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Detailed lecture notes in Quantum Field

Theory

Diego Restrepo
Instituto de Fsica
Universidad de Antioquia
2012
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License

All materials are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United
States License.

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Contents

Introduction 1

1 Classical Field Theory 3


1.1 Lagrangian Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.1 Ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.2 Teorema de Noether para simetras internas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.3 Teorema de Noether para simetras externas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Global gauge invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Local phase invariance in the Scrodingers Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 Notacion relativista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.1 Ejemplos de cuadrivectores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4.2 Lorentz tranformation for fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5 Vector field Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5.1 Energa del campo electromagnetico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.6 Scrodinger Equation in presence of the electromagnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.6.1 Euler-Lagrange equation for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.6.2 Euler-Lagrange equation for A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.6.3 Conserved currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.7 Gauge Transformation Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.8 Proca Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.9 Klein-Gordon Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.9.1 Complex scalars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.10 Lorentz transformation of the fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
1.11 Diracs Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
1.11.1 Lorentz transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.11.2 Corriente conservada y Lagrangiano de Dirac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.11.3 Tensor momento-energa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.11.4 Ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

v
vi CONTENTS

1.11.5 Propiedades de las matrices de Dirac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57


1.11.6 Lorentz Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1.11.7 Lorentz invariance of the Dirac Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1.11.8 Diracs Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
1.12 Electrodinamica Cuantica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
1.13 Cromodinamica Cuantica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
1.13.1 Ecuaciones de EulerLagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
1.13.2 Derivada covariante adjunta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
1.14 Spontaneous symmetry breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1.15 Fermiones quirales de cuatro componentes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
1.16 Standard model Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
1.16.1 Spontaneous symmetry breaking in SU (3)c SU (2)L U (1)Y . . . . . . . . . 97
1.16.2 Yukawa Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
1.16.3 Fermion-gauge interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
1.16.4 Self-interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
1.16.5 Lagrangiano del modelo estandar para la primera generacion . . . . . . . . . . 108
1.16.6 Dinamica de sabor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
1.17 Fenomenologa Electrodebil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
1.17.1 Decaimientos debiles mediados por corrientes cargadas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
1.18 Calculo de procesos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

2 Computational QFT 121


2.1 LanHEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
2.2 CalcHEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.3 LanHEP/CalcHEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

3 Second quantization 131


3.1 Quantization of the nonrelativistic string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
3.1.1 The clasical string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
3.1.2 Quantization of the string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3.1.3 Generalization to three dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
3.2 Quantization of the Klein-Gordon field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
3.3 Quantization of Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

4 Quantization of the electromagnetic field 165


4.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
4.2 Quantization of the electromagnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
CONTENTS vii

5 Propagators 169
5.1 Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.2 Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.3 Bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

6 Smatrix 171
6.1 The Smatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
6.2 Relativistic and no relativistic normalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
6.3 Process probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
6.4 Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
6.4.1 2to2 cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
6.5 Decay Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
6.5.1 Two body decays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
6.6 Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

7 Two body decays 191


7.1 Particle decays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7.2 Width decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.3 e+ e + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

8 Feynman Rules 197


8.1 Interaction picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
8.2 Atomic decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
8.3 Yukawa interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.4 Wick Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.5 Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

9 Three body decays 223


9.1 Muon decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
9.1.1 Amplitude estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
9.1.2 Amplitude calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
9.2 three body decays in radiative seesaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
9.A Sample point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
9.B Preliminary discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

10 Renomalization at 1-loop 245


10.1 Self-energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
10.2 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Introduction

We have organized the topics in order of complexity, and, in the same spirit than in previous book
[1], we have tried to write the calculations as detailed as possible. In Chapter 3 we included the
building blocks of quantum field theory, in Chapter 6 we introduce the Smatrix in the Scrodinger
Picture separating the kinematical and normalization factors from the matrix element. Then the
expressions for the decay rates and cross sections are obtained. The explicit calculation of the
matrix element from the expansion of the Smatrix to obtain the Feynman rules, is postponed to
Chapter 8. In Chapter 7 we use the Feynman rules necessary to calculates the matrix element, and
develop the techniques associated to the squaring of the matrix element. In Chapter 8 we obtain the
Feynman rules used in two body decays directly from the first order expansion of the Smatrix in
the interaction picture. The subsequent chapters have applications of the techniques developed to
the calculation of tree-level, Chapter 9 and loop processes.
This notes are based in books [2], [3], [4]. In each Chapter or Section the main reference used
is cited. Also, we have included material developed by students Juan Alberto Yepez, Jose David

Ruiz Alvarez. This notes are written in English, because at this level it is expected that any physics
student be fluently in reading technical texts in this language.
This work have been partially supported by Dedicacion Exclusiva 2008-2009 project: RR 26663

1
2 CONTENTS
Chapter 1

Classical Field Theory

This chapter is a summary of the main topics developed in the course Hacia la teora cuantica
de campos [1]. We will introduce special relativity as the necessary ingredient to guarantee the
local conservation of electric charge in quantum mechanics. The symmetries of the electromagnetic
Lagrangian will be extended to include the electron, as one Dirac spinor. The resulting Quantum
Electrodynamics theory will be used as a paradigm to explain the other fundamental interactions.

1.1 Lagrangian Formulation


1.1.1 Ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange
Definamos

= , (1.1)
x
En tres dimensiones, la accion de la se puede escribir como:
Z
S[, ] = d4 xL(, ) (1.2)
R

donde d4 x = dt dx dy dz. Considere primero una variacion solo de los campos, tal que (x = x )

(x) = 0 (x) (x) (1.3)

De otro lado, con x = x0 x, la expansion de Taylor para f (x + x) es

f
f (x + x) = f (x) + x + (1.4)
x

3
4 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Para L, tenemos de la ec. (1.3)


L(0 , 0 ) = L( + , + ())
L L
=L+ + () (1.5)
( )
Entonces, de imponer que S = 0, tenemos
Z Z
0 4 0 0
S = S S = d x L( , ) d4 x L(, )
 R R
L L
Z
= d4 x + ()
R ( )
     
L L L
Z Z
4 4
= dx + d x
R ( ) R ( )
    Z  
L L L
Z
4
S = dx + d = 0. (1.6)
R ( ) ( )

Donde hemos aplicado el Teorema de Gauss


Z Z
3
Ad x = A dS (1.7)
V S
generalizado a cuatro dimensiones. Como la variacion de es cero sobre la hipersuperficie resulta
   
L L
Z
4
dx = 0. (1.8)
R ( )
Como es cualquier posible variacion entre las fronteras de la hipersuperficie, el integrando debe
anularse y resultan las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange:
 
L L
= 0. (1.9)
( )
La densidad Lagrangiana
L0 = L + ((x)) (1.10)
donde (x) es cualquier funcion de los campos de la densidad Lagrangiana original, da lugar a la
Accion
Z Z Z
0 4 0 4
S = d xL = d xL + d4 x
R ZR ZR
4
= d x L + d
R
=S , (1.11)
1.1. LAGRANGIAN FORMULATION 5

para una hipersuperficie suficientemente grande. De modo que dos densidades lagrangianas que
difieran solo en derivadas totales dan lugar a la misma Accion.
Usando el principio de mnima accion en terminos del campo , tenemos que para la densidad
Lagrangiana (??)
"    2 #
2
1 1
L= 2
, (1.12)
2 v t z

las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange (1.9)


   
L L L
0 + 3 =0
(0 ) (3 )
   
L L
+ =0
t (/t) z (/z)
   
1
=0
v 2 t t z z
1 2 2
2 =0 , (1.13)
v 2 t2 z
que corresponde a la ecuacion de onda.
Generalizando a tres dimensiones vemos que la ecuacion para una onda propagandose a una
velocidad v,
1 2
2 2
2 = 0 , (1.14)
v t
proviene de una densidad Lagrangiana (hasta derivadas totales)
"   #
2
1 1
L=
2 v 2 t
 
1 1
= 0 0 i i . (1.15)
2 v2

1.1.2 Teorema de Noether para simetras internas


Para un campo complejo la ec. (1.2) se generaliza a
Z

S[, , , ] = d4 x L(, , , ) (1.16)
R
6 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Usando el mismo procedimiento, se obtiene


       
L L L L
Z Z
S = d x 4
+ 4
dx
)

R ( ) (
  R
L L
Z
+ d4 x + = 0. (1.17)
R ( ) ( )
Usando de nuevo el Teorema de Gauss resultan las ecuaciones de Euler Lagrange para y
   
L L L L
= 0,
= 0. (1.18)
( ) ( )
De otro lado, si asumimos que y satisfacen las ecuaciones de EulerLagrange, en lugar de asumir
que y se anulan sobre la hipersuperficie, los dos primeros terminos de la ec. (1.17) se anulan
y tendremos que para que S = 0: Z
d4 x ( J ) = 0, (1.19)
R
donde,    
L L
J = + (1.20)
( ) ( )
Entonces J satisface la ecuacion de continuidad:
J = 0 (1.21)
J 0
+J=0 (1.22)
t
Integrando con respecto al volumen
J 0 3
Z Z
d x+ J d3 x = 0,
t
ZV ZV
J 0 3
d x + J dS = 0, (1.23)
V t S
Escogiendo una superficie suficientemente grande que abarque toda la fuente de densidad = J 0 , de
la corriente J, el segundo integrando es cero y
d
Z
d3 x = 0. (1.24)
dt V
Este resultado es conocido como Teorema de Noether. Este establece que para toda transformacion
continua del tipo (1.3), debe existir una cantidad conservada, dQ/dt = 0, que en este caso corresponde
a Z
Q= d3 x. (1.25)
V
1.1. LAGRANGIAN FORMULATION 7

Figure 1.1: Traslacion de funcion y coordenadas en una dimension: (x) = 0 (x0 )

1.1.3 Teorema de Noether para simetras externas


Para el caso de una simetra externas, por ejemplo la correspondiente a una traslacion espacio
temporal

x x0 =x + a
x =a (1.26)

tenemos

0 (x0 ) = 0 (x + a) (1.27)
0 (x)
0 (x) + a (1.28)
x

= [(x) + (x)] + [(x) + (x)]a (1.29)
x
(x)
(x) + (x) + a , (1.30)
x
donde, por simplicidad, es de nuevo un campo real, y en el u
ltimo paso hemos despreciado un

termino de orden a . Entonces,

(x)
(x) 0 (x0 ) (x) = (x) + a . (1.31)
x
Para una traslacion, (x) = 0, ver figura 1.1. De modo que

= ( )a , (1.32)

y la transformacion del campo como consecuencia de la traslacion es

(x) 0 (x) = (x) + (x) = (x) ( (x))a . (1.33)


8 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Si a es constante (un analisis mas general es hecho en [?])

d 4 x0 = d 4 x (1.34)

En este caso, asumiendo que el campo satisface las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange y usando la ec. (1.32)
y (1.9) tenemos
Z Z
4 0 0 0
S = d x L( , , x ) d4 x L((x), (x), x)
ZR R Z
4
= d x L( + , + (), x + a ) d4 x L
ZR  R
 Z
4 L L
d x L+ + () + ( L)a d4 x L
( )
ZR   R
L L
= d4 x + () + ( L)a
( )
ZR    
4 L L
= dx + () + ( L)a
R ( ) ( )
   
L
Z
4
= d x + ( L)a
R ( )
 
L
Z
4
= d x + La
R ( )
 
L
Z
4
= d x a + La
R ( )
 
L
Z
4
= d x a + L (a )
R ( )
  
L
Z
4
= d x ( ) + L a
R ( )
(1.35)

Z
= d4 x (T a ) = 0. (1.36)
R

Y por consiguiente
T a = 0, (1.37)
De modo que para cada , con a 6= 0, se satisface:
1.1. LAGRANGIAN FORMULATION 9

T = 0, (1.38)
donde
L
T = ( ) L (1.39)
( )
El tensor T proviene de asumir la homogeneidad del espacio y el tiempo y es llamado el tensor de
momentumenerga.
Para una traslacion temporal: = 0, se genera entonces la ecuacion de continuidad:

T0 = 0 (1.40)

Donde la densidad de Energa, o mas de forma mas general: la densidad Hamiltonina corresponde a
T00

L
H = T00 = L (1.41)

(x)
= (x) L. (1.42)
t
Comparando con la expresion correspondiente en la formulacion Lagrangiana de la Mecanica Clasica,
tenemos que si (x) es la variable canonica, la variable canonica conjugada es (x)

L
(x) = . (1.43)
((x)/t)

El teorema de Noether en este caso establece que la invarianza de la Accion bajo traslaciones tem-
porales da lugar a la ecuacion de continuidad (1.38) para = 0

T0 = 0 (1.44)

cuya carga conservada corresponde a la energa


Z Z
3 0
H= d x T0 = d3 x H. (1.45)
V V

De igual forma la invarianza bajo traslaciones espaciales de lugar a ecuaciones de continuidad para
cada componente = i (i = 1, 2, 3)

Ti = 0, (1.46)
10 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

cuyas densidad de cargas conservadas, Ti0 , que en forma vectorial escribiremos como T0 , dan lugar
a la conservacion del momentum
Z
P= d3 x T0 . (1.47)
V

Generalizando a un campo complejo


L L
T = ( ) + ( ) L (1.48)
( ) ( )

1.2 Global gauge invariance


Haciendo ~ = 1, el Lagrangiano que da lugar a la ecuacion de Schrodinger es

 
1 i
L(, , , ) = + V (1.49)
2m 2 t t
1 i
= i i ( 0 0 ) + V .
2m 2
Aplicando las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange (1.18) para la funcion de onda obtenemos la ecuacion
de Scrodinger con ~ = 1:
     
L L L L L
0 =

= 0
+ i
. (1.50)
( ) (0 ) (i )
Como
L i L i
=
=
(0 ) 2 (0 ) 2
L 1 L 1
= i = i (1.51)
(i ) 2m (i ) 2m
L i L i
= 0 + V = 0 + V .
2 2
Entonces, reemplazando la ec. (1.51) en la ec. (1.50), tenemos
       
L L i 1 i
0 = = 0 + i i 0 + V
( ) 2 2m 2
i 1 i
= 0 + i i + 0 V . (1.52)
2 2m 2
1.2. GLOBAL GAUGE INVARIANCE 11

Que puede escribirse como  


1 2
i = + V . (1.53)
t 2m
El Lagrangiano en ec (1.49), y por consiguiente la Accion, es invariante bajo una transformacion
de fase
0 = ei . (1.54)
Por consiguiente, de acuerdo al Teorema de Noether, debe existir una cantidad conservada. La
corriente conservada se obtine de la ec. (1.20). Para los campos y , tenemos

= 0 = (ei 1) i (1.55)
i . (1.56)

Usando ademas la ec. (1.51) en la definicion de J 0 dada por la ec. (1.20), tenemos
   
0 L L
J = +
(0 ) (0 )
i i
= (i) + (i )
2 2
= , (1.57)

y
   
i L L
J = +
(i ) (i )
1 1
= i (i) + (i ) i
2m 2m
i
= (i i ) . (1.58)
2m
Entonces, normalizando apropiadamente la corriente escogiendo = 1, tenemos

J 0 = (1.59)
i
J= ( ) . (1.60)
2m
De acuerdo a la ec. (1.59), la cantidad conservada corresponde a la probabilidad de la funcion de
onda y normalizando apropiadamente la ec. (1.25)
Z
Q = d3 x = 1. (1.61)
V
12 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

En cuanto a las simetras externas, tenemos de la ec. (1.39) que da lugar a las ecuaciones de
continuidad (1.44)(1.46)
T0 = 0,
Ti = 0 (1.62)
Las cargas conservadas corresponden entonces a T00 y Ti0 . Usando las ecs. (1.51) en la ec. (1.48)
L L
Ti0 = (i ) + (i )
(0 ) (0 )
i i
Ti0 = (i ) + (i ) (1.63)
2 2
Entonces, definiendo
i
T0 = ( ) (1.64)
2
Ademas
i
T0 = (( ) )
2
i
= i + ( ) . (1.65)
2
Integrando en el volumen
i
Z Z Z

0 3
T d x = i 3
d x + d3 x (1.66)
V V 2 V
De acuerdo a la ec. (1.61), la u
ltima integral es una constante y
Z Z
0 3
T d x = i d3 x
V ZV
hb
pi = pb d3 x (1.67)
V
De modo que hb
pi son las cargas conservadas asociadas al valor esperado el operador de momentum
b = i .
p (1.68)
De otro lado
L L
T00 = 0 + 0 L
(0 ) (0 )
i i 1 i
= 0 + 0 i i + ( 0 0 ) V
2 2 2m 2
1
= i i V (1.69)
2m
1.2. GLOBAL GAUGE INVARIANCE 13

Como las corrientes solo estan determinadas hasta un factor de proporcionalidad, definimos
1
H T00 = + V
2m
1 1 2
= ( ) + V . (1.70)
2m 2m
Integrando sobre el volumen y usando la ec. (1.67)
 
1 1 2
Z Z Z
3
Hd x = ( ) + + V d3 x
V 2m V V 2m
 
1 1 2
Z Z

= ( ) + + V d3 x
2m V 2m
 V 
i 1 2
Z

= hbpi + + V d3 x
2m V 2m
 
1
Z

= + V d3 x .
2
(1.71)
V 2m
Entonces
 
1 2
Z Z
3
H Hd x = +V d3 x
V V 2m
Z
= d3 x H
b = hHi.
b (1.72)
V

Que es un resultado bien conocido de la mecanica cuantica.


Como
b = 1 p2 + Vb ,
H (1.73)
2m
podemos escribir la ec. (1.53) como

i = Hb . (1.74)
t
Podemos identificar entonces los operadores de energa y momentum.

b =i,
H = i .
p (1.75)
t
Retornando a la ec. (1.67), tenemos que para la solucion de partcula libre de la ecuacion de
Schrodinger
= A eikx , (1.76)
14 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

la condicion de normalizacion en ec. (1.61) implica que |A|2 = 1/L3 , y


Z
T0 d3 x = k. (1.77)
V

Ejercicio: De la ec. (1.72) obtenega la densidad Hamiltoniana, y usando la ec. (1.41) encontrar la densidad
Lagrangiana (1.49).

1.3 Local phase invariance in the Scr


odingers Lagrangian
When we discuss the wave function (x), x represents the point in space at which we want to know
the value of the wave function. Since complex numbers are, well, complex, you cant represent
them by a position on a simple number line. Instead, the have to be represented by a point in a
twodimensional plot.
In addition the length of the arrow pointing to the complex number we also need an angle to
specify exactly how to draw the arrow pointing to the complex number. The observable is encoded
into the length of the arrow representing the value of the complex valued wave function at that point
of the spacetime. Its angle is unobservable.
The complex number (x) in the Scrodinger equation is just the number whose square is the
relative probability of finding the object at that point.
Now, suppose that you arbitrarily decide to make a change of phase of the wave function to
change, at every point in space, the angle of the complex number makes with the real axis. Here
is the critical point: Is this change phase is global, if the phase that you change the phase angle
is the same everywhere in space, the this change of phase will not destroy the delicate and essential
balance between the kinetic and potential energy in the Scrodinger equation.
However, in the view implemented by Einsteins relativity, the need to require that quantum
mechanical systems be unaltered only by global changes of phase seemed to be very unnatural. Once
you choose the phase of the wave function at one space-time point, the requirement of global phase
invariance fixes it at all other space-time points:

As usually conceived however, this arbitrariness is subject to the following limitation: once one
choose [the phase of the wave function] at one spacetime point, one is then not free to make
any choices at other spacetime points.
It seems that it is not consistent with the localized field concept that underlies the usual physical
theories. In the present paper we wish to explore the possibility of requiring all the interactions
to be invariant under independent [change of phases] at all space-time points.

Yang-Mills, Physical Review, 1954



1.3. LOCAL PHASE INVARIANCE IN THE SCRODINGERS LAGRANGIAN 15

This is similar to what happens in electromagnetic theory expressed in terms of scalar and vector
potentials. The can be changed by arbitrary functions in a such way that the measured electric
and magnetic fields remain invariant. As we will see, this feature is deeply connected with the local
conservation of electric charge.
We start again with the Scrodinger Lagrangian as written in eq. (1.49):


 
1 i
L(, , , ) = + V (1.78)
2m 2 t t
1 i
= i i ( 0 0 ) + V .
2m 2
This Lagrangian is not invariant under local phase changes of the wave function:

0 = ei(x)


= ei(x) + ei(x)


=ei(x) (i (x)) + ei(x)


=ei(x) [i (x) + ] . (1.79)

In order to have a new Lagrangian invariant under local phase changes, or local gauge transformations,
we need to introduce a new term to compensate for the term arising from the derivate of ei(x) :

D D0 0 =( + X0 ) ei(x)


=ei(x) [i (x) + ] + X0 ei(x)




=ei(x) i (x) + + X0 .
 
(1.80)

The transformation condition of the new term X , in order to compensate for the term arising from
the derivative of the local phase, i (x), is just that

X X0 = X i (x) . (1.81)

Replacing back in Eq. (1.80) we have

D (D )0 = D0 0 =( + X0 ) ei(x)


=ei(x) [i (x) + + X i (x)]


=ei(x) [ + X ]
=ei(x) (D ) . (1.82)
16 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Note that D transforms like the field , and because of this is called the covariant derivative of
. Similarly

(D ) (D )0 =( + X0 ) ei(x)


= i (x) + + X + i (x) ei(x)


 

= + X ei(x)
 

= (D ) ei(x) . (1.83)

It is convenient to redefine X in terms of A :

1
A X , (1.84)
iq

such that the covariant derivative can be conveniently written as

D = + iqA . (1.85)

The transformation properties of A can be obtained from the X transformation in eq. (1.81):

iqA iqA0 = iqA i (x)


1
A A0 = A (x) . (1.86)
q

We define local gauge invariance as an arbitrary way of choosing the complex phase factor of a
charged field1 at all space time points.
In this way, we can change the original Lagrangian for a new one which is invariant under local
phase transformations:

1 i
L(, , , , A ) = (Di ) Di [ D0 (D0 ) ] + V (x). (1.87)
2m 2

where

1
A A0 = A (x) . (1.88)
q
1
like the electron field as described by the usual Scrodinger equation.
RELATIVISTA
1.4. NOTACION 17

This is just the gauge transformation which left the Electromagnetic fields invariant. In fact, the
new Lagrangian is now invariant under the local phase transformations
1 i 
L L0 = (Di )0 (Di )0 0 (D0 )0 (D0 )0 0 + 0 V (x) 0
2m 2
1 i(x) i(x)
= (Di ) e e (Di )
2m
i
ei(x) ei(x) (D0 ) (D0 ) ei(x) ei(x) + ei(x) ei(x) V (x).

2
=L . (1.89)

To preserve invariance one notices that it is necessary to counteract the variation of with x, y,
z, and t by introducing the electromagnetic field A . In this way, the electromagnetic interaction is
obtained as the result of impose local gauge invariance under U (1) (local phase transformations). To
fully implement the gauge principle, i.e, the paradigm to obtain the interactions as the result of the
gauge invariance, we need to introduce some concepts of special relativity to be developed below.

1.4 Notaci
on relativista
Las transformaciones de Lorentz se definen como la transformaciones que dejan invariante al producto
escalar en el espacio de Minkowski definido como
2 2
a2 = g a a a a = a0 ai ai = a0 a a (1.90)

donde , = 0, 1, 2, 3, i = 1, 2, 3 y se asume suma sobre ndices repetidos. Ademas

a g a (1.91)

Finalmente la metrica usada se define como



1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
{g } =
0 0 1 0 (1.92)
0 0 0 1

donde {g } denota la forma matricial del tensor g .


El producto de dos cuadrivectores se define en forma similar como

a b = g a b = a0 b0 a b (1.93)
18 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

El inverso de la metrica es
{g } {g }1 = {g } (1.94)
tal que
g g = and a = g a (1.95)
Bajo una transformacion de Lorentz.

a a0 = a (1.96)
a a0 = a
La invarianza del producto escalar en ec. (1.93)

a0 b0 =a b

g a0 b0 = g a b
g a b = g a b
g a b = g a b , (1.97)
da lugar a
g = g {g } = { }T {g } .

or (1.98)
En notacion matricial
g = T g . (1.99)
From eq. (1.98) we also have
g g =g g
= , (1.100)
or
= . (1.101)
Since

1
= (1.102)
the inverse of is

1
= , (1.103)
or

1
= , (1.104)
RELATIVISTA
1.4. NOTACION 19

Example: Lorentz invariance



a b a0 b0 = a bp
= a bp

= 1 a bp
= a bp
=a b .

Como un ejemplo de Transformacion de Lorentz considere un desplazamiento a lo largo del eje x


0 t+vx
t t cosh sinh 0 0 t
1v 2
0 x+vt
x x sinh cosh 0 0 x
{x } =
y
0 = 1v2 =
y y 0
= { } {x } , (1.105)
0 1 0 y
z z0 z 0 0 0 1 z

donde
1
cosh = sinh = v, and = . (1.106)
1 v2
y, por ejemplo:
t + vx
t cosh + x sinh = (t + vx) = . (1.107)
1 v2
El definido en la ec. (1.105) satisface la condicion en ec. (??),

cosh sinh 0 0 1 0 0 0 cosh sinh 0 0
sinh cosh 0 0 0 1 0 0 sinh cosh 0 0

T g =
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

cosh sinh 0 0 cosh sinh 0 0
sinh cosh 0 0 sinh cosh 0 0

=
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
2 2

cosh sinh cosh sinh cosh sinh 0 0
cosh sinh cosh sinh sinh2 cosh2 0 0
=
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
=g (1.108)
20 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Denotaremos los cuadrivectores con ndices arriba como

a = (a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (a0 , a) (1.109)

Entonces el correspondiente cuadrivector con ndices abajo, usando la ec. (1.91), es

a = (a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (a0 , a). (1.110)

Con esta notacion, el producto escalar de cuadrivectores puede expresarse como el producto escalar
de los dos vectores de cuatro componente a y a .

1.4.1 Ejemplos de cuadrivectores

x =(x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (t, x, y, z) = (t, x) (1.111)


p =(p0 , p1 , p2 , p3 ) = (E, px , py , pz ) = (E, p) (1.112)

De la relatividad especial tenemos que

E =m
p =mv . (1.113)

Por lo tanto, ya que v 2 = v2 = |v|2

E 2 p2 = 2 m2 (1 v 2 ) = m2 . (1.114)

El invariante de Lorentz asociado a p corresponde a la ecuacion de momento energa una vez se


identifica la masa de una partcula con su cuadrimomentum

p2 = p p = m2 = E 2 p2 (1.115)

De [?]

