data Type

Primary or User defined Derived Empty


Fundamental data type data type data type data type

Integer Floating point Double Character

Signed type
Double Precision
int Signed char
Long double
Short int
Unsigned char
long int
wP: WUvi cKvif`
180 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

1. cvBgvwi ev dvvgUvj WUv UvBc (Primary or Fundamental data type):


cvBgvwi ev dvvgUvj WUv UvBc mvaviYZ c~YmsLv, fMvsk, Kvivi ev kvj wm^j eeZ
nq _vK| G WUv UvBcK mvaviYZ Pvi fvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
K. BwURvi (Integer) ev c~YmsLv
L. dvwUs cqU (Floating Point) ev fMvsk
M. Wvej wcwmkb (Double Precision)
N. Kvivi (Character) ev Ai
K. BwURvi (Integer) ev c~YmsLv : BwURvi UvBc WUv ejZ c~YmsLvi WUvK eySvq| G WUvi
i -215 _K +2151 ch| A_vr 32768 _K +32767 ch nq _vK| myZivs Kvbv
WUvi gvb hw` 32768 _K + 32767 Gi ga nq Ze mB WUvK BwURvi WUv ejv nq|
hgb-10,50,105,270I 500 BZvw`| G WUv AbK mgq wewfbfve eenvi Kiv nq| hgb-
Short Integer, Long Integer, Unsigned Integer BZvw`| ggwiZ Integer WUv jLvi
Rb 2 evBU RvqMv jvM|
L. dvwUs cqU (Floating Point) ev fMvsk: dvwUs cqU WUv UvBc ejZ `kwgKhy
WUvK eySvbv nq| G WUvi i 3.4E-38 _K 3.4E+38 ch nq _vK| GLvb
Exponential Notation G E K Exponent Gi msw ic wnmve eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
E Gi ci h jLv nq (abvZK ev FYvZK) Zv Kqevi msLvK 10 w`q Y Ki Zv eySvq|
hgb
2.3456E + 4 = 2.3456*10*10*10*10 = 23456
2.3456E 4 = 2.3456*101*101*101*101
= 2.3456*104
= 0.00023456
dvwUs WUv UvBc AbK mgq Double Floating Data Type AvKvi eenvi Kiv nq| G`i
msw bvg nQ- Double Float| Gaibi WUv ggwiZ 4 evBU ev 32 weU RvqMv `Lj Ki|
M. Wvej wcwmkb (Double Precision): Wvej wcwmkb WUvI njv `kwgKhy WUv| Ze GwU dvwUs
cqU WUvi eeZ m~Zvi cwigvY AviI evwoq `q| Gi m~Zv 14 wWwRU ch evovbv
me| G WUvi i 1.7E-308 _K 1.7E+308 ch nq| Gaibi WUv ggwiZ 8 evBU ev 64
weU RvqMv `Lj Ki|
N. Kvivi (Character) ev Ai: G WUv UvBc AvjdveU A_vr (az, AZ) AsK (09) ev
wekl Kvbv wP hgb- (#,@,*) BZvw`K eySvbv nq| mvBb Kvivi ev AvbmvBb
Kvivi G `yaibi Kvivi UvBc WUv nq _vK| mvBb Kvivi ev AvbmvBb Kvivi
ggwiZ 8 weU ev 1 evBU RvqMv `Lj Ki| mvBb Kivii i maviYZ 27_K 271
ch| AvbmvBb Kvivii i 28 ev 256 ch nq _vK|
cvMvwgs fvlv 181

2. BDRvi wWdvB WUv UvBc (User Defined Data Type): C cvMvwgs G BQvbyhvqx WUv
UvBc Zwi Kiv hvq| G`iK Kvg WUv UvBc ev BDRvi wWdvBb WUv UvBc ejv nq|
Gaibi WUv UvBc wnme mvaviYZ UvBc Wwdbkb ev Ges BwbDgwiUW ev eeZ nq
_vK| G WUv UvBc nQ vKPvi, Kvm, BDwbqb BZvw`|
3. wWivBfW WUv UvBc (Derived Data Type): G WUv UvBc Gi ga Avi, dvskb,
vKPvi, cqUvi I idvi Afy|
4. GgwU WUv UvBc (Empty data type): GgwU WUv UvBc wnme mvaviYZ fqW (Void),
fvjyjm (Valueless) ev bvj (Null) eeZ nq _vK|
C cvMvg WvUv UvBc wWKqvi Kivi cwZ
Charactar WUv UvBci MVb: Integer WUv UvBci MVb: Float WUv UvBci
char < variable name>; int < variable name>; MVb:
char ch; (GLvb ch GKwU variable) int number1; float number1;
char ch = `x (variable assign Kivi short int number2; double number2;
wbqg) long int number3: long double number3;

C cvMvg WUv UvBci bvg, Kx IqvW, AvKvi I i:


msiYi Rb
fwiqej UvBc Kx IqvW evw
weU msLv
character char 8 128 to 127 ev 27 _K 271
unsigned unsigned char 8 0 to 255 ev 0 _K (28 1)
integer int 16 32768 to 32767 ev 215 _K (2151)
short interger short int 16 32768 to 32767
long integer long int 32 214748348 to 2147483647 ev 231 _K (2311)
unsigned integer unsigned int 16 0 to 65535 ev 0 _K (216 1)
unsigned short unsigned short 16 0 to 65535 ev 0 _K (216 1)
integer int
unsigned long unsigned long 32 0 to 4294467295 ev 0 _K (232 1)
integer int
float float 32 3.4 E 38 to 3. 4 E + 38
double double 64 1.7 E 308 to 1.7 E + 308
long double long double 80 3.4E 4932 to 1.1E + 4932
aeK (Constant):
cvMvg wbevni mgq C fvlvq Ggb wKQz gvb AvQ hv Kvbv mgq cwiewZZ nq bv| hgb Gi gvb
22
njv 7 ev 3.14285| KLbv G Gi gvbi Kvbv cwieZb nq bv| cvMvg wbevni mgq hvi
gvb AcwieZxZ _vK ZvK aeK ej| cvMvg Kvbv wi ev AcwieZbkxj gvb eenvi Kivi
Rb cvMvg aeK ev Constant wnmve NvlYv Kiv nq|
182 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

cvMvg aeK eenvii myweav


1. aeK eenvi Kij AbK fyj nIqvi mvebv Kg hvq|
2. cvMvgi KvW UvBc KiZ mgq jvM|
3. cvMvg mnReva nq|
aeK (Constant) Pvi cKvi| h_v
1. BwURvi KbvU (Integer Constant)
2. dvwUs cqU KbvU (Floating Point Constant)
3. Aigvjv ev Kvivi (Character Constant)
4. ws KbvU (String Constant)
1. BwURvi KbvU (Integer Constant): Integer Constant BwURvi ev c~Y msLvi mg^q
MwVZ| A_vr 0-9 ch Ajvi mg^q MwVZ| hgb- 50, 100, 105, 200, 500 BZvw`|
C fvlvq eeZ BwURvi KbvUK mvaviYZ wZb fvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
K) Wwmgvj BwURvi KbvU, L) AKUvj BwURvi KbvU, M) nvWwmgvj BwURvi
KbvU
K. Wwmgvj BwURvi KbvU: 0 _K 9 ch Ajvi mg^q Wwmgvj BwURvi MwVZ|
abvZK ev FbvZK gvb Wwmgvj BwURvii Ask| hgb- 205, + 505, 70 BZvw`|
L. AKUvj BwURvi KbvU: 0 _K 7 ch Ajvi mg^q AKUvj BwURvi KbvU
MwVZ| G aibi msLvi c~e 0 emvZ nq| hgb- 0542, + 0125, 0225 BZvw`|
M. nvWwmgvj BwURvi KbvU: 0 _K 9 ch Ajv Ges A _K F ev a _K f ch
AvjdvewUKi mg^q nvWwmgvj BwURvi KbvU MwVZ| Gaibi msLvi c~e 0X ev
0x wjLZ nq| hgb- 0XBD57, 0xabc BZvw`|
2. dvwUs cqU KbvU (Floating Point Constant): Floating Point Constant AekvB
fMvski mg^q MwVZ| 0 _K 9 ch Ajvi mvnvh MwVZ `kwgKhy ev fMvsk
msLvjvB njv dvwUs cqU KbvU| hgb- 0.125, 0.275, 0.009 BZvw`|
3. Aigvjv ev Kvivi (Character Constant): Aigvjv ev Kvivi aeKjv Kvivii
mg^q MwVZ| GZ mvaviYZ wmj KvUkb eenvi Kiv nq _vK| hgb- J , `S BZvw`|
4. ws KbvU (String Constant): GK ev GKvwaK Kvivi hLb Z ebxi (Double
quotation) Gi gvag Ave _vK ZLb ZvK ws KbvU ej| hgb- Shuvodeep
Joyshree Cambrian College BZvw`|
fwiqej (Variable)
fwiqej njv ggwi () jvKkbi bvg ev wVKvbv| cvMvg WUv eenvii c~e Zv AekB
ggwiZ ivLv hvq| G ggwi AvWm mivmwi eenvi bv Ki GKwU bvg w`q H bvgi Aaxb
WUv ivLv nq| H bvgKB fwiqej ev PjK ej| Abfve ejv hvq h, cvMvg wbevni mgq hvi
gvb cwiewZZ nq ZvK fwiqej ev PjK ej| PjKi GKwU bvg w`Z nq| bvgwU 31 Aii
ga nZ nq| bvgi c_g Ai AekB eY nZ nq| BQvgZv PjKi bvg `qv hvq| Ze
msMwZc~Y bvg `qv fvjv|
cvMvwgs fvlv 183

hgbGKRb wkv_xi evsjv, BsiwR, Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw G wZbwU welqi b^i cvMvg BbcyU AvKvi
`qvi Rb wZbwU fwiqej `iKvi ne| G x, y I z K fwiqej wnme eenvi Kiv hvq|
fwiqej wWKqvikb:
cvMvg WUv wbq KvR Kivi mgq cwZwU WUvi Rb GKwU fwiqej eenvi KiZ nq| Avevi
cwZwU fwiqeji bvgi c~e Zvi WUv UvBc DjL KiZ nq| WUv UvBcmn Kvbv fwiqeji
bvgKiY Kivi cwqvK fwiqej NvlYv ejv nq| C Z fwiqej NvlYv Kivi wbqg njv
data_type variable_name:
data_type variable_name = value; (value assign Kivi )
D`vniY:
int x;
int x = 10; (value assign Kivi )
C Z Kvbv aibi WUvi Rb Kvbv WUv UvBc KiZ nq Zv wbg `Lvbv njv
character UvBc WUv ivLvi Rb data_type Ask char wjLZ nq|
integer UvBc WUv ivLvi Rb, data_type Ask int wjLZ nq|
float UvBc WUv ivLvi Rb, data_type Ask float wjLZ nq|
double UvBc WUv ivLvi Rb, data_type Ask double wjLZ nq|
g~jZ Kvbv fwiqej wWKqvi Kivi mgq data_type Aski gvag KvBjviK Rvwbq `qv
nq h, mswk fwiqej ggwiZ wK aibi WUv ivLZ eenvi Kiv ne| A_vr mswk
fwiqeji Rb ggwiZ KZ evBU RvqMv wbavwiZ ne|
fwiqej ev PjK jLvi wbqgvewj
fwiqej NvlYv, bvgKiY Ges Zv eenvii Rb KZKjv mywbw` wbqg AbymiY KiZ nq|
wbg mjv DjL Kiv njv:
fwiqej bvgKiY Kej AvjdvewUK Kvivi (a, , z, A, , Z), wWwRU (0, 1, 2,
., 9), Ges Avvivi () eenvi Kiv hvq| Avvivi eZxZ Ab Kvbv kvj
Kvivi (hgb- !, @, #, $, %, *, +, BZvw`) eenvi Kiv hvq bv| hgb-hsc com,
Mycomp ea fwiqej; wKy hsc@com I My&Comp Aea|
fwiqej bvgi ga Kvbv duvKv vb ev White space _vKZ cvi bv| hgb-
MyNumber, Number1, MyComp ea fwiqej| wKy My Number, Number 1 I
My Comp Aea|
fwiqej bvg wWwRU ev A w`q i nZ cvi bv| hgbNumber1 I Number10 ea
fwiqej; wKy 1 Number I 10Number Aea|
wm cvMvg eo nvZi Ges QvU nvZi Aijv Avjv`v A_ enb Ki| ZvB MyNumber,
Number1 I Number10 bvg fwiqej NvlYv Ki h_vg myNumber, number 1 I
Number10 bvg eenvi Kiv hvq bv|
184 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Kvbv KxIqvWi bvg fwiqej wnme eenvi Kiv hvq bv Ges main Kvbv KxIqvW bv
njI fwiqej bvg wnme main envi Kiv hvq bv| Aek Kx-IqvWmg~ni bvgi GK ev
GKvwaK eY eo nvZi nid wjL AvBWwUdvqvii bvg wnme eenvi Kiv hvq| Ze Gic
bv KivB Dg| hgb-Int, Char, Main, MAIN BZvw` ea fwiqej| wKy int, private,
main BZvw` Aea|
fwiqej bvgKiY hKvbv msLK Kvivi eenvi Kiv hvq| Ze ANSI wbqg Abyhvqx
`ywU fwiqeji bvgi cv_K AekB c_g 31wU Kvivii ga nZ ne| GRb
fwiqej bvgKiY 31wU Kvivii ewk eenvi bv KivB fvjv|
fwiqeji cKvif`: wWKvikbi Dci wfw Ki fwiqejK `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. jvKvj fwiqej (Local Variable) I 2. Mvevj fwiqej (Global Variable)
1. jvKvj fwiqej (Local Variable): Kvbv dvskbi ga fwiqej wWKqvi Kij ZvK
D dvskbi jvKvj fwiqej ev vbxq PjK ejv nq| dvskbi ga NvlYv Kiv PjK D
dvskbi evBi eenvi Kiv hvq bv| jvKvj fwiqeji KgKv aygv mswk dvskbB mxgve
_vK| wfb wfb dvskb GKB bvgi jvKvj fwiqej _vKZ cvi|
2. Mvevj fwiqej (Global Variable): mKj dvskbi evBi cvMvgi kyiZ NvlYvKZ
fwiqejK Mvevj fwiqej ejv nq| Mvevj fwiqej mvaviYZ cvMvgi iZB wWKqvi Kiv
nq| Gaibi fwiqeji KgKv Kvbv dvskbi ga mxgve bq ej GK Mvevj ev mveRbxb
fwiqej ej|
Mvevj fwiqej main() dvskbi c~e NvlYv KiZ nq Ges Mvevj fwiqej int,char,float
BZvw` WUv UvBc nZ cvi| wm cvMvg fwiqej KvhKvwiZvi Dci wbfi Ki fwiqejmg~nK
AviI KqKfvM wef Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. AUvgwUK fwiqej (Automatic Variable)
2. GUvibvj fwiqej (External Variable)
3. vwUK fwiqej (Static Variabe)
4. iwRvi fwiqej (Register Variable)
KvR: aeK I PjK Gi ga cv_K jL|
5.12.5 C-Gi AcviUi (Operator)
wm fvlvq MvwYwZK (Mathemetical) Ges hwK (Logical) KvR wbqY Kivi Rb KZKjv
wekl Kvivi hgb: +,-,*,/,++,--, BZvw` wP eeZ nq| Gme wekl KvivijvK ejv
nq AcviUi| G AcviUi hme WUvi (hgb-BwURvi UvBc WUv, dvwUs cqU WUv BZvw`)
mvnvh Kvh mv`b Ki Zv`iK ej nq Acvi| Kvbv AcviUii mv_ Acvi eenvi Ki
expression Zwi Kiv nq| hgb- a + b (a*b)/c njv GKUv expression| A_vr KZKjv
Acvi ,AcviUi Ges KbvUi wgwjZ dj njv Gckb (Expression) ev ivwkgvjv|
D`vniY^ic ejv hvq, x = (a + b + c)/3 ; GKwU Gckb| GLvb, a, b, c njv Acvi
(Operand)
+ , = Ges / njv AcviUi Ges 3 njv GKwU KbvU|
cvMvwgs fvlv 185

hme AcviUi GKwU gv Acvi wbq KvR Ki Zv`iK unary operator ej|
D`vniY: x+y | GLvb operator wU unary operator njv|
hme AcviUi `ywU Acvi wbq KvR Ki Zv`iK binary operator ej| binary operator
jv `yUv Acvii gvSLvb eeZ nq| hgb-
(a + b) x ; GLvb + AcviUiwUi a I b `yUv Acvi Ges - AcviUiwU `yUv Acvi (a
+ b) I x K wbq KvR Ki| ZvB G + I - binary operator|
wm fvlvq AcviUiK AvU fvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. MvwYwZK AcviUi (Arithmetic Operators)
2. wijkbvj AcviUi (Relational Operators)
3. jwRKvj AcviUi (Logical Operators)
4. AvmvBbgU AcviUi (Assignment Operators)
5. BbwgU Ges wWwgU AcviUi (Increment and Decrement Operators)
6. Kwkbvj AcviUi (Conditional Operators)
7. weU IqvBR AcviUi (Bitwise Operators)
8. kvj AcviUi (Special Operators)
1. MvwYwZK AcviUi (Arithmetic Operators)
C cvMvg wewfb iKg MvwYwZK KvR (hgb-hvM, weqvM, Y, fvM cfwZ) Kivi Rb hme cZxK
ev AcviUi eeZ nq mme AcviUiK Arithmetic Operator ejv nq| C Z g~jZ cuvPwU
Arithmetic Operator AvQ| hgb
AcviUi (Operator) bvg (Name) eenvi (Uses)
+ plus hvM Kivi Rb eeZ nq|
- minus weqvM Kivi Rb eeZ nq|
/ division fvM Ki fvMdj wbYqi Rb eeZ nq|
* multiplier Y Kivi Rb eeZ nq|
% modulas fvMkl ei Kivi Rb eeZ nq|