The intuitive understanding of this equation is that the energy of a particle is partially
due to its motion and partially due to the intrinsic energy of its mass. The application
to particle detectors is that if you know the mass of a particular particle, or if its going
so fast that its energy and momentum are both huge so that the mass can be roughly
ignored, then knowing the energy tells you the momentum and vice versa
RELATIVISTA
1.4. NOTACION 21

Para p = 0, es decir cuando la partcula esta en reposo se reduce a la famosa ecuacion E = mc2
(c = 1)
Del electromagnetismo tenemos

J = (J 0 , J) = (, J) (1.116)

A = (A0 , A) = (, A) (1.117)
Del calculo vectorial
   

= , , , = , , ,
x x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3
 

= , , ,
t x y z
=(0 , ) = ( 0 , ) (1.118)
 

= = , , , = (0 , ) (1.119)
x t x y z
Por consiguiente:

= (1.120)
x
Producto escalar:

a b = g a b = a0 b0 a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 = a0 b0 ai bi = a0 b0 a b (1.121)

Entonces
a0
a = +a (1.122)
t
La ecuacion de continuidad J = 0 es un invariante bajo transformaciones de Lorentz: 0 J 0 =
J = 0 El operador cuadratico es, usando la ec. (1.90)
2 2 2 2
 = 0 0 2 = (1.123)
t2 x2 y 2 z 2
Los operadores de energa y momentum de la mecanica cuantica tambien forman un cuadrivector

p = (
p0 , p
) = (H,
b p) (1.124)

con H, dados en la ec. (1.75). Entonces


b yp


p = i = i( 0 , i ) = i( , ) (1.125)
t
22 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Las derivada covariante en la ec, (1.85) es en terminos de componentes:


D0 =0 + iqA0
Di =i iqAi . (1.126)
Definiendo D de la misma forma que el gradiente, tenemos
Di =i + iqAi
D = + iqA . (1.127)
Podemos definir el cuadrivector
D =(D0 , D)
=(0 , ) + iq(A0 , A)
=(0 , i ) + iq(A0 , Ai )
=(0 , i ) + iq(A0 , Ai )
=(0 + iqA0 , i + iAi )
=(D0 , Di )
=(D0 , Di ) , (1.128)
donde hemos usado
Di = i + iqAi . (1.129)
Ademas A tiene la transformacion gauge

A A0 = A + A0 A00 = A0 (1.130)
t
En notacion de cuadrivectores
 
0 0
A A = A , A +
t
 
0 i
= A , A + i
t
= A0 0 , Ai i


= A0 , Ai 0 , i
 

A A0 =A . (1.131)
Note that the eq. (1.131) can be written as
A A0 = A (x) (1.132)
which is just the transformation obtained in eq. (1.88).
RELATIVISTA
1.4. NOTACION 23

1.4.2 Lorentz tranformation for fields


The scalar field is defined by their properties under Lorentz transformation. In section 1.1.3 we
study the behavior of one scalar field under a spacetime translation. Under a general Lorentz
transformation

x x0 = x , (1.133)

Now we will study the effect of a Lorentz tranformation on the field (x), for example under a boost.
By definition the scalar field does not change by the Lorentz transformation, the functional form is
unaltered the scalar field still satisfy

(x) 0 (x0 ) = (x) . (1.134)

By using eq. (1.133) we have

0 (x0 ) = (1 x0 ) . (1.135)

Therefore, for an arbitrary space-time point we have that the scalar field transforms under a Lorentz
transformation as

(x) 0 (x) = (1 x) . (1.136)

In order to check the Lorentz invariance of the scalar we need to obtain the Lorentz transformation
properties for . It is convinient to invert eq. (1.133)
 
1 x0 = 1 x
= x
=x , (1.137)

1 1 1

= , (1.138)
x0 x

or
1 1 1

= , (1.139)
x0 x

and the defintion of the Lorentz transformation itself:


 
g = 1 g 1 . (1.140)
24 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

From eq. (1.139) we can obtain the Lorentz transformation for = /x :



1
=
x0
 x

0 1
= ,

(1.141)

The field A (x) transforms simultaneously as field and as vector under Lorentz transformation

A (x) A0 (x0 ) = A (1 x) . (1.142)

1.5 Vector field Lagrangian


We are now are in position to answer the following question: What is the most general Lagrangian
for a the fourcomponents field A compatible with Lorentz invariance and the gauge transformation

A A0 = A (x) ? (1.143)
Definiendo
F = A A
G = A + A

El Lagrangiano que da lugar a una Accion invariante de Lorentz para el cuadrivector A es, hasta
derivadas totales y potencias en los campos de hasta dimension 4:
1 1 1
L = F F G G J A + m2 A A + 1 A (x)A (x)A (x) + 2 A A A A
4 4 2

+ 3 F (x)A (x)A (x) + 4 G (x)A (x)A , . (1.144)
Ejercicio: Show that terms like A (x) A (x), and hence F F , transforms as
A 1 x A 1 x
 
(1.145)
Hint: use the Lorentz transformation properties of in eq. (1.141).
In the case of J A :

J (x)A (x) g J 0 (x)A0 (x) =g J 1 x A 1 x
 

= g J 1 x A 1 x
 

=g J 1 x A 1 x ,
 
(1.146)
1.5. VECTOR FIELD LAGRANGIAN 25

in the case A (x)A (x)A (x):



A (x)A (x)A (x) 0 A0 (x0 )A0 (x0 )A0 (x0 ) = 1 A 1 x A 1 x A 1 x
  

= A 1 x A 1 x A 1 x

  

= A 1 x A 1 x A 1 x ,
  

(1.147)
and similarly for the other terms. Under a Lorentz transformation the full Lagrangian transform as
L(x) L0 (x) = L(1 x) (1.148)
Since the Action involves the integration over all the points, it is invariant under the Lorentz transfor-
mation. The J (x) does not involves the introduction a new vector field, because it will be identified
later as the 4current.
Terms like
K A (x)A (x)A (x) , (1.149)
(for K constant) are not Lorentz invariant:

K A (x)A (x)A (x) K A0 (x)A0 (x)A0 (x) =K A 1 x A 1 x A 1 x . (1.150)
  

K (x)A (x)A (x)A (x) is Lorentz covariant but not gauge-invariant (see below).
Bajo la transformacion gauge (1.132)

F F 0 =( A0 A0 )
= A A +
= A A +
=F (1.151)
Si queremos que la Accion refleja las simetras de las ecuaciones de Maxwell debemos mantener
solo los terminos del Lagrangiano para A en (1.144) que sean invariantes hasta una derivada total.
Bajo una transformacion gauge, cada uno de los terminos
1 1
G G + m2 A A + 1 A A A + 2 A A A A + 3 F A A + 4 G A A + K (x)A A A
4 2
dan lugar a un L = 6 (algo) y la Accion no es invariante bajo la transformacion gauge. Para los
terminos restantes
1
L = F F J A , (1.152)
4
26 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

usando la ec. (1.166), tenemos


1 0 1
L = L0 L = F 0 F J A0 + F F + J A
4 4
= J A + J (x) J A
= (J ) ( J )(x) (1.153)

For the action


Z
S = d4 x [ (J ) ( J )(x)]
Z
= d4 x( J )(x)
Z Z
3
= d x dt( J )(x) . (1.154)

In order to have S = 0 we need to assume for the while that J = 0. However we will see that
this is just a self-consistent condition.
In summary, if the electromagnetic current is conserved, then the Lagrangian is invariant under
the gauge transformation (1.143). Note that the Lagrangian density is not locally gauge invariant.
However, the action (and hence the theory) is gauge invariant.
Por lo tanto, el Lagrangiano
1
L = F F J A (1.155)
4
es el mas general que da lugar a una Accion invariante de Lorentz e invariante gauge local.
The definition of F already includes the homogeneous Maxwell equations. To see this we note
first that the only non-zero F components are
(
F 0 = F i0 = 0
F = (1.156)
F l = F ml = l

For = 0 we have

F i0 = i A0 0 Ai
A0 Ai
=( )
xi x0
A0 Ai
= ( i + 0 )
x x
i
=E (1.157)
1.5. VECTOR FIELD LAGRANGIAN 27

where
A
E = . (1.158)
t
while for = l we have

F ml = m Al l Am
= (lj mi li mj ) i Aj
= (lj mi li mj )i Aj
= (li mj lj mi )i Aj
Aj
= (li mj lj mi ) i
x
Aj
= lmk ijk i
x
= lmk ( A)k
= lmk B k , (1.159)

where

B = A. (1.160)

Then we have

0 E 1 E 2 E 3
E1 0 213 B 3 312 B 2
{F } =
E 2 3

123 B 0 321 B 1
E3 132 B 2 231 B 1 0

0 E 1 E 2 E 3
E 1 0 B 3 B 2
=E 2
. (1.161)
B3 0 B 1
E3 B 2 B 1 0

From eqs. (1.158), and (1.160)



E = A
t
B
= ,
t
28 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

and

B = ( A)
=0

which are just the homogeneous Maxwell equations. Therefore the expression

F = A A . (1.162)

with the {F } given in (1.161), is just an equivalent form for the homogeneous Maxwell equations.
The remaining Maxwell equations can be obtained from the Euler-Lagrange equations for A :
Con miras a calcular las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange para el Lagrangiano en ec. (1.155), tenemos

F F =( A A )( A A )
= A A A A A A + A A
=g g ( A A A A A A + A A ).

Entonces

F F =g g ( A + A A A
( A )
A A + A + A ).
=g g A + g g A g g A g g A
g g A g g A + g g A + g g A
= A + A A A A A + A + A
=4( A A )

F F = 4F (1.163)
( A )

Usando la ec. (1.163), tenemos


 
L L
=0
( A ) A
 
1 A
(F F ) + J =0
4 ( A ) A
F + J

=0
F = J. (1.164)
1.5. VECTOR FIELD LAGRANGIAN 29

Como era de esperarse una Accion invariante de Lorentz e invariante gauge local, expresada en
terminos del Lagrangiano (1.155), da lugar a la Teora Electromagnetica.
Tomando la derivada con respecto a en ambos lados tenemos

F = J . (1.165)

De la parte izquierda de esta ecuacion tenemos

F = 12 ( F + F )
= 12 ( F + F ) intercambiando ndices mudos
= 12 ( F + F ) conmutando derivadas
= 12 ( F F ) usando antisimetra de F
= 0,

Por consiguiente, la cuadricorriente J es conservada:

J = 0 . (1.166)

Again, for = 0, we have

F 0 = J 0
i F i0 = J 0
i0
F = J0
xi
E i
= J0 , (1.167)
xi

and therefore

E = . (1.168)

while for = k we have


30 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

F k = J k
i F ik + 0 F 0k = J k
i F ki 0 F k0 = J k
(ikj B j ) E k
i
= Jk
x t
B j E k
ijk i = Jk
x t
E k
( B)k = J k. . (1.169)
t
and therefore
E
B = J. (1.170)
t
In this way the expression

F = J where F = A A , (1.171)

is completely equivalent to the full set of Maxwell equations:


B
B = 0, E+ =0 (1.172)
t
E
E = , B = J. (1.173)
t

1.5.1 Energa del campo electromagn


etico
Necesitamos la expresion para F ,
(
F0i = F0 = g00 gij F 0j = F 0i para = 0
F = g g F (1.174)
Fij = Fi = gik gjl F kl = F ij para = i

De la ec. (1.39), se tiene


L
T = ( A ) L
( A )
= F ( A ) L (1.175)
1.5. VECTOR FIELD LAGRANGIAN 31

La energa del campo, corresponde a la componente T00 :

T00 = F 0 (0 A ) L
1
= F 0 (0 A ) + F F + J A
4

Usando las ecuaciones (??), (??), (1.174)

1
T00 = F 0 (0 A ) + F F + J A
4
=0 =i
1 z 0}| { 1 z i}| {
0
= F (0 A ) + F F0 + F Fi +J A
4 4
1 0 1
0 0
= F A0 F F0 + F F0 + F i Fi + J A . (1.176)
4 4

Tenemos dos partes

=0 =j
0 1 0 1 i i0 1 i0 1 z 0i}| { 1 z ji}| {
F F0 + F F0 + F Fi = F Fi0 + F Fi0 + F F0i + F Fji
4 4 4 4 4
1 i0 1 i0 1
= F Fi0 + F Fi0 + F Fi0 + F ji Fji
i0
4 4 4
1 i0 1 ji
= F Fi0 + F Fji . (1.177)
2 4

Ademas

F 0 A0 + J A = (A0 F 0 ) + A0 F 0 + J A
= (A0 F 0 ) A0 F 0 + J A
= (A0 F 0 ) A0 J 0 + J A
= i (A0 F 0i ) J A . (1.178)
32 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Entonces

1 1
T00 = i (A0 F 0i ) F i0 Fi0 + F ji Fji J A
2 4
1 1
= i (A0 F 0i ) + F i0 F i0 + F ji F ji J A, suma tambien sobre i, j
2 4
1 i i 1
= E E + ijk B k ijl B l + i (A0 E i ) J A, suma tambien sobre i, j
2 4
1 2 1
= E + kl B k B l + (A0 E) J A
2 2
1 2 1 2
= E + B + (A0 E) J A (1.179)
2 2

Entonces, en ausencia de corrientes

1 1
H = E2 + B2 + (A0 E) . (1.180)
2 2

Similarmente la densidad Lagrangiano puede escribirse como

1 1 2
L = F F = E B2

(1.181)
4 2

En vista a la ec. (1.176), ya que la densidad Lagrangiana esta definida hasta una derivada total,
como (A0 E) = (A0 F 0 ), la densidad Hamiltoniana tambien estara definida hasta una derivada
total. De hecho, el Hamiltoniano es

1
Z Z
3 2 2
H= d x (E + B ) + d3 x (A0 E)
2 V V
1
Z
= d3 x (E2 + B2 ), (1.182)
2 V

y corresponde a la expresion conocida para la energa del campo electromagnetico. Hemos usado el
hecho que en ausencia de corrientes todo lo que entra a un volumen debe salir y por consiguiente las
integrales sobre el volumen de la divergencia de cualquier vector es cero.
Similarmente el momentum total del campo, en ausencia de corrientes, corresponde al vector de

1.6. SCRODINGER EQUATION IN PRESENCE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 33

Pointing:

L
Ti0 = i A
(0 A )
= F 0 i A
= F 0j (i Aj j Ai ) F 0j j Ai
= F 0j Fij F 0j j Ai
= F 0j F ij j (F 0j Ai ) + (j F 0j )Ai
=E j jik B k + j (E j Ai ) + (J 0 )Ai
= (E B)i (Ai E) Ai (1.183)

En ausencia de cargas y corrientes

Z Z Z
i 3
P = d x Ti0 = 3 i
d x (E B) + d3 x (Ai E)
V ZV V

P= d3 x (E B) . (1.184)
V

1.6 Scrodinger Equation in presence of the electromagnetic


field
Once we have established the set of fields, as in this case , , and A , we should write the most
general Lagrangian. Therefore

1 X i 1
L(, , , , A ) = (Di ) Di [ D0 (D0 ) ] + V (x) F F J A .
2m i 2 4
(1.185)

If we further assume that all interactions are obtained from the covariant derivative, then we
need only consider the free Lagrangian of each field, but with the normal derivative replaced by the
covariant one:
1 X i 1
L(, , , , A ) = (Di ) Di [ D0 (D0 ) ] F F . (1.186)
2m i 2 4
34 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

The expansion of the Lagrangian in terms of the field , , and A is

1 X i 1
L= (i + iqAi ) (i + iqAi ) [ (0 + iqA0 ) (0 + iqA0 ) ] F F
2m i 2 4
1 X i 1
= (i iqAi ) (i + iqAi ) [ (0 + iqA0 ) (0 iqA0 ) ] F F
2m i 2 4
1 X
i i iq Ai i + iqi Ai + q 2 Ai Ai

=
2m i
i 1
[ 0 + iq A0 (0 ) + iqA0 ] F F
2 4
1 X
i i iq Ai i + iqi Ai + q 2 Ai Ai

=
2m i
i 1
[ 0 (0 ) + 2iq A0 ] F F . (1.187)
2 4

By using the sum convention upon repeated indices we have

1
i i iq Ai i + iqi Ai + q 2 Ai Ai

L=
2m
i 1
[ 0 (0 ) + 2iq A0 ] F F . (1.188)
2 4

From this we can obtain the Euler-Lagrange equation for each field.

1.6. SCRODINGER EQUATION IN PRESENCE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 35

1.6.1 Euler-Lagrange equation for


In particular for we have
 
L L

=0
( )
   
L L L
0
+ i
=0
(0 ) (i )
 
i 1  i i
 1 i 2 i
 i
0 i + iqA iqAi + q Ai A (0 + 2iqA0 ) =0
2 2m 2m 2
1 
i i + iqAi + iqAi i + iqAi =0
 
i0 qA0
2m
1
i(0 + iqA0 ) (i + iqAi )( i + iqAi ) =0
2m
1 X
iD0 + Di Di =0 , (1.189)
2m i

If we define

D iqA . (1.190)

we have in components:

D i = i iqAi
D i = i + iqAi . (1.191)

Then we have the new wave equation:

1
iD0 = D D
2m
1 2
iD0 = D , (1.192)
2m

que corresponde a la ecuacion de Scrodinger con la derivada normal reemplazada por la derivada
covariante.
36 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Expandiendo esta ecuacion tenemos


 
1 X
i + iqA0 = (i + iqAi )2
t 2m i
 
1 X
i qA0 = (i iqAi )2
t 2m i
 
1
i q = ( iqA)2
t 2m
  i2
Hb q = ( iqA)2
2m
1
= (i + qA)2
2m
1
= (i qA)2
2m
1
= (bp qA)2 . (1.193)
2m
In this way, the Scrodinger equation in presence of the electromagnetic field, can be obtained from
the original Scrodinger equation but with the minimum substitution:
b H
H b q b b
p p qA . (1.194)

De la ecuacion (1.193) podemos obtener la ecuacion de Schodinger en presencia de un campo


electromagnetico
 
1 2
i = (i qA) + qA0 . (1.195)
t 2m
Para que la mecanica cuantica sea consistente con las ecuaciones de Maxwell es necesario que las
transformaciones gauge (1.86) de los potenciales de Maxwell esten acompa nados por una transfor-
macion de la funcion de onda, 0 , donde 0 satisface la ecuacion
0 1 02 0
iD0 0 = D
 2m 
0 1
i = (i qA ) + qA 0 0 .
0 2 0
(1.196)
t 2m
Como la forma de la ecuacion (1.196) es exactamente la misma que la forma de (1.195) entonces
ambas describen la misma fsica. Se dice que la ec. (1.195) es covariante gauge, lo que significa que
mantiene la misma forma bajo una transformacion gauge.

1.6. SCRODINGER EQUATION IN PRESENCE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 37

Ejemplo:
Demuestre que la ec. (1.196) es covariante:
Como

0 = ei(x) (1.197)

Entonces

D 0 0 = [( iqA) i] ei(x)
= i()ei(x) + ei(x) iqAei(x) i()ei(x)
= ei(x) ( iqA)
= ei(x) (D) (1.198)

y
2
D 0 0 = D 0 (D 0 0 )
= [( iqA) i] ei(x) (D)
= i()ei(x) (D) + ei(x) (D) iqAei(x) (D) iei(x) (D)
= ei(x) ( iqA)(D)
= ei(x) (D 2 ) (1.199)

De la misma manera
0
D0 0 = ei(x) (D0 ) (1.200)
De modo que

D D0 0 = ei(x) (D ) (1.201)
y la derivada covariante del campo transforma como el campo. Tenemos entonces que

0 1 02 0
iD0 0 = D
2m
1 i(x) 2
iei(x) D0 = e D
2m
1 2
iD0 = D (1.202)
2m

En resumen, para
D = + iqA (1.203)
38 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

y reemplazando q tenemos
A A0 = A (x)
0 = eiq(x)

D D0 0 = eiq(x) (D ) . (1.204)
En esta convencion q corresponde al generador de la transformacion y al parametro de la transfor-
macion.

1.6.2 Euler-Lagrange equation for A


Para el campo A tenemos
 
L L
= 0. (1.205)
( A ) A
Usando el Lagrangiano en (1.187) y el resultado de (1.164) tenemos
L
(F ) =0
A
que da lugar a dos conjuntos de ecuaciones, una para Ai
L
(F j ) + =0
Aj
1
(F j ) [iq( i ) iq ( i ) + 2q 2 Ai ] =0
2m
iq
(F j ) [( i ) ( i ) 2iq Ai ] =0
2m
iq
(F j ) [( i ) iq Ai ( i ) iq Ai ] =0
2m
iq
(F j ) {[( i iqAi ) ] ( i + iqAi )} =0
2m
iq
(F j ) [(Di ) Di ] =0 , (1.206)
2m
y otra para A0
L
(F 0 ) + =0
A0
(F 0 ) + q =0
(1.207)

1.6. SCRODINGER EQUATION IN PRESENCE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 39

Entonces

F = j

con
(
q =0
j = iq i i
(1.208)
2m
[(D ) D ] = i

Que incluye el termino corriente para una partcula cargada y es diferente de la corriente de proba-
bilidad en ec. (1.57). En otras palabras es la carga electrica la que se converva localmente.

1.6.3 Conserved currents


The 4-current can be obtained directly from the Noethers Theorem:

L L
J = +

(
L
+ L =0
= L0 0
L
. (1.209)
i
+ i =i

i i
J 0 = (iq) iq
2 2

=q , (1.210)

1
Ji = [(i iqAi ) iq iq (i + iqAi ) ]
2m
iq
Ji = [(Di ) (Di )] . (1.211)
2m
When is fixed to 1 as in ec. (1.57) to define the probability, we get eq. (1.465).
It is worth to notice that for T00 , and Ti0 we should obtain

b =i q
H b = i qA .
p (1.212)
t
40 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

1.7 Gauge Transformation Group


Ejemplo:
Muestre que los campos electromagneticos son invariantes bajo las siguientes transformaciones


A A0 = A + 0 = (1.213)
t
Ya que
A
E E0 = + = E (1.214)
t t t
B B0 = A + = B (1.215)
| {z }
=0
Esto implica que diferentes observadores en diferentes puntos del espacio, usando diferentes
calibraciones para sus medidas, obtienen los mismos campos. Las ecs. (1.213), corresponden a
transformaciones gauge locales

En notacion de cuadrivectores

A A0 =A (1.216)

Sea U un elemento del Grupo de Transformaciones U (1):

U = ei(x) U (1) (1.217)

El Grupo esta definido por el conjunto infinito de elementos Ui = ei(xi ) . Entonces

Producto de Grupo
U1 U2 = ei[(x1 )+(x2 )] ei(x3 ) U (1)

Identidad:
(x) = 0 tal que UI = 1

Inverso
(x) = (x) tal que U 1 = ei(x)

Note que si
i
A A0 = U A U 1 + ( U )U 1 (1.218)
q
1.8. PROCA EQUATION 41

y si es suficientemente peque
no

U = ei(x) 1 + i(x) + O(2 ) U 1 = ei(x) 1 i(x) + O(2 ) (1.219)

Entonces
i
A0 =[1 + i(x) + O(2 )]A [1 i(x) + O(2 )] + (i (x))[1 + i(x) + O(2 )][1 i(x) + O(2 )]
q
1
=A (x) + O(2 ) (1.220)
q
which is just the eq. (1.86)

1.8 Proca Equation


Consideraremos ahora el efecto de adicionar un termino de masa a la teora de Maxwell. Los campos
vectoriales masivos juegan un papel importante en fsica. Campos como W , Z que median las
interacciones debiles son ejemplos de campos de este tipo. Las implicaciones de una masa finita para
el foton pueden inferirse de un conjunto de postulados que hacen de las ecuaciones de Proca la u
nica
generalizacion posible de las ecuaciones de Maxwell [?].
Teniendo en cuenta solo el termino de masa en la ec. (1.155)
1 1
L = F F + m2 A A J A . (1.221)
4 2
Usando las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange, tenemos
   
1 1 2
F F m A A J A = 0
4 ( A ) A 2
F + m2 A = J . (1.222)

Tomando la cuadridivergencia a ambos lados de la ecuacion y usando la ec. (??), tenemos

A A + m2 A = J
A A + m2 A = J
m2 A = J (1.223)

De este modo, en ausencia de corrientes, la ecuaciones de Proca dan lugar a la condicion de Lorentz.
De otro lado, si asumimos que la corriente se conserva, la condicion de Lorentz tambien aparece. Por
consiguiente, si la masa de campo vectorial es diferente de cero, la condicion de Lorentz, ec. (??),
42 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

emerge como una restriccion adicional que debe ser siempre tomada en cuenta. De este modo la
libertad gauge de las ecuaciones de Maxwell se pierde completamente en la ecuaciones de Proca, que
sin perdida de generalidad se pueden reescribir, usando A = 0 y las ec. (1.222), como:

F + m2 A = J
A A + m2 A = J
( + m2 )A =J (1.224)

donde  esta definido en la ec. (1.123). En ausencia de corrientes, cada una de las componentes del
campo vectorial satisface la ecuacion de Klein-Gordon (??). Por consiguiente m corresponde a la
masa del campo vectorial A .
Aplicando la condicion de Lorentz a la ec. (1.221), obtenemos el Lagrangiano de la Ecuacion de
Proca (1.224)
1 1
L = F F + m2 A A J A
4 2
1 1
= ( A A + A A A A A A ) + m2 A A J A
4 2
1 1 2
= A A m A A + J A , (1.225)
2 2
donde hemos reabsorbido un signo global que no afecta las ecuaciones de movimiento. El primer
termino que incluye solo derivadas de los campos es llamado termino cinetico y dependen solo del
espn de las partculas. El termino cuadratico en los campos corresponde al termino de masa, y el
u
ltimo corresponde a la interaccion del campo con una corriente. Cuando un Lagrangiano contiene
solo terminos cineticos y de masa diremos que el campo que da lugar al Lagrangiano es libre de
interacciones, o simplemente que es un campo libre. Las otras partes del Lagrangiano seran llamadas
Lagrangiano de Interaccion. De este modo podemos reescribir el Lagrangiano (1.225) como

L = Lfree + Lint ,

donde,
1 1
Lfree = A A m2 A A
2 2
Lint = J A . (1.226)

Debido a que la teora masiva ya no es invariante gauge, la condicion de Lorentz aparece au-
tomaticamente como la unica restriccion apropiada sobre el campo vectorial.
Una vez se toma en cuenta la condicion de Lorentz el campo masivo libre puede expandirse en
ondas planas con tres grados de libertad independientes de polarizacion. Dos de estos corresponden
1.9. KLEIN-GORDON EQUATION 43

a los dos estados transversos que aparecen en las ondas electromagneticas (A1 , A2 ), y el tercero (A3 )
corresponde a un estado longitudinal en la direccion del momento de la partcula [?].
Aunque hemos hecho el analisis de la ecuacion de Proca permitiendo un termino de masa para
el foton, las implicaciones experimentales de una teora de este tipo dan lugar a restricciones muy
fuertes sobre la masa del foton[?]. El lmite actual sobre la masa del foton es m < 6 1017 eV
(1.1 1052 Kg) [?]. Debido al principio gauge local, desde el punto teorico se espera que la masa del
foton sea exactamente cero. En general, los campos vectoriales puede ser generados a partir de otras
cargas no electromagneticas y pueden ser masivos. El reto durante varias decadas fue entender como
las masa de los campos vectoriales de la interaccion debil podra hacerse compatible con el principio
gauge local.

1.9 Klein-Gordon Equation


De la componente escalar de la ecuacion de Proca, (1.225), obtenemos la ecuacion de KleinGordon
para un campo escalar real = A0 ,
1 1
L = m2 2 + (1.227)
2 2
Donde es la densidad de carga que actua como fuente del campo . El Lagrangiano mas general
posible que cuya accion sea invariante de Lorentz, para el campo escalar real (x) es
1 1
L = m2 2 V () , (1.228)
2 2
donde V () es alguna funcion de con operadores de dimension menor o igual a 4. Para demostrar
la invarianza de Lorentz.
The kinetic part of Klein-Gordon Lagrangian transforms as
(x) (x) g 0 0 (x) 0 0 (x)
h i  1 
1 1 1
 
=g
x
x
1
 1 
x 1 x
1
 
=
g
=g 1 x 1 x
 

= 1 x 1 x .
 
(1.229)
Since (x) 0 (x) = (1 x), under a Lorentz transformation the full Lagrangian transform as
L(x) L0 (x) = L(1 x) (1.230)
Since the Action involves the integration over all the points, it is invariant under the Lorentz trans-
formation.
44 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Ejercicio Demuestre que un termino

(x)a (x) . (1.231)

con a constante, no es invariante de Lorentz, de modo que en efecto, el Lagrangiano en de


Klein-Gordon en (1.228) es el mas general posible (hasta terminos de interccion en (x).)

El campo puede pensarse como proveniente de una fuente de la misma manera como el campo
electromagnetico surge de partculas cargadas. Como en el caso del electromagnetismo, en esta
seccion podemos considerar los campos sin preocuparnos de las fuentes. En tal caso tendremos una
teora en la cual el campo escalar juega el papel de partcula mediadora de la interaccion.
Si el campo escalar se generaliza para que pueda tener otros n umeros cuanticos, como carga
electrica, entonces estos pueden ser las fuentes de las respectivas cargas y corrientes en la ecuaciones
para campos vectoriales. Esto se estudiara en la seccion ??. En tal caso podramos tener por ejemplo
atomos formados de partculas escalares que se excitan emitiendo fotones.
La ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange para V () = dan lugar a:

( + m2 ) = .
 2 
2 2
+ m = . (1.232)
t2
Con el cuadrivector (1.125) podemos construir la siguiente ecuacion

p p = m2
i i = m2
= m2
 2 
2 2
+ m = 0. (1.233)
t2
Que corresponde a la ecuacion de Klein-Gordon (??). Una expresion escrita en terminos de productos
escalares de Lorentz se dice que esta en forma covariante.
De acuerdo a la ec. (1.226), tenemos
1 1
Lfree = m2 2
2 2
Lint = (1.234)

L
T = L , (1.235)
( )
1.9. KLEIN-GORDON EQUATION 45

T00 = 0 0 L
=(x)0 (x) L
1 1 1
= 0 0 0 0 i i + m2 2
2 2 ! 2
1 X 1
= 0 0 + i i + m2 2
2 i
2
"  #
2
1 1
H= + ()2 + m2 2 . (1.236)
2 t 2

donde
L
(x) =
(/t)

= . (1.237)
t
La densidad de momentum es

L
Ti0 = i
(0 )
Ti0 = 0 i

T0 = . (1.238)
t

1.9.1 Complex scalars


En la seccion anterior se trabajo con un campo escalar real que solo podra describir un pion neutro.
Para describir piones cargados debemos construir un campo escalar complejo. En mecanica cuantica
la funcion de onda compleja puede describir parcialmente a un electron cargado. Sin embargo la
funcion de onda del electron tambien debe ser generalizada para poder dar cuenta del espn. Esto
corresponde al funcion de onda de la ecuacion de Dirac en la seccion ??.
De hecho, algunas consecuencias fsicas interesantes surgen si consideramos un sistema de dos
campos escalares reales, 1 y 2 , que tengan la misma masa m. Entonces

1 1 1 1
L = [ 1 1 m2 21 ] + [ 2 2 m2 22 ] (1.239)
2 2 2 2
46 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Si definimos
1 + i2
= then (1.240)
2
1 i2
= , and (1.241)
2

2 =(1 + i2 )

2 =(1 i2 ). Therefore

2( + ) =21

2( ) =2i2 . Then

+
1 = (1.242)
2

2 = . (1.243)
2i

Reemplazando la ecuaciones (1.242) y (1.243) en la ec. (1.239), tenemos

1 1
L = [ ( + ) ( + ) m2 ( + )2 ]
4 2
1 1
+ i2 [ ( ) ( ) m2 ( )2 ]
4 2
1
= [ + + 2 m2 (2 + 2 ) + 2 ]
4
1
[ + 2 m2 (2 + 2 ) 2 ]
4
1
= [4 4m2 ]
4
L = m2 (1.244)

De la ec. (1.18) de la seccion ??,


De las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange para , usando el Lagrangiano en ec. (1.244)
 
L L

=0
( )
+ m2 = 0

( + m2 ) = 0, (1.245)
1.9. KLEIN-GORDON EQUATION 47

y de la ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange para ,

( + m2 ) = 0. (1.246)

De este modo tanto , como , satisfacen la ecuacion de Klein-Gordon. Cada campo ademas
corresponde a una partcula de masa m como en el caso de 1 y 2
Estamos ahora interesado en las simetras internas del Lagrangiano. Entonces la corriente con-
servada puede definida en la seccion ??, eq. (1.20)
L L
J = +
( ) ( )
J = + . (1.247)

Ademas de la invarianza de Lorentz, el Lagrangiano en ec, (1.244) tambien es invariante bajo el


grupo de transformaciones U(1) definido en las seccion ??, pero con una fase constante

U = ei 1 + i.

Entonces
U
0 = ei (1 + i)
= + i. (1.248)

Entonces,

= i (1.249)
= i . (1.250)

Reemplazando en ec. (1.247)


J i( ), (1.251)
y

0
= J i( ). (1.252)
t t
Definimos J como
J = i( ), (1.253)
Como puede ser negativo no puede interpretarse como una probalidad, como se hizo con la funcion
de onda de la ecuacion de Scrodinger. Esto presento un obstaculo en la interpretacion inicial de la
ecuacion de Klein-Gordon. Sin embargo una vez se cuantiza el campo escalar la probabilidad de los
estados cuanticos queda bien definida [?].
48 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

1.10 Lorentz transformation of the fields


Note again, that a term like

(x)a (x) , (1.254)

does not left the Action invariant. To have a proper formulation of the quantum mechanics through
the general equation

,
i = H (1.255)
t

with some, to be determined, relativistic Hamiltonian operator H, b we should be able to build a


Lagrangian with temporal derivatives of order one. Therefore, the Lorentz invariant requires all the
derivatives of order one.
Consider spinor fields, which transforms as

a (x) a0 (x) = Sab ()b (1 x) , (1.256)

where S() is some spinorial representation of the Lorentz Group. We will check in next section if
a Action with a term like

a (x)aab b (x) (1.257)

could be invariant under Lorentz transformations, for some internal representation of the Lorentz
Group.
In summary we have the following Lorentzs transformation properties for the fields

(x) 0 (x0 ) =(x) Scalar field,



A (x) A0 = A (1 x) Vector field,
(x) 0 (x) =S()(1 x) Spinor field. (1.258)

1.11 Diracs Action


The Scrodinger equation can be written as

S ,
i =H (1.259)
t
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 49

where
S =
H (1.260)

In order to have a well defined probabilty in relativistic quantum mechanics it is necessary that
Lagrangian be linear in the time derivative, in order to obtain the general Sccodinger equation:
,
i = H (1.261)
t
like the Scrodinger Lagrangian. However, this automatically imply that the Lagrangian will be also
linear in the spacial derivatives. A pure scalar field cannot involve a Lorentz invariant term of only
first derivatives (see eq. (1.254)). Therefore the proposed field must have some internal structure
associated with some representation of the Lorentz Group. Therefore we build the Lagrangian for a
field of several components

1
2
= .. (1.262)

.
n

1.11.1 Lorentz transformation


If the field is to describe the electron. it must have spin and in this way it must transform under
some spin representation of the Lorentz Group

(x) 0 (x) = S() 1 x .



(1.263)

One possible invariant could be the term (x)(x). However, under a Lorentz transformation we
should have S S. As we cannot assume that S() is unitary, the solution is to define the adjoint
spinor

= b . (1.264)

which transforms as
0
(x) (x) = 0 (x)b = 1 x S ()b ,

(1.265)

and,

0
(x)(x) (x) 0 (x) = 1 x S ()bS() 1 x
 
(1.266)
50 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

The condition that must be fulfilled for Lorentz invariance of the Action is

S ()bS() =b , (1.267)

and therefore,
0
(x)(x) (x) 0 (x) = 1 x 1 x ,
 
(1.268)

and:
0
(x) (x) = 1 x bS 1 ()


= 1 x S 1 () .

(1.269)

A Action with a Lagrangian term linear in the derivatives, could be Lorentz invariant if, taking
into account:
 1

(x) (x) 0 (x) 0 (x) = a 1 x Sab 1 Scd ()d 1 x

()bc

= 1 x 1 S 1 () S() 1 x
  

= (x) (x) , (1.270)

if the following condition is satisfied:

S 1 () S() = . (1.271)

the most general Lagrangian for this field is

L = i m , (1.272)

Where the coefficients have been already fixed by convenience. Since the Action is real, it is convenient
to rewrite this as

L = i m
1
= i + i m

2
i i
= ( ) + i m
2 2
i i
= ( ) m . (1.273)
2 2
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 51

Para que este nuevo Lagrangiano sea real se requiere que,

b = b
b2 = I
b b = (1.274)

ya que
 
i i
L = b b m b

2 2
 
i 2 i
= 2
b b b b m b
2 2
 
i i
= b b b b m
2 2
 
i i
= m
2 2

1.11.2 Corriente conservada y Lagrangiano de Dirac


De la ec. (??)
  " #
L L
J0 = + 
(0 ) 0
= i 0 (1.275)

El Lagrangiano es invariante bajo transformaciones de fase globales, U (1)

0 = ei i, (1.276)

de modo que
= i. (1.277)
Por consiguiente
J 0 = 0 (1.278)
Para que J 0 pueda interpretarse como una densidad de probabilidad, se debe cumplir

b 0 = I (1.279)
52 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

La densidad de corriente es
J 0 . (1.280)
Que podemos interpretar como una densidad de probabilidad.
De la ec. (1.279), ya que la inversa de es u
nica:
b = 0 . (1.281)

se define como la adjunta de :


= 0 . (1.282)
It is convenient at this point to summarize the properties for 0 :
2
0 = 0 0 =1 0 0 =
S () 0 S() = 0 . (1.283)
En general
  " #
L L
J +


( )
(i)
i
(i)
i

= (1.284)
y
J = b . (1.285)

1.11.3 Tensor momento-energa

L L
T00 = 0 + 0  L
(0 ) 0
0 0 L
= i
i i + m,
= i
p + m),
= (
= 0 ( p + m),

= H, (1.286)
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 53

donde
= 0 ( p + m)
H (1.287)
la ecuacion de Scrondinger de validez general es entonces:

i = H (1.288)
t
y, como en mecanica clasica usual Z
=
hHi d3 x.
H (1.289)

Ademas
L L
Ti0 = i + i
0

(0 )
0 i
= i
= (ii ) (1.290)

de modo que Z
h
pi = p
d3 x (1.291)

1.11.4 Ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange


Queremos que el Lagrangiano de lugar a la ecuacion de Scrondinger de validez general

i = H (1.292)
t
con el Hamiltoniano dado en la ec. (1.289), que corresponde a un Lagrangiano de solo derivadas de
primer orden y covariante, en lugar del Hamiltoniano para el caso no relativista.
De hecho, aplicando las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange para el campo al Lagrangiano en ec. (??)
,tenemos
" #
L L
 =0


L
=0

i m = 0. (1.293)
54 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Expandiendo

i 0 0 + i i i m = 0
i 0 0 (i) m = 0,
i 0 0 = ( p
+ m),

de donde
2
i 0 = 0 ( p + m). (1.294)
t
tenemos que
2
0 = 1. (1.295)

De la ec. (1.287)
= 0 ( p + m),
H (1.296)
A este punto, solo nos queda por determinar los parametros .
La ec. (1.292) puede escribirse como
 
= 0.
i H (1.297)
t

El campo tambien debe satisfacer la ecuacion de Klein-Gordon. Podemos derivar dicha ecuacion
aplicando el operador  

i H
t

De modo que, teniendo en cuenta que H/t = 0,
  

i H i H =0
t t
  

i H i H = 0
t t
!
2
H
+i + iH iH
+ H 2 = 0
t2 t t t
 2 
2
+ H = 0. (1.298)
t2
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 55

De la ec. (1.296), y usando la condicion en ec. (1.295), tenemos

2 = (0 p + 0 m)(0 p + 0 m)
H
= (0 p)(0 p) + m0 p0 + m02 p + m2 (1.299)

Sea

= 0
i = i
i = i (1.300)

2 = ( p)( p) + m p + m p + m2
H
= ( p)( p) + m( + ) p + m2 (1.301)

Sea A una matriz y en un escalar. Entonces tenemos la identidad

2 2
X X
(A )2 = Ai i + Ai , Aj i j

(1.302)
i i<j
56 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Demostraci
on
XX
[(A )] = Ai i Aj j
ij
X X
= i j
Ai Aj
ij
XX
= i j Ai Aj
ij
!
2
X X X X
= i Ai Ai + i j Ai Aj + i j Ai Aj
i i<j i>j
!
i2
X X X X
= Ai Ai + i j
Ai Aj + j i
Aj Ai
i i<j j>i
" #
i2
X X X
Ai Ai + i j Ai Aj + Aj Ai

=
i i<j
" #
2
X X
i Ai Ai + i j Ai , Aj
 
=
i i<j
" #
i2 i2
X X
i j
Ai , Aj

= A + . (1.303)
i i<j

Entonces
2 =i2 p2i +
X
H {i , j } pi pj + m(i + i )pi + m2 (1.304)
i<j

(suma sobre ndices repetidos). Si


i2 = 1
{i , j } = 0 i 6= j
i + i = 0 (1.305)
2 = 2 + m2
H (1.306)
y reemplazando en la ec. (1.298) llegamos a la ecuacion de Klein-Gordon para
 2 
2 2
+m =0
t2
 + m2 = 0

(1.307)
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 57

En terminos de las matrices las condiciones en ec. (1.305) son


2
0 =1
i 2 i 2 i 2
= 1 0 i 0 i =
  
= 1 = 1
i 0 + 0 i = i, 0 = 0

(1.308)

De modo que

i , j = 0 i 0 j + 0 j 0 i = 0

i 6= j
0 0 i j 0 0 j i = 0 i 6= j
i j j i
+ =0 i 6= j
 i j
, = 0 i 6= j (1.309)

Las ecuaciones (1.308)(1.309) pueden escribirse como

{ , } + = 2g 1 (1.310)

donde

= ( 0 , i ) (1.311)

Ademas, de la ec. (1.283)


0 0 = . (1.312)
Cualquier conjunto de matrices que satisfagan el algebra en ec. (1.310) y la condicion en ec. (1.312),
se conocen como matrices de Dirac. A se le llama espinor de Dirac.
En terminos de la matrices , el Lagrangiano de Dirac y la ecuacion de Dirac, son respectivamente
de las ecs. (??) y (??)
L = (i m) , (1.313)
i m = 0, (1.314)
donde
= 0 . (1.315)

1.11.5 Propiedades de las matrices de Dirac


De la ec. (1.312) (
0 = 0 =0
= 0 0 2 . (1.316)
i = 0 i = i =i
58 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Definiendo
5 = i0 1 2 3 , (1.317)
entonces,

52 = 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
52 = + 02 1 2 3 1 2 3
52 = + 1 2 3 1 2 3
52 = 2 3 2 3
52 =2 2 3 3
52 =1 . (1.318)

52 = 1, (1.319)
Teniendo en cuenta que 2 1 y conmuta con las demas matrices, tenemos por ejemplo

5 3 =i0 1 2 32 = 32 i0 1 2 = 3 i0 1 2 3 = 3 5
5 2 = i0 1 22 3 = 22 i0 1 3 = 2 i0 1 2 3 = 2 5
5 1 =i0 12 2 3 = 12 i0 2 3 = 1 i0 1 2 3 = 1 5
5 0 =i0 1 2 3 0 = 02 i1 2 3 = 0 5 . (1.320)

De modo que
{ , 5 } = 0. (1.321)
Expandiendo el anticonmutador tenemos

5 = 5
5 5 =
Tr (5 5 ) = Tr
Tr (5 5 ) = Tr
Tr = Tr , (1.322)

y por consiguiente
Tr = 0. (1.323)
De otro lado, si
U U , (1.324)
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 59

para alguna matriz unitaria U , entonces corresponde a otra representacion de algebra de Dirac
en ec. (1.310), ya que

, } = U U , U U

{
= U { , } U
= 2g U U
= 2g 1. (1.325)

Claramente, la condicion en ec. (1.312) se mantiene para la nueva representacion. Como 0 es


hermtica, siempre es posible escoger una representacion tal que 0 U 0 U sea diagonal. Como
02 = 1, sus entradas en la diagonal deben ser 1, y como Tr 0 = 0, debe existir igual n umero de
+1 que de 1. Por lo tanto la dimension de 0 (y de ) debe ser par: 2, 4, . . .. Para un fermion sin
masa

L = i 0 0 0 + i 0 i i = i 0 + i i i , (1.326)

solo se requieren tres matrices 2 2 que satisfacen

i , j = 2 ij ,

(1.327)

y por lo tanto pueden identificarse con las tres matrices de Pauli. Como en general tenemos 4 matrices
independientes, su dimension mnima debe ser 4.

Como i = 0 i 0 = i = i , podemos definir la representacion de paridad

0 = 0 , i = i , para U = 0 (1.328)

1.11.6 Lorentz Group


We must build a representation of the Lorentz Group in the Dirac space of n dimensions. First, let
us consider a simpler group, corresponding to the rotation group in tree dimensions. The generators
are the angular momentum operators J i , which satisfy the commutation relations
 i j
J , J = iijk J k . (1.329)

The Pauli matrices are set of matrices satisfying this commutation relations:
 i j
k
, = i ijk (1.330)
2 2 2
60 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

donde i      
0 1 0 i 1 0
1 = 2 = 3 = (1.331)
1 0 i 0 0 1
dividas por dos, corresponden a los generadores del Grupo. Las constantes de estructura del Grupo
corresponden a ijk . Como los generadores no conmutan, SU (2) es un Grupo de Lie no Abeliano.
Definiendo los generadores de SU (2) como
i
Ti = , (1.332)
2
un elemento del Grupo puede escribirse como

i i
U = eiT i
1 + iT i i = 1 + i i . (1.333)
2
Como antes, i es el parametro de la transformacion.
Las matrices de Pauli y por consiguiente Ti satisfacen

i = i
Tr (i ) = 0 (1.334)

Ademas

det (i ) = 1
{i , j } = 2ij I i2 = I
Tr i j = 2 ij


i j = iijk k + ij (1.335)

In [8]:

It is generally true that one can find matrix representations of a continuous group by
finding matrix representations of the generators of the group (which must satisfy the
proper commutation relations), then exponentiating these infinitesimal representations.
For our present problem, we need to know the commutation relations of the generators of
the group of Lorentz transformations. For the rotation group, one can work the commu-
tation relations by writing the generators as differential operators; from the expression

J = x p = x (i) , (1.336)

the angular momentum commutation relations (1.329) follow straightforwardly.


1.11. DIRACS ACTION 61

The last equation can be written as (summation of repeated indices)

J k = [x (i)]k = iijk xi j = iijk xi j (1.337)

J lm lmk J k =ilmk ijk xi j


=i(li mj lj mi )xi j
=i(xl m xm l ) . (1.338)

Involving three generators. The generalization to four-dimensions give to arise three further genera-
tors J 0i :

J = i(x x ) . (1.339)

The six generators J satisfy the algebra

[J , J ] =i(g J g J g J + g J ) . (1.340)

From [8]:
Any matrices that are to represent this algebra must obey these same commutation rules.
The exponentiation of the generators give to arise to group elements
J
 
= exp i (1.341)
2
To find a representation of the usual boosts and rotations, consider a boost
0 t+vx
t t cosh sinh 0 0 t
1v 2
0 x+vt
x
x0 = 1v2 = sinh cosh 0 0 x = { } {x } ,

{x } =
y y y 0 (1.342)
0 1 0 y
0
z z z 0 0 0 1 z

Since

X 2n
cosh = 1 + O( 2 )
n=0
2n!

X 2n+1
sinh = + O( 2 ) , (1.343)
n=0
(2n + 1)!
62 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

one infinitesimal boost along x is



1 0 0
1 0 0
{ }xboost
0
. (1.344)
0 1 0
0 0 0 1
Similarly a rotation by an infinitesimal angle = 3 along xyplane (or about the zaxis)

1 0 0 0
0 1 0
{ }xyrotation
0 1 0 .
(1.345)
0 0 0 1
In general we define the six independent LorentzGroup parameters:
0i = i0 i
12 = 21 3 32 = 23 2 13 = 31 1 . (1.346)
The 4 4 matrices
(J ) = i ( ) , (1.347)
where and label which of the six matrices we want, while and label components of the
matrices. These matrices satisfy the commutations relations (1.340), and generate the three boosts
and three rotations of the ordinary Lorentz 4-vectors:
i
(J ) (1.348)
2

1
= 1 + i bi + i ijk rjk , (1.349)
2

bi = iJ i0 rjk = iJ jk . (1.350)

1.11.7 Lorentz invariance of the Dirac Action


We need to satisfy the following conditions
S 1 () S() =
S () 0 S() = 0 or S () 0 = 0 S 1 () . (1.351)
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 63

In order to find a representation of the Lorentz Group in terms of the Dirac matrices we propose
1
S() = 1 + i B i + i ijk Rjk . (1.352)
2
Instead of show the Lorentz invariance of the Dirac Action, we use the conditions derived from the
invariance, to find a representation in terms of the Dirac matrices for B i and Rjk . As a consistency
check, the resulting representation would satisfy the Lorentz algebra. In this way, by using eq. (1.349)
and (1.352), we obtain from

S 1 () S() = , (1.353)

that
1
Bi = 0 i
2
1
Rjk = j k , (1.354)
2
which can be written in covariant form if we define
i
S = [ , ] . (1.355)
4
In fact, the six set of non-zero independently generators are
i 0 i i 0 i
S 0i = i 0 = = iB i

4 2
i i i j
ij
S = i j j i = = iRij .

(1.356)
4 2
It is worth notices that in fact S satisfy the Lorentz algebra, and therefore are the generators of
the Lorentz group elements:

S
 
S() = exp i
2
i
1 S . (1.357)
2
Another consistency check is

S () 0 S() = 0 , (1.358)
64 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

or equivalently

S () 0 = 0 S 1 ()
   
i 0 0 i
1 + S = 1 + S
2 2
0 0
S = S . (1.359)

Taking into account that


2 2
0 = 0 0 0 = 0 , (1.360)

we have
i 0
S 0 = [ , ]
4
i
= , 0

4
i   0
= ,
4
i
= [ , ] 0
4
= 0 S
(1.361)

1.11.8 Diracs Lagrangian


Para una matriz de n dimensiones existen n2 matrices hermticas (o antihermticas) independientes.
Si se sustrae la identidad quedan n2 1 matrices hermticas (o antihermticas) independientes de
traza nula. En el caso n = 2 corresponden a las 3 matrices de Pauli. En el caso de la ecuacion de
Dirac se requieren 4 matrices independientes, por lo tanto deben ser matrices 4 4. En efecto para
n = 4 existen 15 matrices independientes de traza nula dentro de las cuales podemos acomodar sin
problemas las 4 .
De [15]:
All Dirac matrix elements will now be written in the form

(x)(x) , (1.362)

where is a 44 complex matrix. The most general such matrix can always be expanded
in terms of 16 independent 4 4 matrices multiplied by complex coefficients. In short
1.11. DIRACS ACTION 65

Matriz Transformacion Numero Escalar en Dirac


1 Escalar (S) 1

5 Pseudoescalar (P) 1 5

Vector (V) 4

5 Vector axial (A) 4 5

= 2i [ , ] Tensor antisimetrico (T) 6

16
Table 1.1: Matrices i .

the matrices can be regarded as a 16dimensional complex vector space spanned by 16


matrices.
It is convenient to choose the 16 matrices, i , so that they have well defined transformation
properties under the Lorentz Transformations. Since the s have such properties, we
are lead to choose the following 16 matrices for this basis:

En la Tabla 1.1 se muestran las matrices de traza nula con sus propiedades de transformacion
bajo el Grupo de Lorentz. En la u
ltima se muestra el correspondiente escalar en el espacio de Dirac

. Demostracion


J (x) (x) 1 x)S 1 () S()(1 x)
(x) (
1 x) (1 x)
= (
= J (1 x) . (1.363)

In [15]: Problem 5.4:

5 S 1 () 5 S() = (det )5 (1.364)

The solution is in Appendix C. of Burgess book, by using

i
5 =  (1.365)
24

and

det =  1 2 3 4 . (1.366)
66 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

1.12 Electrodin
amica Cu
antica
Para hacer el Lagrangiano en ec. (1.313) invariante gauge local bajo U (1)Q , procedemos de la forma
usual. El campo transforma como

0 = ei(x)Q
0 = e
i(x)Q , (1.367)

donde Q es el generador de carga electrica en unidades de la carga del electron.


La derivada covariante se define de manera que transforma de la misma forma que el campo,
introduciendo el campo gauge A

D = ieQA , (1.368)

donde e es la carga electrica del electron. De esta forma, si e es el campo que representa al electron

eQe = e(1)e = ee . (1.369)

El Lagrangiano correspondiente a la interaccion de un fermion y el campo electromagnetico cor-


responde al Lagrangiano de Dirac con la derivada normal reemplzada por la derivada covariante, y el
correspondiente termino cinetico invariante gauge y de Lorentz asociado al nuevo campo introducido
en la derivada covariante: A . Este campo es necesario para compensar los cambios en la energa y
momentum que sufre el electron como consecuencia de imponer la invarianza de la Accion bajo un
cambio de fase local
L = (i D m) 41 F F , (1.370)
y es invariante bajo transformaciones locales U (1)Q . Desarrollando la expresion anterior, tenemos

L = [i ( ieQA ) m] 14 F F
= (i m) + eQ A 1 F F .
4
(1.371)

Este Lagrangiano da lugar a la Accion de la teora conocida como Electrodinamica Cuantica (QED
de sus siglas en ingles).
Aplicando las ecuaciones de Euler-Lagrange para , tenemos

(i m) + eQ A = 0
(i i2 eQ A m) = 0
[i ( ieQA ) m] = 0
(i D m) = 0. (1.372)

1.12. ELECTRODINAMICA
CUANTICA 67

Que corresponde a la ecuacion de Dirac en presencia del campo electromagnetico. Mientras que para
el campo A , tenemos
 
1 F F A = 0
eQ
4 ( A ) A

F = eQ (1.373)

Definimos entonces la corriente electromagnetica generada por el fermion como

.
j = eQ (1.374)

De nuevo, la aparicion de la interaccion electromagnetica es una consecuencia de la invarianza gauge


local.
El calculo directo de la corriente
L L
J = +


( )
= i (i(x)Q) = (x)Q , (1.375)

y para la ecuacion de Dirac, a diferencia de la ecuacion de Schrodinger, la corriente de probabilidad


tiene la misma forma que la corriente electromagnetica.
De esta manera podemos reescribir el Lagrangiano en terminos de un Lagrangiano libre y otro
de interaccion

L = Lfree + Lint , (1.376)

Lf ree = (i m) 14 F F
Lint =eQ A . (1.377)

Para la QED solo hay un termino de interaccion que es suficiente para explicar todos los fenomenos
electromagneticos y su interaccion con la materia. Este esta representado por el diagrama de Feynman
mostrado en la Figura 1.2
La repulsion electromagnetica esta representada por la figura 1.3. En la Figura (a) el primer
electron emite un foton y se dispersa, mientras que el segundo absorbe el foton y se dispersa en
la direccion opuesta. En la Figura (b) el primer electon absorve el foton emitido por el segundo
electron. Los dos diagrams se representa por uno u nico con el foton en horizontal como se muestra
en la Figura (c).
68 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Figure 1.2: Feynman rule for QED

Figure 1.3: Electromagnetic repulsion. The diagrams (a) and (b) are summarized in the diagram (c)

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 69

1.13 Cromodin
amica Cu
antica

Los protones, neutrones, piones, kaones y demas hadrones, son partculas compuestas de consti-
tuyentes elementales llamados quarks. Por ejemplo los protones, neutrones y piones estan constitu-
idos de quarks up y down. Los hadrones estan dividos en bariones, B, constituidos de tres quarks,
y los mesones, M , de dos. Para satisfacer el principio de exclusion de Pauli, y justificar el confi-
namiento de los hadrones, se requiere que cada quark contenga Nc cargas diferentes, llamadas cargas
de color, de manera que la carga de color de un hadron sea cero. Muchos resultados experimentales
respaldan la existencia de tres cargas de color para cada quark, Nc = 3. De este modo cada quark
q = u, d, c, s, t, b viene en tres colores

q = q1 , q2 , q3 = qr , qb , qg , (1.378)

donde los u
ltimos subndices hacen referencia a los colores red, blue, green. De este modo los Bariones
y mesones estan descritos por combinaciones singletes de color del tipo qr qb qg y qr qr ,

1 1
B =  |q q q i M = |
q q i (1.379)
6 3

Estos estados son singletes de color. Una de las determinaciones de Nc proviene del observable

(e+ e hadrones)
R (1.380)
(e+ e + )

Para f = u, d, s, c, b, t, (en orden de masa) tenemos que para una energa donde se pueden producir
hadrones compuestos de hasta quarks fmax

Pfmax PNc +
f =u =1 (e e f f )
R
(e+ e + )
Pfmax +
f =u (e e f f )
R Nc (1.381)
(e+ e + )
70 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

De este modo R esta dado por la suma de las cargas electricas al cuadrado
P 2
f Qf
R Nc
Q2
fmax
X
=Nc Q2f
f =u

2 2 1 2 2
Nc [( 3 ) + 2( 3 ) ] = 3 Nc
f = u, d, s, fmax = s
= Nc [2( 32 )2 + 2( 1
3
)2 ] = 109
Nc fmax = c
1 2
2 2 11
Nc [2( 3 ) + 3( 3 ) ] = 9 Nc fmax = b


2 Nc = 3,
fmax = s
10
= 3 Nc = 3, fmax = c (1.382)

11
3
Nc = 3, fmax = b

En la figura, tomada de [?], se muestra el grafico de R con respecto a s(la energa de centro de masa
que va hasta una energa s 4 GeV que corresponden
de la colision). Se observan dos escalones, uno
a f = u, d, s, con un R 2, y otro hasta s 40 GeV que corresponde a f = u, d, s, c, b, con un
R 3.7 11/3. Los dos valores de R son compatibles con los esperados de la ec. (1.382). Como
referencia tambien se se nalan los valores para Nc = 4 (en rojo).
Si queremos que el color sea una carga conservada como la carga electrica, esta debe ser la
consecuencia de una simetra gauge local. Para tener tres cargas diferentes la posibilidad mas simple
es imponer la simetra SU (3)c , tal que tengamos un vector compuesto de 3 espinores de Dirac en el
espacio de color:
r qr
= b
= qb .
(1.383)
g qg
El Lagrangiano de Dirac con invarianza gauge global SU (3), para un quark, se puede escribir como
m,
Lglobal = i (1.384)
donde
a
 
0
= exp ia . (1.385)
2
a = 1, . . . , 8, a /2 son los ocho generadores de SU (3) y a son los parametros de la transformacion
global. Los generadores de SU (3)
a
a , (1.386)
2