C Z m~PK Gi KvR Kivi Rb Kvbv AcviUi bB| ZvB m~PKi KvR cvMvg wbPi gZv Ki Dcvcb
KiZ nq,
a4 K wjLZ nq a*a*a*a;
3a3 K wjLZ nq 3*a*a*a ;
2(a+b)2 K wjLZ nq 2*(a+b) * (a+b) ;
Ze Gaibi KvR Kivi Rb C Gi wbR^ wKQz function AvQ|
186 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

C Z Arithmetic operator jv eenvi Ki Dcii gZv mvaviY expression QvovI RwUj


expression Zwi Kiv hvq| hgb
MvwYwZK Gckb mgZzj C Gi Gckb
Y = a2+2ab+b2 Y = a*a + 2*a*b + b*b

Y = 2ab2d/3c Y = (2*a*b*b*d)/(3*c)

Y = 4m2 + 6n +2 Y = 4*m*m + 6 * n +2

Y = r2 + 2rh Y = 3.14 * r* r + 2*3.14 * r* h

s(s a )(s b)(s c) A = SQRT (s * (sa) * (sb) * (sc))


A=

Z = ax2 + bx + c Z = a*x*x+b*x+c

3a2 + 2b y = (3*a*a+2*b)/4
y= 4

sinAB + cosAB Sin(A*B) + cos(A*B)

wbgi Gckbmg~n evLv Ki|


i. a = + i
ii. + + i > I i + +
mgvavb:
i. a = + A_ Gi gvb i Gi mgvb a = a + i
ii. + + i A_ i + i Gi Abyic| + + hw` Operator Gi AvM _vK Ze ZvK pre-increment or
prefix ej|
i++ A_ i = i + 1 Abyic| ++ hw` Operator Gi ci _vK Ze ZvK post-increment or
postfix ej|
wijkbvj AcviUi (Relational Operators)
cvMvg wbevni mgq `ywU PjKi ga Zzjbvi wijkbvj AcviUi eeZ nq| cvMvg `yUv
Acvii ga wewfb mK cKvk KiZ h AcviUimg~n eeZ nq Zv`iK Relational
Operator ejv nq|
GLvb mK ev wijkb ejZ GKwU Acvi Aci Acvi _K QvU wKsev QvU ev mgvb wKsev
eo ev mgvb BZvw` eySvq|
cvMvwgs fvlv 187

wbP wijkbvj AcviUi I Zvi KvRi eYbvi QK `qv njv:


wijkbvj
KvR D`vniY eYbv
AcviUi
< Less than (QvU) a<b a Gi gvb b gvbi Pq QvU
<= Less than or equal (QvU ev a <= b a Gi gvb b gvbi Pq QvU A_ev
mgvb) mgvb
> Greater than (eo) a>b a Gi gvb b gvbi Pq eo
>= Greater than or equal a > = b a Gi gvb b gvbi Pq eo A_ev
(eo ev mgvb) mgvb|
== Equal to (mgvb) a == b a Gi gvb b gvbi mgvb
!= Not equal to (Amgvb) a!=b a I b Gi gvb mgvb bq
3. jwRKvj AcviUi (Logical Operators)
mvaviYZ `yB ev ZZvwaK Gckbi Zzjbvi Rb hywg~jK AcviUi eeZ nq| cvMvg
hywg~jK Gckb wbq KvR Kivi Rb hme AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq mjvK jwRKvj ev
hwK AcviUi ejv nq| jwRKvj Ai (||), jwRKvj G (&&) Ges jwRKvj bU (!) BZvw`
nQ jwRKvj AcviUi|
wbP jwRKvj AcviUi I Zv`i KvR eYbv Kiv njv:
AcviUi AcviUi Gi
KvhcwZ D`vniY
Gi wP bvg
&& AND hw` Dfq Acvi Gi gvb k~b bv nq (A && B) is true.
AcviUi ZeB kZwU mZ ev true ne|
|| OR hw` `ywU Acvi Gi Kgc GKwU (A || B) is true.
AcviUi gvb k~b bv nq ZeB kZwU mZ ev
true ne|
! NOT Acvi Gi gvb wecixZ A_ eeZ ! (A && B) is false.
AcviUi nq| hw` GKwU kZ mZ ev true nq
Ges m jwRKvj NOT
AcviUi eenvii dj kZwU wg_v
ev false ne|
188 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

4. AvmvBbgU AcviUi (Assignment Operators)


hLb Kvbv ivwkgvjvi ev Kvbv aeKi gvb Kvbv PjK ivLZ nq ZLb AvmvBbgU AcviUi
eenvi Kiv nq| Kvbv Gckb ev fwiqeji gvbK Ab Kvbv fwiqeji gvb wnme
wbaviY KiZ hme AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq, ZvB njv Assignment Operator| mvaviYZ
AvmvBbgU AcviUi wnmve = wP eeZ nq| a = 5, Factorial= 0| GLvb a I Factorial
njv fwiqeji bvg hv`i K h_vg 5 Ges w`q 0 AvmvBU Kiv nqQ| C fvlvq short
hand assignment operator I eeZ nq|
wbP C cvMvwgs fvlvq short hand assignment operator jvi ZvwjKv `qv njv:
Simple assignment operator Short hand assignment operator
a=a+ a+=1
a = a 1 a=1
a=a*b a*=b
a = a/b a/=b
a = a%b a% = b
Uwej-wm Gi short hand assignment operator
5. BbwgU Ges wWwgU AcviUi (Increment and Decrement Operators)
wm cvMvg `ywU iZc~Y AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq hv mvaviYZ Ab fvlvq eenvi Kiv nq bv|
AcviUi `ywU nQ Increment and Decrement Operators| A_vr ++ Ges -- |
fwiqeji gvbK ewaZ Kivi Rb h AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq ZvK Increment Operator
ej| G ewaZ KiY 1 _K i Ki hKvbv gvb nZ cvi| hgb- x=x+1; x=x+6 BZvw`|
Increment Operator GKwU BDbvwi AcviUi hvi MVb wbic
++a or a++
++a K prefix BbwgU ej Ges a ++ K postfix BbwgU ej|
++a is equivalent to a = a + 1; or a + = 1
fwiqeji gvbK nvm Kivi Rb h AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq ZvK Decrement Operator
ej| G nvm KiY 1 _K i Ki hKvbv gvb nZ cvi| hgb- x = x1; x = x 6
BZvw`| Decrement Operator GKwU BDbvwi AcviUi hvi MVb wbic
--a or a--
--a K prefix wWwgU ej Ges a++ K postfix wWwgU ej|
--a is equivalent to a = a 1; or a =1
cvMvwgs fvlv 189

6. Kwkbvj AcviUi (Conditional Operators)


wm cvMvg kZ mvc Kvbv fwiqej ev Gckbi gvb Ab Kvbv fwiqej ev Gckbi
gvb wnmve wbaviY Kivi Rb Kwkbvj AcviUi eeZ nq| Kwkbvj AcviUi eenvii
digvU njv
True
Exp1 = (Test Condition) ? Exp2 : Exp3
False
Dcii UgU c_g Test Condition cixv Kiv ne| G gvb mZ ev Ak~b nj Exp1= Exp2
wbavwiZ ev mvw`Z ne, Avi G gvb wg_v ev k~b nj Exp1= Exp3 wbavwiZ ev mvw`Z ne| DjL,
Kwkbvj AcviUii Kej Exp2 A_ev Exp3 mvw`Z nq; KLbvB Exp2 Ges Exp3 Dfq
mvw`Z nq bv|
7. weU IqvBR AcviUi (Bitwise Operators):
C cvMvg weU jfj WUv eenvi Kivi Rb Operator Meaning
Bitwise Operator eenvi Kiv nq| Gme & Bitwise AND
AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq Kvbv weU cixv Kivi | Bitwise OR
Rb ev Kvbv weU Wvb ev evg mivbvi Rb| ^ Bitwise exclusive OR
Float ev Double UvBci WUvi Bitwise << Shipt left
Operator eenvi Kiv hvq bv| cvki Uwej wKQz >> Shipt right
Ones complement
Bitwise Operator I Zv`i A_ `qv njv

5.12.6 Kx-IqvW (Keyword)


cZK cvMvwgs fvlvq wKQz msiwZ k AvQ, KvBjvii KvQ hv`i wekl A_ AvQ|
msiwZ kjv cvMvg Zwii eenvi Kiv nq| G kmg~nK Kx-IqvW ev wiRvfW IqvW
ejv nq| wm cvMvg 32 msiwZ k AvQ| cZK KxIqvWi mywbw` A_ AvQ Ges KxIqvW
Avjv`v Avjv`v KvR Ki| wm cvMvg mKj KxIqvW QvU nvZi Ai wjLZ nq|
ANSI-Gi gvb Abyhvqx C cvMvg eeZ Keyword njv
auto double if void
break else int struct
case enum static switch
char extern register typedef
const long return union
continue float short unsigned
default for signed volatile
do goto sizeof while
190 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

5.12.7 UgU (Statement)


cvMvg Kvbv Gckb wKsev dvskbi kl hLb mwgKvjb (;) `qv nq, ZLb C Gi fvlvq
GK mvaviYZ UgU ejv nq|
Statement `yaibi nZ cvi| h_v: 1. Simple statement Ges 2. Compound statement
1. Simple Statement: GKwU gv Gckb wKsev GKwU gv dvskb wbq MwVZ UgUK
Simple statement ej| hgb-
int x = 7;
int y = 8; z
z = x + y;
printf (Sum = % d, z);
GLvb cwZwU jvBb GKKwU Simple statement|
2. Compound statement: GK ev GKvwaK Simple UgUK hLb {} ebxi ga jLv
nq, wm Gi fvlvq ZLb ZvK compound statement ej|
wbP compound statement Gi D`vniY `qv njv:
{
pi = 3.141593;
circumference = 2*pi*r;
area = pi*r*r;
}
BbcyU-AvDUcyU UgU: C cvMvg AbK aibi jvBewi dvskb AvQ| hvi ga AbZg nQ
Standard I/O jvBewi dvskb hv mKj aibi Input / Output Gi KvR mb Ki|
BbcyU UgU (Input Statement)
hme UgU Gi mvnvh cvMvg WUv Z_v fwiqeji gvb MnY Kiv nq ZvK Input
Statement ej| Kx evW _K string RvZxq WUv BbcyUi Rb C Z KqK aibi UgU
eenvi Kiv nq| h_v:
Input Statement
scanf()
getc()
gets()
getchar()

wm fvlvq wZb aibi eevi gvag WUv BcyU `qv hZ cvi| h_v:
1. AvmvBbgU UgU (Assignment Statement)
2. digUW BbcyU (Formated Input)
3. wiwWs G Kvivi (Reading a character)
cvMvwgs fvlv 191

1. AvmvBbgU UgU (Assignment Statement): cvMvgi WUvjvK mivmwi GKwU


PjK wbw` Ki w`j ZvK AvmvBgU UgU ej|
hgb physics = 80, chemistry = 70
wbg `ywU welqi hvMdj ei Kivi Rb Assignment Statement eenvi Ki GKwU cvMvg iPbv Kiv
hvq|
# include <stdio.h>
main ( )
{
int physics = 80;
int chemistry = 70;
int total;
total = physics+chemistry;
printf ( The total number of two subjects = %d,total);
}
djvdj: The total number of two subjects = 150
2. digUW BbcyU (Formated Input)
cvMvg Pjvi mgq eenviKvixi wbKU _K cqvRbxq WUv bqvi Rb ej eeZ BbcyU
UgU njv scanf ( ), hvi mvnvh int, char, float BZvw` UvBci WUv BbcyU Kiv hvq|
scanf ( ) Gi Rb stdio.h jvBewi dvskb cvMvg mshy KiZ nq| scanf () njv GKwU
Formated input dvskb|
scanf ( ) Gi mvaviY MVb njv:
scanf (Control String, &variable);
GLvb Control String ejZ eySvbv nqQ eenviKvixi wbKU _K Kvb UvBci WUv bqv
ne| Avi &variable wb`k Ki address of variable A_vr eenviKvix h WUv BbcyU Kie,
Zv D fwiqeji Rb wbavwiZ ggwi AvWm msiwZ ne| hgb
int a ;
scanf (%d, &a);
GLvb %d njv integer WUv UvBci format specifications. Avi &a njv address of a hv
wb`k Ki integer UvBci a fwiqeji ggwi jvKkb hLvb WUv msiwZ ne|
`yB ev ZZvwaK BbcyU WUv bqvi Rb UgUi MVb njv:
scanf (Control Strings, &variable1, &variable2, ........... &rariablen;
GKB UvBci WUvi Rb nZ cvi Avevi wfb wfb UvBci WUvi RbI nZ cvi| hgb-
int a, b, c
scanf (%d %d %d, &a, &b, &c);
A_ev, int a;
float b;
char c;
scanf (%d %f %c, &a, &b, &c);
192 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

myZiv s scanf ( ) BbcyU UgU eenvi Kivi c~e format specifications mK fvjv aviYv _vKv
cqvRb|
wbPi Uwej wewfb aibi format specifications Gi eenvi DjL Kiv njv:
format specifications eenvi
%c Single character UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi Rb
eeZ nq|
%d ev %i decimal integer UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi Rb
eeZ nq|
%f floating point UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi Rb
eeZ nq|
%u unsigned integer UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi Rb
eeZ nq|
%o octal integer UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi Rb
eeZ nq|
%x hexadecimal integer UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi
Rb eeZ nq|
%s String UvBci WUv BbcyU ev AvDUcyU Kivi Rb eeZ nq|

3. wiwWs G Kvivi (Reading a Character)


mePq mnRZg BbcyU Kgv njv GKwU eY cov, hv mvaviYZ Kiv nq Kx evWI mvnvh| GB KvRwU
Kivi Rb getehar dvskbwUi MVb wbgic:
Variable_name = getchar () ;
Variable_name K char type G NvlYv KiZ ne| D`vniY^ic-
char name;
name = getchar ( );
AvDUcyU UgU (Output Statement): Output statement
hme UgU Gi mvnvh cvMvgi djvdj gwbUi c`kb ev wcU printf ( )
Kiv nq Zv`i K AvDUcyU UgU ejv nq| Kx evW _K string putc ()
RvZxq WUv AvDUcyU c`kbi Rb C Z KqK aibi UgU puts ( )
eenvi Kiv nq| putchar ( )
cvMvwgs fvlv 193

h_v: wm fvlvq `yaibi eevi gvag WUv AvDUcyU cvIqv hZ cvi| h_v:
1. digUW AvDUcyU (Formated Output)
2. ivBwUs G Kvivi (Writing a character)
1. digUW AvDUcyU (Formated Output): C fvlvq AvDUcyU UgU wnme ej eeZ
dvskb njv printf ( ), hvi mvnvh ws ev wsmn wewfb UvBci (hgb: int, char, float
BZvw`) WUvi gvb gwbUii c`vq c`kb Kiv hvq|
printf ( ) Gi MVb njv:
printf (String);

String wnme hKvbv word ev character ev sentence nZ cvi| A_vr printf ( ) dvskb Gi
c_g ebx ( ) wfZi Wvej KvUkbi ga hv jLv nq printf ( ) dvskbwU gwbUii wY ZvB
c`kb Ki|
D`vniY: COMPUTER kwU gvS GK jvBb duvKv vb mn wcU Kivi Rb cvMvg wjL|
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
void main ( )
{
clrscr ( ) ;
printf (\n COMPUTER);
printf (\n);
printf (\n COMPUTER);
getch ( ) ;
}
Output:
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

BbcyU-AvDUcyU UgU eenvi Ki KqKwU cvMvg:


D`vniY-1: GKwU cvMvg hv eenviKvixi wbKU D`vniY-2: mjwmqvm ji ZvcgvvK
_K c`v_ Ges imvqb b^i wRvmv Kie dvibnvBU Zvcgvvq icvii cvMvg|
Ges Zv`i hvMdj ei Kie|
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main ( )
main()
{ {
194 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

int Physics, Chemistry, sum; int c, f;


printf (Enter your score in Physics:); printf (Enter celcious
scanf (%d, & Physics); temperature:);
printf (Enter your score in Chemistry:);
scanf (%d,&c);
scanf (%d, & Chemistry);
sum = Physics + Chemistry; f=9*c/5+32;
printf (Total number is : %d, sum); printf (Ferenheight
getch(); temperature=%d\n,f);
} getch( );
}
djvdj: Enter your score in Physics: 70
Enter your score in Chemistry: 60 djvdj:
Total number is : 130 Enter celcious temperature: 50
Ferenheight temperature = 122
cvMvwgs fvlv 195

D`vniY-3: GKwU wfyRi wZb evi `N `qv D`vniY-4: ei dj wbYqi cvMvg|


_vKj Zvi dj ei Kivi
#include<stdio.h>
cvMvg|
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdio.h> #define PI 3.14
#include<math.h> main ( )
#include<conio.h> {
main() int ra;
{ flaot area;
float a, b, c, s, area; printf (Enter integer value for radius:);
printf (Enter the value of 3 arms of a triangle:);
scanf (%d,&ra);
scanf (%f %f %f, &a, &b, &c);
area = PI* (ra*ra);
s = (a + b + c) / 2;
printf(\n Area of circle = %f, area);
area = sqrt (s*(sa)* (sb)* (sc));
getch ( );
printf (\nThe area of a triangle = % f,
area); }
getch ();
} djvdj:
cvMvgwU ivb Kij AvDUcyU ne wbgic: Enter integer value for radius: 7
Enter the value of 3 arms of a triangle: 6 7 8 Area of circle = 153.86
The area of a triangle = 20.333

5.12.8 KUvj UgU (Control Statement)


wm fvlvq wjLv cvMvgi UgUjv chvqg ev avivevwnKfve mvRvbv _vK hv GKi ci GK
wmKvq Abyhvqx mvw`Z nq| G UgUjvi cybivew Abyhvqx mv`bi cqvRb nq
bv| mvaviYZ GK ev GKvwaK UgU I dvskbi mg^q wm cvMvg MwVZ| hw` UgUjvi
cybivew Abyhvqx mv`bi cqvRb nq Zvnj wKQz kZhy Kiv nq| GjvK KUvj UgU
ej| KUvj UgU eenvi Ki cvMvg wjLv nj cvMvgi AvKvi QvU nq Ges cvMvg
wbevni mgq Kg jvM|
KUvj UgU Gi kwYwefvM:
wm fvlvq KUvj UgUK cavbZ `yfvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
Kwkbvj KUvj UgU (Conditional Control Statement)
jyc KUvj UgU (Loop Control Statement) |
196 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Kwkbvj KUvj UgU (Conditional Control Statement)


wm cvMvg wbw` kZ mvc GK ev GKvwaK UgU mv`bi Rb Kwkbvj KUvj eeZ
nq| Gic kZhy UgUK Kwkbvj KUvj UgU ej| Kwkbvj KUvj eeZ kZ
mZ nj cvMvg GK aibi djvdj cvIqv hvq Ges wg_v nj Ab aibi djvdj cvIqv hvq|
wm cvMvg Conditional Control Statement mg~n njv:
1. if UgU
2. if else UgU
3. else if UgU
4. switch UgU
1| if UgU: wm cvMvg hw` A_ if UgU eeZ nq| kZ mvc Kvbv UgU
mv`bi Rb if UgU eenvi Kiv nq| kZ hw` mZ nq Ze statement KvhKix ne
Avi kZ hw` wg_v nq Ze statement KvhKix ne bv| if statement Gi MVb
Simple statement Gi : Compound statement Gi :
if (Condition) if (Condition)
statement1; {
statement 1;
statement 2;
...................
statement n;
}

if Gi ci c_g ebxi fZi KwkbwU wjLZ nq| if (Condition) UgUi ci Kvbv


mwgKvjb _vKe bv| G kZi gvb hw` mZ nq Ze Kwkbi cii statement wU mvw`Z nq,
Ab_vq cieZx statement wU mvw`Z nq|
cvMvg if statement hfve KvR Ki Zv GKwU D`vniYi mvnvh `Lvbv njv:
# include<stdio.h>
# include<conio.h>
void main ()
{
int a;
printf (Enter a value: );
scanf (%d, &a);
if (a>0)
printf (%d is a positive number., a );
getch () ;
}
cvMvwgs fvlv 197

djvdj: Enter a value: 5


5 is a positive number.
2| if else UgU: wm cvMvg Ab_vq A_ if UgUi mv_ else UgU eeZ
nq| GRb G UgUK if else UgU ejv nq| if else statement eenvii digvU
njv
hw` compound statement nq, Zvnj if
simple statement Gi : else statement eenvii digvU njv
if (condition) if (condition)
{
statement 1;
statement 1;
else ..................
statement 2; statement n;
if (condition) UgUi ci Kvbv }
else
mwgKvjb em bv| GLvb if Gi condition {
mZ nj, cvMvg if mswk statement 1 statement 11;
mvw`Z ne| Ab_vq statement 1 mvw`Z ...................
statement ln;
bv nq else mswk statement 2 mvw`Z
}
ne|
GLvb if Gi condition mZ nj, cvMvg if
mswk compound statement mvw`Z ne|
Ab_vq else mswk compound statement
mvw`Z ne|
D`vniY1: `ywU c~Y msLv BbcyU w`Z ne Ges D`vniY2: GKwU mvj BbcyU w`Z ne Ges
G`i ga eo msLvwU wcU Kivi Rb If- mvjwU Leap Year wKbv Zv wbYq Kivi
then-else eenvi Ki cvMvg wjL| Rb cvMvg wjL|
#include<stdio.h> #include <stdio.h>
#include<conio.h> #include <conio.h>
void main() main ( )
{ {
int a, b; int y;
printf (Enter 1st value:) ; int Rem4, Rem100, Rem400;
scanf (%d, &a); printf (\n Enter a year:);
printf (Enter 2nd value;); scanf (%d, &y);
scanf(%d, &b); Rem4 = y%4;
if (a>b) Rem100 = y% 100;
printf (Largest Number is %d, a); Rem400 = y%400;
else if((Rem4 = = 0 && Rem100!=0) || Rem400 = = 0)
printf (Largest Number is %d, b); printf (\n %d is a leap year, y);
198 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

getch () ; else
} printf (\n%d is not a leap year, y);
getch ( );
}
AvDUcyU: Enter 1st value: 25 djvdj: Enter a year: 2012
Enter 2nd value: 35 2012 is a leap year
Largesr Number is: 35
3| else if UgU:
wm cvMvg Ab_vq hw` A_ if-else UgU Gi mv_ else if UgU eenvi Kiv nq|
cvMvg GKvwaK kZ hvPvB Kivi Rb GKvwaK if UgU Gi cwieZ else if UgU
eenvi Kiv nq| else if UgU eenvii digU njv
if (Condition1) D`vniY: else if UgU eenvi Ki wZbwU
{ msLvi ga eo msLvwU wbYqi Rb cvMvg
statement 1; wjL|
} #include <stdio.h>
else if (Condition2) #include <conio.h>
{ void main ( )
statement 2; {
} int a, b, c ;
else if (Condition3) printf (Enter 3 inetger value:);
{ scanf (%d %d %d, &a, &b, &c);
statement 3; if ((a>b) && (a>c))
} printf (\n Lagest value is %d, a);
............................ else if ((b>a) && (b>c))
else printf (\n Lagest value is %d, b);
{ else
DefaultBlock; printf (\n Lagest value is %d, c);
} getch ( );
BlockN; }
............................
djvdj:
if Ges else if Gi ci c_g ebxi ga Enter 3 inetger value: 3 7 9
kZmg~n wjLv nq| cvMvg GKvwaK msLK Largest value is 9
else if UgU _vKZ cvi| Ze if wKsev
else wKsev if ...else mwKZ GKwU gv
UgU mvw`Z nq|
Switch statement: else if Gi gZ cvMvg GKvwaK UgU _K wbw` Kvbv UgU
wbq KvR Kivi Rb C cvMvg switch UgU eenvi Kiv nq| mvaviYZ ewk msLK else if
UgU eenvii cwieZ switch UgU eeZ nq| switch UgU Gi mv_ AwZwi
cvMvwgs fvlv 199

case, break, default UgU eeZ nZ cvi| eo cvMvg else if Gi Pq switch


UgU eenvi Ki mnRB cvMvg Zwi Kiv hvq |
switch UgU eenvii digvU njv:
switch (expression)
{
case value1:
statement(1);
break;
case value2:
statement(2);
break;
.........
case value n:
statement(n);
break;
default:
default statement ;
break;
}
DcwiD MVb _K `Lv hvq h, switch UgU PviwU keyword wbq KvR Ki| h_v:
1. switch 2. case
3. break 4. default

switch: if UgUi gZv switch Gi ci c_g ebxi ( ) ga expression wjLZ nq| G


expression mvaviYZ c~Y msLv ev Kvivi UvBci GKUv fwiqej nq _vK|
case: switch Gi AMZ expression Gi gvb Zzjbv Kiv nq case Gi mv_ hy gvbi m|
h gvbi m wgje ev mZ ne| mB case mswk statement(s) GwwKDU ev mvw`Z ne|
jwbq case value Gi Gici Kvjb (:) wP w`Z nq| G case value K case label I ejv hvq|
break: case label Gi mv_ mswk simple ev compound UgUi kl break statement
wU eenvi Kiv nq| dj KwDUvi eySZ cvi DcwiD case label wUi KvR kl| Ze break
statement wU eenvi KiZ ne Ggb Kvb evaevaKZv bB Ze eenvi Kiv fvjv|
default: if else UgU G h KvR else K eenvi Kiv nqQ mB GKB KvR switch
UgU G default eenvi Kiv nq| DjL h, default Gi ci Kvjb (:) eenvi KiZ nq|
D`vniY: `ywU b^i BbcyU wnme wbe Ges b^i `ywU hvM bv weqvM Kie Zv BbcyU wnme wbe
Ges KvhKi Kie| switch UgUi mvnvh GKwU cvMvg wjLv njv-
#include <stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
main ()
200 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

{
int menu, numb1, numb2, total ;
printf (Enter two numbers --?) ;
scanf (%d %d, &numb1, &numb2 ) ;
printf (Enter your choice \n ) ;
printf (1=addition\n) ;
printf(2=subtraction \n) ;
scanf (%d, &menu ) ;
switch ( menu ) {
case 1: total = numb1 + numb2; break;
case 2: total = numb1 - numb2; break;
default: printf (Invalid option selected\n) ;
}
if ( menu == 1 )
printf (%d plus %d is %d\n, numb1, numb2, total) ;
else if ( menu == 2 )
printf (%d minus %d is %d\n, numb1, numb2, total) ;
getch ( ) ;
}
DcwiD cvMvgwU ivb Kij xb wbgv djvdj `Lve|
Enter two numbers: 25 10
Enter your choice
1 = addition
2 = subtraction
1
25 plus 10 is 35
5.12.9 jyc (Loop)
wm cvMvg UgUmg~n mvaviYZ ^sqwqfve I chvqg GKevi Ki mvw`Z nq| cvMvg
hme UgU `yB ev ZZvwaKevi mvw`Z nq mjvK jywcs UgU ejv nq| cvMvgi ga
GKB KvR evi evi mb KivK jyc ev P ej|
jyc UgUmg~n mvaviYZ `ywU Ask wbq MwVZ| h_v:
1. jyc ewW (Loop Body)
2. U Kwkb (Test Condition)
cvMvg hZY ch U Kwkb ev kZ _vK, jyc ewWi AveZb ZZY ch PjZ _vK| jyc
ewW I U Kwkbi wbevni Dci wfw Ki jyc UgUmg~nK `yfvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
GwU KUvj jyc (Entry Control Loop):
cvMvwgs fvlv 201

GwU KUvjjyc jyc ewWi wbevn ii AvMB U Kwkb cixv Kiv nq| Kwkb mZ bv nj
jyc ewW mvw`Z nq bv|
GwU KUvj jyc (Exit Control Loop):
GwU KUvj jyc c_g kZnxbfve GKevi jyc ewW wbevn nq| Zvici U Kwkb cixv Kiv nq|
wbP GwU KUvj jyc I GwU KUvj jyc Gi dvPvU `Lvbv njv
Entry Entry

Loop Body
Test
Conditions False
True
True Test
Loop Body Conditions

False

... ... ... ... ... ...


wP: jyc KUvj (K) GwU KUvj (L) GwU KUvj
wm- cvMvg jyc UgUmg~n:
1| for loop UgU
2| while loop UgU
3| do ...... while loop UgU
for loop UgU Gi MVb: wm cvMvg GK ev GKvwaK UgU GKwU wbw` msLKevi mv`b
KiZ for loop UgU eenvi Kiv nq| jyc KZevi wbevn Kiv ne Zv Rvbv _vKjB Kejgv
for loop eenvi Kiv hvq|
wbg for loop UgUi digvU njv
Simple statement Gi : Compound statement Gi :
for (expression 1; expression 2; for (expression 1; expression 2; increment / decrement)
increment/decrement) {
{ statement 1;
Statement; :
} statement1:
}
202 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

GLvb expression 1-G ii gvb assign KiZ nq| expression 2 Z kl gvb conditional
operator eenvi Ki DjL KiZ nq| increment / decrement viv i _K kl gvb ch
KZ Ki ew / nvm cve Zv cKvk Ki|
Simple I Compound statement Gi ga g~j cv_K njv Simple statement G GKwU
statement _vK Ab_vq Compound G GKvwaK statement _vK| Simple I Compound
statement DfqwU viv jyci vKPvi `Lvbv njv| cixvq jyci vKPvi wjLZ Kvbv wKQz
DjL bv Kij Simple statement w`q vKPvi `qvB fvjv|
D`vniY1: 1 _K 50 ch msLvjvi ga D`vniY2: Kvbv msLv gwjK wKbv Zv hvPvB
weRvo msLvjv ei Kivi GKwU cvMvg Kivi GKwU cvMvg wjL|
wjL| #include <stdio.h>
#include <stdio.h> #include<conio.h>
#include<conio.h> int main (void)
main () {
{ int num, i, is_prime;
int i ; printf (Enter the number to test:)
for (i = 1; i< = 50; i ++) scanf (%d, &num):
{ is_prime=1;
if (i % 2 ! = 0) for (i=2; i<=num/2; i=i+1);
printf (%d, i); if ( (num %i) = = 0) is_prime = 0;
} if (is_prime = = 1)
getch () printf (The number is prime. \n) ;
return 0 ; else
} printf (The number is not prime.
\n);
cvMvgwU ivb Kij wbPi djvdj c`wkZ ne: }
djvdj:
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
Enter the number to test: 3
31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
The number is prime.
While Loop: wm cvMvg kZ mvc GK ev GKvwaK UgU GKwU wbw` msLKevi mv`b
KiZ while loop UgU eenvi Kiv nq| while loop K for loop Gi weK wnmve eenvi
Kiv hvq| while Gi condition c_gB check nq Ges condition false nj jyc execute nq bv|
while loop UgU digvU njv
Simple statement Gi : Compound statement Gi :
expression 1; expression 1;
while (expression 2) while (expression 2)
{ {
statement statement 1
expression 3; .
} .
cvMvwgs fvlv 203

statement n
expression 3;
}
GLvb, expression 1-G ii gvb assign KiZ nq| expression 2 Z kl gvb conditional
operator eenvi Ki DjL KiZ nq| expression 3 viv i _K kl gvb ch KZ Ki ew/nvm
cve Zv cKvk Ki|
D`vniY-1: 1 + 3 + 9 + 27 + 81+........+N D`vniY2: 1+2+3+4+ ............ + n avivi
avivi hvMdj wbYqi cvMvg| hvMdj wbYqi GKwU cvMvg wjL| hLvb
#include <stdio.h> n njv Kvbv abvZK c~Y msLv|
#include<conio.h> #include <stdio.h>
main () #include<conio.h>
{ main ()
int i, n, s; {
printf (Enter the last number: ) int s = 0 ;
; int i = 1 ;
scanf (%d, &n) ; int n;
i = 1; printf (Enter the total number of value:);
s=0; scanf (%d,&n);
while (i<=n) while (i<=n)
{ {
s = s+ i; s = s + i;
i = i * 3; i ++;
} }
printf (The result is %d, s) ; printf (The sum of the value is %d\n,s);
getch ( ) ; getch();
} }

DcwiD cvMvgwU ivb Kij xb wbgv cvMvgwU ivb Ki wbPi bgybv WUv BbcyU
djvdj `Lve| w`j djvdj c`wkZ ne
Enter the last number: 250 Enter the total number of value: 50
The sum of the value is 1275
The result is 365
dowhile Loop: wm cvMvg kZ mvc GK ev GKvwaK UgU GKwU wbw` msLKevi mv`b
KiZ do-while loop UgU eenvi Kiv nq| Ze for Ges while hZ ewk cvMvg eeZ nq ZZewk
do-while loop jyc eeZ nq bv| do-while loop AZc GKevi execute ne, hw`I condition
false nq, KviY GLvb condition ci check nq| do-while loop-wU aygv do loop bvg cwiwPZ|
do-while/do loop Gi MVb nQ
204 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Simple statement Gi : Compound statement Gi :


expression 1; expression 1;
do do
{ {
statement 1; statement 1;
. .
. .
statement n; statement n;
expression 2; expression 2;
} }
while (expression3); while (expression3);
GLvb, expression 1G ii gvb assign KiZ nq| expression 2 viv i _K kl gvb ch
KZ Ki ew/ nvm cve Zv cKvk Ki| expression 3 Z kl gvb conditional operator eenvi Ki
DjL KiZ nq|
D`vniY1: KxevW _K 4 wWwRUi GKwU D`vniY2: `ywU msLvi Mmv wbYqi
msLv BbcyU Ki DnvK Dv gvbymvi cvMvg|
(Reverse order) jLvi cvMvg wjL| #include <stdio.h>
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>
# include<conio.h> main ()
main () {
{ int 1, s, r ;
int number, rightdigit; printf (Enter two positive numbers:) ;
printf(\nEnter your number:) ; scanf (%d %d, &1, &s);
scanf (%d, &number) do
printf(\nThe Number in regerse order is: ) ; {
do r = l % s;
{ l=s;
rightdigit = number % 10 ; s=r;
printf(%d, rightdigit) ; }
number = number / 10 ; while (s! = 0) ;
} printf (The GCD is %d, l) ;
while (number ! = 0 // End of do
getch () ; getch () ;
} // End of main }
DcwiD cvMvgwU ivb Kij xb wbgv
djvdj:
djvdj `Lve|
Enter a number to reverse : 4567
Enter two positive numbers: 100 150
Reverse of entered number is 7654 The GCD is 50
5.12.10 Avi (Array)
cvMvwgs fvlv 205