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 71

Figure 1.4: Datos para R

satisfacen el algebra
a b c
 
abc
, = if , (1.387)
2 2 2
donde f abc son las constantes de estructura fina de SU (3).
En un analisis similar al de la seccion 1.11.8 tenemos que la Accion invariante gauge local bajo
SU (3)c , se obtiene de reemplazar la derivada normal por la derivada covariante

D m
1
Llocal = i Tr (G G ) , (1.388)
2
donde

0 = U (x)
D (D )0 = U (x)D , (1.389)

con la matriz 3 3

a
 
U (x) = exp ia (x) , (1.390)
2
72 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

y
a a
D = igs G igs G (1.391)
2
donde hemos definido la matriz 3 3 G , como
 
a
(G ) = Ga (1.392)
2

Este Lagrangiano da lugar a la interaccion fuerte y es llamado el Lagrangiano de la Cromodinamica


Cuantica, o el Lagrangiano de la QCD de sus siglas en Ingles.
De (1.389), tenemos

D (D )0 =D0 0 = U (x)D
D0 U = U (x)D . (1.393)

Por consiguiente

D0 U = U D (1.394)

D (D )0 = U D U 1 (1.395)

D (D )0 = ( igs G0 )U

=U ( igs G D)

U + ( U ) igs G0 U =U igs G

( U ) igs G0 U = igs U G

igs G0 U = ( U ) igs U G , (1.396)

de modo que

1
G0 U = ( U ) + U G
igs
i
G0 = ( U )U 1 + U G U 1 . (1.397)
gs

Como U es unitaria, la transformacion de los campos gauge puede escribirse como

i
G (G )0 = U G U 1 ( U ) U . (1.398)
gs

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 73

Entonces
i
a G0 a (1 + ib b )c Gc (1 id d ) [i( e )e (1 if f )]
gs
i
=(c + ib b c )(1 id d )Gc [i( e )e (1 if f )]
gs
1
[c id c d + ib b c ]Gc + e e
gs
1
=[c ib (c b b c )]Gc + e e
gs
1
=a Ga i(if acb a )Gc b + a a
gs
 
a 1 acb
= Ga + a + f Gc b (1.399)
gs
de donde
1
Ga G0 a Ga + a + f abc Gb c (1.400)
gs
que se reduce al caso Abeliano cuando las constates de estructura son cero. Como era de esperarse
cada campo gauge tiene asociado un parametro de transformacion gauge a (x).
Similarmente, definiendo la matriz 3 3,
i a
G = [D , D ] G , (1.401)
gs 2 a
tenemos
i
G = [ igs G , igs G ]
gs
i
= [( igs G ) ( igs G ) ( igs G ) ( igs G ) ]
gs
i 
gs2 G G igs [ (G ) + G ] + gs2 G G + igs [ (G ) + G ]

=
gs
i
= {( ) gs2 (G G G G ) igs [( G ) ( G )]
gs
igs [G + G G + G ]}
=[ G G igs (G G G G )]
={ G G igs [G , G ]} (1.402)
74 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

De modo que

G = G G igs [G , G ] , (1.403)

que se reduce al caso Abeliano cuando los bosones gauge conmutan. En terminos de componentes
b
a G a a c
a = Ga Ga igs [ Gb , Gc ]
=a Ga a Ga igs [b , c ]Gb Gc
=a Ga a Ga igs (ia fabc )Gb Gc
=a Ga a Ga + a gs fabc Gb Gc . (1.404)

Por consiguiente
abc e + gs f abc G G ,
G
a = Ga Ga + gs f Gb Gc Ga b c (1.405)
con
e = G G
G (1.406)
a a a

A diferencia del caso Abeliano G ya no es invariante bajo transformaciones gauge

i  0 0 
G G0 = D ,D
gs
i 
U D U 1 , U D U 1

=
gs
= U G U 1 . (1.407)

Note que con la definicion (1.401), la derivada covariante de la matrix G , transforma como la
matrix G

D G (D G )0 = U D G U 1 . (1.408)

Para poder obtener un invariante bajo transformaciones gauge a partir del producto G G ,
debemos utilizar la traza

Tr (G G ) Tr G 0 G 0 = Tr U G U 1 U G U 1
 

= Tr U G G U 1


= Tr U 1 U G G


= Tr (G G ) . (1.409)

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 75

Teniendo en cuenta la normalizacion de las matrices de Gell-Man

Tr a b =2 ab


 1
Tr a b = ab , (1.410)
2
tenemos (suma sobre indices repetidos de SU (3))

Tr (G G ) Tr G 0 G 0 = Tr a G b b
 
a G

= Tr a b G b

a G
1
= ab G
a G
b
2
1
= G Ga . (1.411)
2 a
Expandiendo el Lagrangiano en ec. (1.388), tenemos
 
a a 1 Tr (G G )
L =i igs G m
2 2
 
=i igs a Ga m 1 G Ga

2 4 a
=i m + gs a Ga 1 G Ga
2 4 a
=i m + gs a Ga 1 G e G
ea
2 4 a
1  e 
gs Ga fade Gd Ge + gs f abc Gb Gc G
ea + gs2 f abc fade G Gc Gd Ge
b
4
=Lfree + Lgauge + LSI , (1.412)

donde

m
Lfree =i

a Ga 1 G
Lgauge =gs e G
ea
a
2 4
1 
d e abc e a 2 abc d e

LSI = gs Ga fade G G + gs f Gb Gc G + gs f fade Gb Gc G G .
e (1.413)
4
Hemos divido el Lagrangiano en tres partes
76 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

El Lagrangiano libre de Dirac

Una parte gauge que puede escribirse como un Lagrangiano electromagnetico:


1
( Ga Ga ) Ga Ga Ja Ga ,

Lgauge = (1.414)
4
dende

a
Ja = gs , (1.415)
2
es la nueva corriente conservada de interaccion fuerte que surge como consecuencia de la invar-
ianza gauge local SU (3); y

Una parte de auto-interacciones gauge:

gs abc ea gs2 abc


LSI = f G Gb Gc + f fade Gb Gc Gd Ge
2 4
gs abc g2
= f ( Ga Ga ) Gb Gc s f abc fade Gb Gc Gd Ge . (1.416)
2 4
que se desaparecen en el caso Abeliano.

El Lagrangiano de interaccion es:

a gs g2
Lint = gs Ga f abc ( Ga Ga ) Gb Gc s f abc fade Gb Gc Gd Ge . (1.417)
2 2 4
From [17] (pag 136):

The quarks have an additional type of polarization that is not related to geometry. The
idiot physicists, unable to come up with any wonderful Greek words anymore, call this
type of polarization by the unfortunate name of color, which has nothing to do with
color in the nornal sense. At a particular time, a quark can be in one of three conditions,
or colorsR, G, or B (can you guess what they stand for?). A quarks color can be
changed when the quark emits or absorbs a gluon. The gluons come in eigth diffent types,
according to the colors they can couple with. For example, if a red quark changes to
green, it emits a red-antigreen gluona gluon that takes the red from quark and gives
it green (antigreen means the gluon is carrying green in the opposite direction). This
gluon could be absorved by a green quark, which changes to red (see Fig. 1.5). There are
eigth different possible gluons, such as red-antired, red-antiblue, red-antigreen, and so on

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 77

Figure 1.5: Quarkgluon interaction

(youd think thered be nine, but for technical reasons, onw is missing)2 . The theory is
not very complicated. The complete rule of gluons is: gluons couple with things having
colorit just requires a little bookkeeping to keep track of where the colors go. There
is, however, an interesesting possibility created by this rule: gluons can couple with other
gluons (see Fig. 1.6).

El primer termino da lugar a interacciones de cambio de color de quarks como la que se ilustra
en la Figura 1.5
Mientras que el segundo y tercer termino dan lugar a autointeracciones de los gluones como se
muestra en la Figura 1.6
Todas las interacciones estan determinadas en terminos de una u nica constante de acoplamiento
gs . Las autointeracciones gauge pueden explicar aspectos de la interaccion fuerte como la libertada
asintotica, que consiste en que las interacciones fuertes se vuelven mas debiles a distancias cortas.
En terminos de ndices de color la corriente, y las otras partes del Lagrangiano, pueden escribirse
2

r rb r

r g
r bb b
b g , with r + bb + g
r g=0
g
r g b g
g
78 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Figure 1.6: Triplegluon selfinteraction. The anticolors are the colors running back in time.

como
 
a
Ja
= gs q q . (1.418)
2

Note que tanto para la Electrodinamica Cuantica como para la Cromodinamica Cuantica la corriente

es vectorial. Para las interacciones debiles la estructura es mas complicada y requiere un


conocimiento mas profundo de la ecuacion de Dirac y sus soluciones.

1.13.1 Ecuaciones de EulerLagrange

Sigiendo los mismos procedimientos anteriores debemos llegar a los siguientes resultados. Para el
campo

(i D m) = 0 , (1.419)

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 79
 
L L
a

( G ) Ga
 
1 a
G G gs
d d

= Ga gs fdbc Gb Gc
e
a
2 ( G ) 2
gs dbc e g s
+ f Gd ( ba Gc + Gb ca ) + f ibc fide (g g Gb Gc Gd Ge )
2
 4 
= G 1
ea gs fdbc G Gc ( da da ) gs a

b
2 2
gs dac e c gs dba e b
+ f Gd G + f Gd G
2 2
gs ibc
+ f fide g g ( ba Gc Gd Ge + Gb ca Gd Ge + Gb Gc da Ge + Gb Gc Gd ea )

4  
= G ea gs f G G + gs fabc G G gs a
1 abc 1
b c b c
2 2 2
gs gs adb e b
f adc G e c
d G f Gd G
2 2
gs gs gs
+ f iac fide g g Gc Gd Ge + f iba fide g g Gb Gd Ge + f ibc fiae g g Gb Gc Ge
4 4 4
gs ibc b c d
+ f fida g g G G G . (1.420)
4

Desarrollando los cuatro u


ltimos terminos, tenemos

gs iac gs gs
f fide g g Gc Gd Ge + f iba fide g g Gb Gd Ge + f ibc fiae g g Gb Gc Ge
4 4 4
gs ibc b c d
+ f fida g g G G G
4
gs iac gs gs gs
= f fide Gd Gc Ge + f iba fide Ge Gb Gd + f ibc fiae Gb Gc Ge + f ibc fida Gc Gb Gd
4 4 4 4
gs dac gs dca gs dbc gs
= f fdje Gj Gc G + f fdje Ge Gc G + f fdae Gb Gc G + f dbc fdea Gc Gb Ge
e j e
4 4 4 4
gs dac gs dca gs gs
= f fdje Gj Gc G + f fdje Ge Gc G + fdac f Gj Gce G + fdca f dje Ge Gj Gc
e j dje c
4 4 4 4
gs abc b gs abc b gs gs
= f G fcej Ge Gj f G fcej Ge Gj fabc G f Ge Gj fabc Gb f cej Ge Gj
b cej
4 4 4 4
b cej
= gs fabc G f Ge Gj (1.421)
80 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Entonces
 
L L

( Ga ) Ga
a
 
e abc e gs facd Gc f dej Ge Gj
= G a g s f Gb c gs
G gs f acd Gc Gd
2
acd c a
= G
a gs f G Gd gs = 0 . (1.422)
2
Entonces las Ecuaciones de Euler Lagrange para Ga , son
acd c a
G
a + gs f G Gd = gs . (1.423)
2
Definiendo
a
Ja = gs , (1.424)
2
La ec.(1.423) puede reescribirse como:
 
a
G
a = gs fabc Gb G
c + (1.425)
2
y usando el hecho que = :
G e + gs (fabc G G )
a = G b c
1
=0 + [gs (fabc Gb Gb ) + gs (fabc Gb Gc )]
2
1
= [gs (fabc Gb Gb ) + gs (fabc Gb Gc )]
2
1
= [gs (fabc Gb Gb ) + gs (facb Gc Gb )]
2
1
= [gs (fabc Gb Gb ) gs (fabc Gb Gc )]
2
=0 , (1.426)
como en el caso Abeliano, tenemos la corriente conservada
j = 0 , (1.427)
donde
 
a
ja = gs fabc Gb G
c + . (1.428)
2
El primer termino corresponde a las autointeracciones y el segundo a la corriente de color generada
por los quarks.

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 81

1.13.2 Derivada covariante adjunta


Toda el algebra de SU (3) se puede escribir en notacion vectorial en terminos de vectores de 8 com-
ponentes asociados al espacio de los generadores de SU (3). Este nos permitira entender como las
autointeracciones gauge emergen tambien de la derivada covariante cuando se escribe en la repre-
sentacion adjunta de SU (3).
Definiendo el producto vectorial de SU (3) como

(A B)a = fabc Ab B c , (1.429)

si G es un vector en el espacio SU (3) con las 8 componentes Ga , entonces podemos escribir (1.400)
como
1
G G0 = G + + G . (1.430)
gs
Podemos escribir tambien la ec. (1.405) en terminos de vectores en el espacio SU (3) como:

G = G G + gs G G , (1.431)

donde G es el vector en el espacio SU (3) con las 8 componentes G


a .
De igual forma, podemos escribir (1.423) en forma vectorial como

G + gs G G = J (1.432)

y la corriente conservada como


 

j = gs G Gb + . (1.433)
2
Como G es una matrix 8 8, su derivada covariante debe estar en la representacion adjunta de
SU (3)

(a )bc = i (f a )bc , (1.434)

con

a , b = ifabc c .
 
(1.435)

En esta representacion la derivada covariante queda

D = igs a Ga (1.436)
82 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

En componentes

(D )ab =ab igs (c )ab Gc


=ab gs fcab Gc
=ab + gs facb Gc . (1.437)

Aplicada sobre la componente G


b , queda

(D )ab G c
b =ab Gb + gs facb G Gb
(D )ab G
b = Ga + gs (G G )a
(D G )a = G
a + gs (G G )a , (1.438)

podemos escribir la derivada covariante de G = (G


1 , , G8 ) como

D G = G + gs G G . (1.439)

Entonces las las Ecuaciones de Euler Lagrange para Ga , en (1.423) se pueden escribir como

D G =J , (1.440)

donde el vector en espacio SU (3) J , tiene por componentes

a
Ja = gs . (1.441)
2
Para escribir el Lagrangiano en forma vectorial en el espacio SU (3), debemos reescribir la trans-
formacion gauge de G en terminos de vectores de SU (3). Como

G G0 =U G U
=(1 + ib b )c Gc (1 ib b ) (1.442)

podemos realizar los mismos pasos que en (1.399). El resultado es


a
Ga G0 Ga + f abc Gb c . (1.443)

Note que en el caso Abeliano fabc = 0, el tensor correspondiente es invariante gauge, como ocurre el
caso electromagnetico. En notacion de vectores de SU (3):

G G0 G + G . (1.444)

1.13. CROMODINAMICA
CUANTICA 83

Utilizando la propiedad cclica del triple producto escalar

A (B C) = B (C A) = C (A B) , (1.445)

podemos construir el invariante


G a
a G = G

G G0 G0 G G + G (G ) + (G ) G
=G G + G ( G ) + (G ) G
=G G (G ) G + (G ) G
=G G . (1.446)

El Lagrangiano de la QCD escrito en forma de vectores de SU (3) es


 

L = i 1 G G .
igs G m (1.447)
2 4

El Lagrangiano para los campos gauge, el cual puede generalizarse para cualquier teora SU (N ), es

1
Lgluon = Lgauge + LSI = G G J G , (1.448)
4

Da lugar la ecuaciones de Maxwell pero con la derivada normal reemplzada por la derivada covariante

D G =J , (1.449)

donde

D G = G + gs G G . (1.450)

Note que en el caso Abeliano, U (1), la derivada covariante del tensor de campo se reduce a la derivada
normal de dicho tensor. El termino extra en la derivada covariante da lugar a las autointeracciones
de los campos gauge.

Ejercicio:
Muestre que la derivada covariante de G , transforma como G .
84 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Figure 1.7: V () = 12 2 2 con 2 > 0

1.14 Spontaneous symmetry breaking


Escribamos el Lagrangiano para una partcula escalar real de masa m como

L = 21 V () (1.451)

con
V () = 12 2 2 . (1.452)
Este Lagrangiano es simetrico bajo la transformacion discreta .
Cuando 2 > 0, el campo tiene excitaciones alrededor del mnimo del potencial que cuestan
energa y dicho termino se interpreta como la masa de la partcula. Ver figura 1.7. En Teora
Cuantica de Campos al estado de mnima energa se le llama el vaco y las excitaciones alrededor del
vacio corresponden a las partculas.
Si 2 < 0, no existe un mnimo del potencial alrededor del cual el campo pueda oscilar. Ademas
el alejamiento del campo del punto de simetra del potencial no cuesta energa. Por consiguiente en
ese caso, el termino de interaccion

V () = 12 2 2 < 0, (1.453)

no puede interpretarse como un termino de masa en el Lagrangiano dado por la ec. (1.451).
Consideremos ahora el potencial

V () = 21 2 2 + 14 4 2 < 0, > 0 (1.454)


1.14. SPONTANEOUS SYMMETRY BREAKING 85

Figure 1.8: V () = 12 2 2 + 14 4 con 2 < 0, y > 0. Simetra exacta

que mantiene la simetra bajo la transformacion discreta . > 0 garantiza la aparicion de los
dos mnimos que se muestran el la figura 1.8. Si la energa es suficientemente alta como se muestra
en la figura 1.8, las excitaciones son simetricas con respecto al maximo del potencial y el termino en
2 no puede interpretarse como masa para la partcula escalar.
Sin embargo, si la energa es suficientemente baja como se muestra en la figura 1.9, las excitaciones
alrededor del mnimo dan lugar a la aparicion de un termino de masa para el campo escalar. Ademas,
dichas excitaciones no respetan la simetras . En tal caso decimos que la simetra ha sido
espontaneamente rota: aunque el Lagrangiano mantiene la simetra original, el vaco la rompe.
Para analizar cuantitativamente el espectro de partculas es necesario expandir el campo alrededor
del mnimo y determinar las excitaciones. Establezcamos en primer lugar los mnimos del potencial.
La V / = 0 da lugar a
2 + 3 = 0 (1.455)
(2 + 2 ) = 0, (1.456)
con extremos max = 0, y r
2
min hi v = . (1.457)

De hecho
2V
2
= 2 + 32 . (1.458)

p
= 0 corresponde a un maximo, mientras que la segunda derivada para = 2 / es 22 > 0
y corresponden a los mnimos. Expandiendo el campo alrededor del mnimo
(x) = H(x) + v (1.459)
86 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Figure 1.9: V () = 12 2 2 + 14 4 con 2 < 0, y > 0. Simetra espontaneamente rota.

V () = 12 2 2 + 41 4
= 12 2 (H + v)2 + 41 (H + v)4
= 21 2 (H + v)2 + 41 (H + v)4
2
= 21 2 H 2 + 2vH + v 2 + 41 H 2 + 2vH + v 2

h 2 i
= 21 2 H 2 + 2vH + v 2 + 41 H 4 + 2H 2 2vH + v 2 + 2vH + v 2
 

= 21 2 H 2 + 2vH + v 2 + 41 H 4 + 4vH 3 + 2H 2 v 2 + 4v 2 H 2 + 4v 3 H + v 4
  

= 21 2 H 2 + 2vH + v 2 + 41 H 4 + 4vH 3 + 6H 2 v 2 + 4v 3 H + v 4
  

= 21 2 H 2 23 H 2 2 + 2 vH 2 vH + 21 2 v 2 41 2 v 2 + 14 H 4 + 4vH 3
 

V (H) = 12 22 H 2 + vH 3 + 41 H 4 + 14 2 v 2 ,

(1.460)

y
LH = 21 H H 1
22 H 2 vH 3 14 H 4 + constant.

2
(1.461)

Entonces H adquiere una masa 22 y no es invariante bajo H H.


Otro metodo es usar las ecuaciones de mnimo 2 = v 2 , para eliminar un parametro del
potencial:

V () = 21 v 2 2 + 41 4
= 12 v 2 H 2 + 2vH + v 2 + 41 H 4 + 4vH 3 + 6H 2 v 2 + 4v 3 H + v 4
  

=v 2 H 2 + vH 3 + 41 H 4 + constant. (1.462)
1.14. SPONTANEOUS SYMMETRY BREAKING 87

Figure 1.10: Potential for complex scalar field

Podemos escribir el potencial en terminos del nuevo campo como

1 1 m2H 3 1 m2H 4
V (H) = m2H H 2 + H + H . (1.463)
2 2 v 8 v2

donde

m2H = 2 2 = 2v 2 (1.464)

Consideremos ahora un campo escalar complejo sin termino de masa, pero con potencial:

L = V () (1.465)

V () = 2 + ( )2 2 < 0, > 0 (1.466)

La simetra del Lagrangiano corresponde a U (1) global. Este potencial corresponde al sombrero
mexicano, como se ilustra en la Figura 1.10. Para una energa suficientemente baja de manera que
el campo deba oscilar alrededor del mnimo aparecen dos tipos de excitaciones. Una sobre las paredes
que cuestan energa y corresponden a un campo escalar masivo como en el caso anterior, y otra a lo
largo de la circunferencia de mnimo, que corresponde a una partcula escalar sin masa, y es llamada
boson del Golstone.
88 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

El Lagrangiano escalar complejo es equivalente al Lagragiano de dos campos escalares reales con
los mismos parametros. Para un conjunto de N campos reales tenedremos (suma sobre i) [8]3 :
1 1 1 2
L = i i 2 i i 2 i i , (1.467)
2 2 2
que es invariante bajo una simetra O(N )
i
i 0 = Rij j , (1.468)

para cualquier matriz N N ortogonal R. El analisis para N = 2 da lugar a un boson de Goldstone.


El analis para N > 2 es el mismo y por cada campo real que se introduzca aparece un nuevo boson
de Goldstone [8]:

[. . . ] there are not continuous symmetries for N = 1, while for N = 2 there is a single
direction of rotation. A rotation in N dimensions can be in any one of N (N 1) planes, so
the O(N )symmetric theory has N (N 1)/2 continuous symmetries. After spontaneous
symmetry breaking there are (N 1)(N 2)/2 remaining symmetries corresponding to
rotations of the (N 1) [non massive] fields. The number of broken symmetries is the
difference, N 1.

Entonces tenemos el siguiente teorema [8]

Goldstones theorem states that for every spontaneously broken continuous symmetry, the
theory must contain a massless particle.

Also from [8]4

In a global symmetry that is spontaneously broken the symmetry currents are still con-
served and interactions are similarly restricted [the Lagrangian keeps the symmetry], but
the vacuum state does not respect the symmetry and the particles do not form obvi-
ous symmetry multiplets. Instead, such a theory contains massless particles, Goldstone
bosons, one for each generator of the spontaneously broken symmetry. The third case
is that of a local, or gauge, symmetry. [. . . ] such a symmetry requires the existence of
a massless vector field for each symmetry generator, and the interactions among these
fields are highly restricted.
It is now only natural to consider a fourth possibility: What happens if we include both
local gauge invariance and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the same theory?
3
11.1
4
Introduction to Chapter 20
1.14. SPONTANEOUS SYMMETRY BREAKING 89

En el caso de la Accion invariante gauge local bajo el Grupo U (1), tenemos el Lagrangiano (??):

L = (D ) D 2 ( )2 41 F F 2 < 0 and > 0 (1.469)

Para obtener directamente el espectro despues de la ruptura espontanea de simetra es conveniente


usar la transformacion gauge de la ec. (??). Haciendo (x) = (x):
 
0 i(x) i(x) H(x) + v H(x) + v
=e e = (1.470)
2 2

 2
L L0 = (D )0 0 (D )0 0 2 ( )0 0 ( )0 0 41 (F F )0
 

= 21 H + igA0 (H + v) [ H igA0 (H + v)] 12 2 (H + v)2 41 (H + v)4 41 F F
 

(1.471)
En adelante omitiremos las primas, aunque debe estar claro que se esta trabajando en el gauge
especfico de la ec. (1.470). Entonces

L = 12 H H 12 2 (H + v)2 41 (H + v)4 + 21 g 2 A A (H + v)2 41 F F . (1.472)

Usando la ec. (1.460)


L = LH + LA + 21 g 2 A A H 2 + g 2 vA A H, (1.473)
donde LH esta dado por la ec. (1.461) y

LA = 41 F F + 12 g 2 v 2 A A . (1.474)

Teniendo en cuenta la ec. (1.221) para el Lagrangiano de Proca, vemos que como consecuencia de la
ruptura espontanea de simetra el campo gauge ha adquirido una masa

mA = gv. (1.475)

El mecanismo completo mediante el cual, a partir de un Lagrangiano invariante gauge local, los
bosones gauge adquieren masa se llama mecanismo de Higgs [?]. La partcula escalar que adquiere
masa se llama Higgs, mientras que el boson de Goldstone es absorbido por campo gauge como modo
longitudinal.
El numero de grados de libertad independientes en el Lagrangiano original en la ec. (1.469) es
cuatro. Correspondientes a los dos grados de libertad del boson gauge no masivo y los dos del campo
escalar complejo. En el Lagrangiano final en la ec. (1.473) no aparece el boson de Goldstone. Sin
embargo esto no es un problema porque dicho Lagrangiano tambien tiene cuatro grados de libertad
correspondientes a los tres grados de libertad del boson gauge masivo y al grado de libertad del boson
de Higgs.
90 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

1.15 Fermiones quirales de cuatro componentes


Sea
1 5
PL
2
1 + 5
PR . (1.476)
2
Ademas

L PL
R PR . (1.477)

Entonces

= L + R . (1.478)

Las matrices PL,R tienen las propiedades


2
PL + P R = 1 PL,R = PL,R PL,R = PL,R

PL P R = 0 PL,R = PL,R . (1.479)

Usando la ec. (1.321)


1 5 1 5
PL,R = = = PR,L (1.480)
2 2
Para escribir el Lagrangiano en termino de los nuevos L,R debemos tener en cuenta que

L,R = (PL,R ) 0 = PL,R 0 = 0 PR,L = PR,L (1.481)

L =i m
=i(PL + PR ) m(PL + PR )
=iPL + iPR mPL mPR
=iPL PL + iPR PR mPL PL mPR PR
=iPL PR + iPR PL mPL PL mPR PR
=iR R + iL L m(R L + L R ) . (1.482)
1.15. FERMIONES QUIRALES DE CUATRO COMPONENTES 91

En terminos de espinores izquierdos y derechos de cuatro componentes la transformacion de paridad

tt x x L (t, x) R (t, x), R (t, x) L (t, x)


0 0 L (t, x) R (t, x), R (t, x) L (t, x) . (1.483)

Ademas L = r p (r) (p) = L, y como esta asociado al momento angular intrnsico,


entonces tambien
Entonces la transformacion de paridad da lugar a (sin tener en cuenta el cambio de argumento
en los campos que desaparece en la integral de la Accion)

R R = R 0 0 R + R R L 0 0 L L L
=L 0 0 L + L L
=L 0 0 0 0 L + L 0 0 L
=L 0 0 L + L
L
=R R . (1.484)

Entonces

L L0 =iR R + iL L m(R L + L R ) , (1.485)

donde = U U , con U = 0 . Como las dos representaciones dan lugar a la misma fsica,
podemos decir que la Accion en terminos de espinores L, R de cuatro componentes es invariante bajo
la transformacion de paridad.
La existencia de ambos espinores L,R garantizan que el Lagrangiano de Dirac es invariante bajo
la transformacion de paridad.
La corriente de la electrodinamica cuantica en ec. (1.374) (o la de la cromodinamica cuantica,
ec. (1.418)) conservan paridad ya que, siguiendo los mismos pasos que en la ec. (1.482)

= L L + R R L L + R R . (1.486)

Si para alguna partcula, como es el caso del neutrino, no existe la componente derecha, entonces
la correspondiente interaccion vectorial viola paridad y no puede tener ni interacciones electro-
magneticas ni fuertes, es decir, no se acopla con el foton o los gluones. Ademas dicha partcula
no puede tener masa de Dirac. En el caso del neutrino esto se entiende pues al no tener carga
electrica solo requiere dos grados de libertad independientes.
De otro lado, si una determinada interaccion, como es el caso de la interaccion debil, solo participa
92 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Type Name Symbol Charge


leptons electron e 1
neutrino 0
quarks up quark u1 , u2 , u3 2/3
down quark d1 , d2 , d3 1/3

Table 1.2: Elementary fermions. The symbol represent both the particle, e.g e , as the antiparticle,
e.g, e+ . The lectric chage is given in units of the electron chage e

la componente izquierda de la ec. (1.486), esta corresponde a una interaccion del tipo

L L = PR PL = PL
1 5
 

=
2
= 12 ( 5 ) , (1.487)

que de acuerdo a la asignacion en la Tabla corresponde a una corriente VA.