Avi njv GKB aibi ev mgcKwZi PjKi mgvek| hgb- Mark(20) GKwU Avi, hLvb 21
Rb Qvi gvKm msiY Kiv hve| G Avii c_g PjKwU njv Mark(0), wZxqwU Mark(1),
ZZxqwU Mark(2) Ges GKzkZgwU Mark (20)| Avii GKwU bvg _vK, index _vK Ges Gi
m`m ev AvBUgmg~nK ebx (Braket) Gi ga Dcvcb Kiv nq| Avi eenvi Kiv mnR| GUv
cvMvgK mnR, my`i I QvU Ki Ges RwUjZv Kgvq|
gb Kwi, Kvbv welqi cuvP Rb Qvi cixvi b^i njv: 80,90,70,50,85|
Mark wbq MwVZ Avi `Lvbv njv: Mark [5] = [80, 90, 70, 50, 85]
Avii GK GKwU AvwjgU ev m`mK Zvi Aevb viv evSvbv nq| hgb
Mark [0] = 80
Mark [1] = 90
Mark [2] = 70
Mark [3] = 50
Mark [4] = 85
Avi eenvii myweav:
1. GKB bvg AbKjv PjK eenvi Kiv hvq|
2. Avii Dcv`vbjv ggwiZ cvkvcvwk Aevb Ki|
3. cvMvg wbevn `Z nq|
4. Avi DPii fvlvi GKwU Abb ewk|
5. Avi cvMvgK mnR, my`i I QvU Ki Ges RwUjZv Kgvq|
Avi eenvii Amyweav:
1. AviZ GKB RvZxq WUv A_vr GKB UvBci WUv ivLZ nq| wfb wfb UvBci WUv
GKwU AviZ ivLv hvq bv|
2. cvMvg wbevni mgq NvlYvKZ Avii mvBR KLbv cwieZb Kiv hvq bv|
3. cKZ WUv Acv Avii mvBR AbK ewk NvlYv Kiv nj ggwii AcPq nZ cvi|
AviK cavbZ `yfvM fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. GKgvwK Avi (One dimentional array)
2. wgvwK Avi (Two dimentional array)
1. GKgvwK Avi (One dimentional array): Avii Af y Roll[0] 201
Dcv`vb ev WUvjv hw` GKwU gv Kjvg I GKvwaK mvwi A_ev Roll[1] 202
GKwU gv mvwi Ges GKvwaK Kjvg Dcvcb Kiv nq ZvK Roll[2] 203
GKgvwK Avi ejv nq| hgb 5 Rb Qvi ivj b^i h_vg
Roll[3] 204
201,202,203,204,205 K 5wU PjK
Roll[4] 205
Roll0,Roll1,Roll2,Roll3,Roll4 viv cKvk Kiv hvq|
hgb- GKgvwK Avii D`vniY: Roll[4]|
GLvb, WUv UvBc nQ int Avi bvg nQ Roll Ges Avii m`m msLv nQ 5 Ges m`mjv
nQ wm cvMvwgs fvlvq GKwU GKgvwK Avi Zwii wbqg: data type variable name [size]
206 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

D`vniY: GKwU KjRi Kvbv kwYi cuvP Rb Qvi ivj b^i Ges cixvq AwRZ b^i BbcyU wnme
c`vb Ki AvDUcyU wnme D ivj b^i Ges cixvq AwRZ b^img~n Avi AvKvi c`kbi Rb
GKwU cvMvg wjL|
#include <stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define Max 5
main ()
{
int i, roll [Max] ;
float Mark [Max] ;
for (i = 0; i<Max; i++)
{
printf (\nEnter Roll [%d] & Mark [%d]:, i, i) ;
scanf (%d%f, &Roll [i], &Mark [i]);
}
for (i = 0; i <Max; i++)
printf(\nRoll [%d] = %d Mark [%d] = %, 2f, i, Roll [i], i, Mark [i]) ;
getch () ;
}
cvMvgwU ivb Kivj wbPi digU BbcyU w`Z ne| AZtci cvki djvdj c`wkZ ne|
Enter Roll [0] & Mark [0] : 101 56.5 Roll [0] = 101 Mark [0] : 56.50
Enter Roll [1] & Mark [1] : 102 66 Roll [1] = 102 Mark [1] : 60.00
Enter Roll [2] & Mark [2] : 103 45.5 Roll [2] = 103 Mark [2] : 45.50
Enter Roll [3] & Mark [3] : 104 74.5 Roll [3] = 104 Mark [3] : 74.50
Enter Roll [4] & Mark [4] : 105 85 Roll [4] = 105 Mark [4] : 85.00
wgvwK Avi:
h Avii Dcv`vbjv GKB mv_ GKvwaK mvwi I GKvwaK Kjvg WUv Dcvcb Kiv nq ZvK
wgvwK Avi ejv nq| wgvwK Avi NvlYv GKgvwK Avii gZvB Ze GLvb `ywU
subscript Gi cqvRb nq| GKwU subscript viv iv Ges Aci subscript viv Kjvg eySvq|
wbg mark[3,4] bvg GKwU wgvwK Avi `Lvbv njv, hvi mvwi 6wU I Kjvg 4wU|
0 1 2 3
0 Mark[0,0] Mark[0,1] Mark[0,2] Mark[0,3]
1 Mark[1,0] Mark[1,1] Mark[1,2] Mark[1,3]
2 Mark[2,0] Mark[2,1] Mark[2,2] Mark[2,3]
3
4
5 Mark[5,0] Mark[5,1] Mark[5,2] Mark[5,3]
C cvMvgi w-gvwK Avii MVb wbg `qv njv:
data_type array_name [row_size] [column_size]
D`vniY-1: 1 _K 10 ch bvgZvi QK c`kbi Rb wgvwK Avi eenvi Ki GKwU cvMvg wjL|
cvMvwgs fvlv 207

#include <stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define Row 10
#define Col 10
main ()
{
int r, c;
int mul [Row] [Col] ;
printf (\t\t ===================== \n) ;
printf (\t\tMULTIPLICATION TABLE\n ) ;
printf(\t\t ===================== \n ) ;
for (int j= 1; j< = Col; j++)
printf (%4d, j) ;
printf (===================== \n);
for (int i= 0; i<Row; i++)
{
r = i + 1;
printf (%2d | , r) ;
for (int j= i; j<= Col; j++)
{
c = j;
mul [i] [j] = r*c;
printf (%4d, mul [i] [j]);
}
printf (\n) ;
}
getch () ;
}
cvMvgwU ivb Kij wbPi djvdj c`wkZ ne:
=====================
MULTIPLJCATION TABLE
=====================
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70
8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90
10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5.12.11 dvskb (Function)
wm cvMvg hLb Kvbv wbw` KvR mv`bi Rb KZKjv UgU Kvbv bvg GKwU eKi
ga ivLv nq ZLb ZvK dvskb ejv nq| cwZwU wm cvMvg Gic GK ev GKvwaK dvskbi mgw|
208 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

dvskb Pbvi mnR Dcvq njv dvskbi bvgi kl GK Rvov c_g ebx ( ) _vK, G c_g
ebxi ga AbK wKQz _vKZ cvi, Avevi bvI _vKZ cvi| cwZwU dvskbi GKwU bvg _vK, h
bvg KvBjvi ZvK mbv Ki| cvMvg wbevni mgq KvBjvi hLb Kvbv dvskb Kj cvq
ZLb g~j cvMvgi KvR wMZ iL Kj dvskb wbevn i Ki Ges wbevn kl g~j dvskb
cZveZb c~eK cieZx jvBb _K wbevn Pvwjq hvq| Ze G cwqvq AwZwi wKQzUv mgq eq
nq| ZvB QvU Kvbv cvMvgi Rb mvaviYZ dvskb eenvi Kiv nq bv|
dvskbi cqvRbxqZv (Importance of Function)
1. dvskbi mvnvh cvMvgK msw AvKvi iPbv Kiv hvq|
2. dvskbi eenvi GKB aibi KvRi Rb GKB aibi UgU evi evi jLvi cqvRb nq bv|
3. cvMvgi fyj mskvab ev wWevwMs Kiv mnR nq|
4. eenviKvix Zvi cqvRb Abyhvqx dvskb Zwi Ki Kvh mv`b KiZ cvi|
dvskb Gi cKvif` (Types of Function)
wm-Z G eeZ dvskbmg~nK `ywU fvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v:
1. jvBewi dvskb (Library Function)
2. BDRvi-wWdvB dvskb (User Defined Function)
jvBewi dvskb (Library Function)
hme dvskb wekl wKQz Kvh mv`bi Rb wm cvMvg we-Bb AvQ ZvK jvBewi dvskb ej|
wm KvBjvi jvBewi dvskb bvg KZKjv we-Bb dvskb AvQ mjvK Zv`i wbR^
digvU Abyhvqx main () dvskb eenvi Kiv hvq| print (), scanf (), getch (), getchar (), abs
(), sqrt (), sin (), cos(), tan (), rand () Gaibi jvBewi dvskbi D`vniY| jvBewi dvskb
eenvi mnR, GRb Kej H dvskbi eenviwewa Ges digvU RvbjB Pj|
wbP C fvlvq KZKjv Library function Gi GKwU QK `qv njv:
dvskb mswk nWvi dvBj dvskbi KvR
abs() stdio.h cig gvb wbYq Ki|
div() stdio.h fvMi eeZ nq|
printf() stdio.h AvDUcyU gvb AvDUcyU gvag cvVvq
scanf() stdio.h BbcyU gvb MnY Ki|
putchar() stdio.h AvDUcyU gvag GKwU evZv cvVvq|
getchar() stdio.h BbcyU gvag _K GKwU evZv MnY Ki|
sqrt() math.h eMg~j wbYq Ki|
sin() math.h mvBb gvb wbYq Ki|
dvskb mswk nWvi dvBj dvskbi KvR
cos() math.h KvmvBb gvb wbYq Ki|
tan() math.h UvbRU gvb wbYq Ki|
cvMvwgs fvlv 209

getch() conio.h KxevW _K GKwU evZv bq Ze wb


c`kb Ki bv|
clrscr() conio.h xY cwivi Ki|
arc() graphics.h ePvc Ab Ki|
bar() graphics.h evi Ab Ki|
circle() graphics.h e Ab Ki|
line() graphics.h jvBb Ab Ki|
jvBewi dvskb `ycKvi| h_v:
K. msLvevPK dvskb (Numeric function): h dvskb MvwYwZK Kvh mv`b Ki ZvK
msLvevPK dvskb ej|
hgb- ABS, SQR, MOD, RND, DIM, LOG, SIN, TAN, COS BZvw`|
L. ws dvskb (String function): h dvskbi mvnvh Kvbv ws Gi gvb ei Kiv hvq ZvK
ws dvskb ej| hgb- Date$, Times$, Ucase$, Lcase$ BZvw`|
BDRvi-wWdvBW dvskb (User Defined Function)
wm cvMvwgs fvlvq eenviKvix cqvRb Abymvi Zvi cQ`gZv dvskb Zwi KiZ cvi|
wm KvBjvi AbK we-BU/jvBewi dvskb _vKv mI cvMvg iPbvq mgq Pvwn`v Abyhvqx me
iKg dvskb cvIqv hvq bv| m cvMvg Zvi wbR^ cqvRb Ges cv Abyhvqx hme dvskb
Zwi Ki cvMvg Z_v main () dvskb eenvi Kib mMyjvK BDRvi-wWdvBW (User defined)
ev eenviKvix ewYZ dvskb ejv nq| gb Kiv hvK, GKRb cvMvgvii wewfb mgq wewfb cvMvg
`ywU c~YmsLv c`vb Ki hvMdj c`kbi cqvRb nZ cvi Ges GRb eeZ cvMvg KvW
wbgic nZ cvi:
int Valuel, Value2, Sum;
printf (\nEnter two integer numbers : ) ;
scanf (%d %d, & Valuel, &Value2);
Sum = Valuel + Value2;
printf (\nSum of %d and %d is : %d, Valuel, Value2, Sum)
[

GLb cvMvgvi BQ Kij hZMyjv cvMvg wKsev cvMvgi hZvb `ywU c~YmsLv c`vb Ki
hvMdj c`kbi cqvRb ne meLvbB DcwiD cvMvg dvskb wjLZ ne| wK GZ mgmv
njv, GZ Ki cvMvgi Kjie Ges hKvbv vb `ywU c~YmsLv c`vb Ki hvMdj c`kbi
Rb Kej mB bvg wjL dvskbwU Kj KijB ne. GRb cyiv cvMvg KvW jLvi cqvRb bB|
dvskbi MVb: function_name (argument list)
argument declaration;
{
local variable declaration;
210 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

executable statement 1;
executable statement 2;
.....................................
.....................................
return (expression);
}
GLvb,
Function_name : fwiqej aib Abyhvqx dvskbi bvg w`Z ne|
argument list : hme fwiqej eenvi Ki wewfb cKvi Acvikb Pvjvbv ne Zvi ZvwjKv|
local variable declarations: kyay GB dvskb hme fwiqej eeZ ne Zv`iK NvlYv KiZ nq|
return : h gvb g~j cvMvg diZ Avme Zv DjL KiZ nq|
dvskbi wewfb Dcv`vb: wm/wm++ cvMvg Kvbv jvBewi wKsev BDRvi wWdvB dvskb eenvi
KiZ Mj mvaviYZ wbg wjwLZ PviwU welq weePbv KiZ nq
dvskb eYbv (Function Definition)
dvskb Kj (Function Call)
dvskbi cvUvUvBc (Function Prototype)
dvskbi wiUvb UvBc I wiUvb UgU (Functions Return Type and Return Statement)|
dvskbi eYbv (Function Definition)
dvskb eYbvi gvag KvBjviK Rvwbq `qv nq h, GUv wK KvR
Kie Ges wKfve Kie| GKwU BDRvi-wWdvB dvskb KZKMyjv D`vnviY:
UgU wbq MwVZ nq| mvgvb wKQz ewZg Qvov dvskbi cwZwU int Sum ( )
{
UgU mwgKvjb viv kl nq| BDRvi-wWdvB dvskbi eYbv Zvi // . . . . . . .
eenviKvix ev main() dvskbi Dci wKsev wbP _vK wK fZi bq| return (0) ;
BDRvi wWdvB dvskb NvlYvi digvU njv }
ReturnType FunctionName (ArgumentList) void main ( )
{
// FunctionBody
// . . . . . . .
// ReturnStatement (Depends on ReturnType) }
) int Sum (int, int)
GLvb, ReturnType hKvbv ea WUv UvBc, FunctionName
]
{
eenviKvix KZK `qv dvskbi bvg Ges ArgumentList dvskb eeZ // . . . . . . .
retrun (0) ;
AviMygUi ZvwjKv| FunctionBody-Z dvskbi wevwiZ eYbv _vK|
}
FunctionBody-Kgb ne Zv dvskbi aib A_vr mgmvi Dci wbfi
Ki|
DjL, dvskbi c_g ewbi ga Kvbv fwiqej NvlYv Kiv nj ZvK AvigU fwiqej ejv
nq| wm++ cvMvg dvskb Kvbv AvigU fwiqej bv _vKj AvigU ZvwjKv void jLv nq
Ze wm++ KvBjvi Zv evaZvg~jK bq| dvskbi bvg GKwU AvBWwUdvqvi; myZivs AvBWwUdvqvi
cvMvwgs fvlv 211

bvgKiYi wbqgvbyhvqx dvskbi hKvbv ea bvg eenvi Kiv hZ cvi| Ze eenviKvix dvskb GKB
bvg Aci Kvbv fwiqej ev AvBWwUdvqvi _vKj mB bvgi Kvbv dvskb eenvi Kiv hvq bv|
wm/wm++ cvMvg eeZ jvBewi dvskmg~ni eYbv mswk nWvi dvBj ewYZ eenvi Kij
cvMvgi iZB A_vr main() Gi c~e #include wWiwf UgUi mvnvh H jvBewi dvskb
mswk nWvi dvBj mshy KiZ nq|
dvskb Kj (Function Call)
hLb GKwU dvskb Aci Kvbv dvskbK eenvi Ki, ZLb ZvK eenviKvix ev g~j dvskb Ges
h dvskbwU eenvi Kiv nq ZvK eeZ ev K dvskb ejv nq| Avi G
cwqvi bvg dvskb Kj| dvskb Kj cwqvq GKwU dvskbi mv_ Aci D`vnviY:
int Sum ( )
GK ev GKvwaK dvskb mshy Kiv nq| dvskb Kj GKwU UgU| {
myZivs Gi kl AekB mwgKvjb (;) _vKZ ne| GK Rvov c_g // . . . . . . .
ebx () `L hgb dvskb Pbv hvq; Zgwb Gi Rvov c_g ebxi return (0) ;
}
kl AwZwi GKwU mwgKvjb `L dvskb Kj eySv hvq| hKvbv
wm/wm++ cvMvgi main() dvskb Aci GK ev GKvwaK jvBewi wKsev void main ( )
BDRvi-wWdvB dvskb Kj KiZ cvi| Gfve GK dvskb GK ev {
// . . . . . . . .
GKvwaKevi Ab hKvbv dvskb eenvi KiZ cvi| DjL, main() Sum ( ) ;
GKwU BDRvi-wWdvB dvskb njI Ab Kvbv BDRvi-wWdvB dvskb }
main() dvskb Kj KiZ cvi bv| wm/wm++ KvBjvi main() dvskbK WvBfvi dvskb ev PvjK
dvskb wnme MY Ki eeZ Abvb dvskb Kj Ki| Kvbv dvskb (jvBewi ev BDRvi-
wWdvB) Kj Kivi digvU njv:
FunctionName (Parametre or Argument List)
A_vr dvskbi bvgi kl c_g ebxi () ga cvivwgUvii gvbmn (hw` _vK) dvskb Kj Kiv nq|
wiKvwmf dvskb (Recursive Function)
GKwU dvskb Ab Kvbv dvskbK hKvbv msLK evi Kj KiZ cvi| Avevi Kvbv dvskb
wbRI wbRK Kj KiZ cvi| hLb Kvbv dvskb wbRB wbRK Kj Ki ZLb ZvK wiKvwmf
dvskb ejv nq Ges GB cwqvK wiKvmb (Recursion) ejv nq| Kvb msLvi dvwiqvj wbYq
wiKvwmf dvskbi GKwU Av`k D`vniY| Avgiv Rvwb, dvwiqvj njv GKwU MvwYwZK cwZ|
hKvbv abvZK msLv N Gi dvwiqvj gvb njv 1 nZ N ch ^vfvweK msLvMyjvi Ydj|
hgb- 3 Gi dvwiqvj 6 (3!=321=6), 4 Gi dvwiqvj 24 (4!=4321=24)
wbg wiKvwmf dvskb eenvi Ki Kvbv msLvi dvwiqvj wbYqi Rb GKwU cvMvg `qv njv:
/* Finding Factorial using Recursive Function */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<time.h>
212 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

long Factorial (int n)


{
if (n <=1)
return 1;
else
return (n * Factorial (n-1));
}
void main ( )
{
int V;
long F;
XX:
printf (\nEnter a Positive integer: );
scanf (%d, &V);
if (V<0)
goto XX;
F= Factorial (V);
print (\nFactorial of %d = %1d = %1d, V, F) ;
}
Output:
Enter a Positive integer: 6
Factorial of 6 = 720
wiKvwmf dvskb eenvii myweav:
1. Ab_K dvskb Kwjs Kiv iva Ki|
2. mgmvK mnRfve mgvavb Kiv hvq|
3. AbK Kg msLvK fwiqeji cqvRb nq|
4. cvMvg mnR I my`i nq|
wiKvwmf dvskb eenvii Amyweav:
1. AbK wiKvmb dvskvbi eenvi KvwWsK RwUj Ki Zvj|
2. wiKvwmf me`v jwRKvj Ges Gi mgmv mbv Kiv KwVb|
3. ewk vK mi cqvRb nq|
4. cvMvg wbevn ewk mgq jvM|
Abykxjbx
mRbkxj ck:
1| wPwU j Ki
cvMvwgs fvlv 213

K. KvBjvi Kx ?
L. wP eeZ cZxKjvi bvg I eenvi wjL|
M. `ywU msLvi Mo wbYqi Rb cZxKjv wKfve eeZ nZ cvi? eYbv Ki|
N. Kvbv mgmv mgvavbi Rb dvPvU AZ iZc~Y weklY Ki|
2| wg. Rb AvgwiKvi bvMwiK| wZwb iwdKi ez| evsjv`ki BwZnvm, mswZ mK Rvbvi
Rb wg. Rb evsjv`k GmQb| wg. Rb wewfb Z_ msMni Rb wfb wfb kYx ckvi
gvbyli mv_ KZv ejZ nQ| wKy wg. Rb evsjv bv Rvbvi KviY mgmv nwQj| iwdK wewfb
Z_ BsiwRZ icvi Ki wg. RbK mvnvh Ki|
K. Abyev`K cvMvg wK?
L. GKwU WUveR cvMvgi bvg wjL Ges Gi ewk wjL|
M. KvBjvi I BUvicUvii ga cv_K wjL|
N. DP ii fvlvi ewkjv AvjvPbv Ki|
ewbevPwb ck:
1| wm Kvb aibi fvlv?
K. gwkb fvlv L. nvB jfj fvlv M. wgW jfj fvlv N. Avm^jx fvlv
2| wbPi KvbwU Abyev`K cvMvg?
K. cvB_b L. IivKj M. BUvicUvi N. AvjMj
3| Kvbv cvMvg iPbvi c~e
i. AvjMwi`g Zwi KiZ nq|
ii. dvPvU Zwi KiZ nq|
iii. wWevwMs KiZ nq|
wbPi KvbvwU mwVK?
K. i L. i I ii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii
4| cvMvg Kvbv UgU evi evi wbevni Rb wbPi KvbwU eeZ nq?
K. jyc L. Avi M. dvskb N. Kwkbvj UgU
l Aavq
WUveR gvbRgU wmg
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Avgiv Avgv`i cqvRbxq Z_ wewfbfve msiY Ki ivwL| my-kLj Ges wbw` wbqg Abyhvqx
msiY Kij mnR gvwbcyjkb Kiv hvq| mvRvbv Kvbv wbw` iKW LyuR ei Kiv mnR nq|
ZvQvovI wewfb MvwYwZK wnmve-wbKvm Kiv hvq| cqvRbxq Z_ wbq wicvU Zwi Kiv, GgbwK
Mvdi mvnvh Dcvcb BZvw` mnR Kivi Rb WUveR gvbRgU wmg mdU&Iqvi eenvi
Kiv nq| GKvwaK WUv Uweji ga wijkb Zwi Kiv, WUvi wmwKDwiwU iv Kiv BZvw` mK
vb ARb Kiv AZ MyiZc~Y|

G Aavq cvV kl wkv_xiv


WUveR gvbRgU Gi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
WUveR gvbRgU Gi Kvhvewj weklY KiZ cvie|
wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmgi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmgi ewk evLv KiZ cvie|
wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmg eYbv KiZ cvie|
WUv wmwKDwiwUi aviYv evLv KiZ cvie|
WUv wmwKDwiwUi iZ weklY KiZ cvie|
WUv Gbwckbi cqvRbxqZv evLv KiZ cvie|
WUv Gbwckbi Dcvqmg~n evLv KiZ cvie|
eenvwiK:
WUveR Zwi KiZ cvie|
214 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

6.1 WUveR gvbRgU (Database Management)


WUveR: WUv (Data) ki A_ Dcv Ges eR (base) ki A_ mgvek| m~Zivs WUveR
nQ Dcvi mgvek| cii mKhy GKvwaK WUv Uwej ev dvBji mgw nQ WUveR|
Z_ I hvMvhvM chywi G hyM cZK cwZvb Zvi mKj WUv H cwZvbi WUveR msiwZ
_vK| GKwU WUveR GKvwaK Uwej, dg, wicvU, Kzqwi, gvv BZvw` _vKZ cvi|
WUveRi WUvjv wewfb cqvRb mnR eenvi Kiv hvq| cqvRb WUv cwieZb / AvcWU
Kiv hvq| GLvb WUvjv `Zvi mv_ eenvi Kiv hvq| hw`I WUveR WUv msiY Kij
AbK myweav cvIqv hvq, Ze WUveR cwiPvjbvi Rb cwkY cv ` Rbm` cqvRb|
WUveR fzj WUv BbcyU Kij m~Y WUveRK cfvweZ Ki| AbK WUveR cwqvKiY
axiMwZmb| WUveR Z_ eevcbv, evswKs, Gqvi jvB, wkv cwZvb, UwjKwgDwbKkb,
A_ eevcbv, Drcv`b eevcbv Ges gvbe m` eevcbvq eenvi Kiv nq| WUveRi cavb
Dcv`vbjv nQ- WUv, iKW Ges wd|
Kvbv WUv Uweji cZKwU wd Avgiv hme gvb eenvi Kwi ZvK WUv ej| cii
mKhy KZKjv wdi mg^q MwVZ nq iKW, Avevi iKWi cwZwU Dcv`vb nQ wd|
wbP WUv, wd Ges iKW Gi D`vniY `qv njv-
ivj bs bvg kwY eqm
63 Avjfx KwR 6 eQi
GLvb, ivj bs, bvg, kwY, eqm-Gjv njv GK GKwU wd| 63, Avjfx, KwR, 6 eQi-Gjv
cZKwU Avjv`v Avjv`v WUv| mKj wd / WUv GK njv iKW|
6.1.1 WUveR gvbRgU wmg (Database management system-DBMS):
WUveR gvbRgU wmg (DBMS) nQ Ggb GKwU cvMvg ev cvMvg mgw (mdUIqvi) hv
WUveR Zwi, cwieZb, cwieab, wbqY, msiY I cwiPvjbvi KvR Ki| G mdUIqvi WUveR
Ges eenviKvixi ga wgwWqv / hvMm~ wnme KvR Ki, mvaviY _K ` mKj eenviKvwi
WUveR eenvi Ki _vK| G mdUIqvi Gi gvag AwZ mnR WUveR Zwi Kiv hvq,
cqvRb bZzb iKW Afy Kiv hvq, iKWjvK BQvgZv mwUs ev Bws Kiv hvq| GKvwaK
Uweji ga wjsKW Kiv hvq|

Application-1 Application-2 Application-N

Database Management System

On Line data Database


Database

wP: WUveR gvbRgU wmg


WUveR gvbRgU wmg 215

6.1.2 DBMS-Gi KvR: Kvbv Z_ ev iKW msiYi Rb c_gB Avgv`i WUveR Zwi
KiZ nq| AZci WUv Uwej WUv / iKW Afy KiZ nq| WUveR gvbRgU wmg
KvRwU Ki _vK| AbK mgq AhvwPZ ew KZK WUveR wZM nq _vK, wewfb cKvi
mdU&Iqvi (fvBivm) vivI WUveR wZM nZ cvi| myZivs WUveRi wbivcv iv Ki
eenviKvix wbqY KiZ nq| wewfb KviY Avgv`i WUveR iKW Af y ev ev` w`Z nq|
hgb-Rb Ges gZi wnmve msiYi Rb WUveR Zwi Kiv nj wk Rb MnY Kij iKW hvM
KiZ ne Ges KD gviv Mj WUveR _K iKW ev` w`Z ne| WUveR MnYhvM Kivi Rb
WUvi evbvb Ges msLvi fzj nIqv Pjebv| hyMi mv_ Zvj wgwjq Pjvi Rb Avgv`i WUveR
cwieZb KiZ nq- bZzb wd hy ev Kvbv wd gyQ djZ nq| G KvRjvI WUveR
gvbRgU wmg Gi mvnvh Kiv nq| wewfb KviY iKW cwieZb KiZ nq hgb- Kviv eqm,
ckv, eZgvb wVKvbv BZvw` cwieZbkxj gvb| WUveR iKWjv Kvbv ewki wfwZ
Kvbv wd Abyhvqx mvRvbv _vKj Lye mnR Kvbv wbw` iKW LyR ei Kiv hvq| iKWmg~n
mvRvbv ev LuyR ei Kivi KvRI G mdU&Iqvii gvag Kiv hvq| GKwU WUveR AbKjv
wd _vK wK me KvR G`i cqvRb nq bv| wbw` wKQz wdi cqvRb nq| G cqvRbxq
wd wbq my`i wicvU Zwi Kiv Ges PvU ev Mvd eenvi Ki Z_ AvKl Yxqfve Dcvcbi
KvRI G mdU&Iqvii gvag Kiv nq|
6.2 wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmg
Relational Database Management System-RDBMS
WUveR gvbRgU wmg KZKMyjv cvMvgi mg^q MwVZ GKwU md&UIqvi| A_vr h md&UIqvi
eenvi Ki WUveR gvbRgU wmgi iKWjv wewfb Uwej / dvBj Rgv nq Ges Kzqwii
gvag GKvwaK WUveRi ga wijkbkxc Zwi Kiv hvq ZvK wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmg
ejv nq| GwU cii mKhy KqKwU dvBj wbq MwVZ| WUveR Zwi, wbqY, iYveY cfwZ
KvRi Rb G eevcbv cwZ eenvi Kiv nq| wijkbvj WUveR gWj njv AvaywbK WUveR
UKbvjwRi wfw| 1970 mvj GWMvi KW (Edgar Codd) mec_g wijkbhy WUveR cwZ ceZb
Kib| wZwb Zuvi cewZZ WUveRK PgrKvi MvwYwZK m~i wfwZ cwZwZ Kib|
wijkbvj WUveR gWj WUvi wZbwU w`K iqQ| h_v
(i) WUv vKPvi (Data Structure)
(ii) WUv BwUwMwU (Data Integrity) I
(iii) WUv gvwbcyjkb (Data Manipulation) |
wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmg Zwi Kivi Rb evRvi AbK mdUIqvi AvQ| h_v:
gvBvmdU AvKmm (Microsoft Access)
IivKj (Oracle)
wWeR (Dbase)
gvBvmdU wfRyqvj ewmK (Microsoft Visual Basic)
gvBvmdU wfRyqvj dcv (Microsoft Visual Foxpro)
cvIqvi wevi (Power Builder)
Wjwd (Delphi)
Bbdiwg (Informix) BZvw`|
216 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

6.2.1 wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmgi ewk


Characteristics of RDBMS
wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmgi wbgwjwLZ ewki KviY Gi Pvwn`v AwZ `Z ew cvQ|
mnR Uwej Zwi Ki WUv GwU Kiv hvq|
WUv fvwjWkbi mvnvh WUv GwU wbqY Kiv hvq|
msLvevPK WUvmg~n m~ MvwYwZK KvR Kiv hvq|
mnR AvwcKkb md&UIqvi/cvMvg Zwi Kiv hvq|
WUvi wfwZ cqvRbxq PvU ev Mvd Zwi Kiv Ges Qwe mshvRb Ki AvKlYxq wicvU Zwi
Kiv hvq|
eenviKvwi mnR GK WUveR _K Ab WUveRi mv_ Z_ Av`vb-c`vb KiZ cvi|
eenviKvwi Zvi KvwZ Z_K LyuR ei KiZ cvi AwZ mnR|
mnR bvbv digUi wicvU I jej Zwi I Zv gy`Y Kiv hvq|
DBvRi MvwdKvj (Object Linking and Embedding) myhvM eenvi Ki wicvU
Mvwd mg^q mvab Ges MvwdKvj WUv GwU dg Zwi Kiv hvq|
mnR Abvb cvMvg (hgb- wWeR, dcv, Gj BZvw`) _K Z_ ev WUv Gb
eenvi Kiv hvq Ges Abvb cvMvgi dvBji mv_ wijkb (Link) vcb me nq|

6.2.2 wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU wmgi eenvi (Use of RDBMS)


wbgwjwLZ WUveR gvbRgU wmg eeZ nq-
wewfb cwZvb KgiZ KgKZv I KgPvix`i iKW msiYi
nvmcvZvj ivMx`i iKW msiYi Rb
Gqvi jvBm wUwKwUs I dvBUi wmwWDwjs Gi
evsK I wegvq MvnK`i wnmve-wbKvm msiYi
enr cwZvbi Kgx`i iKW msiYi Rb
ijIq, wegvbi wUwKwUs I ijMvwoi wmwWDwjs Gi
RbmsLv Z_ msiY I MelYv I Rwicg~jK KvR
Kvbv cwZvbi q-weq, jvf-jvKmvbi wnmve-wbKvmi |
eemv-evwYR I BjKUwb Kgvm
wkv cwZvb zWU Bbdigkb wmg ZwiZ
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 217

6.3 WUveR Zwi (Creating Database)


WUveR DBv cwiwPwZ: c_g cvMvg dvBj _K gvBvmdU Gm wmj Kij wbPi
DBvwU `Lv hve-

wP: WUveR DBv


WUveR DBvZ AbKjv Uve _vK| wewfb Uvei AvIZvq WUveR Uwejmg~n I Abvb
AeRjv aviY Ki h RvZxq AeR Zwi Kiv ne, WUveR DBv _K m RvZxq Uve
wbevPb Ki wbZ nq| wbP WUvem DBvi wewfb Dcv`vbi msw cwiPq `qv njv-
Tables : G Uvei AvIZvq Uwejjv msiwZ _vK| GLvb _K Kvbv Uwej cwieZb,
mskvab, wKsev bZzb WUveR Zwi Kiv hvq|
Queries: G Uve _K eZgvb WUveRi mKj Kzqwii ZvwjKv cvIqv hve| GLvb _K Kvbv
Kzqwi cwiPvjbv Kiv, Kzqwi cwieZb, mskvab ev bZzb Kvbv Kzqwi Zwi Kiv hvq|
Forms : G Uve _K eZgvb WUveRi mKj wicvU I dg cvIqv hve| wicvU nQ eenviKvwii
cQ` gZv dgU Z_vewj c`kb ev gy`Y Kiv| GLvb _K Kvbv wicvU mskvab ev
Kvbv bZzb wicvU Zwi Kiv hvq|
Page : BUvibU ev BUvbU-G gvBvmd&U GvKmm ev SQL mvfvi msiwZ WUv wbq KvR
Kivi Rb WUveR access page Zwi Kiv hvq|
Macro: gvv nQ GK aibi QvU cvMvg| G Uve wKK Kij eZgvb WUveRi mKj
gvv cvMvgjvi ZvwjKv Avme| GLvb _K Kvbv gvv mskvab ev bZzb
gvv Zwi Kiv hvq|
Module: cvMvgi GK ev GKvwaK cwmwWDiK GK GKwU gwWDj ejv nq| Module Uve wKK
Kij eZgvb WUveRi cvMvwgs gwWDjjvi ZvwjKv cvIqv hve| GLvb _K cqvRbxq KvW
wjLv hvq ev mskvab Kiv hvq| KvW wjLvi Rb wfRyqvj ewmK GwWUi eeZ nq|
WUveR njv cii mKhy GKvwaK Uweji mg^q MwVZ| cZKwU Uwej Avevi KZKjv
iKW wbq MwVZ| cii mKhy KZKjv wd wgj MwVZ nq iKW| myZivs wd nQ
WUveRi wfw| Kvbv Uwej Zwi Kivi c~e Uweji cZKwU iKW wK wK wd _vKe Zv
wbw` KiZ ne| cZKwU wd Kx aibi WUv _vKe A_vr WUv UvBc wK ne Zv wbaviY KiZ
ne| Kvbv WUveR wK wK wd _vKe Zv wbfi Kie WUveRi Dk ev WUveR Kx aibi
WUv _vKe Zvi Dci|
218 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