1.16 Standard model Lagrangian


The known matter is build from the elementary set of particles defined in table
we further define the color triplets of quarks as

u1 d1
u = u 2 d = d2 (1.488)
u3 d3
The free Lagrangian containing this particles can be written as

Lfree =ie e me ee + i + iu u mu uu + id d md dd
=ieL eL + ieR eR me (eR eL + eL eR ) + iL L
+ iR R + iuL uL + iuR uR
me (uR uL + uL uR )idL dL + idR dR me (dR dL + dL dR ) . (1.489)

donde,

L,R =PL,R , eL,R =PL,R e


uL,R =PL,R u, dL,R =PL,R d . (1.490)
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 93

Corrientes VA
En las interacciones debiles solo participan las partes izquierdas de los campos. Esto nos permite
prescindir del R , pues no tiene carga electrica, fuerte, o debil

Lfree =ieL eL + ieR eR me (eR eL + eL eR ) + iL L


+ iuL uL + iuR uR
mue(uR uL + uL uR ) + idL dL + idR dR md (dR dL + dL dR ) . (1.491)

Simetra global SU (3)c SU (2)L U (1)Y


En el contexto de las interacciones debiles un eL es completamente equivalente a un campo L .
Es decir, el Lagrangiano debe ser invariante bajo una transformacion SU (2)L de esos campos. La
diferencia entre ellos son sus respectivas cargas electricas y sus masas. Asumiendo que ambos campos
tienen una misma hipercarga, asociada a una nueva simetra Abeliana U (1)Y , podramos esperar que
la corriente electromagnetica apropiada pueda obtenerse a partir del Grupo semisimple SU (2)L
U (1)Y . Ademas las respectivas masas se podran obtener a partir del mecanismo de Higgs.
La simetra SU (2)L entre las partes izquierdas del neutrino y el electron, y entre las partes
izquierdas de los quarks up y down, se establece definiendo los dobletes:
   
L u
L Q= L , (1.492)
eL dL

De otro lado, La invarianza bajo U (1)Y requiere que

YL =YL = YeL
YQ =YuL = YdL . (1.493)

El generador de carga electrica Q,b se va obtener a partir de una combinacion lineal del generador
diagonal de SU (2)L , T3 , y del generador de hipercarga, Y .
Bajo la simetra SU (2)L , los campos transforman como:

L L0 = exp(iT i i )L (1 + iT i i )L
Q Q0 = exp(iT i i )Q (1 + iT i i )Q
eR e0R = eR
uR u0R = uR
dR d0R = dR . (1.494)
94 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

donde
i
Ti = , (1.495)
2
y i son las matrices de Pauli dadas en la ec. (1.331).
Claramente el termino de masa me en la ec. (??) no es invariante bajo la simetra SU (2)L . El
Lagrangiano en la ec. (??), sin termino de masa, puede reescribirse de manera que exhba de forma
mas explicita la invarianza bajo SU (2)L como
Lfree =ieL eL + ieR eR + iL L
+ iuL uL + iuR uR + idL dL + idR dR
=iL L + iQ Q + ieR eR + iuR uR + idR dR . (1.496)

Simetra gauge local SU (3)c SU (2)L U (1)Y


Para obtener la interacciones del modelo estandar, reemplazamos las derivadas normales por derivadas
covariantes.
Proponemos entonces el Lagrangiano
L =iQ D Q + iL D L + ieR D eR + idR D dR + iuR D uR

14 G a 1 i 1
a G 4 Wi W 4 B B , (1.497)
Donde
a i
D igs Ga ig Wi ig 0 Y B .

(1.498)
2 2
donde
a
a , a = 1, 2, . . . , 8 8 generadores de SU (3)c
2
i
T i , i = 1, 2, 3 3 generadores de SU (2)L
2
Y generador de U (1)Y
All the particles in this Lagrangian are massless. It is only good for the gluons and the Abelian
gauge boson, but is no realist for the fermions of the weak gauge bosons Wi . To solve this problem,
we postulate a new complex scalar doublet with four degree of freedom:
 +  
1 + i2
= = . (1.499)
0 3 + i4
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 95

The + and 0 superindexes for just for later convenience. The full Lagrangian involving those fields
are
L =iQ D Q + iL D L + ieR D eR + idR D dR + iuR D uR

14 G a 1 i 1
a G 4 Wi W 4 B B

+ (D ) D 2 ( )2
(he LeR + hd QdR + hu Qu e R + h.c)
=Lfermion + Lgauge + LW BH LYukawa . (1.500)
donde 2 < 0, y > 0,
e = i2 ,
(1.501)

Lfermion =iQ D Q + iL D L + ieR D eR + idR D dR + iuR D uR



Lgauge = 41 G a 1 i 1
a G 4 Wi W 4 B B

LW BH =(D ) D 2 ( )2
LYukawa =he LeR + hd QdR + hu Que R + h.c (1.502)
Bajo una transformacion gauge local las derivadas covariantes de los campos (y por consiguiente
los campos) transforman como:
D L (D L)0 = exp ii T i iYL D L


D Q (D Q)0 = exp ia a ii T i iYQ D Q




D (D )0 = exp ii T i iY D


D eR (D eR )0 = exp (iYeR ) D eR = exp (iQeR ) D eR


D dR (D dR )0 = exp (ia a iYdR ) D dR = exp (ia a iQdR ) D dR
D uR (D uR )0 = exp (ia a iYuR ) D uR = exp (ia a iQuR ) D uR . (1.503)
donde QeR = 1, etc, son las cargas electricas asociadas a los campos.
Para los campos del Lagrangiano, debemos asegurarnos de que todos los terminos invariantes
gauge locales y renormalizables sean considerados. De hecho un termino de interaccion entre fermiones
y el campo escalar, correspondiente a una interaccion de Yukawa: LeR y QdR son invariantes bajo
transformaciones SU (3)c SU (2)L U (1)Y si
YL + Y + QeR =0
YQ + Y + QdR =0
YQ + Ye + YuR = YQ Y + QuR =0 ,
96 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

From this set of three equations we obtain the three doublet hypercharges:

1 1 1
YL = , Y = , YQ = . (1.504)
2 2 6

En el analisis anterior hemos fijado Ye = Y . Esto es debido a que si Q es un invariante SU (2)L ,


Q tambien es un invariante de SU (2). Explcitamente
el termino

e Q =(i2 ) Q

 0 

= Q

 
0 +
 uL
=
dL
=0 uL + dL
=12 Q1 2 + 21 Q2 1
=ab Qa b . (1.505)

Bajo una transformacion SU (2)L

e0 Q0 = ab Q0a 0b =ab Uac Ubd Qc d


e Q

=cd det UQc d
=cd Qc d
e Q .
= (1.506)

Sin perdida de generalidad los cuatro grados de libertad de , pueden escribirse en la forma
 
ij (x)T j 0
=e 1 [H(x) + v]
. (1.507)
2

El potencial escalar, definido por

V () = 2 + ( )2 (1.508)

se reduce a
1 1
V (H) = 2 (H + v)2 + (H + v)4 . (1.509)
2 4
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 97

1.16.1 Spontaneous symmetry breaking in SU (3)c SU (2)L U (1)Y


Retornando al doblete de Higgs del modelo estandar en la ec. (1.507), los cuatro grados de libertad
de , pueden escribirse en forma polar con la parte real neutra desplazada para generar la ruptura
espontanea de la simetra SU (2)L U (1)Y
 
ij T j 0
=e 1 (H(x) + v)
(1.510)
2
 +  
1 1 + i3 2i 0

2 2i 1 i3 1 (H(x) + v)
2
+ +
 
1 i H + vi
= 1
2 2 (H + v i3 H i3 v)
G+
 
= 1 .
2
(H(x) + v iG0 )

Para SU (2)L U (1)Y tenemos cuatro generadores y cuatro bosones gauge. De acuerdo a la parametrizacion
en ec. (1.510) esperamos que aparezcan tres bosones de Goldstone y un campo de Higgs con masa,
de manera que quedara un generador no roto correspondiente a una simetra remanente del vaco
U (1)Q
hi
SU (2)L U (1)Y U (1)Q . (1.511)
Se espera entonces que el espectro consista de un boson de Higgs, tres bosones gauge masivos, y
un boson gauge sin masa.
Podemos hacer una transformacion gauge similar a la de la ec. (??) sobre el campo , tal que
 
0 0
= 1 (H(x) + v)
, (1.512)
2

que define el gauge unitario. En adelante sin embargo omitiremos las primas sobre los campos
transformados 0 y W
0
.
Comenzaremos analizando la parte escalar del Lagrangiano del Modelo dada en la ec. (1.502)
    
1 0 0
LW BH = D D V (H) , (1.513)
2 H(x) + v H(x) + v

donde V (H) dado en la ec. (1.463), incluye el termino de masa para el boson de Higgs (1.464):

m2H = 2 2 = 2v 2 (1.514)
98 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Como

     
10 1 1 0 i 1 1 0
W = Ti Wi = 1
W + 2
W + W3
21 0 2 i 0 2 0 1
W1 i W2

3
W 2
1 2
=
2 W + i W
1 2


3
2 W
2
 3
+

1 W 2W

2 2W W3
!
1 1 W +
W3
= 12 2
1 . (1.515)
2
W 2
W3

D corresponde a la matrix 2 2

!
1
gW3 + g 0 Y i2 gW+

i 2
B
D =  . (1.516)
i2 gW i 12 gW3 + g 0 Y B

Entonces

i2 gW+ (H + v)
 
D = . (1.517)
H i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)


De modo que
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 99


i2 gW + (H + v)

1
LW BH =
H i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)

2
i2 gW+ (H + v)
 
V (H)
H i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)


1  i 1 0
 
= gW (H + v) H + i 2
gW 3 + g Y B (H + v)
2 2
i2 gW+ (H + v)

V (H)
H i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)


1
= g 2 W W+ (H + v)2 V (H)
4
1
+ H + i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)
 
2
H i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)
 

1
= V (H) + g 2 W W+ (H + v)2 +
4
1 1 2
+ H H + 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)2 (1.518)
2 2
donde la u
ltima lnea corresponde a la magnitud del n umero complejo:
H i 21 gW3 + g 0 Y B (H + v)
  
(1.519)
Entonces
1
LW BH = H H V (H)
2
 gv 2 1 1
+ W W+ + g 2 W W+ H 2 + vg 2 W W+ H + LZAH , (1.520)
4 4 2
donde
1 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 02 2
2
LZAH = g W3 W 2 gg Y W3 B 2 gg Y W3 B + g Y B B
2 4
H 2 + 2vH + v 2

(1.521)
Haciendo Y = 1/2 como en la ec. (1.504),
 g 2 gg 0
   3
1 W
H 2 + 2vH + v 2


LZAH = W3 B 0 02 (1.522)
8 gg g B
100 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Sea
g g0
   
cos W sin W 1
V = =p , (1.523)
sin W cos W g2 + g02 g 0 g

con tan W = g 0 /g, tal que g sin W = g 0 cos W , como en la ec. (??). Si (ver ec. (??)),
 3  
W Z
=V (1.524)
B A

entonces

gg 0
  2   
1  T g Z
H 2 + 2vH + v 2


LZAH = Z A V 0 02 V (1.525)
8 gg g A

g 2 gg 0 g + gg 0 2 g 2 g 0 g 0 3 g g0
   3  
T 1
V V = 2
gg 0 g 0 2 2
g + g 0 2 +g 2 g 0 g 2 g 0 gg 0 + gg 0
2
g 0 g
g + gg 0 2 g 2 g 0 g 0 3 g g0
 3  
1
= 2
g + g02 0 0 g 0 g
g + g 2 g 0 2 + g 2 g 0 2 + g 0 4 g 3 g 0 + gg 0 3 g 3 g 0 gg 0 3
 4 
1
= 2
g + g02 0 0
2
 2 
g + g0 0
= (1.526)
0 0

1 g2 + g02
 
Z Z H 2 + 2vH + v 2

LZAH =
2 4
1 g
  2
1 + tan2 W Z Z H 2 + 2vH + v 2
 
=
2 2
 2
1 g
Z Z H 2 + 2vH + v 2

=
2 2 cos W
 2  2
1 gv 1 g
= Z Z + Z Z H 2
2 2 cos W 2 2 cos W
 2
g
+ vZ Z H (1.527)
2 cos W
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 101

Retornando a la ec. (1.520), tenemos tenemos


2
LW BH = (D ) D 2
1
= H H V (H)
2
1 1
+ g 2 W W+ H 2 + vg 2 W W+ H
4 2
 2  2
1 g 2 g
+ Z Z H + v Z Z H
2 2 cos W 2 cos W
1 1 1
+ m2W W W+ + m2W W W+ + m2Z Z Z , (1.528)
2 2 2
donde:

Masas gauge:
gv gv
mW = mZ = , (1.529)
2 2 cos W
y
mW
mZ = . (1.530)
cos W

V (H) = 21 m2H H 2 + vH 3 + 41 H 4
1 m2 1 m2H 4
= m2H H 2 + H H 3 + 2
H
2  2v 4 2v
H2

1 H
= m2H H 2 1 + + 2 . (1.531)
2 v 4v
con
m2H = 22 = 2v 2 . (1.532)

 3   
W cos W sin W Z
= , (1.533)
B sin W cos W A
tal que
g sin W = g 0 cos W . (1.534)
102 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

1.16.2 Yukawa Lagrangian


In the Unitary gauge

LYukawa =he LeR + hd QdR + hu Qu e R + h.c


1  
= he (eL eR + eR eL ) + hd (dL dR + dR dL ) + hu (uL uR + uR uL )
2
[H(x) + v]
 
v  H(x)
= he ee + hd dd + hu uu +1 , (1.535)
2 v
definiendo
hf v
mf = (1.536)
2
tenemos
me md mu
LYukawa =me ee + md dd + mu uu + eeH + ddH + uuH . (1.537)
v v v

1.16.3 Fermion-gauge interactions


De la ec. (1.502) tenemos

Lfermion =iQ D Q + iL D L + ieR D eR + idR D dR + iuR D uR . (1.538)

Los terminos de interaccion generados por la simetra gauge para el campo L son:

iL D L iL L =iL (igTi Wi ig 0 YL B )L
=L (gT1 W1 + gT2 W2 + gT3 W3 + g 0 YL B )L
0 W+
   
g 3 0
=L + gT3 W + g YL B L
2 W 0
0 W+
 
g
L + L gT3 W3 + g 0 YL B L
 
=iL
2 W 0
+
 
g eL W
=L + LAZL
2 L W
g 
= L eL W+ + eL L W + LAZL

2
=LW L + LAZL , (1.539)
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 103

donde
g 
LW L = L eL W+ + eL L W

2
LAZL =L gT3 W3 + g 0 YL B L
 
(1.540)
Generalizando para todos los campos:
g 
LW L L eL W+ + uL dL W+ + h.c .

(1.541)
2
Usando la ec. (1.533)
LAZL =L [gT3 (cW Z + sW A ) + g 0 YL (sW Z + cW A )] L
=L [gT3 cW Z + gT3 sW A g 0 YL sW Z + g 0 YL cW A ] L
=L [(gcW T3 g 0 sW YL ) Z + (gsW T3 + g 0 cW YL ) A ] L , (1.542)
donde cW = cos W , sW = sin W . Usando la relacion entre g y g 0 (1.534):
s2W
  

LAZL =L gcW T3 g YL Z + (gsW T3 + gsW YL ) A L
cW
=gsW L [(cot W T3 tan W YL ) Z + (T3 + YL ) A ] L . (1.543)
Como el generador asociado a A debe ser el generador de carga electrica, tenemos que
e = g sin W (1.544)
donde e es la carga electrica del electron, y el generador de carga
Q
b = T3 + Y , (1.545)
de modo que
   
Q 0 0 0
QL
b = (T3 + Y )L = L= L. (1.546)
0 Qe 0 1
La ec. (1.545), se conoce como la relacion Gell-MannNishijima, y establece la condicion que se deje
satisface para obtener apropiadamente la QED a partir de la interaccioon electrodebil asociada al
grupo semisimple SU (2)L U (1)Y . De esta forma
LAZL =eL (cot W T3 tan W YL ) LZ + eL Q
bL LA
h  i
=eL cot W T3 tan W Q bL T3 LZ + eL Q bL LA
e h i
= L 3 2sW QL LZ + eL Q
2 b bL LA . (1.547)
2cW sW
104 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Generalizando para los otros campos, tenemos

X e h i
LAZL F 3 2s2W Q
bL F Z + eF Q
b L F A . (1.548)
F =Q,L,eR ,dR ,uR
2cW sW

Usando los acoplamientos gauge de los quarks con los gluones (1.413), de los fermiones con el
W (1.541) y con Z y A (1.548) para expandir Lfermion en (1.538), tenemos

Lfermion =iQ D Q + iL D L + ieR D eR + idR D dR + iuR D uR


=iuL uL + iuR uR + idL dL + idR dR
+ ieL eL + ieR eR + iL L
a a a a
 
+ gs uL uL + uR uR + dL dL + dR dR Ga
2 2 2 2
g 
+ L eL W+ + uL dL W+ + h.c

2
X e h i
+ F 3 2s2W Q b L F Z
F =Q,L,eR ,dR ,uR
2cW sW

+ e eL Q be eL + eR Q
b e eR

+uL Qbu uL + uR Q b u u R + dL Q
b d dL + dR Q
bd dR A . (1.549)

Para escribir este Lagrangiano en terminos de espinores de 4 componentes, tomemos algunos


casos especficos:

L eL W+ = PR PL eW+
= PL2 eW+
= PL eW+
1
= (1 5 )eW+ , (1.550)
2
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 105

u d e e
2vf 1 sin2 W
8
3
1 + sin2 W
4
3
1 1 + 4 sin2 W
2af 1 1 1 1
Table 1.3: Acoplamientos de corrientes neutras

h   i
Q 3 2s2W Q bQ Q 2s2 uR Q
W
bu uR 2s2 dR Q
W
b d dR Z
" ! 
1 2s2W Q
bu 0 uL
= u L dL

0 2 b
1 2sW Qd dL
i
2s2W uR Q
bu uR 2s2W dR Qbd dR Z

= uL uL dL dL 2s2W (uL + uR ) Qu (uL + uR ) + dL + dR Qd (dL + dR ) Z


   
 
1 1 2

= u (1 5 )u d (1 5 )d 2sW u Qu u + d Qd d Z
2 2
       
1 2 1 1 2 1
= u 2sW Qu 5 u + d 2sW Qd + 5 d Z
2 2 2 2


= u (vu au 5 ) u + d (vd ad 5 ) d Z , (1.551)

donde

vf =T3f 2 sin2 W Qf af =T3f 5 (1.552)

Los valores explcitos para vf y af en el modelo estandar, estan dados en la Tabla 1.3.

Usando las expresiones para pasar de fermiones L, R a los fermiones de Dirac de cuatro compo-
106 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

mentes, y las ecuaciones (1.550), (1.551) tenemos

Lfermion =iu u + id d + ie e + iL L
a a
 
+ gs u u + d d+ Ga
2 2
g  X e
+ (1 5 )eW+ + u (1 5 )dW+ + h.c + f (vf af 5 ) f

2 2 f =u,d,,e
2c s
W W
 
+ e e Q be e + u Qu u + d Qd d A
X X a
= if f + gs q qGa
f =u,d,,e q=u,d
2
g 
+ (1 5 )eW+ + u (1 5 )dW+ + h.c

2 2
X e
+ f (vf af 5 ) f
f =u,d,,e
2c s
W W
X
+e f Qbf f A , (1.553)
f =u,d,,e

donde Qf estan dadas en la Tabla 1.2 y vf , af en la Tabla 1.3.

1.16.4 Self-interactions

El Lagrangiano gauge


Lgauge = 14 G a 1 i 1
a G 4 Wi W 4 B B
(1.554)
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 107

se puede escribir como


Lgauge = 14 F F 14 Z Z 21 (FW e G
) (FW ) 14 G a
ea

h i

ie cot W (FW ) W+ Z (FW ) W Z + W W+ Z
h i
+ +
ie (FW ) W A (FW ) W A + W W F
e2 h
+ 2
 + +
i
2 2 + +

W W W W W W e cot W W W Z Z W Z W Z
2 sin2 W
e2 cot2 W 2W+ W A Z W+ A W Z W+ Z W A


e2 W+ W A A W+ A W A


1  e d e abc e a 2 abc d e

gs Ga fade G G + gs f Gb Gc G + gs f fade Gb Gc G G , (1.555)
4

donde

(FW ) = W+ W+
e = G G .
G (1.556)
a
108 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

1.16.5 Lagrangiano del modelo est


andar para la primera generaci
on
Recopilando los resultados para LW BH (1.528), LYukawa (1.537), Lfermion (1.553), y Lgauge (1.555),
tenemos para f = e , e, u, d; q = u, d [con f 0 = e (d) para f = e (u) ]

if ( mf ) f
X
L1 gen =
f

41 F F 14 Z Z 21 (FW ) (FW ) 14 G e ea
a G
H2
 
1 1 2 2 H
+ 2 H H mH H 1 + + 2
2 v 4v
H H2
  
2 + 1 2
+ mW W W + mZ Z Z 1+2 + 2
2 v v
 
a
f Qf f A
X X
+ gs q q Ga + e
q
2 f
e
f (vf af 5 )f Z
X
+
2 cos W sin W f
" #
g X mf
f (1 5 )f 0 W+ + h.c + ff H
X
+
2 2 f f
v

h i
+ +
ie cot W (FW ) W Z (FW ) W Z + W W Z
h i

ie (FW ) W+ A (FW ) W A + W W+ F
e2 h
+ 2
 + +
i
W W W W W W
2 sin2 W
e2 cot2 W W+ W Z Z W+ Z W Z


e2 cot2 W 2W+ W A Z W+ A W Z W+ Z W A


e2 W+ W A A W+ A W A


1  e 
ea + g 2 f abc fade G G Gd Ge .
gs Ga fade Gd Ge + gs f abc Gb Gc G s b c (1.557)
4
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 109

1.16.6 Din
amica de sabor
El Modelo Estandar esta compuesto de las siguientes tres familias de fermiones i = 1, 2, 3. A cada
familia se le asigna una carga de sabor diferente
 i  e    
L L L
Li = i : L1 = L2 = L3 = L eiR : eR , R , R
eL eL L L
 i       
uL uL cL t
Qi = i : Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = L uiR : uR , cR , tR
dL dL sL bL
diR : dR , sR , bR . (1.558)

Con
1 1 2 1
YLi = YQ i = YeiR = 1 YuiR = YdiR = . (1.559)
2 6 3 3
De los procesos entre familias, es decir de cambio de sabor, sabemos que

No se han observado procesos de corrientes neutras que cambian sabor.

Los bosones gauge cargados W decaen siempre a leptones de la misma generacion y con la
misma intensidad.

Proponemos entonces el Lagrangiano


X 0 0 0i

0 0 0i 0i 0i 0i 0i
L =i Qi D Qi + Li D Li + eR D eR + dR D dR + uR D uR
i
0 0 D 0 0 U 0e 0
(hE
ij Li eR j + hij Qi dR j + hij Qi uR j + h.c)
41 Wi W
i
14 B B
+ (D ) D 2 + ( )2 . (1.560)

Para aclarar la notacion, obviando de momento la definicion definitiva de hij y las primas sobre los
campos, consideremos el Lagrangiano de Yukawa para el sector down

L hD
ij dRi Qj + h.c

hD ea b
ij dRi ab Qj + h.c
a b
hD
ij ab dR i Qj + h.c
e
a b
hD
ij ab (d ) 0 Qj + h.c ,
R i
e (1.561)
110 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

donde i, a, , son ndices en los espacios de familia, SU (2)L , SU (3)c y de Dirac, respectivamente.
Por ejemplo el primer termino de la sumatoria
1
e 1 2
L hD
11 (dR )1 0 Q11 + . . .
r
hD 0 r
11 dR dL + . . . (1.562)

corresponde a la interaccion de Yukawa del quark down rojo (r) con un campo escalar complejo
neutro en carga electrica pero de isospn debil 1/2. En forma compacta la primera expresion en la
ec. (1.561) puede escribirse como

L dR hD Q + QL hD dR (1.563)

Retornado a la ec. (1.560), tenemos que para definir apropiadamente la masa de los quarks, rotamos
de los autoestados de interaccion a los autoestados de masa con la matrices unitarias
0
dR,L 0j = (VR,L
D
)jk dR,L k D
dR,L j = dR,L k (VR,L )kj (1.564)

Tal que
D D
(VR,L )ij (VR,L )jk = ik (VLD )ki MijD (VRD )jl = mD
k kl (1.565)

Con definiciones similares para los campos ui y ei .


D
0 hij v
LYukawa dL i dR 0j
2
0
=dL i MijD dR 0j

=dLk (VLD )ki MijD (VRD )jl dRl
=dLk mD
k kl dRl

=mD
k dLk dRk (1.566)

Para las diferentes combinaciones de terminos de corrientes



uL 0i dL 0i =uLk (VLU )ki (VLD )il dLl
=Vkl uLk dLl
L 0i eL 0i =L 0i (VLE )ij eLj
=L 0i (VLE )ij eLj
=Lj eLj (1.567)
1.16. STANDARD MODEL LAGRANGIAN 111

Donde hemos definido la matriz de CabibboKobayashiMaskawa (CKM) como



V =VLU VLD

X X X X
V V =VLD VLU VLU VLD = 1 Vij Vjk = ik Vji Vjk = ik |Vji |2 = |Vij |2 = 1
j j j j
(1.568)

y los autoestados debiles de los neutrinos como



L 0i = (VLE )ij Lj (1.569)

Con esta definicion, las corrientes debiles cargadas para los leptones siguen siendo universales. Sim-
ilarmente

uL 0i uL 0i =uLk (VLU )ki (VLU )il uLl
=kl uLk uLl
=uLk uLk (1.570)

De modo que todas las corrientes neutras permanecen universales despues de la redefinicion de los
campos fermionicos. A este resultado, basado en la unitariedad de las transformaciones biunitarias se
le llama Mecanismo GIM. En muchas extensiones del Modelo Estandar las matrices que transforman
los fermiones a sus autoestados de masa no son unitarias y dan lugar a corrientes debiles neutras que
cambian sabor (FCNC de sus siglas en ingles).
112 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados podemos escribir finalmente el Lagrangiano completo del
Modelo Estandar en la Gauge Unitario, para

f =e , , , e, , , u, c, t, d, s, b; q =u, c, t, d, s, b; l =e, , (1.571)

if ( mf ) f
X
LSM =
f

14 F F 14 Z Z 12 (FW ) (FW ) 41 G e ea
a G
H2
 
1 H
+ 12 H H m2H H 2 1 + + 2
2 v 4v
H H2
  
2 + 1 2
+ mW W W + mZ Z Z 1+2 + 2
2 v v
 
a
f Qf f A
X X
+ gs q q Ga + e
q
2 f
e
f (vf af 5 )f Z
X
+
2 cos W sin W f
" #
g X
+
X
+
+ l (1 5 )lW + Vij ui (1 5 )dj W + h.c
2 2 l=e ij
X mf
+ ff H
f
v

h i

ie cot W (FW ) W+ Z (FW ) W Z + W W+ Z
h i
+ +
ie (FW ) W A (FW ) W A + W W F
e2 h
+ 2
 + +
i
2 2 + +

W W W W W W e cot W W W Z Z W Z W Z
2 sin2 W
e2 cot2 W 2W+ W A Z W+ A W Z W+ Z W A


e2 W+ W A A W+ A W A


1  e d e abc e a 2 abc d e

gs Ga fade G G + gs f Gb Gc G + gs f fade Gb Gc G G . (1.572)
4
donde ml = 0.
1.17. FENOMENOLOGIA ELECTRODEBIL
113

1.17 Fenomenologa Electrod


ebil
El Lagrangiano del Modelo contiene los parametros gs , g, sin W , v, mH . Alternativamente uno puede
escoger como parametros, en lugar de g, sin W , v [?]

GF = 1.166 371(6) 105 GeV2


1 = 137.035 999 679(94)
mZ = 91.1876(20) GeV
s (mZ ) = 0.1176(20) . (1.573)

donde i = gi2 /(4). Esto tiene la ventaja de usar las tres cantidades experimentales mejor medidas.
Las relaciones
m2W
sin2 W =1 , m2W sin2 W = (1.574)
m2Z 2GF
determinan entonces

sin2 W =0.212
mW =80.94 GeV (1.575)

Si se usa (MZ ) 1/128 entonces

sin2 W =0.233
mW =79.84 GeV (1.576)

Los valores medidos son sin2 W = 0.23149(13), mW = 80.398(25) GeV, y pueden ser reproducidos por
el modelo estandar una vez se tienen en cuenta correcciones perturbativas inducidas por partculas
virtuales.
El acelerador e+ e LEP, que funciono hasta desde 1998 hasta el 2000 [?], opero a energas su-
ficientes para producir millones de Z. Combinado con otros resultados experimentales, se pudo
verificar todo el Lagrangiano del Modelo Estandar hasta un nivel del 1 por mil. Con excepcion de
las interacciones asociadas con el Higgs.
La universalidad de los decaimientos del Z esta soportada por los resultados experimentales
siguientes donde solo se muestran los decaimientos leptonicos del Z diferentes de cero [?]

(Z e+ e ) = 83.92(12) MeV (Z + ) = 83.99(18) MeV (Z + ) = 84.08(22) MeV


Br(Z e+ e ) = 3.363(4)%, Br(Z + ) = 3.366(7)%, Br(Z + ) = 3.370(8)%
(1.577)
114 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Mientras que para el W , en %,

Br(W e e ) = 10.65(17), Br(W ) = 10.59(15), Br(W ) = 11.44(22)


(1.578)

La diferencia de respecto a los otros representa un efecto a 2.8. La universalidad de los


acoplamientos leptonicos de W puede comprobarse tambien indirectamente a traves de los decaimien-
tos debiles mediados por corrientes cargadas. Los datos actuales verifican la universalidad de los
acoplamientos de corrientes cargadas leptonicas al nivel del 0.2% [?]. Sin necesidad de entrar en
detalles de los calculos de las amplitudes de decaimiento, podemos usar el hecho de que ellas son
proporcionales a los acoplamientos al cuadrado correspondiente, de modo que un cociente entre am-
plitudes de decaimiento es igual, en primera aproximacion, a los cocientes de los acoplamientos al
cuadrado. Tendremos en cuenta ademas que el Branching es la amplitud de decaimiento a un canal
especifico divido por la suma de las amplitudes de decaimiento a todos los canales posibles.
Para los decaimientos del Z el Modelo Estandar predice, ademas de la ausencia de eventos del
tipo Z e+ , que para un cierto l = e, , , o q = d, s, b

Br(Z l+ l ) (|vl |2 + |al |2 )



Br(Z qq) Nc (|vq |2 + |aq |2 )
h 2 1 i
1 2
2 + 2 sin W + 4
= h 2 i
Nc 21 + 23 sin2 W + 14

0.338 Nc = 2
0.776
= 0.225 Nc = 3 (1.579)
Nc
0.169 Nc = 4

Para ser comparado con el resultado experimental de por ejemplo

Br(Z e+ e ) 3.363(4)
= 0.222 (1.580)
Br(Z bb) 15.12(5)

que de nuevo da lugar al Nc = 3, que seguiremos tomando en adelante.


Los Branchings de decaimiento en la ec. (1.578) y ec. (1.577) pueden ser calculados sin entrar en
1.17. FENOMENOLOGIA ELECTRODEBIL
115

detalles del calculo de las amplitudes. Teniendo en cuenta que el canal Z tt esta cerrado

(Z e+ e )
Br(Z e+ e ) =
total
(|ve |2 + |ae |2 )
=P P2 P3
l [(|vl |2 + |a |2 ) + (|v |2 + |a |2 )] + N [
l l l c i=1 (|v ui
|2 + |a |2 ) +
ui i=1 (|vdi | + |adi | )]
2 2

(|ve |2 + |ae |2 )
=
3[(|ve |2 + |ae |2 ) + (|ve |2 + |ae |2 )] + 3[2(|vu |2 + |au |2 ) + 3(|vd |2 + |ad |2 )]
(|ve |2 + |ae |2 )
=
21|ae |2 + 3[|ve |2 + |ve |2 ] + 3[2|vu |2 + 3|vd |2 ]
(1 + 4s2 W )2 + 1
=
21 + 3[(1 + 4s2 W )2 + 1] + 3[2(1 83 s2 W )2 + 3(1 + 43 s2 W )2 ]
2 8s2 W + 16s4 W
=
42 80s2 W + 320 3
s4 W
3.43% (1.581)

Para W tenemos por ejemplo

(W e e )
Br(W e e ) = (1.582)
total
donde, teniendo en cuenta que los canales a top estan cerrados, y usando la condicion de unitariedad
de la matriz CKM en ec. (1.568), tenemos
X X
total = (W l l ) + Nc [(W u1 di ) + (W u2 di )]
l i
X

=(W e e ){3 + Nc [|V1i |2 + |V1i |2 ]}
i

=(W e e )(3 + 2Nc )
(1.583)

entonces
1
Br(W e e ) = = 11.1% (1.584)
3 + 2Nc
Una mejor prediccion de dichos resultados en el contexto del Modelo Estandar requiere tener en
cuenta las correcciones radiativas.
116 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

P
inv (Z l l )
= l
l (Z e+ e )
N (Z e e )
=
(Z e+ e )
N (|ve |2 + |ae |2 )

|ve |2 + |ae |2
2N
=
(1 + 4 sin2 W )2 + 1
(
5.865 N = 3
, (1.585)
7.819 N = 4

mientras que el valor medido experimentalmente para esta cantidad 5.942(16) [?], es una evidencia
muy fuerte de que solo exiten tres neutrinos livianos.

1.17.1 Decaimientos d
ebiles mediados por corrientes cargadas
De la corrientes cargadas para leptones tenemos
" #
g
l (1 5 )lW + l (1 5 )l W
X
+
Lcc (1.586)
2 2 l

Esto da lugar a los posibles diagramas para decaimientos de leptones a bosones virtuales, y bosones
a leptontes mostrados en la figura 1.11. Las flechas representan el flujo de n umero leptonico. La
flecha de tiempo es de izquierda a derecha. Al lado izquierdo del vertice entran partculas y salen
antipartculas. Mientras que al lado derecho entran antip artculas y salen partculas Del primer y
cuarto diagrama obtenemos el diagrama de Feynman para el decaimiento e e , mostrado
en la figura 1.12 El propagador para el boson W de momentum q resulta ser
 
1 q q
D = 2
e g 2 . (1.587)
q m2W mW
Para los propositos actuales la obtencion de este resultado no es necesaria, el punto importante es
que cuando las masas de las partculas iniciales y finales son mucho mas peque nas que mW , esto se
reduce a

De = g . (1.588)
m2W
1.17. FENOMENOLOGIA ELECTRODEBIL
117

Figure 1.11: Diagramas de Feynman para las corrientes cargadas

Figure 1.12: diagrama de Feynman para el decaimiento e e


118 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY

Este resultado se entiende facilmente cuando se compara con el propagador de una partculas escalar
masiva 1/(q 2 M 2 ) 1/M 2 . Las componentes espaciales de W con = 1, 2, 3, a bajas energas
tienen el mismo propagador que el de una partcula escalar, mientras W0 , tiene el signo opuesto.
El Lagrangiano efectivo para el decaimiento del muon, e e es entonces

g2 g
L= (1 5 )] 2 [
[ e (1 5 )e ]
8 mW
2
g
= 2 [ (1 5 )] [
e (1 5 )e ]
8mW
GF
= [ (1 5 )] [
e (1 5 )e ] , (1.589)
2
donde
GF g2
= 2
2 8mW
g24
= 2 2
8g v
1
= 2, (1.590)
2v
y
 1/2
v= 2GF . (1.591)

De otro lado, para el decaimiento , n pe e , de acuerdo a la figura 1.13, tenemos

G
p (1 1.265 )n] [
L = [ e (1 5 )e ] . (1.592)
2

con GF dado en la ec. (1.573) y G = 1.10 105 GeV2 . La corriente hadronica tiene la forma
V1.26A. El factor 1.26 puede entenderse como debido a las correcciones a nivel hadronico de una
corriente que es de la forma VA a nivel del quarks, como en la ec. (1.572). A nivel de quarks el
decaimiento del neutron (udd) al proton (uud) corresponde al decaimiento de uno de los quarks down
del neutron d ue e
GF
u (1 5 )d] [
L = V11 [ e (1 5 )e ] . (1.593)
2

1.18. CALCULO DE PROCESOS 119

Figure 1.13: Decaimiento del neutron.

De modo que G = GF V11 = GF cos C , donde C es el angulo de Cabbibo. Una vez se tienen en
cuenta correcciones electrodebiles se obtiene el valor |V11 | = 0.97418(27)[?]. Las magnitudes de los
elementos de la matriz CKM son[?]

0.97419 0.2257 0.0359
V 0.2256 0.97334 0.0415 1 (1.594)
0.00874 0.0407 0.999133

1.18 C
alculo de procesos
120 CHAPTER 1. CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY
Chapter 2

Computational QFT

There are several tools which allows for the generation of models of particle physics models like
LanHEP [18]

http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~semenov/lanhep.html,

or FeynRules [19]

http://feynrules.phys.ucl.ac.be/ .

This kind of programs are able to generate the output required for other programs which make
the calculation of Feynman diagrams and integration over multi-particle phase space. CalcHEP:

http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

for example, is able to calculate cross section and decays widths at tree level.
In this chapter we will illustrate the use LanHEP+CalcHEP

2.1 LanHEP
After download the source code from the http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html to
some DIR,

Note that the tar.gz file name depends on the current version. At the moment of this writing
this was lhep311.tar.gz. To directly download this file use:
$ wget http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~semenov/lhep311.tar.gz

121
122 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL QFT

where \$ is to indicate that the command is to be written in the shell of your Linux session1 .
To uncompress the file:

$ tar -zxvf DIR/lhep311.tar.gz

Go to the created directory


$ cd lanhep311

To compile and create the executable of the program (lhep):

$ make

The input of LanHEP are files were the Lagrangian of some model is written in a symbolic way.
Then, the LanHEP executable process the input files and generates four outputfiles which are the
input for the CalcHEP program. For example, in the LanHEP dir
$ ./lhep stand.mdl

Here ./lhep command, search for the file in the defaul directory mdl/stand.mdl. If there are no erros
printed, for files are created:
ls *4.mdl
func4.mdl lgrng4.mdl prtcls4.mdl vars4.mdl

2.2 CalcHEP
The installation of CalcHEP is similar. In Ubuntu you must be sure to have libx11-dev package, in
addion to the C and Fortran compilers:
$ sudo apt-get install libx11-dev build-essential gfortran

In the CalcHEP directory:


$ make

To use CalcHEP you must first create a directory with the required files. This is achieved with
the CalcHEP command
1
An introduction to scientific computing is at http://gfif.udea.edu.co/cf
2.3. LANHEP/CALCHEP 123

$ ./mkUsrDir YourModel

A directory YourModel is created with several files and directories inside. By default, a models
directory is created with two set of .mdl files, corresponding to two versions of the Standard Model:
$ ls YourModel/models/
func1.mdl lgrng1.mdl prtcls1.mdl vars1.mdl
func2.mdl lgrng2.mdl prtcls2.mdl vars2.mdl

From the YourModel directory in CalcHEP, run the command


./calchep

A new window must appear with the info of CalcHEP and the loaded models in YourModel/models.
To navigate through this window, use the arrows keys and the <ESC> key to navigate back into the
menus.

2.3 LanHEP/CalcHEP
The sample .mdl files in the mdl directory of LanHEP must be modified in order to generate the
proper CalcHEP input files. From the LanHEP directory
$ mkdir sm
$ cd sm
$ wget --no-check-certificate \
https://github.com/rescolo/LanHEP/raw/release/sm/sm.mdl
$ wget --no-check-certificate \
https://github.com/rescolo/LanHEP/raw/release/sm/sm_tex.mdl

$ ../lhep sm.mdl

The four CalcHEP input files:


func1.mdl lgrng1.mdl prtcls1.mdl vars1.mdl

are then created.


From CalcHEP directoty:
$ ./mkUsrDir sm
$ cd sm/models
$ rm *

then copy the *1.mdl files to the sm/models, and from the sm CalcHEP directory run ./calchep.
In order to understand the structure of the LanHEP files consider the following skeleton:
124 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL QFT

1 model MODEL NAME/N.


2 % The coments are either this way
3 /* or this other way */
4

5 use file_tex.
6

7 prtcprop pdg.
8

9 prtcformat fullname: Full Name ,


10 name: P ,
11 aname: aP ,
12 pdg: number ,
13 spin2, mass, width, color, aux,
14 texname:> LaTeX P name <,
15 atexname:> LaTeX aP name < .
16

17 parameter VAR = VALUE : Description.


18

19 particle_type
20 particle/Antiparticle: (name, property name=VALUE, ...).
21

22 lterm Write here the Lagrangian in a LaTeX--like format


23

24 prtcprop pdg:(Particle=PDF code,...).


25

26 SetEM(A,EE). %check charge conservation


27 CheckHerm.

In line 1, N is an integer that will identify the four output files. The file in line 5 will contain the
LATEX definitions of the used particles. In lines 7-15, the format of the table prtclN.mdl, as required
by CalcHEP, is defined: A new column with the PDG number for the particle. In line 17, the general
form to declarate a variable is established, while the lines 19-20 are the generic declaration for a
particle. The final commands in 26 and 27 is to check the consistency of the defined model. As a
simple illustration consider the simple case of QED:
model QED: e, mu tau/1.

use qed3g_tex.

prtcprop pdg.
2.3. LANHEP/CALCHEP 125

%prtc1.mdl is one of the output files of LanHEP. To make


% it compatible with CalcHEP we need to change their format
% to include the PDG particle number in the third column

prtcformat fullname: Full Name ,


name: P ,
aname: aP ,
pdg: number ,
spin2, mass, width, color, aux,
texname:> LaTeX P name <,
atexname:> LaTeX aP name < .

parameter EE = 0.31333 : Electromagnetic coupling constant (<->1/128).

vector
A/A: (photon, gauge).

spinor e1:(electron),
e2:(muon, mass Mm = 0.1057),
e3:(tau-lepton, mass Mt = 1.777).

% fermion interaction with gauge fields

lterm anti(psi)*gamma*(i*deriv - EE*A)*psi


where
psi=e1;
psi=e2;
psi=e3.

% gauge bosons Lagrangian

lterm -F**2/4 where


F=deriv^mu*A^nu-deriv^nu*A^mu.

%set PDG particle numbers:

prtcprop pdg:(A=22,e1=11, e2=13, e3=15).

SetEM(A,EE). %check charge conservation


CheckHerm.
126 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL QFT

where the required file qed3g_tex.mdl is


SetTexName([e1=e,E1=\\bar{e}]).
SetTexName([e=e,E=\\bar{e}]).
SetTexName([e1.c=e^c,E1.c=\\bar{e}^c]).
SetTexName([e.c=e^c,E.c=\\bar{e}^c]).
SetTexName([e2=\\mu,E2=\\bar{\\mu}]).
SetTexName([e3=\\tau,E3=\\bar{\\tau}]).
SetTexName([m=\\mu,M=\\bar{\\mu}]).
SetTexName([l=\\tau,L=\\bar{\\tau}]).

SetTexName([EE=e]).

SetTexName([Me=M_e, Mm=M_\\mu, Mt=M_\\tau]).

Running with the option -tex:


../lhep qed3g.mdl

the following output is generated


lgrng1.tex

Fields in the vertex Variational derivative of Lagrangian by fields



ea eb A e ab


a b A e ab

a b A e ab

prtcls1.tex:

P aP Name Spin EM charge Color Comment


A A photon 1 0 1 gauge
ea ea electron 1/2 1 1
a a muon 1/2 1 1
a a tau-lepton 1/2 1 1

vars1.tex
Parameter Value Comment
EE 0.31333 Electromagnetic coupling constant (1/128)
Mm 0.1057 mass of muon
Mt 1.777 mass of tau-lepton
2.3. LANHEP/CALCHEP 127

Figure 2.1: CalcHEP welcome window

With the command


$ ../lhep qed3g.mdl

the same files are generated by in the format of CalcHEP.


parameter is for constants to be exported to tables, while let is only for internal LanHEP variables.
In CalcHEP
\$ ./mkUsrDir qed3g
\$ cd qed3g/models
\$ rm *
#copy the files: func1.mdl, lgrng1.mdl prtcls1.mdl, vars1.mdl here
\$ cd ..
\$ ./calchep

The window in Fig. 2.1 After hit <Enter>, the window with the model should appears as shown in
Fig. 2.2 To test that the model was loaded without errors:
QED: e, mu tau -> Edit Model -> Check Model

A message with The model is OK, should popup.


After returning to the model window in Fig. 2.2, we could calculate some process:
QED: e, mu tau -> Enter Process

and enter the process e1,E1 -> e2,E2 (e+ e + ) as shown in the Fig: 2.3 After <Enter>, the
window to calculate the process should appears, as in Fig. 2.4 In addition to View diagrams, we can
calculate the process with the sequence
128 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL QFT

Figure 2.2: CalcHEP model window

Figure 2.3: CalcHEP process window


2.3. LANHEP/CALCHEP 129

Figure 2.4: CalcHEP calculation window

Squaring technique -> Symbolic calculations -> C-compiler

Then a new window with the process details should appears, as displayed in Fig. 2.5 After adjust
the input parameters at your convenience, we could just calculate the process with, in this case:
Easy 2-2, to obtain the result displayed in 2.6 e.g, for center of mass energy of 14 TeV (7 TeV per
beam) we could have:
(e+ e + ) = 5 104 pb (2.1)
Exercise: Repeat the previous calculation, but for one center of mass energy of 200 GeV.
For the Standard Model the Yukawa Lagrangian that couple the down fermions with the boson
scalar is written in the interaction basis:
LY D0 MD PR D0 H + h.c , (2.2)
with D0 = V D, we can write the eq. (2.2) in the mass eigenstates as
LY DMDdia PR DH + h.c (2.3)
where
MDdia = V MD V (2.4)
Investing the equation 2.4 and replacing in (2.2) we can write in the interaction eigenstates:
LY (D0 V )(MDdia V )PR D0 H + h.c (2.5)
Expanding we get . . . which is just the expresion in the Standard Model file
130 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL QFT

Figure 2.5: CalcHEP calculation window

Figure 2.6: CalcHEP results window


Chapter 3

Second quantization

Two key ingredients to formulate the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) are the quantization of systems
in which the particles can be created and destroyed (quamtum theory of radiation) and the behavior
of relativistic systems. When both ingredients are present the particles can be understood as the
excited modes of certain field. When the particles in a system are not relativistic, the formalism of
creation and annihilation operators is just an alternative method to describe the Hamiltonian of the
Schrodinger equation. In relativistic systems however, the existence of negative energy states force
the construction of new quantum states, the Fock states, in order to have proper defined probabilities
for the states of the system. In section xx we start by building the Fock states associated to a massless
not relativistic scalar field. Then we generalize the results to a massive scalar field satisfying the
Klein-Gordon equation.
Some parts of the discussion were based in some topics of chapters 4-6 of [2].

3.1 Quantization of the nonrelativistic string


3.1.1 The clasical string
In conventional quantization the energy of one state is interpreted as the possible eigenstates of an
Hamiltonian operator acting on the states of the system.

H|Statei
b = E|Statei (3.1)

One step further is to consider the wave function as the eigenstate of the operatorfield acting on
certain Fock states

|Fock
b Statei = ||Fock Statei , (3.2)

131
132 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

Like that usual quantum mechanical observable, the wave function will have an uncertainty. The
Fock states are the states under which the classical wave function can be obtained with a small
uncertainty
= hFock State||Fock
b Statei (3.3)
This happens when the number of quanta of the Fock state is big enough. In fact, a state with a
definite number of quanta has a infinity uncertainty [15].
Eq. (3.2) is the basis for the calculation of cross section and decay widths in quantum field theory.
Now we will study how to define a such Fock state for a scalar field.
We have already see in Chapter 1 of [1] that a string have a collective wave motion that is
described by a continuous field, which satisfies the familiar one-dimensional wave equation
1 2 2
2 =0 (3.4)
v 2 t2 z
This equation can be derived following two different paths. The first is to decomposing the string
into individual oscillators for which the usual Lagrangian formalism can be used. The second is just
by formulating certain Lagrangian density from which the equation of motion can be obtained by
using the Euler-Lagrange equation
 
L L
= 0. (3.5)
( )
In the first approach the string is considered to be composed of N oscillators coupled together by
springs with a spring constant k. At certain time t, the displacement of the oscillator i at time t
is represented by i (t). In Table 3.1 it is displayed the corresponding macroscopic quantities. Note
also that 1/v 2 = /T . It is worth to stress that at the Lagrangian level, which is the sum of each
micro macro
l L = Nl
m = m/l
k T = kl
i (t) = (zi , t) (z, t)
Table 3.1: From micro to macro
individual oscillator Lagrangian, it is the sum of the kinetic and potential oscillator energy. However,
the Lagrangian density only have the kinetic term for the scalar field
 
1 1 0 3
L= 0 + 3
2 v2
21 . (3.6)
vc=1
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 133

Note that only in the case v = c this Lagrangian can be written in a covariant form. Moreover, the
scalar field (z, t) have nothing to do with the individual oscillators. An specific solution for (z, t)
would represent one specific oscillation mode of the string. It turn out that this specific frequency
mode corresponds to an particle state, that does have not connection with the physical particles in
the string.
The most general discrete solution to the wave equation (3.4) is the Fourier decomposition
X v
an ei(n tkn z) + an ei(n tkn z)

(t, z) = (3.7)
n
2 n L

where the dispersion relation is

n2 = v 2 kn2 (3.8)

where n is definite positive:


p
n = +|v| |kn | (3.9)

To satisfy the boundary conditions we must have


2n
kn = (3.10)
L
Note that

kn = kn . (3.11)

Therefore

n = n . (3.12)

In three dimensions and with v = c = 1, the Lagrangian can be written as

L = 12 (3.13)

This Lagrangian is still covariant after the addition of a function of . An interesting case is just the
addition of the mass term the most general solution to the KleinGordon equation is

L = 12 12 m2 2 (3.14)

which give to arise to Klein-Gordon

m2 = 0 .

(3.15)
134 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

We now will check the origin of the normalization factor. For simplicity we work with one spatial
dimension. By using eq. (3.7)

X v
(z, t) = [an n (z, t) + an n (z, t)] , (3.16)
n=
2n

1
[E] = [a]
[E]1/2 [E]1
=E 1/2 [a] (3.17)

[a] = [E]1/2 (3.18)


we define
1
n (z, t) = ei(n tkn z) (3.19)
L
y las funciones n satisfacen las siguientes condiciones de normalizacion
Z L
1 L
Z

dz n (z, t)m (z, t) = dz ei(n tkn z) ei(m tkm z)
0 L 0
Z L
1
= dz exp{i[(n m )t (kn km )z]}
L 0
ei(n m )t L
Z
= dz ei(kn km )z
L 0
(3.20)
When n = m
L L
1
Z Z
dz n (z, t)m (z, t) = dz
0 L 0
=1 (3.21)
For n 6= m, 2(n m) is an even integer and then
Z L L
ei(n m )t ei(kn km )z
dz n (z, t)m (z, t) =
0 L i(kn km ) 0
ei(n m )t 1
ei2(nm) 1

=
L i(kn km )
=0 (3.22)
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 135

In this way Z L
dz n (z, t)m (z, t) = nm . (3.23)
0
Moreover Z L
dz n (z, t)m (z, t) = n,m e2in t . (3.24)
0
En tal caso de Z L
H= H dz . (3.25)
0
From the analysis of the Theorem of Noether in chapter 1 of [1] we have, that in a similar way to the
usual Lagrangian formulation, where the canonical conjugate variable is used to define the Legendre
transformation
H = pq L , (3.26)
the Hamiltonian density can be obtained from the Lagragian density trough the Legendre transfor-
mation
L
H = T00 = L (3.27)

(x)
= (x) L. (3.28)
t
where
L
(x) = (3.29)
((x)/t)
is the canonical conjugate variable (conjugate momentum) of the canonical variable (x).
We have then,
Z L
1 1 L
Z
H= 2 dz + dz
2v 0 t t 2 0 z z
X
= n an an (3.30)
n=


X v
= [in an n (z, t) + in an n (z, t)] ,
t n= 2n

X ivn
= [an n (z, t) an n (z, t)] , (3.31)
n=
2 n
136 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION


1 X n m
2
= [an n (z, t) an n (z, t)] [am m (z, t) am m (z, t)] (3.32)
v t t n,m= 2 n m

X n m
= [an am n m an am n m an am n m + an am n m ] (3.33)
n,m=
2
n m


X v
= [ikn an n (z, t) ikn an n (z, t)] ,
z n= 2 n

X ivkn
= [an n (z, t) an n (z, t)] , (3.34)
n=
2 n


X v 2 kn km
= [an n (z, t) an n (z, t)] [am m (z, t) am m (z, t)] (3.35)
z z n,m= 2 n m

X v 2 kn km
= [an am n m an am n m an am n m + an am n m ] (3.36)
n,m=
2
n m

Using eqs. (3.23), and (3.24)


Z L
1 X n m
H= dz [an am n m an am n m an am n m + an am n m ]
2 n,m= 0 2 n m
Z L
1 X v 2 kn km
+ dz [an am n m an am n m an am n m + an am n m ]
2 n,m= 0 2 n m

1 X n m 
an am n,m e2in t an am n,m an am n,m + an am n,m e2in t

=
2 n,m= 2 n m

1 X v 2 kn km 
an am n,m e2in t an am n,m an am n,m + an am n,m e2in t

+
2 n,m= 2 n m

1 X n n

2in t n n n n 2in t
= an an e + (a an + an an ) a a e
2 n= 2 n n 2 n n n 2 n n n n

1 X v 2 kn kn

2in t kn kn kn kn 2in t
+ an an e + (a an + an an ) a a e (3.37)
2 n= 2 n n 2 n n n 2 n n n n
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 137

Since n = n and kn = kn

1 X 1 
H= (n2 + v 2 kn2 )an an e2in t + (n2 + v 2 kn2 )(an an + an an )
2 n= 2n
+ (n2 + v 2 kn2 )an an e2in t

(3.38)

Finally, using eq. (3.8)



1 X
H= n (an an + an an ) (3.39)
2 n=

Since an and an are classical quantities that commutates, the Hamiltonian is



X
X
H= n an an = n |an |2 (3.40)
n= n=

In this way, the factor 2n in eq. (3.16), is a convenient choice of normalization for the coefficients
an which guarantees the Hamiltonian.
To quantize the string, we need to promote H to an operator. In canonical quantization we need
to identify the proper conjugates variables. For this purpose it is convenient to write eq. (3.40) as
the Hamiltonian of an harmonic oscillator.

3.1.2 Quantization of the string


This Hamiltonian can be rewritten as a sum of independent oscillators Hamiltonians. Consider an
harmonic oscillator of frequency . The equation of motion for F = kq is
k
q + q =0
m
q + 2 q =0 (3.41)

with
k
2 = (3.42)
m
This equation of motion can be obtained from the Lagrangian
1
L = T V = [mq2 kq 2 ] (3.43)
2
138 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

And the Hamiltonian can be obtained from eq. (3.26)


H =pq L
p 2 1 p2
= + kq 2
m 2 m
1 p2

2 2
= + m q
2 m
1
p2 + m 2 2 q 2

=
2m
(3.44)
For a set of independent oscillators we have
X 1
p2n + m2 n2 qn2

H=
n
2m
X  1 mn 2

2
H= n p + q (3.45)
n
2mn n 2 n

Comparing eq. (3.45) with Eq. (3.40) we see that the complex number an can be written as (~ = 1)
an =c1 qn + ic2 pn (3.46)

an an = c21 qn2 + c22 p2n (3.47)



mn mn 1
c1 = = c2 = (3.48)
2 2mn 2mn

mn qn + i pn
an =
2mn
mn n i pn
q
an =
2mn
(3.49)

mn 1
an + an =2 qn = 2mn qn qn = (an + an )
2mn 2mn

2i i 2mn imn
an an = pn = pn pn = (an an ) (3.50)
2mn mn 2mn
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 139

In quantum mechanics the classical objects qn and pn are promoted to operators which satisfy the
commutation relation

[b
qn , pbm ] =imn qn , qb m ] = [pbn , pb m ] =0 .
[b (3.51)

This implies that the objects an and an , are also operators

imm
qn , pbm ] =
[b {[b am ] [b
an , b an , b an , b
am ] + [b am ] + [b am ]}
an , b
2mn 2mm
imm
qn , pbm ] =
[b {[b am ] 2[b
an , b am ] + [b
an , b an , b
am ]} (3.52)
2 mn mm

If the operators b an satisfy the commutation relations


an and b

am = n,m
   
an , b
b [b
an , b
am ] = b
an , b
am = 0 , (3.53)

then we recover equations (3.51). The scalar field is now an operator



X v h
i(n tkn z) i(n tkn z)
i
b = ban e + ab n e , (3.54)
n=
2n L

an and ab n the Hamiltonian from eq. (3.39) can be written as


In terms of operators b

1 X
H=
b a nb
n (b an + ban ab n )
2 n=

1 X 

h

i
= n 2b a nban + b an , ab n
2 n=
 
X 1
= n ab nb an + (3.55)
n=
2

Since

X 1
n , (3.56)
n=
2
140 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

it is convenient to renormalize the Hamiltonian as


 
X 1 X 1
:H: =
b n ab nb an +
n=
2 n=
2

X
= n ab nb
an (3.57)
n=

This procedure is consistent since the related physics quantities arise from energy differences, no
from absolute energy determinations.

  
h i X 1
H, b
b am = n ab nb an + ,b
am
n=
2
X h i

= n ab nban , b
am (3.58)
n=

By using the identity

[AB, C] = [A, C] B + A [B, C] (3.59)

we have
h i
X h i 
H, am =
b b n ab n , b
am ban + ab n [b
an , b
am ]
n=

X
= n nmb
an
n=

= m b
am (3.60)

h i
X h i h i
b ab m =
H, n ab n , ab m ban + ab n b
an , ab m
n=
X
= n ab n nm
n=

=m ab n (3.61)
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 141

If |mn i is an eigenstate of H
b with eigenvalue En

b n i = En |mn i
H|m (3.62)

then
 
H
bban |mn i = b b nb
an H an |mn i
= (En n ) b
an |mn i
(3.63)

an |mn i is also an eigenstate with eigenvalue En n . Moreover,


b
 
b
H ab n |mn i = ab n H + n ab n |mn i
b

= (En + n ) ab n |mn i
(3.64)

ab n |mn i is also an eigenstate with eigenvalue En + n .