6.3.1 WUv UvBc


Avgv`i cvZwnK Rxeb cPzi WUv wbq KvR KiZ nq| G WUvi UvBc ev cKwZ Avevi wewfb
cKvi nZ cvi| h_v-UU ev Kvivi, bv^vi ev wbDgwiK, Bqm/ bv ev hywg~jK, ZvwiL/ mgq,
ggv, Kviw BZvw`| wb WUvi wewfb UvBc eYbv Kiv njv -
(i) UU / Kvivi (Text/Character): ewkifvM WUveR eeZ cavb Data Type njv Text|
UU/Kvivi wd Ai, msLv, wP BZvw` eenvi Kiv hvq| mvaviYZ G wd mevP 255wU eY/ A/
wP GKKfve ev mwwjZfve eenvi Kiv hvq| Ze, msLv eenvi KijI G WUvi Dci MvwYwZK KvR Kiv
hvq bv|
(ii) bv^vi / wbDgwiK (Number/Numeric): h wd MvwYwZK WUv eenvi Kiv nq, mB wdK
cKvk Kivi Rb bv^vi eeZ nq| bv^vi/ wbDgwiK wd hvM ev weqvM wPmn/ Qvov c~YmsLv I fMvsk
wgwjq cqvRbxq msLv eenvi Kiv hvq| G wdi WUvi Dci MvwYwZK Acvikb (hvM, weqvM, MyY I
fvM) Kiv hvq| WUvi gvbi evwi (Range) Dci wfw Ki bv^vi/ wbDgwiK wdK mvaviYZ wewfbfve
fvM Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. evBU (Byte),
2. BwURvi (Integer),
3. js BwURvi (Long Integer),
4. wmsj (Single),
5. Wej (Double)
6. iwcKkb AvBwW (Replication Id) BZvw`|
(iii) AUv bv^vi (Auto number): GwU GKwU wbDgwiK / bv^vi WUv UvBc| GwU wmwiR RvZxq ev
avivevwnK WUvi eeZ nq| G WUv UvBci myweav nQ GZ WUv GwU KiZ nq bv|
^qswqfve WUv GwU nq|
(iv) jwRKvj WUv: hywwbfi wdi WUv UvBc cKvk Kivi Rb Yes / No eeZ nq|
Kvbv wdi gvb nuv A_ev bv G `y wU Z_ G wd msiY Kiv hvq| mZ / wg_v ev nuv
/ bv Z_i Rb
* True / False
* Yes / No
* On / Off BZvw` eenvi KiZ nq|
G wdK AbK cvMvgi eywjqvb wdI ejv nq| G wdi Rb ggvwiZ 1 evBU RvqMv cqvRb|
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 219

(v) ZvwiL I mgq (Date/ Time): G wdwU ZvwiL ev mgqi Rb eenvi Kiv nq| 100 _K
9999 eQii ZvwiL I mgqi Rb G wd eeZ nq| G wdi Rb ggwiZ 8 evBU
RvqMv cqvRb| ZvwiL I mgq wewfb digU nZ cvi| hgb-
digU eYbv D`vniY
General Date/ Time digUi Default mwUs njv General 4/3/13, 05:34:00 PM
Date Date- G digU ZvwiL I mgq hgb GwU Kiv ne or
wVK ZgbB c`wkZ ne| Ze aygv ZvwiL GwU 4/3/13 05:34:00 PM
Kij kyaygv ZvwiL Ges kyaygv mgq GwU Kij
aygv mgq c`wkZ ne| Avi ZvwiL I mgq GK
GwU Kij ZvwiL I mgq DfqB c`wkZ ne|
Long w`bi bvg, gvmi bvgmn (K_vq) ZvwiL c`kbi Saturday,
Date Rb G Ackb wmj KiZ ne| April 3, 2013
Medium gvmi bvg msc (K_vq) cKvkmn ZvwiL c`kb 3-Apr-13.
Date Kivi Rb G Ackb wmj KiZ nq|
Short w`b, gvm Ges mvjK msLvq c`kbi Rb G Ackb 4/3/13
Date wmj KiZ nq|
Long mgqi mv_ AM ev PM mn c~Y mgq (Nv-wgwbU 5:25:27 PM
Time mK) c`kbi Rb G Ackb wmj KiZ nq|
Medium AM ev PMmn mK ev` mgq c`kbi Rb G 5:58 PM
Time Ackb wmj KiZ nq|
Short w`b-ivZ Pwek NvwfwK mgq c`kbi Rb G 13:00
Time Ackb wmj KiZ nq| hgb-ivZ GKUvK cKvk
Kie 01:00 Ges ejv GKUvK cKvk Kie 13:00
(vi) ggv (Memo):
Memo, Text Gi cwic~iK wnme eeZ nq| mvaviYZ eYbvg~jK jLv ev eYbvi Rb G wd
eenvi Kiv nq| G wdi aviY gZv KwDUvi wWi aviY gZvi Dci wbfi Ki| mvaviYZ
G wd 65,536wU Kvii jLv hvq|
(vii) Kviw (Currency):
gy`v ev UvKvi A BbcyU Kivi Rb $ eenvi Kiv nq| kyaygv gy`v ev UvKv msv WUv GwU Kivi
Rb Currency UvBc wmj KiZ nq| G wdi WUvi Dci MvwYwZK Acvikb m~Y chvR|
G wdi Rb ggvwiZ 8 evBU RvqMv cqvRb|
(viii) OLE Object: hme Z_ WUveR bq Ggb mdUIqvi AvQ Ges wjsK Gi gvag
^qswqfve WUveR bqvi G WUv UvBc eenvi Kiv nq| hgb- gvBvmdU Gj,
cvIqvi cqU BZvw` cvMvg nZ WUveR bqvi Rb G WUv UvBc eenvi Kiv nq|
220 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

(ix) Hyperlink: mvaviYZ WUveR cvMvgi mv_ Iqe cRi Kvbv dBj wKsev Ab Kvbv
eenvwiK cvMvgi dvBj wjsK Kivi Rb G WUv UvBc eenvi Kiv nq|
(x) Look up wizard: mivmwi Kvbv WUv GwU bv Ki Kvbv wj _K WUv wbevPb Ki
WUv BbcyU Kivi Rb G WUv UvBc eenvi Kiv nq|
WUv Uwej wdi bvgKiY: Uwej UvM wmj Ki wWRvBb wfDZ wKK Kij wbPi DBvwU Avme-

wP: Uwej DBv


GLvb Uweji Rb cqvRbxq wdi bvg Ges WUvBc wjLZ nq| mKj wdi bvg Ges WUv
UvBc wjLv kl nj cQ` gZv bvg (awi, Uweji bvg- Student) UwejwU msiY KiZ nq|
KvR: ivj, bvg, wcZvi bvg, Rb ZvwiL, Rjv wd hy GKwU WUv Uwej Zwi Ki| UwejwU
Table-1 bvg msiY Ki|
6.3.2 WUveRi KvVvgv cwieZb Kiv
WUveR Zwi nIqvi ci Gi KvVvgv cixv-wbixv KiZ nq| G chvq bZzb wd hy Kiv wKsev
Kvbv wd ev` `qvi cqvRb nZ cvi| wdi g cwieZbI G chvq Kiv hvq| WUveR
mvaviYZ hme cwieZb Kiv nq Zv njv
WUveR ev Uweji bvg cwieZb|
Kvbv Uwej hy Kiv ev ev` `qv|
wdi WUv UvBc cwieZb Kiv|
wd mvBR cwieZb Kiv|
wd ev` `qv|
bZzb wd hvM Kiv|
6.3.3 WUveRi MVb cwieZb Kivi cwZ
h WUveRi Uweji wdi cvcvwUR cwieZb KiZ ne m WUveRwU Icb Ki
UwejwU wmj KiZ ne|
WUveR DBvi wWRvBb evUb wKK KiZ ne|
h wdi cvcvwUR cwieZb KiZ ne m wdwU wmj KiZ ne|
cvcvwUR DBv _K cqvRbxq cwieZb KiZ ne|
cybivq WUveRwU mf KiZ ne|
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 221

WUveR bZzb WUv hvM Kiv:


Kvbv WUveRi Aaxb WUv Uwej Zwi Ki ZvZ WUv GwU Kiv hvq| Uwej WUv hvM Kivi
cwZ njv-
WUveRwU Icb KiZ ne|
Uwej Uve wKK Ki c`wkZ ZvwjKv _K WUv UwejwU (Wvej wKK Ki) Icb KiZ ne|
Uweji mekl iKWi wbP mvwiZ c_g wd wKK Ki bZzb WUv GwU KiZ ne|
UwejwU KvR Ki ei nq Mj ^qswqfve mf nq hve|
WUveR mv`bv: GKwU WUveR Zwi Ki ZvZ WUv mwbewkZ Kivi ci WUveR dvBjwUi
cv_wgK KvR mb nq hvq| WUveRi cv_wgK KvR mb nIqvi ci cixv-wbixv Ki
`LZ ne Kvbv wd ev` coj wK bv, Kvbv wd ev` `qvi cqvRb AvQ wKbv, Kvbv evbvb
fzj nqQ wKbv, dUi AvKvi ev vBj cwieZb Kiv BZvw` WUveR mv`bvi Ask|
KvR: bvgi WUv Uwej Address wd hy Ki| WUv Uwej 5wU iKW hvM Ki|

6.4 Kzqwi (Query)


WUveR nQ Z_i wekvj msMn| G WUvi fvvi _K Kvbv wbw` WUv ev WUv McK Avjv`v
Ki c`kb ev Qvcvbvi cqvRb nZ cvi| Kvqwii mvnvh wbj G KvRwU Lye mnR Kiv hvq|
Kvqwii mvnvh wbw` wdi WUv, wbw` Mci WUv, wbw` kZi wfwZ c`kb I Qvwcq
Dcvcb Kiv hvq| KvqwiZ Gckb, AcviUi, wdvi BZvw` eenvi Ki cQ`gZv WUv
wbevPb Kiv hvq|
wmj Kvqwi (Select Query): Kvbv WUv Uweji wd ev Kjvg wbevPb Ki h Kvqwi Kiv
nq ZvK wmj Kvqwi ejv nq|
cvivwgUvi Kvqwi (Parameter Query): WvqjM ei Z_ c~iY Ki h Kvqwi Kiv nq ZvK
civwgUvi Kvqwi ej|
mUve Kvqwi (Crosstab Query):
kZvivc Ki KvqwiKZ djvdji mvgvwi AvKvi c`kbi Rb h Kvqwi Kiv nq ZvK,
mUve Kvqwi ej|
AvKkb Kvqwi (Action Query):
Kvbv Kvqwi djvdj hLb WUveRi WUvi gvbi cwieZb Ki ZvK AvKkb Kvqwi ej| hgb-
Kvbv WUvi cwieZbi Rb Update Query, bZzb iKW hy Kivi Rb Append Query, djvdj
Uwej _K gyQ djvi Rb Delete Query, djvdj w`q bZzb Uwej Zwii Rb Make Table
Query eenvi Kiv nq|
222 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

6.4.1 SQL Kvqwi


SQL Gi c~Y ic njv Structured Query Language- GwU GKwU kwkvjx WUv gwbcyjkb
Ges WUv Wwdbkb jvyqR| Gjv GK ev GKvwaK WUveR, Uwej, Kjvg BZvw`Z eeZ
nq| AwaKvsk SQL UgUB djvdj wnmve GKmU iKW c`vb Ki| SQL Kvqwi wbgv
Pvi aibi nZ cvi-
Union Query.
Pass-through Query.
Data Definition Query.
Sub-query.
SQL BsiwR fvlvi KvQvKvwQ GKwU Kvqwi jvyqR| SQL GKwU non-procedural jvyqR|
h Z_vewj `iKvi Kej Zv ej w`jB nq, Kxfve Kvqwi Kiv hve Zv ejvi `iKvi nq bv|
SQL GKmv_ GKwU iKW cmm bv Ki eis GK mU iKW cmm Ki|
WUv Wwdbkb/Wmwckb jvsqR (Data Definition/Description Language-DDL):
WUveR gvbRgU wmg eenviKvixK wewfb aibi myweav c`vb Ki _vK| Gi ga WUv
Wwdbkb/Wmwckb jvsMyqR ev DDL LyeB iZc~Y| WUveR gvbRgU wmg WUveR
dvBj Zwi, WUveR dvBj cwieZb, WUveR dvBj wWwjU Kivi KvR WUv Wwdbkb/Wmwckb
jvsqR (Data Definition/Description Language-DDL) eenvi Kiv nq|
WUv Wwdbkb/Wmwckb jvsMyqRMyjv njv-
WUveR WUv msiY Kivi Rb cqvRbxq Uwej Zwi Kiv,
Uwej cwieZb Kiv,
Uwej wWjU ev ev` `qv,
DDL G SQL Gi eenvi:
Uwej ZwiZ-
MVb: SQL > CREATE TABLE <table name> (colum-1 definition, colum-2 definition,
... Colum- n definition)
D`vniY: SQL > CREATE TABLE student (Roll NUMBER (3), Name CHAR (50), Address CHAR
(100)
evLv: GLvb student bvgi GKwU Uwej Zwi ne hvi Roll, Name, Address bvgi wZbwU
Kjvg _vKe- Uweji bvg: student
Roll Name Address

Uwej Gi MVb cwieZb KiZ:


MVb: SQL > ALTER TABLE <table name> ADD/ DROP Column definitions
D`vniY: SQL > ALTER TABLE student ADD Age NUMBER (3)
evLv: GLvb student bvgi Uwej Age bvgi GKwU Kjvg hvM ne|
Roll Name Address Age
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 223

Uwej Wc/ wWwjU KiZ:


MVb: SQL > DROP TABLE <table name>
D`vniY: SQL > DROP TABLE student
evLv: GLvb student bvgi UwejwU gyQ hve|
WUv gvwbcyjkb jvsqR (Data Manipulation Language-DML) DML):
WUveR WUv BbmvU (Insert) AvcWU (Update) I wWjU (Delete) Kivi Rb WUv
gvwbcyjkb jvsqR ev DML eenvi Kiv nq| A_vr DML Gi mvnvh WUveR wbgwjwLZ
wZbwU KvR Kiv hvq|
1. WUveR G bZzb Kvbv Z_ Afy Kiv: BbmvU Acvikb (Insert)|
2. WUveR _K WUv gyQ djv: wWjU Acvikb (Delete)|
3. WUveR _K WUv AvcWU Kiv: AvcWU Acvikb (Update)|
DML G SQL Gi eenvi:
WUveR bZzb iKW Afz KiZ:
MVb: INSERT INTO <Table name> VALUES (Value1, Value2, Value3)
D`vniY: INSERT INTO student VALUES (063, Alvie, 28, Shahajadpur, Dhaka, 06))
evLv: student bvgi Uwej 063, Alvie, 28, Shahajadpur, Dhaka, 06 gvb viv bZzb iKW Afz
ne|
Roll Name Address Age
063 Alvie 28, Shahajadpur, Dhaka 06

WUveR iKW cwieZb / AvcWU KiZ:


MVb: UPDATE <Table name> SET Colum= <New value> WHERE Condition
D`vniY: UPDATE student SET Age= 05 WHERE Roll=063
evLv: Student bvgi Uwej Age= 05 cwieZb Kiv ne h iKWi Roll= 063
Roll Name Address Age
063 Alvie 28,Shahajadpur,Dhaka 05
WUveRi Kvbv iKW gyQ djv / wWwjU KiZ:
MVb: DELETE FROM <Table name> WHERE Condition
D`vniY: DELETE FROM student WHERE Roll=063
evLv: Student bvgi Uwej h iKWi Roll= 063 m iKWwU wWwjU ne
Roll Name Address Age