As stablished in [4]

In other words, the operator b


an seems to annihilate a quantum of energy, of amount ~n ,
from the state. On the other hand, ab n creates a quantum of energy ~n . In this sense,
they are the are the annihilation and the creation operators, respectively. [...]
The ground state can be denoted by |0i = |0n i. Since this is state of lowest energy, the
annihilation operator ab n , acting on it, cannot produce a state of lower energy. Thus, this
state must be totally annihilated by the operation of b an :

an |0i =0
b
a n =0 ,
h0|b (3.65)

such that

h0|0i = 1 (3.66)

The energy if the ground state can be fixed to zero:

b : |0i = 0 .
:H (3.67)
142 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

We define the state whose energy is larger tha the energy of |0i by one quantum ~n by
a n |0i
|1n i b
h1n | =h0|b an (3.68)
|1n i is an Hamiltonian eigenstate of energy n :
b : |1n i =n a an |1n i
:H n
= n |1n i
= n 1|1n i , (3.69)
where we have made explicit that we have a quantum of energy ~. The normalized state is
an ab n |0i
h1n |1n i =h0|b
h i
=h0| ban , ab n |0i
=h0|0i
=1 . (3.70)
Similarly, the state with energy 2~ is
1  2
ab n |0i =|2n i
2
1
an )2 =h2n |
h0| (b (3.71)
2
with normalization
1
h2n |2n i = h0|b an ab n ab n |0i
an b
2
1
an ab n |1n i
= h1n |b
2
1 h i 
= h1n | b an , ab n + ab nb
an |1n i
2
1
= (h1n |1n i + h0|0i)
2
=1 . (3.72)
By induction we get
1  m
ab n |0i =|mn i (3.73)
m!
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 143

From here we have

1  m1
ab n ab n |0i =|mn i
m!
p
(m 1)! 1  m1
p ab n ab n

|0i =|mn i
m! (m 1)!
s
(m 1)!
ab |(m 1)n i =|mn i
m(m 1)! n
r
1
ab |(m 1)n i =|mn i
m n

ab n |(m 1)n i = m|mn i

ab n |mn i = m + 1|(m + 1)n i (3.74)

or,

hmn |b
a n = m + 1h(m + 1)n | (3.75)

From this expressions we can check that number operator can be defined from:

a n ab n |mn i =(m + 1)h(m + 1)n |(m + 1)n i


hmn |b
hmn |1 + ab n ab n |mn i =(m + 1)
hmn |1 + N bn |mn i =(m + 1) (3.76)

In this way, the number operator as

bn = ab nb
N an (3.77)

If N
bn |mn i = c|mn i, where c must be real because N
bn is Hermitian

1+c=m+1 (3.78)

and

N
bn |mn i = mn |mn i (3.79)
144 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

From here, we can calculate the eigenvalues of ban . Since


h i
N an = N
bnb bn , b
an + b an Nbn
h i
bn + ab n [b
= ab n , b
an ban + ban N an , b
an ]
=b an N
an + b bn
 
an N
=b bn 1 (3.80)

N an |mn i =(mn 1)b


bnb an |mn i (3.81)

Since the state

N
bn |mn 1i =(mn 1)|mn 1i (3.82)

has the same eigenvalue, therefore

an |mi = C |mn 1i
b (3.83)

where C is a number to be determined from the normalization condition

a n ab n |mn i = |C |2 hmn 1|mn 1i


hmn |b
hmn |N bn |mn i = |C |2
|C |2 = mn (3.84)


an |mn i =
b mn |mn 1i (3.85)

such that

hmn |mn i = 1 (3.86)

Eq. (3.57) can be rewritten as



X
:H
b: = n N
bn (3.87)
n=

Noting also that

Nn |ml i = 0 n 6= l , (3.88)
3.1. QUANTIZATION OF THE NONRELATIVISTIC STRING 145

we have that

hmn | : H
b : |mn i = mn n = mn ~n . (3.89)

Therefore, once we have proper normalized states and renormalized Hamiltonian, the energy of an
state with m quantum ( of frequency n ) is just m times the energy of the one quanta of energy ~n .
Note that

h0| : H
b : |0i = 0 . (3.90)

The general procedure to redefine the zero of energy such that the vacuum energy vanishes is called
normal ordering. We define a normal-ordered product by moving all annihilation operators to the
right of all creation operators. For an operator X,b its normal-ordered product will be denoted as
: X : . Using this algorithm on the expression of eq. (3.55), we find that
b

1 X
: H: =
b a nb
n : (b an ab n ) :
an + b
2 n=

1 X
= a nb
n (b an + ab nb
an )
2 n=

X
= n ab nb
an (3.91)
n=

From [16] (pag. 121):


These idea carry over to quantum field theory, but with a different interpretation. In
quantum mechanics we are talking about a single particle state |mn i and energy levels
En = (n + 1/2). The creation and annihilation operators move the state of the particle
up and down in energy from the ground.
In quantum field theory, we take the notion of number operator literally. The state |ni
is not a state of a single particle, rather is an state of the field with N particles present.
The background state which is also the lowest energy state is a state of the field with 0
particles (but the field is still there). The creation operator ab n adds a single quantum
(a particle) to the field, while the annihilation operator b an destroys a single quantum
(removes a single particle) from the field. As we will see, in general there will be creation
operators and annihilation operators for particles as well as for antiparticles.
These operators will be functions of momentum. The fields will become operators which
will be written as sums over annihilation and creation operators.
146 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

3.1.3 Generalization to three dimensions


Taking into account that En = ~n = n , when ~ = 1, the most general solution to the generalization
to three dimensions of the wave equation with velocity of propagation c = 1

= 0 , (3.92)

obtained from the three dimension Lagrangian

L = 12 , (3.93)
is
X 1 ipn x ipn x

(t, x) = a n e + a n e ,
n
2En L3
X 1 
= p
3
a(nx ,ny ,nz ) exp{i[E(nx ,ny ,nz ) t px x py y pz z]}
nx ,ny ,nz
2E (nx ,n y ,n z ) L
o
+a(nx ,ny ,nz ) exp{i[E(nx ,ny ,nz ) t px x py y pz z]} , (3.94)

where in natural units the wave number can be identified with the momentum, p = k. In eq. (3.94)

2
En =p0n pi = ni (3.95)
L

where p0 = En , and the solution satisfies the dispersion relation

p2n = p2n = c2 En = En2 . (3.96)

The Energy will always be chosen to be positive

2 q 2
En = nx + n2y + n2z (3.97)
L

Since the Action is dimensionless,


Z
S = d4 x m2 2 [1] = [E]4 [E]2 []2

[] =([S]/[E]2 )1/2 = [E] , (3.98)


3.2. QUANTIZATION OF THE KLEIN-GORDON FIELD 147

this solution must have units of energy in natural units. To obtain the dimensions of an , we just
check the dimensions in both sides of eq. (3.94)
1
[E] = p [an ]
[E][E]3
=[E][an ] , (3.99)

and therefore an is dimensionless.


The canonical quantization in eqs. (3.53) can be generalized to

am = n,m
   
ban , b [b
an , b
am ] = b
an , b
am = 0 , (3.100)

3.2 Quantization of the Klein-Gordon field


It is convenient to put the system into a box of size L, so that the total volume is finite. According
eq. (3.10), in this case the frequency is discret. However particles like the photon or electron have
frequencies in a continuum range. Therefore we need to establish relations that allows extrapolate
the discrete results into the continuum, and also we will need to take the limit of infinite volume.
The Klein-Gordon equation for a real scalar field (Chapter 3. [1])

( + m2 ) = 0 , (3.101)

can be obtained from the Lagrangian

L = 21 12 m2 2 , (3.102)

The solution is the same that for the case m = 0 in eq. (3.94), but the new dispersion relation is

En2 = p2n + m2 . (3.103)

and therefore m can be interpreted as the mass of field .


We assume that can have frequencies in the continuum. In this way the most general solution
is obtained after replacing the summatory by an integral
2 X 2 X
Z X X
dp p = pn+1 pn = n+1n= (3.104)
n n
L n
L n

 3 Z
X L
d3 p (3.105)
n
2
148 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

From
Z
d3 p (3) (p q) =1 (3.106)

and taking into account that


X
n,m = n,m =1 , (3.107)
n

where
2 2
pi = ni qi = mi , (3.108)
L L
we have
Z X
d3 p (3) (p q) = nm
n
X  2 3 X
(3) (p q) = n,m
n
L n
 3
2
(3) (p q) =n,m . (3.109)
L

In this way
 3
(3) L
(p q) = p,q , (3.110)
2

and we get that in the continuum limit


 3
L
n,m (3) (p q) (3.111)
2

In particular, this implies that

(2)3 (3) (p = 0) L3 = V (3.112)

V
3 (0) = . (3.113)
(2)3
3.2. QUANTIZATION OF THE KLEIN-GORDON FIELD 149

This expression can be also obtained from the definition


 
1
Z
3 3 ipx
(p) = lim d xe , (3.114)
V (2)3 V

before taking the limit to infinity.


Therefore, in the continuum the solution in eq. (3.94) can be written as
 3 Z
L 1
d3 p p ap eipx + ap eipx

(t, x) =
2 2Ep L3

L3
Z
ipx ipx
= d3 p

p a pe + a p e (3.115)
(2)3 2Ep

Using eq. (3.111), we can write the commutation relations (3.53) in the continuum as
 3
2
aq =
 
(3) (p q)
 
ap , b [b
ap , b
aq ] = b
ap , b
aq = 0 . (3.116)
L
b

Note that again ap is dimensionless. It is customary to write the general solution (3.115) with

a0p = L3 ap . (3.117)

Then
1
Z
0 ipx 0 ipx
d3 p

(t, x) = p a p e + a p e . (3.118)
(2)3 2Ep

and the commutation relations in eq. (3.116) can be written as

aq = (2)3 (3) (p q)
 0 0   0 0   0 0 
ap , b
b ap , b
b aq = b aq = 0 .
ap , b (3.119)

In what follows we will drop out the prime in b a0p .


The basic principle of canonical quantization is to promote the field and its conjugate momentum
to operators, and to impose the equal time commutation relation
h i
(t, x), (t, y) = i (3) (x y)
b b
h i h i
(t,
b x), (t,
b y) = (t, b x), (t,
b y) = 0 . (3.120)
150 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

We will now check that the commutation relations in eq. (3.119) will just generate the equal time
commutation relations in eq. (3.120).

Promoting the real field to a hermitian operator means to promote ap to an operator; thus

1
Z  
ipx ipx
(t,
b x) = d3 p p ba p e + a
b p e (3.121)
(2)3 2Ep

with

h i h i

bap , ab q = (2)3 (3) (p q) [b aq ] = ab p , ab q = 0 .
ap , b (3.122)

The conjugate momentum can be obtained from the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian in eq. (3.102), by
using eq. (3.29)

h
1 b2
i
(x)
b = ( )
2 0
(0 )b
=0 b
1
Z
ipx ipx
= d3 p

p iE pba pe + iE pba p e
(2)3 2Ep
r
i Ep
Z
3 ipx ipx

= dp b
a p e + a p e
(2)3 2
b

(3.123)
3.2. QUANTIZATION OF THE KLEIN-GORDON FIELD 151

Using the expressions for ,


b and ,
b in terms of b ap , the commutation relation (3.120) reads
ap , b

s
i Z i Ep0 h ipx
h Z i
0 0
(t, x), (t, y) = d p d3 p0
b b 3
ap e ap eipx , b
+b ap0 eip y
ap0 eip y + b
2(2)6 Ep
b
s
i Ep0
Z Z
= d3 p d3 p0
2(2)6 Ep
nh 0
i h 0
io
bap eipx + b
ap eipx , bap0 eip y + b ap eipx + b ap0 eip y
ap eipx , b
s
i Ep0 nh ipx
Z Z i
ip0 y
= d3 p d3 p0 a p e , ba p0 e
2(2)6 Ep
b
h i h i h io
ipx ip0 y ipx ip0 y ipx ip0 y
+ b ap e , b ap e0 + b ap e ,bap 0 e + b ap e , b ap0 e
s
i Ep0 n i(px+p0 y)
Z Z
= d p d3 p0
3
e [bap , bap0 ]
2(2)6 Ep
0 0
h i 0
h io
ei(pxp y) b ap0 + ei(px+p y) b ap0

ap0 + ei(pxp y) b ap , b

ap , b ap , b . (3.124)

Taking into account the eqs. (3.122), then

s
i Z i Ep0 n i(pxp0 y) h
h Z i 0 o
(t, x), (t, y) = d p d3 p0 ap0 ei(pxp y) b
3

b b e ap , b ap , b
ap0
2(2)6 Ep
b
s
i Ep0 h i(pxp0 y) (3)
Z Z i
0
= d3 p d3 p0 e (p p0 ) + ei(pxp y) (3) (p0 p)
2(2)3 Ep
s
i Ep0 (3)
Z Z h i
0 0
= d3 p d3 p0 (p p0 ) ei(pxp y) + ei(pxp y) . (3.125)
2(2)3 Ep
152 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

(3) (p p0 ) forces p = p0 , which also means Ep = Ep0 , and since x0 = y 0 = t, we have


s
i Z i Ep0 (3)
h Z
(t, b y) = d3 p d3 p0
b x), (t, (p p0 )
2(2)3 Ep
h 0 0
i
ei[t(Ep Ep0 )px+p y] + ei[t(Ep Ep0 )px+p y]
i  i(px+py)
Z
= d3 p i(px+py)

e + e
2(2)3
i  ip(xy)
Z
ip(xy)
= d3 p

e + e . (3.126)
2(2)3
Since
d3 p ip(xy)
Z
(3)
(x y) = e
(2)3
d3 p ip(x+y) d3 p ip(xy)
Z Z
(3)
= (x + y) = e = e , (3.127)
(2)3 (2)3
then
h i
(t, b y) = i (3) (x y) .
b x), (t, (3.128)

The same expression is obtained for the original field operator in eq. (3.115) if the commutation
relations (3.116) are used. Moreover eq. (3.128) is covariant [4].
Note that the commutation relations for the real scalar field in (3.122) are equivalent to that of
a collection of independent harmonic oscillators, with one oscillator for each value of the momentum
p.
Previous equations for the Hamiltonian still holds.
1
Z  
H=
b d3 p Ep ab pb ap ab p
ap + b (3.129)
2
h i
H,
b bap = Epb ap
h i
b ab p = +Ep ab p
H, (3.130)

The analogy between the simple harmonic oscillator and the field is now complete. Therefore ab p
creates the quanta of momentum p of the field ,
b while b
ap is the annihilation operator for a field
quantum with momentum p. From [4]:
3.2. QUANTIZATION OF THE KLEIN-GORDON FIELD 153

What was the positive energy component of the classical field now annihilates the quan-
tum, and the negative energy component now creates the quantum. This quantum is
what we call particle of positive energy.
We can now construct the Fock space following the standard procedure for the harmonic oscillator:
we interpret bap as destruction operators and bap as creation operators, and we define a vacuum state
|0i as the state annihilated by all destruction operators, so for all p

ap |0i = 0 .
b (3.131)

We normalize the vacuum with h0|0i = 1. The vacuum is the state which contains no particles and
no antiparticles either,
The normal ordered Hamiltonian is
Z
: H : = d3 p Ep ab pb
b ap (3.132)

such that, as in discrete case

h0| : H
b : |0i = 0 . (3.133)

A possible normalization factor for the Fock one-particle state is (|pi |1p i)
1
|pi = b ap |0i
V
1
ap
hp| =h0|b (3.134)
V

This state contains one quantum of the field b with momenta p = (Ep , p). Such states have positive
norm, since
1
hp|p0 i = h0|b ap0 |0i
ap b
V
1
= h0|b ap0 b
ap b ap0 b
ap |0i
V
1
= h0|[b ap0 ]|0i
ap , b
V
(2)3 (3)
= (p p0 )
V
 3
2
= (3) (p p0 ) (3.135)
L
154 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

With this normalization, the limit to discrete case is straightforward:

h1n |1m i = n,m (3.136)

The results are summarized in Table 3.2.

Discret Continuum Continuum ab 0p


L 3 L 3
P  R 3  R 3
n 2
dp 2
dp
2 3 (3) 2 3 (3)
 
(p q) (p q)
hn,m i hL i hL i
(x),
b (y)
b = i (3) (x y) (x),
b (y)
b = i (3) (x y) (x),
b (y)
b = i (3) (x y)
3 (3)
an , ab m ] = n,m
[b ap , ab q ] = 2
[b L
(p q) ap , ab q ] = (2)3 (3) (p q)
[b
|1n i = ab n |0i ap |0i
|pi = b |pi = ap |0i
b 1
V
2 3
3 (3)
hp|qi = 2

h1n |1m i = n,m hp|qi = L
(3) (p q) L
(p q)

Table 3.2: From discret to continuos, where pi = 2ni /L, and qi = 2mi /L ,

Similarly we can define many particle states. If a state has N particles with all different momenta
p1 , p2 , . . . , pN , it is defined by

1
|p1 , . . . , pN i = N/2
ab p1 ab pN |0p1 , . . . , 0pN i
V
1
N/2
ab p1 ab pN |0i
V
(3.137)

On the other hand, if we want to construct a state with m particles of momentum p, we must have
a Fock state similar to (3.73)

1 1  m
|mp i = ab p |0i (3.138)
V m/2 m!

From[4]

The vacuum, together with single particles states (3.134) and all multiparticle states
(3.137), (3.138), constitute a vector space which is calles the Fock space. The creation
and annihilation operators act on this space.
3.2. QUANTIZATION OF THE KLEIN-GORDON FIELD 155

It is convinient to define:
(x)
b = b+ (x) + b (x) (3.139)
where
1
Z
b+ (x) = d3 p p ap eipx
b
(2)3
2Ep
1
Z
b (x) = d3 p 3
p ap eipx .
b (3.140)
(2) 2Ep
The effect of the operator field, b (x), on the one particle state |pi
(x)|pi (3.141)
will be important for the evaluation of Smatrix elements in Chapter 8.
Another choice of normalization is the Lorentz invariant one, to be used later. In this case, the
Fock state of N particles with all different momenta p1 , p2 , . . . , pN , is obtained acting on the vacuum
with the creation operators,
|p1 , . . . , pn i (2Ep1 )1/2 . . . (2Epn )1/2 b
ap1 . . . b
apn |0i . (3.142)
The factors (2Ep1 )1/2 are a convenient choice of normalization. In particular, the one-particle states
are
|pi = (2Ep )1/2 b
ap |0i . (3.143)
From the commutations relations and eq. (3.122) we find that
hp|qi = (2Ep )1/2 (2Eq )1/2 h0|b aq |0i
ap b
= (2Ep )1/2 (2Eq )1/2 h0| b aq |0i
 
ap , b
= (2Ep )1/2 (2Eq )1/2 (2)3 (3) (p q)
=2Ep (2)3 (3) (p q) . (3.144)
The factors (2Ep )1/2 in eq. (3.143) have been chosen so that in the above product the combination
Ep (3) (p q) appears, which is Lorentz invariant. To see this perform a boost along zaxis. Since
the transverse components of the momentum are no affected we must consider only Ep (pz kz ).
Use the form of the Lorentz transformation of Ep , pz , together with the property of the Dirac delta
(f (x)) = (x x0 )/f 0 (x0 ) [2].
Using (3.111) we have in a finite box
hp|qi =2En L3 n,m
=2En V n,m . (3.145)
156 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

3.3 Quantization of Fermions


We consider now the Dirac equation

(i m)(x) = 0 (3.146)

that can be obtained from the Lagrangian

L = i m (3.147)

where

= 0 (3.148)

and the matrices satisfy the Dirac algebra

{ , } = 2g 1 (3.149)

See [1]. If we assume a plane wave solution like the wave function of the Scrodinger equation
eiEt , after sustition in eq. (3.146), we have

i 0 (iE) m =0
0 E m =0 (3.150)

From the Dirac matrices properties we have


 2
0 = 0 0 =1 Tr 0 =0 . (3.151)

Moreover, we know that if satisfy the Dirac algebra, the matrices obtained after the unitary
transformation

e =U U
s.t U =U 1 (3.152)

also satisfy the Dirac algebra. To check this note that

e } = U U, U U
,

{e
=U { , } U
=2g U U
=2g (3.153)
3.3. QUANTIZATION OF FERMIONS 157

In this way we can always choose U such that 0 be diagonal. Because the restrictions in eq. (3.151)
this implies that in this representation we have
 
0 1 0
= (3.154)
0 1
where the 1 and 0 are the 2 2 identity and null matrix respectively. Replacing back in eq. (3.150)
we have
 
Em 0
=0
0 E m
E = m. (3.155)
so that from the four wave functions that compose the full Dirac spinor , two of them are of positive
energy and the other two of negative energy. The Dirac spinor has four components, in this way we
expect four independent solutions. Let us represent solutions in the form
u1 (p)eipx

u2 (p)eipx
(x) v1 (p)eipx = + (x) + (x) ,
(3.156)
v2 (p)eipx
where
+ (x) us (p)ei(Etpx) (x) vs (p)ei(Etpx) (3.157)
with

u1 (p) 0
u2 (p) 0
us (p) =
0
vs (p) =
v1 (p)
(3.158)
0 v2 (p)
Checking this solutions to eq. (3.146) we have

(i 0 0 + i i i m)+ (x) =0
(i 0 0 + i m)+ (x) =0
( 0 E p m)+ (x) =0
( p m)+ (x) =0
(p m)+ (x) =0
(p m)us (p) =0 (3.159)
158 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

and
(p + m)vs (p) =0 (3.160)
This equations can also be written as
[(p m)us (p)] =0
us (p)( p m) =0
us (p) 0 p mus (p) 0 =0
us (p) 0 p mus (p) 0 =0
us (p)(p m) =0 (3.161)

vs (p)(p + m) =0 (3.162)
At zero momentum, E = m y
0 us (0) = + us (0) 0 vs (0) = vs (0) (3.163)
From [?]
Consider the matrix 0 . It is a 4 4 matrix, so it has four eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
It is hermitian, so the eigenvalues are real. In fact, from Eq. (3.149) we know that its
square is the unit matrix, so that its eigenvalues can only be 1. Since 0 is traceless, as
we have proved in 3, there must be tow eigenvectors witht eigenvalue +1 and tow with
1
Eq. (3.163) shows that at zero momentum, the uspinors and the vspinors are simply eigenstates
of 0 with eigenvalues +1 and 1. Of course this guaranteses that
us (0)vs0 (0) = 0 (3.164)
since the belong to differente eigenvalues. Note that the two us (0) and the two vs (0) are degenerate.
We define
us (p) s vs (0) s (3.165)
where the munis sign in s is just a convention. We define the normalized eigenvectors and such
that
s s0 =ss0 s s0 =ss0
s s0 = 0 (3.166)
3.3. QUANTIZATION OF FERMIONS 159

In this way we have



1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
1/2 =
0
1/2 =
0 1/2 =
1
1/2 =
0
(3.167)
0 0 0 1

To obtain the spinors for any value of p we know that they must satisfy eqs. (3.159), (3.160),
and, reduce to eq. (3.165) when p 0. The result is

us (p) =Np (p + m) s


vs (p) =Np (p + m) s (3.168)

Choosing
1
Np = (3.169)
E+m
we obtain

us (p)us0 (p) = vs (p)vs0 (p) = 2Ess0 (3.170)

us (p)vs0 (p) = vs (p)us0 (p) = 0 (3.171)

In terms of the conjugate spinors

us (p)us0 (p) =2mss0


vs (p)vs0 (p) = 2mss0 (3.172)

us (p)vs0 (p) = vs (p)us0 (p) = 0 (3.173)

The spinors also satisfy some completeness relations (For details see [?])
X
us (p)
us = p + m (3.174)
s

X
vs = p m
vs (p) (3.175)
s
160 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

The solutions to the free Dirac equations are


1
particle (x) = p us (p)eipx
2Ep V
1
antiparticle (x) = p vs (p)eipx (3.176)
2Ep V
As with the scalar field, we write the Dirac field as an integral over momentum space of the plane
wave solutions, with creation and annihilation operators as coefficients,
1
Z X
ipx
(x) = d3 p ipx

p a s (p)us (p)e + b s (p)v s (p)e (3.177)
(2)3 2Ep s=1,2

Z
H= d3 xH
 
L
Z
3
= dx L

Z
= d3 x i 0 0 i 0 0 i i i + m


Z
= d3 x i i i + m


Z
= d3 x (i + m) . (3.178)

Since that
1
Z X
(i + m) = d3 p 3
p as (p) (i + m) us (p)eipx
(2) 2Ep s=1,2
+bs (p) (i + m) vs (p)eipx


1
Z X
= c d3 p 3
p as (p) ( p + m) us (p)eipx
(2) 2Ep s=1,2
+bs (p) ( p + m) vs (p)eipx .

(3.179)

From eqs. (3.159), and (3.160) we have

0 p0 + i pi m us (p) =0


0 p0 + i pi + m vs (p) =0 ,

(3.180)
3.3. QUANTIZATION OF FERMIONS 161
!
X
i i
0 Ep p m us (p) =0
i
!
X
i i
0 Ep p + m vs (p) =0 , (3.181)
i

( m) us (p) = 0 Ep us (p)
( + m) vs (p) = 0 Ep vs (p) , (3.182)

( + m) us (p) =0 Ep us (p)
( m) vs (p) =0 Ep vs (p) . (3.183)

Replacing back in eq. (3.179), we have

1
Z X
ipx
d3 p ipx

(i + m) = p a s (p)0 Ep us (p)e b s (p)0 Ep vs (p)e . (3.184)
(2)3 2Ep s=1,2
162 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

Therefore

Z
H= d3 x (i + m)
1
Z Z X h i
0 0 ip0 x 0 0 ip0 x
= d x d3 p0
3
a 0 (p )u 0 (p )e + b s0 (p )v 0 (p )e 0 (i + m)
(2)3 2Ep0 s0 =1,2 s s s
p