GLvb, WHERE eenvi bv Kij m~Y Uwej gyQ hve|


KvR: Table1 bvgi Uwej _K GKwU iKW gyQ dj Ges GKwU iKW cwieZb Ki|
224 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Kvqwi Gckb:
[

hKvbv Kvqwi Zwi KiZ Gckb eenvi Kiv nq| G Gckbi Dci wfw Ki Kvqwi
djvdj wbevwPZ Ki| Gckb Zwi Kivi Rb mvaviYZ Literal, Constant eeZ nq|
Literal: hme fvjyK WUveR gvbRgU h_vh_fve mB fvjy wnmve weePbv Ki ZvK
Literal ej| Kvbv fvjyK Literal wnmve NvlYv KiZ
UU Gi Wvej KvUkb w`Z nq | hgb- Dhaka
ZvwiLi # viv Ave KiZ nq | hgb- # 04-09-2007 #
msLvi Kvbv wP w`Z nq bv mivmwi eenvi Kiv hvq|
Constant: Constant nQ AcwieZbxq UU ev msLv| Kvbv Uwej Gckb, Kvqwi, dg,
wicvU ev gvvZ eenvi Kiv hvq| Gckb wevi wbPi Constant fvjy eenvi KiZ cvi|
Kvbv duvKv ws Gi mv_ gvwPs Ki|
Null hKvbv duvKv Gckbi mv_ gvwPs Ki|
False Kvbv jwRKi Gckbi djvdj wg_v nj Zvi mv_ gvwPs Ki|
True Kvbv jwRKi Gckbi djvdj mZ nj Zvi mv_ gvwPs Ki|

wP: Gckb wevi|


6.4.2 AcviUi
Gckb Zwi KiZ AcviUi eeZ nq| AcviUijvK mvaviYZ wbv Qq fvM fvM Kiv hvq-
Arithmetic AcviUi
Comparison AcviUi
Concatenation AcviUi
Logical AcviUi
Like AcviUi
Miscellaneous AcviUi
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 225

Arithmetic AcviUi:
wbDgwiK Gckb Zwi KiZ Arithmetic AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq| hgb - hvM, weqvM, Y,
fvM BZvw`i Rb eeZ nq|
AcviUi eYbv
+ hvM wP|
- weqvM wP|
* Yb wP|
/ fvM wn|
\ c~Y msLvq fvMdj wbYqi Rb|
Mod 2 wU msLvK fvM Ki fvMkl cKvk Ki|
() Mc Gckbi Rb eeZ nq|
^ Gcvbbwkqvi|
Comparison AcviUi:
`ywU Gckbi ga Zzjbv KiZ Comparison AcviUi eeZ nq| GK wijkbvj
AcviUiI ejv nq| Kvbv wbw` WUvK LyuR ei Kivi Rb Comparison AcviUi eenvi
Kiv nq| Comparison AcviUi jwRKvj djvdj cKvk KiZI eeZ nq|
AcviUi eYbv
= mgvb wP|
> AcviUii evg Ask Wvb Aski Pq eo|
>= AcviUii evg Ask Wvb Aski Pq eo A_ev mgvb|
< AcviUii evg Ask Wvb Aski Pq QvU|
<= AcviUii evg Ask Wvb Aski Pq QvU A_ev mgvb|
<> mgvb bq/ Amgvb|
Between .. And i eySvbvi Rb eeZ nq|

Concatenation AcviUi:
`ywU wsK hvM Kivi Rb Concatenation AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq| & wP nQ
Concatenation AcviUi| + wP vivI `ywU wsK hvM Kiv hvq|
hgb- djvdj = ws 1 & ws 2 A_ev,
djvdj = ws 1 + ws 2
226 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

Logical AcviUi:
AcvKZ RwUj Gckb Zwii Rb jwRKvj AcviUi eeZ nq| GwU `ywU GckbK GK
Ki Ges GckbwU mZ ev wg_v g~jvqb Ki|
AcviUi eYbv

And Dfq kZ mZ nZ ne|

Or `ywU kZi Kgc GKwU kZ mZ nZ ne|

Not GckbK g~jvqb Kij kZvewj AekB wg_v nZ ne|

Eqn `ywU GckbK Bitwise Zyjbv Ki| GwU cvMvwgs G eeZ nq|

Imp `ywU wbDgwiK Gckbi ga jwRKvj Implecation mv`b Ki|


() Mc Gckbi Rb|
Like AcviUi:
? (ckevaK) wP Ges * (IqvB KvW) wPi mv_ Logical AcviUi eenvi Kiv nq|
AcviUi eYbv
* hKvbv aibi GK ev GKvwaK Kvivii mv_ gvwPs Ki|
? hKvbv aibi GKK Kvivii mv_ gvwPs Ki|

Common Gckb:
WUveR gvbRgU wmg mPivPi eenvihvM KwZcq Common Gckb iqQ| Kgb
Gckbjv wbPi wP `Lvbv njv-

wP: Gckb wevi|


WUveR gvbRgU wmg 227

Common Gckbmg~ni eYbv:


Page Number: cv b^i `qvi Rb G GckbwU eenvi Kiv nq|
Total Pages: Kvbv dg ev wicvU gvU cv b^i c`vb Ki|
Current Date: G GckbwU Date () dvskbwU eenvi Ki Ges eZgvb ZvwiL c`kb Ki|
Current Date/ Time: G GckbwU Now () dvskbwU eenvi Ki Ges digU Abyhvqx eZgvb
ZvwiL / mgq c`kb Ki|
Current User: GUv Current User () dvskb eenvi Ki|
6.5 mwUs (Sorting)
WUveRi iKWjvK G`i gvbi gvbymvi mvRvbvi cwqv nQ mwUs| hKvbv GK ev
GKvwaK wd Gi Dci wfw Ki iKWjvK mU/ mvRvbv
hvq| mwUs ev mvRvbv `ycKvi nq _vK- DPg/ Dag/
Avivnx/ Ascending order Ges wbgg/ Aeivnx/
Descending order. iKWMyjv mU Kiv _vKj H wd
Abyhvqx iKW LuyR ei Kiv mnR Ges mgq Kg jvM| wbPi
2q UwejwU wRwcG Gi wfwZ mvRvbv nqQ

wP: mwUs
Roll Name GPA Roll Name GPA
01 Radia 3.50 02 Alvie 5.00
02 Alvie 5.00 04 Joyeta 5.00
03 John 4.50 05 Radit 4.90
04 Joyeta 5.00 03 John 4.50
05 Radit 4.90 01 Radia 3.50

1g Uwej (mwUs Gi c~e) 2q Uwej (mwUs Gi ci)

mwUs Kivi cwZ:


h wdi Dci mwUs Kiv ne mB wdi Dci gvDm cqUvi ivLZ ne|
gby evii Record Sort Ackb wmj Ki DPgi Rb Ascending order A_ev
wbggi Rb Descending order wmj KiZ ne|
h wdi Dci mwUs Kiv ne mB wdi Dci gvDmi Wvb evUb PcI Ascending
order A_ev Descending order wmj Kiv hvq|
228 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

6.6 BbWws (Indexing)


Kvbv dvBji WUv B Kivi A_ nQ mB dvBji WUvK Avivnx (Ascending) ev Aeivnx
(Descending) Abymvi gvbyhvqx mvRvbv| BbW nQ
mymwZfve ev mywebfve Z_vewji m~wP cYqb Kiv|
WUveR _K eenviKvwi Kvbv WUv hvZ ZvovZvwo
LyuR ei KiZ cvi mRb WUvK GKwU wekl AWvi
mvwRq ivLv nq| WUveRi Uweji iKWmg~nK Gi~c
Kvbv jwRKvj AWvi mvwRq ivLvKB BbW ej|
WUveRi GK ev GKvwaK wdi Dci BbW Ki
Alphabetically ev Numerically mvRvbv hvq|
B Kivi mgq hme welq weePbv Kiv nq-
mvaviYZ Kx wdi Dci B KiZ nq Ges wP: BbWws
B Gi GKwU bvg w`Z nq|
wdi bvgi Abyic bvg wbevPb KiZ nq| GZ Bmg~n gb ivLZ myweav nq|
GK ev GKvwaK wdi Dci B Kiv hvq| Kvbv WUv Uwej GK ev GKvwaK B
_vKZ cvi ev GKB mgq Lvjv _vKZ cvi| wK GKB mgq Kej GKwU B
mwq _vKe Ges iKWmg~n c`kbi AWvi wbqY Kie|
1 Karim 5 Alvie
2 Zamil 7 Baby
3 Radia 1 Karim
4 Nizad 4 Nizad
5 Alvie 3 Radia
6 Suman 6 Suman
7 Baby 2 Zamil

Record Number Key Field- Name Field


wP: BbWws|
Bwsqi eo myweav njv BbW Kivi ci dvBj mnR WUv LyuR ei Kiv hvq| BbW Kivi
ci WUveR dvBj bZzb Kvbv iKW BbcyU Kiv njI BbW dvBjMyjv ^qswqfve AvcWU
nq hvq| WUv Uweji iKWmg~ni Dci wewfb Acvikb hgb- Searching, Sorting,
Reporting Ges Queries BZvw` Lye ZvovZvwo mb Kivi Rb BbW Kiv nq| A_vr WUvmg~n
BbW Kij Speedy cvidig cvIqv hvq| BbW dvBj g~j WUveR dvBji Kvbvi~c
cwieZb bv Ki wewfbfve mvRvZ cvi|
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 229

WUv UwejK hw` GKwU wdi Dci BbWws Kiv _vK Ze Kvbv WUv GwWU Kij cvMvg
^qswqfve (Automatically) BbW AvcWU Ki Ges Gi Rb LyeB A cwigvY mgq jvM|
Ze hw` GKvwaK wdi Dci BbWws Kiv _vK Zvnj Kvbv WUv GwWU Kij BbW AvcWU
Kivi Rb AbKY mgq ai Acv KiZ nq| GKvwaK wdi Dci Ges AbK iKWi Rb
B Kiv nj AcvKZ ewk ggvwii cqvRb nq| ZvQvov BbW msiYi RbI wKQy ewk
RvqMv jvM| WUv GwUi BbW dvBji idvimg~n AvcWU nZ ek mgqi cqvRb nq|
mRb WUv GwU KiZI ewk mgq jvM| G KviY Kejgv mme wdi DciB BbWws Kiv Dg
hv mPivPi wewfb Acvikb hgb- Finds, Queries Ges Sorts BZvw`Z eeZ nq|
Bws Kivi cwZ:
h Uwej Bwsqi KvR Kiv ne mB UwejwU wWRvBb wfD gvW Icb KiZ ne|
h wdi Dci Bws Kiv ne mB wdi Dci gvDm cqUvi ivLZ ne|
DBvi wbPi w`K Field Properties _K General Uve wmj KiZ ne|
Indexed Ackbi Wc WvDb Aviv wKK Kij wKQz Ackb `Lv hve|
Yes (No duplicates) wmj Ki cybivq dvBjwU mf KiZ ne|

KvR: Bws I mwUsqi ga 5wU cv_K wjL|


6.7 WUveR wijkb (Database Relation)
WUveR GKvwaK Uwej wbq MwVZ| WUveRi wewfb Uweji gaKvi jwRKvj
mK K WUveR wijkb ej| G wijkb GKwU Uweji mv_ GK ev GKvwaK Uwej
wKsev iKW i ga nZ cvi| WUveRi wijkbi Dci wfw Ki Uweji iKW
mwU s , mvwP s , Kvqwi c f w Z Acvikb Kiv nq|
wijkbwkci wWwM (Degree of Relationship):
WUveR wijkbwkc Zwi Kivi Rb h KqwU GbwUwU ev Uwej eenvi Ki Zvi msLvKB
wijkbwkci wWwM ejv nq| wijkbwkci wWwM mvaviYZ wZb aibi nZ cvi| h_v:
wWwM 1 ev BDbvwi (Unary) wijkbwkc
wWwM 2 ev evBbvwi (Binary) wijkbwkc
wWwM 3 ev Uvibvwi (Ternary) wijkbwkc
wWwM 1 ev BDbvwi (Unary) wijkbwkc:
BDbvwi wijkbwkc aygv GKwU GbwUwU/Uwej AskMnY Ki| hgb- gvbyl GKwU GbwUwU|
GKRb gvbyl Ab GKRb gvbylK weq Ki| KvRB gvbyl GbwUwU wbRi mv_ wbRi wijkbwkc
Zwi KiQ|
230 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wWwM 2 ev evBbvwi (Binary) wijkbwkc:


evBbvwi wijkbwkc `ywU GbwUwU/Uwej AskMnY Ki| hgb- Qv I wkK `ywU c_K GbwUwU ev
Uwej| wkK QvK wkv`vb Kib| KvRB wkK GbwUwU Qv GbwUwUi mv_ evBbvwi
wijkbwkc Zwi KiQ|
wWwM 3 ev Uvibvwi (Ternary) wijkbwkc:
Uvibvwi wijkbwkc wZbwU GbwUwU/Uwej AskMnY Ki| hgb- weZv, cY I IqvinvDR wZbwU
c_K GbwUwU ev Uwej| weZv IqvinvDR cY mieivn Kib| KvRB weZv, cY I
IqvinvDR Uvibvwi wijkbwkc Zwi KiQ|
WUveRi wewfb Uweji ga wbwjwLZ wijkb nZ cvi-
1. One to One
2. One to Many
3. Many to Many
One to One:
hLb Kvbv Uweji GKwU iKWi Rb Ab Uweji GKwU gv iKW _vK ZLb ZvK One to
One wijkb ej| hgb-GKRb Qvi Kej GKwU gv ivj bs _vKZ cvi| GLvb GKwU
Qvi mv_ GKwU gv ivj bs gvP Kie|

zWU- 1 ivj bs- 1

zWU- 2 ivj bs- 2

wP: One to One Relation


One to Many:
hLb Kvbv Uweji GKwU iKWi Rb Ab Uweji GKvwaK iKW _vK ZLb ZvK One to
Many wijkb ej| hgb-GKRb MvBW wUPvii Aaxb GKvwaK Qv _vKZ cvi| GLvb
GKRb MvBW wUPvii mv_ GKvwaK Qv gvP Kie|
zWU- 1

zWU- 2
MvBW wUPvi-1
zWU- 3

zWU- 4

wP: One to many Relation


WUveR gvbRgU wmg 231

G cwZZ Kvbv WUv Uweji GKwU iKW Ab Uweji GKvwaK iKWi mv_ wijkb iv
Ki| aiv hvK, Kvbv wkv cwZvbi Uwej-A njv MvBW wUPvi`i Z_ Uwej Ges Uwej-B
njv Qv-Qvx`i Z_ Uwej | GLvb Uwej A Gi GKwU iKWi Rb Uwej B Gi GKvwaK
(3wU) iKW AvQ| wbgi wP One to Many wijkb wb`k Ki `Lvbv njv
Uwej -A Uwej -B
: MvBW wefvM ivj Qv-Qvxi MvBW wUPvii
bs wUPvii bvg bs bvg bvg
01 wg. gwZqvi AvBwmwU 101 Avjfx wg. gwZqvi
02 wg. `jvqvi AvBwmwU 102 fxc wg. gwZqvi
03 wg. mRj cwimsLvb 103 wRmvb wg. gwZqvi
04 wg. Gm Avng` evsjv 104 myRb wg. mRj
05 wg.mvBdzj Bmjvg mv. we`v 105 Ave`yjvn wg. mRj
wP: One to Many Relation
Many to Many:
hLb Kvbv Uweji GKvwaK iKWi Rb Ab Uweji GKvwaK iKW _vK ZLb ZvK Many
to Many wijkb ej| hgb: GKvwaK Qv GKvwaK welq cQ` KiZ cvi|
welq- 1
zWU- 1
welq- 2

welq-3
zWU- 2
welq- 4

`ywU Uweji ga hLb Dfq c GKvwaK gvwPs iKW _vK ZLb Zv`i ga Many to Many
wikjkb cwZv Kiv hvq| G wijkb cwZv Kivi Rb ZZxq AviKwU Uweji cqvRb nq- hvK
Rvskb (Junction) Uwej ejv nq| gb Kwi, Uwej A Z Qv-Qvx`i ivj Ges bvg iqQ ,
Aciw`K Uwej B Z DPgvawgK chvq cwVZ wewfb welqi bvg Ges H welqi KvW b^i
iqQ| G A Uweji Kvbv iKWi wecixZ B Uwej GKvwaK gvwPs Km _vKZ cvi|
Avevi B Uweji Kvbv iKWi wecixZ A Uwej GKvwaK gvwPs iKW _vKZ cvi| GiKg
wijkb Zwi KiZ PvBj ZZxq GKwU Rvskb (Junction) Uwej Zwi Kivi cqvRb nq| Rvskb
Uwej Dfq WUveRi cvBgvwi Kx wbq `ywU wd Zwi KiZ ne| Many to Many wijkbkc
Rvskb Uweji Rb Dfq w`K _K One to Many wijkbwkci gZv| aiv hvK, A Uwej Ges
B Uweji ga Many to Many wijkb Zwi KiZ J bvg GKwU Junction Uwej Zwi Kiv
njv| J Uweji KvQ Ab `ywU wijkb One to Many wijkbi gZv KvR Kie|
232 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

wbg GKwU Many to Many wijkbwkci wP Dcvvcb Kiv njv:


UwejA UwejB
ivj bs Qv-Qvxi bvg welq KvW welqi bvg
501 Avjfx 101 evsjv 1g c
502 fxc 102 evsjv 2q c
503 wRmvb 107 BsiwR 1g c
504 myRb 108 BsiwR 2q c
505 Ave`yjvn 237 KwDUvi wkv 1g c
238 KwDUvi wkv 2q c

UwejJ
ivj bs welq KvW welqi bvg
501 101 evsjv 1g c
501 102 evsjv 2q c
501 107 BsiwR 1g c
504 108 BsiwR 2q c
504 107 BsiwR c_gc
504 237 KwDUvi wkv c_g c

wP: Many to Many Relation

hme WUv Uweji ga wijkb vcb Kiv nq Zv`i ga AZ GKwU Kgb wd _KZ nq| G
Kgb wdi bvg, WUv UvBc, digU, wd mvBR BZvw` e GKB _vKZ nq| wijkbvj WUv
Uweji GKwU wdK cvBgvwi Kx wnme wPwZ KiZ nq|

h wdi WUvMyjv AwZxq m wdK cvBgvwi Kx wd ej| hw` GKvwaK wdi mg^q
cvBgvwi Kx MwVZ nq ZLb ZvK KvwRU cvBgvwi Kx ej| cii mKhy `ywU WUv Uweji
c_gwU cvBgvwi Kx hw` 2q WUv Uwej eeZ nq ZLb ZvK dib Kx ej| DjL h 2q Uwej
GKwU cvBgvwi Kx _vKe|
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 233

`ywU Uweji ga wijkb Zwii cwZ: gvBvmdU Gm eenvi Ki `ywU Uweji ga


wijkb Zwii cwZ wbg ewYZ njv| h_v:
1. c_g Uwej `ywU Icb KiZ ne|
2. Tools gby _K Relationships-G wKK KiZ ne| ZLb c`vq Relationships DBvwU
`Lv hve Ges Gi Dci Show Table WvqvjM ewU `Lv hve|

3. Zvici result UwejwU wmj Ki Add evUb wKK KiZ ne| Zvici std UwejwU wmj
Ki Add evUb wKK Kij Uwej `ywU Relationships DBvZ `Lv hve|
4. Show Table WvqvjM ei KvR evUb wKK Kij ZLb c`vq wbgi Relationships DBvZ
`Lv hve|

5. Zvici result Uweji roll wdK WvM Ki std G Qo w`Z ne| Gici c`vq Edit
Relationship WvqvjM e Avme|
234 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

6. G Edit Relationship e _K Create evUb wKK Kij wbgi wPi bvq wijkb Zwi ne|

7. File gby _K Save evUb wKK Ki wijkbwU GKUv bvg w`q Save KiZ ne|
6.8 KcviU WUveR (Corporate Database)
KcviU WUveR njv cwZvwbK chvqi mB WUveR ev Kvbv cwZvb KZK evwYwRK wfwZ
eeZ nq| enr GUvicvBRi GKvwaK eemv-evwYR _vKZ cvi| cwZwU eemv cwZvbi wewfb
aibi wefvM ev AbywefvM _vK hgb- Drcv`b, weq, weZiY, wecbb, MvnK mev, gvbe m`
Dbqb, AvBwU, AwWU, MvnK mev BZvw`| cwZvbjv Zv`i wbR^ cqvRb G WUveR Mo
Zvj hLvb D cwZvbi AvIZvq _vKv mKj WUvi GK wekvj msMn _vK| wewfb cwZvbK
Zv`i Kgx, Zv, mieivnKvwi, Askx`vi Ges miKviK wbfyj I mgqgZv Z_ c`vb KiZ nq|
KcviU WUveR G KvRwUK mnR Ki Zvj| KcviU WUveR cwZvbi Z_mg~n msiwZ
nq Ges cieZxZ wewfb KvRi Rb G WUveRK cwqvKiY Kiv nq|

wP: KcviU WUveR


WUveR gvbRgU wmg 235

Gme WUv wewfbfve msiwZ nZ cvi| GMyjvi ga iqQ:


Simple Sequential Files
Indexed Sequential & Random Access Files
Hierarchic Database Management Systems (IMS)
Network Database Management Systems (ORACLE)
End-User Database Management System (DBASE, PARADOX, ACCESS)
Spreadsheets (EXCEL, QUATTRO PRO)
Kvbv enr GUvicvBR A_ev KcviU cwZvbi mKj wefvM ev Dc- wefvMi mv_ mswk wewfb
aibi WUv wbq KcviU WUveR Zwi Kiv nq| KcviU WUveR Kvbv cwZvbi Rb LyeB
g~jevb m`| ZvB GwUK KvhKifve wbqY KiZ nq| AvRKvj QvULvU, KvhKi I j wi
Kiv wecYb KvvwbjvI Zv`i eemvwqK Kvhg cwiPvjbvi Rb KcviU WUveR eenvi
Ki _vK| AviI eo eo cwZvb Gi eenvi AviI weZ | KcviU chvq eeZ Rbwcq wKQz
WUveR mdUIqvi njv-

(i) Oracle (v) Teradata (ix) Access


(ii) DB2 (vi) ADABAS (x) Informix BZvw`|
(iii) SQL Server (vii) MySQL
(iv) Sybase (viii) FileMaker

KvR: KcviU WUveRi myweavMyjv wjL|

6.9 miKvwi cwZvb WUveR


Database in Government Organization
miKvwi cwZvbi hveZxq Dcv I Z_ msiYi Dchy Dcvq njv mswk welq WUveR
eenvi Kiv| kwkvjx miKvi cwiPvjbv eevq WUveR njv iZc~Y GKwU Dcv`vb| cwZwU
miKvii Aaxb _vK AmsL gYvjq| Gme gYvjq ^Zfve wKsev Abvb gYvjqi mv_
mgw^Z Dcvq KvR Ki _vK| Gme KvR Z_i eenvi Acwinvh| G Z_ eevcbvK AviI
my`i I KvhvchvMx Ki ZzjZ cvi WUveR gvbRgU wmg| Dbqbg~jK bvbv KgKv Gme
Z_K eenvi Ki AvkvZxZ djvdj cvIqv hvq| hgb wbw` mgq ci ci `k Av`ggvwi
cwiPvwjZ nq| G cwqv PjvKvjxb mgq evwo evwo wMq `ki bvMwiK`i mK iZc~Y bvbv
Z_ msMn Kiv nq| msMnxZ Gme Z_ cieZxZ WUveR msiY Kij Zv _K mswk
gYvjqjv Zv`i cqvRbxq Z_jv msMn Ki wbq GjvK c_Kfve KvR jvMvZ cvi|
Gi dj h Aj h aibi Dbqbg~jK Kvhg cwiPvjbv Kiv cqvRb mjv Kivi Rb eve
wmv MnY Kiv miKvii Rb mnR nq hvq|
236 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

miKvwi cwZvb WUveR Gi eenvi


Acivag~jK KgKv RwoZ eweMi Qwemn ewMZ bvbv Z_, AvOyji Qvc BZvw` msiY Ki ivLZ
cvi `ki AvBbkLjv ivKvwi evwnbx| Gi dj hKvbv Aciva msNwUZ nj NUbvji wewfb
AvjvgZ, Avyji Qvc, i, eeZ nvwZqvi BZvw` cixv Ki mnR Acivax mbv Kiv hvq|
miKvwi bvbv MelYvg~jK Kvhg cwiPvjbvKvwi cwZvb mswk Z_ msiY Kiv, cwimsLvb eyiv, wbevPb
Kwgkb, evbeBR cfwZ cwZvb Z_ cwqvKiY I msiY Kiv, Av`ggvwi, Kwlgvwi, A_bwZK
msv Z_ msiY, weevn, ZvjvK cfwZ iwRkb I iKW msiY| Rbnvi I gZznvi wbYq, Rb-gZz
iKW msiY, `yNUbvi iKW msiY, AvBb, Av`vjZ, gvgjv, Aav`k BZvw` msv iKW msiY|
Z_ I Qwe msMn Ki bvMwiK`i Qwemn fvUvi AvBwW msiY, evwoi nvws b^i, f~wg Uv, AvqKi,
dvb b^i msiY, cvewjK wekwe`vjqi cixvjvi Qv`i djvdj I Z_ msiY Kiv nq Gi dj
Avgiv hKvbv mgq weMZ cvewjK cixvi djvdj `LZ cvwi ev msMn KiZ cvwi| wkvi nvi, cvmi
nvi, wkv cwZvbi msLv BZvw` msiY, f~wg Rwic, bvbv aibi iKWi Z_ msiY, miKvwi wewfb
bw_c I Rwic msv iKW msiY, kni ev MvgvjwfwK wewfb iKW msiY, Rjv, _vbv ev
GjvKvIqvix wewfb Z_ msiY, mvgwiK evwnbxi f~wg, mb, Acvikb msv Z_ msiY, miKvwi-
emiKvwi Avq-eq, ivR^ ev Dbqb eiv, evRU cfwZ KvR| ZvQvovI eZgvb AbjvBb we`k
MgbQz`i WUveR msiwZ AvQ| Gi dj AwZ mnR wbw` ckvi we`k MgbQz kwgK wbevPb Kiv
hvq| gvU Drcv`b, evwlK wRwWwc, Mo Avq, we`wk FYi cwigvY cfwZ wbicY I msiY, K gvKU
kqvi `i, Kvvwb cvdvBj, Kvvwb cmcvm, m~PK cfwZ wbYq I msiY AvqKi, Kvg, Avg`vwb-
ivwb, iwgUv cfwZ msiY| A_vr mvweKfve miKvwi chvq WUveR eenvii KviY ivi Kvhg
AviI MwZkxjZv Avbv me|
6.10 WUv wmwKDwiwU (Data Security)
WUv hKvbv cwZvbi RbB AZ iZc~Y welq| KLbv WUv cKvk Kiv iZc~Y Avevi
KLbv WUv Mvcb ivLv AZ Riwi| hgb eZgvb
cvq mKj evsK wWU/WwfW KvW cPjb KiQ|
KvWi gvag GwUGg ey_ _K UvKv Dvjbi Rb
mePq iZc~Y nQ wcb KvW / cvmIqvW GwU
AZ Mvcbxq, hw` Ab KD G wcb KvW RvbZ
cvi Zvnj KvWi gvag h KD UvKv Dvjb KiZ
cvie| Kvbv Kvvwb Pvqbv Ab KD Zvi mKj Z_
Rb hvK| m Awbw` ew KZK Mvcbxq
WUvi eenvi Abygvw`Z nIqv DwPr bq| WUveR wP: WUv wmwKDwiwU cwjwm
AvWwgwbUi WUveRi MvcbxqZv iv Kivi
`vwqZ cvjb Ki _vK| WUveR AvWwgwbUi Zvi eenviKvwi`i wewfb aibi Gm gZv
c`vb Ki _vKb|
hgb: Kvbv evsKi GKvDUU MvnK`i wnmve UvKv hvM ev weqvM KiZ cvi A_vr evj
cwieZb KiZ cvi| wK Ab Kvbv Awdmvi G KvRwU KiZ cvi bv, nqZv Abiv ay wewfb
Z_ `LZ cvi ev mxwgZ Z_ cwieZb KiZ cvi|
WUveR gvbRgU wmg 237

WUveR wmwKDwiwU wbPi welqjvK wbqY Ki:


eenviKvwii WUv eenvi Kivi AwaKvi msiY Kiv|
wmg wimvm eenvi wbqY Kiv|
wW eenvi wbqY Kiv|
eenviKvwii AvKkb wbqY Kiv|
eenviKvwii WUv eenvii mxgv wbaviY Kiv|
WUveRi wmwKDwiwU cavbZ 2 fvM fvM Kiv hvq:
(K) wmg wmwKDwiwU (L) WUv wmwKDwiwU|
wP: WUv wmwKDwiwU cwjwm
6.11 WUv Gbwckb (Data Encryption)
WUv GKvb _K Abvb vbvii mgq WUvi MvcbxqZv wewNZ nZ cvi, wekl Ki hw`
WUv cvewjK c_ viv vbvwiZ nq| G mvaviYZ g~j WUvK wekl KvWi gvag cwiewZZ
Ki ciY Kiv nq| g~j WUvK Mvcb Kivi cwZK ejv nq Gbwckb| A_vr h cwqvq
WUvK wekl KvWi gvag Mvcb / cwieZb Kiv nq ZvK Gbwckb ej| Drm WUvK
Gbw Ki cvVvj cvcK H WUv eenvii c~e wWw KiZ nq| Gbw Kiv WUvK wbw`
wbqg g~j WUvq cwieZb KivK ejv nq wWw| ciK Ges cvcKK h_vg Gbw Ges
wWw Kivi cwZ / AvjMwi`g RvbZ nq| WUv Gbw Kivi wewfb cwZ iqQ
1. wmRvi KvW (Caesar Code)
2. WUv Gbwckb vvW (Data Encryption Standard-DES)
3. BUvibvkbvj WUv Gbwckb AvjMwi`g (International Data Encryption Algorithm-IDEA)
G`i ga AvgwiKvi National Bureau of Standards (NBS) KZK DvweZ Data
Encryption Standard-DES cwZ njv ej eeZ Gbwckb cwZ| ivgvb mvU Rywjqvm
wmRvii mgq _K WUv Gbw Kivi Rb wmRvi KvW cwZ eenvi Kiv nq AvmQ|
Gbwckb cwZ-1: G cwZZ BsiwR cZK eYi Rb wbw` g Abyhvqx wbw` eY eenvi Kiv
nq| hgb- BsiwR cZK eYK Zvi cieZx eY viv cwZvcb Kij- ALVIE kwUi Gbwckb njv
BMWJF GLvb g~j ki cZK eYi cieZx eY eenvi Ki Gbw Kiv nqQ|
Gbwckb cwZ-2: G cwZZ g~j WUvi cZK eYK BsiwR eYgvjvi g Abymvi Aevb
wbYq Kiv nq|
1. AevbMZ msLvK 8 viv Y Kiv nq|
2. Ydji gvbK Aevb ai eYgvjvi gvbymvi h eYwU cvIqv hvq Zv GbwW eY
wnmve aiv nq|
3. Ydj 26 Acv eo nj YdjK 26 viv fvM Ki fvMkl wbYq Kiv nq| G fvMkli
gvbK Aevb ai eYgvjvi gvbymvi h eYwU cvIqv hvq Zv GbwW eY wnmve aiv nq|
G cwZZ CAESAR kwU Gbw Kwi-
C= 3 X8 = 24 X
A= 1X8 = 8 H
E= 5X8 = 40 40 26 fvMkl 14 N
S= 19X8 = 152 15226 fvMkl 22 V
A= 1X8 = 8 H
R= 18X8 = 144 14426 fvMkl 14 N
238 Z_ I hvMvhvM chyw

myZivs CAESAR kwU Gbw nq XHNVHN nq Mj, hv Chiper Text wnme cwiwPZ|
KvR: Zvgvi wbRi bvgi GKwU Gbw KvW Zwi Ki| hLvb cZKwU eY Zvi c~eeZx
eY viv cwZvwcZ nq|
Abykxjbx
mRbkxj ck:
wbPi AbyQ`jv co Ges ckMyjvi Di `vI:
1| XYZ KjRi Aa gnv`q Zuvi KjRi Qv-Qvx`i fwZ Z_, cixvi iRv, eZbi
wnmve, cfvlK`i Z_mg~n KwDUvi msiYi wPv KiQb| GRb KjRi Z_ I
hvMvhvM chyw welqi cfvlK wg. Lvbi civgk PvBjb| wg. Lvb Aa gnv`qK GKwU
wijkbvj WUveR gvbRgU mdUIqvi q Kivi civgk w`jb|
K. RDBMS Gi c~Yic wjL|
L. wd I iKW ejZ Kx eyS?
M. Qv-Qvx`i ivj, bvg, wRwcG, wVKvbv wbq GKwU Ges ivj, bvg, wewfb welqi b^i wbq
GKwU WUv Uwej Zwi Ki Ges G`i ga wijkb Zwi Ki|
N. Aa gnv`q Zuvi KjRi Rb wijkbvj WUveR Zwi Kij wK wK myweav cve? weklY Ki|
2| eZgvb evsjv`k Z_ I hvMvhvM chywZ AbK mdjZv GbQ| GLb wewfb KvR hgb
zj KjR fwZ, PvKzwii Ave`b, fvUvi mbvKiY BZvw` AbjvBbi gvag Kiv hvq| Gi
dj wewfb Z_ AwZ mnR cvIqv Ges eenvi Kiv hvq|
K. mwUs wK?
L. KvwRU cvBgvwi Kx ejZ wK eyS?
M. miKvwi cwZvb WUveRi eenvi eYbv Ki|
N. wewfb miKvwi cwZvb WUveR Zwi Kij RbMY wK wK myweav cve? evLv Ki|
ewbevPwb ck:
1| WUveR gvbRgU wmg Zwi Kivi Rb wbPi Kvbv mdUIqviwU cqvRb?
K. IivKj L. BDwb M. wm N. Rvfv
2| WUveR ge wjLvi Rb H wdi WUv UvBc Kx ne?
K. text L. Number M. OLE object N. memo
3| many to many wijkb Zwi KiZ KZwU Uwej cqvRb nq?
K. 2 wU L. 3 wU M. 1 wU N. 4 wU
4| wmwm KjR Zvi Qv-Qvx, wkK, KgKZv, KgPvix`i Z_ msiYi Rb wijkbvj
WUveR gvbRgU wmg Zwi KiQ| Gi dj
i. mnRWUv GwU KiZ cvie|
ii. msLvevPK WUvmg~n m~ MvwYwZK wnmve KiZ cvie|
iii. KvwZ iKW mnR LyuR ei KiZ cvie|
wbPi KvbvwU mwVK?
K. i L. i I ii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii

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