1
Z Z X h i
0 0 ip0 x 0 0 ip0 x
= d x d3 p0
3
a 0 (p )u 0 (p )e + b s0 (p )v 0 (p )e 0
(2)3 2Ep0 s0 =1,2 s s s
p

1
Z X
ipx
d3 p ipx

p a s (p)0 Ep us (p)e b s (p) 0 Ep vs (p)e
(2)3 2Ep s=1,2
s
d3 x Ep X h 0 0 ip0 x
Z Z Z i
3 0 3 0 0 ip0 x
= d p d p a 0 (p )u 0 (p )e + b s 0 (p )v 0 (p )e
2(2)6 Ep0 s,s0 =1,2 s s s

as (p)us (p)eipx bs (p)vs (p)eipx


 
s
d3 x Ep X
Z Z Z
3 0 3
= d p d p
2(2)6 Ep0 s,s0 =1,2
h 0 0
i
as0 (p0 )as (p)us0 (p0 )us (p)ei(p p)x bs0 (p0 )bs (p)vs0 (p0 )vs (p)ei(pp )x
s
3
d p Ep X
Z Z
= d3 p0
2(2)3 Ep0 s,s0 =1,2
d3 x i(p0 p)x d3 x i(pp0 )x
 Z Z 
0 0 0 0
as0 (p )as (p)us0 (p )us (p) e bs0 (p )bs (p)vs0 (p )vs (p) e
(2)3 (2)3
s
3
d p Ep X
Z Z
= d3 p0
2(2)3 Ep0 s,s0 =1,2
h i
as0 (p0 )as (p)us0 (p0 )us (p)ei(Ep0 Ep )t (3) (p p0 ) bs0 (p0 )bs (p)vs0 (p0 )vs (p)ei(Ep Ep0 )t (3) (p p0 )
d3 p X h
Z i

= a 0 (p)a s (p)u s0 (p)u s (p) b s 0 (p)b s (p)v s0 (p)v s (p)
2(2)3 s,s0 =1,2 s
Z 3
dp Xh i
= (2)3 as0 (p)as (p) bs0 (p)bs (p) . (3.185)
E p s=1,2
3.3. QUANTIZATION OF FERMIONS 163

In order to obtain the quantization relations could see that if commutation relations are used we
could get

d3 p X
Z


:H: = E p a s (p)a s (p) b s (p)b s (p) (3.186)
(2)3 s=1,2

The minus sign arise from the anticommutation relations, so that a real spinor field, where bs (p) =
as (p) is automatically zero. Even after normal ordering, this Hamiltonian could give to arise neg-
ative energy eigenvalues, which is a serious problem. If instead we assume that the creation and
annihilation operators satisfy anticommutation relations

ar (p), as (q) = br (p), bs (q) = (2)3 rs (3) (p q)


 
(3.187)

With this relations and taking into account

L
(x) = = i 0 = i (3.188)
(0 )

we obtain

{(x, t), (y, t)} = i (3) (x y) (3.189)

With the anticommutators the normalordered Hamiltonian is

d3 p X
Z


:H: = Ep as (p)a s (p) + b s (p)b s (p) (3.190)
(2)3 s=1,2

Moreover
Z
: Q : =q d3 x : :
Z X
d3 p as (p)as (p) bs (p)bs (p)

=q (3.191)
s=1,2

With this definition as (p) creates particles of charge q, while bs (p) creates antiparticles of charge
q. In a similarly way to eq. (3.139), the most general free particle solution to Dirac equation is

(x)
b = b+ (x) + b (x) (3.192)
164 CHAPTER 3. SECOND QUANTIZATION

1
Z X
b+ (x) = d3 p
3
p as (p)us (p)eipx
(2) 2Ep s=1,2
1
Z X
b (x) = d3 p 3
p bs (p)vs (p)eipx (3.193)
(2) 2Ep s=1,2

The Fourier expansion for antiparticles is


1
Z X
+ (x) = d3 p
b p bs (p)vs (p)eipx
(2)3 2Ep s=1,2
1
Z X
(x) = d3 p
b
3
p as (p)
us (p)eipx (3.194)
(2) 2Ep s=1,2

In this way as and as are the creation and annihilation operators for particles, while bs and bs are
the creation and annihilation operators for antiparticles.
It is clear then that the one particle state is
r
1
|e (p, s)i a (p)|0i (3.195)
V s
while the one antiparticle state is
r
+ 1
|e (p, s)i b (p)|0i . (3.196)
V s
Chapter 4

Quantization of the electromagnetic field

4.1 Preliminaries
If we impose charge conservation: J = 0, the Proca Equations can be written without lost of
generality as ( 2.4 of [1])

( + m2 )A = J . (4.1)

where A = (, A).
The right side of the equation can be obtained after replacing the quantities in the equation for
energy-momentum conservation

E 2 p2 = m2 , (4.2)

p = i u . (4.3)

This suggest that quantum mechanics is a key ingredient to understand the local conservation of
electric charge, as we will see later.
For the scalar part we have the Klein-Gordon equation of an real scalar field:

( + m2 ) = (4.4)

which can be obtained from the Lagrangian ( 3.1 of [1])

L = Lfree + Lint , (4.5)

165
166 CHAPTER 4. QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

1 1
Lfree = m2 2
2 2
Lint = , (4.6)
where is the charge density of the field which is the source for , and Lint is the interaction
Lagrangian.
In the same section it is shown that this Lagrangian give to arise to the Yukawa interaction
1 emr
V (r) = . (4.7)
4 r
In a similar way, when the Lorentz force
F = qE + qv B, (4.8)
is interpreted in terms of quantum mechanical operators ( 3.3 of [1]) we have the canonical momen-
tum
D = + iqA . (4.9)
Now, if we force the Scrodinger equation to be invariant under local phase changes ( 3.4 of [1]),
we need to replace the normal derivate by the covariant derivate which must transform as the wave
equation:
D (D )0 = ei(x) D . (4.10)
This suggest to make the minimum replacement
D = + iqA , (4.11)
where A is a new field that compensates the changes form the derivate. From this it can be shown
that the same identity is valid for all of the powers
n
[(D )0 ] = ei(x) (D )n . (4.12)
From eqs. (4.10) and (4.11) the tranformation of A can be obtained:
1
A A0 = A . (4.13)
q
Therefore, the new field tranform like the electromagnetic field, and the modified Lagrangian for the
fields and A
1 i   1
L= (D) D D0 D0 F F , (4.14)
2m 2 4
4.2. QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 167

give to arise to the Scrodinger equation in presence of the electromagnetic field plus the Maxwell
with the explicit current
(
q =0
j = iq
. (4.15)
2m
[() 2iq A] = i

We now turn to tue quantization of the electromagnetic field

4.2 Quantization of the electromagnetic field


Here we follow closelly [15] chapter 2.
in the electromagnetic Lagrangian the generalized momentum conjugate to the time component
of the four-vector potential is zero
L
0 =  0 = 0. (4.16)
A

t

Therefore, we cannot quantizate the A0 field.


The arbitrariness associated with the gauge freedom (4.13) must be removed so that the field can
be uniquely specified everywhere. Two popular choices for the gauge fixing, are the Lorentz gauge

A = 0 , (4.17)

and Coulomb gauge

A = 0. (4.18)

With the Lorentz gauge a new term is added to the Lagrangian which contains the time derivative
of A0 , while in the Coulomb gauge the quantity A0 may be eliminated from the Lagrangian.
In the Coulomb gauge, we have for the A0 component

2 A0 = . (4.19)

For the Ai component

 
i j
A (r , t), (r, t) = i ij 2 3 (r r0 ) 3T (r r0 ) .
j 0
 
(4.20)

168 CHAPTER 4. QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

These commutation relations between the creation and annihilation involve only the independent
degrees of freedom.
The Hamiltonian obtainde from the Lagrangia is

X
H
b= n an, an, , (4.21)
n,

while the momentum operator is


X
b=
p kn an, an, , (4.22)
n,

We now shown that the particles which emerges from the quantization of the electromagnetic field
(the photons) have spin one. To obtain these results, it is necessary to discuss the behavior of these
fields under rotations.
To follow the non-relativistic part of this course we recommend now go directly from section 6.1
to 6.3 where the Smatrix is defined and the probability calculated. In Section 6.5 there is the
general formula for decay. In section 8.1 the perturbative expansion of the Smatrix is presented.
Finally, in section 8.2 an application for the interaction of a non-relativistic atom with radiation, is
given in the context of radiative decay.
Chapter 5

Propagators

5.1 Scalars

i(x x0 ) = h0|T {(x)(x0 )}|0i (5.1)

d4 p ip(xx0 )
Z
0
(x x ) = e (p) (5.2)
(2)4

1
(p) = (5.3)
p2 m2 + i

5.2 Fermions

iSF (x x0 ) = h0|T { (x) (x0 )}|0i (5.4)

d4 p ip(xx0 )
Z
0
SF (x x ) = e SF (p) (5.5)
(2)4

p + m
SF (p) =
p2 m2 + i
1
= . (5.6)
p m + i

169
170 CHAPTER 5. PROPAGATORS

5.3 Bosons
 
1 p p
D (p) = 2 g (1 ) 2 (5.7)
k + i p
Chapter 6

Smatrix

We will use the Smatrix formulation to obtain the decay rates and cross section formulas.

6.1 The Smatrix


The Scrodinger equation for the wave function of some state a

|a, ti a (t) , (6.1)

is

i |a, ti = H|a, ti . (6.2)
t
The solution to this equation is

|a, ti =eiH(tti ) |a, ti i , (6.3)

since

i |a, ti =i(i)HeH(tti ) |a, ti i
t
=H|a, ti . (6.4)

Defining the time-evolution operator as

U (t, ti ) = eiH(tti ) , (6.5)

171
172 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

we have that in In the Scrodinger picture defined by eq.(6.3), the state of a system evolves with time
|a, ti =U (t, ti )|a, ti i
|a, ti =U (t, ti )|ai
|a, ti =eiH(tti ) |ai , (6.6)
where |a, ti i, at an initial time ti , is an eigenstate of a set of conmuting operators, and is denoted
simply |ai. Similarly |bi = |b, tf i.
We have then
hb, tf |a, tf i =hb|a, tf i
=hb|eiH(tf ti ) |a, ti i
=hb|eiH(tf ti ) |ai , (6.7)
is the amplitude for the process in which the initial state |ai evolves into the final state |bi. In the
limit tf ti , the operator eiH(tf ti ) is called the Smatrix. Therefore S is an operator that
maps an initial state to a final state
|ai S|ai , (6.8)
an the scattering amplitudes are given by its matrix elements, hb|S|ai. Observe that
ha| ha|S , (6.9)

ha|ai = 1 ha|S S|ai = 1 , (6.10)


so that SS = S S = 1.
More rigorously, if ha|ai = 1, and |ni is a complete set of states, the probability that |ai evolves
into |ni, summed over all |ni, must be 1,
X
|hn|S|ai|2 = 1. (6.11)
n

On the other hand we can write


X X
|hn|S|ai|2 = ha|S |nihn|S|ai
n n
!
X
=ha|S |nihn| S|ai
n

=ha|S S|ai
=1 , (6.12)
6.2. RELATIVISTIC AND NO RELATIVISTIC NORMALIZATIONS 173

and we conclude that SS = S S = 1. The unitarity of the Smatrix express the conservation of
probability. It is also convenient to define the T matrix, separating the identity operator,

S = 1 + iT (6.13)

Consider a generic Smatrix element

hp1 . . . pn |S|k1 . . . kn i (6.14)

For notational simplicity the states are just labeled by their momenta, but all our considerations can
be generalized to the case in which the spin is taken into account. We have also defined the operator
T from S = 1 + iT . We assume that none of the initial momenta pj coincides a final momentum
ki . This eliminates processes in which one of the particles behaves as a spectator and does not
interact with the other particles. In the language of Feynman diagrams to be explained later, this
means that we will consider only connected diagrams. Therefore, if we restrict to the situation in
which no initial and final momenta coincide, the matrix element of the identity operator between
these states vanishes, and we need actually to compute the matrix element of iT

hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . kn i (6.15)

In explicit calculations there will be an overall Dirac delta factor imposing energymomentum con-
servation. In order not to write explicitly the Dirac delta each time we compute a matrix element of
iT , it is convenient to define a matrix element Mf i from the matrix element,
!
X X
hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . kn i = (2)4 (4) pj kj iMf i . (6.16)
j j

The labels i, f refer to the initial and final states. Explicitly

Mf i = M (p1 , . . . , pn ; k1 , . . . , kn ) . (6.17)

More generally, the initial and final states are labeled also by the spin states of the initial and final
particles.
So, instead of S or T , the quantity to be calculated is Mf i , but this need first to be relativistically
normalized, in which case it will be denoted as Mf i .

6.2 Relativistic and no relativistic normalizations


We first consider a system in a cubic box with spatial volume V = L3 . At the end of the computation
V will be sent to infinity. It is sometimes convenient to put the system into a box of size L, so that the
174 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

total volume V = L3 is finite. This procedure regularizes divergences coming from the infinite-volume
limit or, equivalently, from the small momentum region, and is an example of an infrared cutoff. In
a finite box of size L, imposing periodic boundary conditions on the fields, the momenta take the
discrete values p = 2n/L with n = (nx , ny , nz ) a vector with integer components. In non-relativistic
quantum mechanics a one-particle state with momentum p in the coordinate representation is given
by a plane wave

p (x) = Ceipx , (6.18)

and the normalization constant is fixed by the condition that there is one particle in the volume V ,
Z Z
2
1= 3
d x |p (x)| = d3 x p (x)p (x)
V V Z

=|C|2 d3 x
V
=|C|2 V , (6.19)

and
1
p (x) = eipx . (6.20)
V
Wave functions with different momenta are orthogonal, and therefore
Z
d3 x p 1 (x)p2 (x) = p1 ,p2 (6.21)
V
R
Writing p (x) = hx|pi and using the completeness relation V d3 x|xihx| = 1, we can write this as
Z
NR
hp1 |p2 i =hp1 | d3 x|xihx|p2 i
Z V
3
= d xhp1 |xihx|p2 i
ZV
= d3 x p 1 (x)p2 (x)
V
=p1 ,p2 . (6.22)

The superscript NR reminds us that the states have been normalized according to the conventions
of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.
6.3. PROCESS PROBABILITY 175

In relativistic QFT this normalization is not the most convenient, because the spatial volume
V is not relativistically invariant, and therefore the condition one-particle per volume V is not
invariant. A more convenient Lorentz invariant form was introduced in eq. (3.145)
hp1 |p2 iR = 2Ep1 V p1 ,p2 (6.23)
Therefore the difference between the relativistic and non-relativistic normalization of the one-particle
states is, comparing eqs. (6.22) and (6.23)
|piR = (2Ep V )1/2 |piNR (6.24)
and of course for a multiparticle state
" n
#
Y
|p1 , . . . , pn iR = (2Ep V )1/2 |p1 , . . . , pn iNR (6.25)
i=1

We denote by Mf i , defined in eq. (6.16), the scattering amplitude between the initial state with
momenta q1 , . . . , qn and the final state with momenta p1 , . . . , pn , with non-relativistic normalization
of the states, and by Mf i the same matrix element with relativistic normalization of the states. Then
from eq. (6.16)
!
X X
(2)4 (4) pi ki iMf i =hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . kn iR
i i
n n
Y 1/2
Y 1/2
= (2Epi V ) 2Ekj V hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . kn iNR
i=1 j=1
n n
!
Y 1/2
Y 1/2 X X
= (2Epi V ) 2Ekj V (2)4 (4) pi ki iMf i
i=1 j=1 i i
(6.26)
Therefore
n n
Y 1/2
Y 1/2
Mf i = (2Epi V ) 2Ekj V Mf i (6.27)
i=1 j=1

6.3 Process probability


Consider the matrix element of iT in (6.16)
!
X X
hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . km iNR = (2)4 (4) pi kj iMf i (6.28)
i j
176 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

Assume for the moment that all particles are indistinguishable. The rules of quantum mechanics tell
us that the probability of this process is obtained by taking the square module of the amplitude
! 2

2
X X
hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . km iNR = (2)4 (4) pi kj iMf i

(6.29)

i j

and we are confronted with the square of the delta function. To compute it, we recall that we are
working in a finite spatial volume and, from eq. (3.112)

(2)3 (3) (0) = V (6.30)

Similarly we regularize also the time interval, saying that the time runs from T /2 to T /2 so that

(2)4 (4) (0) = V T (6.31)

Then
! 2

2
X
hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . km iNR = (2)4 (4) p

ki iMf i


j
!
X
=(2)4 (4) p kj V T Mf i (6.32)
i

Moreover we must sum over all final states. In the discrete limit, since we are working in a finite
volume V , the sum over all final states corresponds to the sum over the possible discrete values of
the momenta of the final particles

x
2nj nj = , . . . , 1, 0, 1, . . .

kj = , nyj = , . . . , 1, 0, 1, . . . (6.33)
L
z
nj = , . . . , 1, 0, 1, . . .

X XXX
= (6.34)
kj nx
j nyj nzj

In the large-volume limit for each particle we can write, using eq. (3.105)
V
X Z
3
d3 kj , (6.35)
k
(2)
j
6.4. CROSS SECTION 177

The decay probability in (6.32) can be written as

hp1 . . . pn |iT |k1 . . . km iNR 2


X X
= ...
k1 km
!
X X X X
= ... (2)4 (4) pi kj V T |Mf i |2
k1 km i i
!
3 3
V d k1 V d km
Z Z X X
= ... ... (2)4 (4) pi kj V T |Mf i |2
(2)3 (2)3
! i i
m
V d3 kj
Z Z X X Y
= . . . (2)4 (4) pi kj V T |Mf i |2 3
. (6.36)
i i j=1
(2)

By using eq. (6.27) we have


! m n m
!2
V d3 kj
Z Z X X 2
Y Y 1/2
Y 1/2
= ... (2)4 (4) pi kj V T |Mf i | (2Epi V ) 2Ekj V
i i j=1
(2)3 i=1 j=1
! n m
1 Y d3 kj
Z Z X X Y
= ... (2)4 (4) pi kj V T |Mf i |2 (6.37)
i i i=1
2Epi V j=1 (2)3 2Ekj

The probability for the process of an initial particle decaying into n final particles is then
! n
2 1 d3 kj
Z Z X Y
4 (4)
1 = . . . (2) p kj T |Mf i | (6.38)
i
2Ep j=1 (2)3 2Ekj

On the other hand the probability for a process with two initial particles colliding into n final particles
is
! n
1 1 Y d3 kj
Z Z X
4 (4) 2
2 = . . . (2) p1 + p2 kj V T |Mf i | (6.39)
i
2Ep1 V 2Ep2 V j=1 (2)3 2Ekj

6.4 Cross Section


Consider a large number point-like projectiles directed to an area A that includes a solid target of
area , as displayed in Fig. , such that alll the fill the area A randomly Assuming that an interaction
178 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

Figure 6.1: Cross section probability

will occur (with 100% probability) if the projectile hits the solid, and not at all (0% probability) if
it misses, the total interaction probability for the single projectile will be

PS = . (6.40)
A

Now suppose we have a parallel beam with density of particles n and velocity v towards the target.
In time t, this beam fills a volume

V = Avt . (6.41)

Choosing t such that the volume contains just one particle, we can write

n = 1/V , (6.42)

or

1 = nvtA . (6.43)

replacing back in (6.40) we have

Ps
= . (6.44)
nvt
6.4. CROSS SECTION 179

Ps is just the decay probability in eq. (6.39). Therefore


! n
2 1 1 1 Y d3 kj
Z Z X
4 (4) 2
= = . . . (2) p 1 + p2 kj V T |Mf i |
nvT nvT i
2Ep1 V 2Ep2 V j=1 (2)3 2Ekj
! n
1 1 1 Y d3 kj
Z Z X
4 (4) 2
= . . . (2) p1 + p2 kj |Mf i | 3 2E
. (6.45)
nvV i
2E p1 2E p2 j=1
(2) kj

The density of particles of the incident state is normalized to one particle in the entire volume, so
that n = 1/V . Therefore
! n
1 1 1 Y d3 kj
Z Z X
4 (4) 2
= . . . (2) p1 + p2 kj |Mf i | . (6.46)
v i
2Ep1 2Ep2 j=1 (2)3 2Ekj

In general, as both particles may be moving we could use the relative velocity between them, vrel ,
! n
1 1 1 Y d3 kj
Z Z X
4 (4) 2
= . . . (2) p1 + p2 kj |Mf i | . (6.47)
vrel i
2Ep1 2Ep2 j=1 (2)3 2Ekj

In a frame where p1 and p2 are along the same line, this reduces to

p1 p 2
vrel = . (6.48)
E1 E2

In fact, for not relativistic particles, where Ei = mi , this coincides with the usual relative velocity

m1 v1 m2 v2
vrel =

E1 E2
= |v1 v2 | . (6.49)

The most general formula for the relative velocity is

I
vrel = (6.50)
E1 E2
where
q
I = (p1 p2 )2 m21 m22 (6.51)
180 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

In general
q
I = (E1 E2 p1 p2 )2 m21 m22
q
= E12 E22 + (p1 p2 )2 2E1 E2 p1 .p2 m21 m22 (6.52)

Since
m21 m22 =(E12 p21 )(E22 p22 )
=(E12 E22 p21 E22 E12 p22 + p21 p22 ) (6.53)
q
I= p21 E22 2E1 E2 p1 p2 + E12 p22 + (p1 p2 )2 p21 p22 (6.54)

If
(p1 p2 )2 p21 p22 = 0 (6.55)
that implies that p1 and p2 are colineals,
q
I = p21 E22 2E1 E2 p1 p2 + E12 p22
p
= (p1 E2 p2 E1 )2
=|p1 E2 p2 E1 | (6.56)

I p1 p 2
vrel = = (6.57)
E1 E2 E1 E2
To simplify the notation we set Ei = Epi =, and Ef = Epf . Moreover, the differential cross
section is
2
!
X X 1 Y d3 kf
d =(2)4 (4) pi pf |Mf i |2
i=1 f
4vrel E1 E2 f
(2)3 2Ef
1
= (2)4 |Mf i |2 dn (p1 , p2 ; k1 , . . . , kn ) (6.58)
4vrel E1 E2
where
! n
X Y d3 kj
d(n) (p1 , p2 ; k1 , k2 , . . . , kn ) = (4) p kj 3 2E
. (6.59)
j j=1
(2) k j

We keep the diferential notation both for d, and d until the last integration have been made.
6.4. CROSS SECTION 181

6.4.1 2to2 cross section


The the 2to2 cross section is
(2)4
d = |Mf i |2 d2 (p1 , p2 ; p01 , p02 )
4vrel E1 E2
24 4
= 8 6 28 6 |Mf i |2 dn (p1 , p2 ; k1 , . . . , kn )
2 4vrel E1 E2
1
|Mf i |2 4(2)6 d2 (p1 , p2 ; p01 , p02 )
 
= 6 2
2 vrel E1 E2
1
|Mf i |2 4(2)6 d2 (p1 , p2 ; p01 , p02 )
 
= 2
(6.60)
64 vrel E1 E2
where, as in eq. (6.110)
3 0 3 0
4(4)6 (4) 0 d p1 d p2
4(4)6 d(2) (p1 , p2 ; p01 , p02 ) = (p 1 + p 2 p 0
1 p 2 )
4(2)6 E10 E20
d3 p0 d3 p0
= (4) (p1 + p2 p01 p02 ) 4(2)6 0 1 0 2 (6.61)
E1 E2
We now will find an expression for cross section in the center of mass frame (CM)
The center of mass (CM) frame is defined by the condition
p1 + p2 = 0 (6.62)
The function in Eq. (??)
(4) (p + p2 p01 p02 ) = (3) (p1 + p2 p01 p02 )(E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) (6.63)
In the CM frame
(4) (p + p2 p01 p02 ) = (3) (p01 + p02 )(E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) (6.64)
Mf i in integration does not depend on |p01 | or |p02 | as the final momentum is fixed by the initial
momentum whenever the final states have only two particles. In this way the integration on p02 can
be evaluated directly for d(2) . Replacing back in Eq. (6.60)
d3 p0 d3 p0
4(2)6 d(2) = (3) (p01 + p02 )(E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) 0 1 0 2
E1 E2
3 0 Z
dp d3 p 0
=(E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) 0 1 (3) (p01 + p02 ) 0 2
E1 E2
3 0
dp
=(E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) 0 10 (6.65)
E1 E2
182 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

p01 2 d|p01 |d
4(2)6 d(2) = (E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) (6.66)
E10 E20
As
q
|p01 | = E10 2 m1 2 (6.67)

d|p01 | 2E10
=
dE10
q
2 E10 2 m1 2
E10
= (6.68)
|p01 |
In this way, we can write, in general

|p| d|p| = E dE (6.69)

and
|p01 |E10 dE10
4(2)6 d(2) = (E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) d
E10 E20
|p0 |dE 0
= (E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) 1 0 1 d (6.70)
E2
From the function in Eq. (6.63) we have that in the CM frame
(
CM p1 = p2
p1 + p2 p01 p02 = 0 (6.71)
p01 = p02

Squaring the first expression, and taking into account that


q
p01 = E10 2 m01 2 (6.72)

we have
2 2
p01 =p02
2 2 2 2
E10 m01 =E20 m02 , (6.73)
6.4. CROSS SECTION 183
q
E20 = E10 2 m01 2 + m02 2 (6.74)

In this way we can express E20 in terms of E10 in Eq. (6.70). Moreover, we can define the center of
mass energy as

s = E1 + E2 (6.75)

Using The energy part of function in Eq. (6.63) can be written as


 q 
0 02 02 02
s E1 E1 m1 + m2 (6.76)

As established before, Mf i in this case in independent of |p01 |, and the integration on E10 can be done
directly only for d(2) . The integral is easily performed using the identity
X (z zn )
(f (z)) = (6.77)
n
|f 0 (zn )|

where zn are the zeroes of f (z). In this case, this function is a function of the integration variable
E10 , with only one zero

(x x0 )
(f (x)) = (6.78)
|f 0 (x0 )|

where

q
f (x) = s x x2 m01 2 + m02 2 (6.79)

Therefore
(x x0 ) |p01 (x)|
Z
6 (2)
4(2) d =d dx
|f 0 (x0 )| E20 (x)
1 |p01 (x0 )|
=d 0
|f (x0 )| E20 (x0 )
(6.80)

where from Eqs. (6.72), (6.74),


q q
p1 (x0 ) = x20 m01 2
0
E20 (x0 ) = x20 m01 2 + m02 2 (6.81)
184 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

The zero is obtained from



q
s x0 x20 m01 2 + m02 2 = 0
2 2
s 2 s x0 + x20 = x20 m01 + m02
2 2
s 2 s x0 = m01 + m02 (6.82)
with solution
s + m01 2 m02 2
x0 = (6.83)
2 s
As (See deltaxn.nb for additional details)
x
f 0 (x) = q 1 (6.84)
02 02
x m1 + m2
2

we have
m01 2 m02 2 + s
f 0 (x0 ) = r 1
(m01 2 +m02 2 +s)
2

s s

m01 2 + m02 2 s
= 1
m01 2 + m02 2 + s
m01 2 + m02 2 s + m01 2 m02 2 s
=
m01 2 + m02 2 + s
2s
= , (6.85)
s + m02 2 m01 2
and
s + m02 2 m01 2
 
(f (E10 )) = (E10 x0 ) (6.86)
2s
Replacing the expression for x0 in (6.83) into Eq. (6.81) we have (See deltaxn.nb for additional
details)
p
[s (m01 m02 )2 ][s (m01 + m02 )2 ]
p01 (x0 ) =
2 s
s m01 2 + m02 2
E20 (x0 ) = (6.87)
2 s
6.4. CROSS SECTION 185

Replacing Eqs. (6.85), and (6.87) in Eq. (6.80) we have


q
1 x20 m01 2
4(2)6 d(2) = d
|f 0 (x0 )|
q
x20 m01 2 + m02 2
s m01 2 + m02 2
p
[s (m01 m02 )2 ][s (m01 + m02 )2 ]

= d
2s s m01 2 + m02 2
p
[s (m01 m02 )2 ][s (m01 + m02 )2 ]
= d (6.88)
2s
Defining the kinematic two particle function

(a, b, c) (a b + c)2 4ac (6.89)

and taking into account that


 2
2 2 2
s m02 + m01 4sm01 = [s (m01 m02 )2 ][s (m01 + m02 )2 ] (6.90)

we have

6 (2) 1/2 (s, m02 2 , m01 2 )


4(2) d = d (6.91)
2s
Moreover

1/2 (s, m02 2 , m01 2 )


p01 = (6.92)
2 s

To further evaluate Eq. (6.60), we need to express vrel and E1 E2 in terms of s and the masses.
Concerning vrel , from Eq. (6.57), evaluated in CM frame

p1 p 2
E1 E2 vrel =E1 E2
E1 E2

p1 p1
=E1 E2 +
E1 E2
= |p1 | (E1 + E2 )

= |p1 | s (6.93)
186 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

Replacing back Eqs. (6.88), and (6.93) into Eq. (6.60), we have

1 2 6 (2)

d = |Mf i | 4(2) d (6.94)
64 2 E1 E2 vrel

p
d 1 [s (m01 + m02 )2 ][s (m01 m02 )2 ]
= 2
|Mf i |2 (6.95)
d 64 E1 E2 vrel 2s

By using Eq. (6.93)


q
d 1 2
[s (m01 + m02 )][s (m01 2 m02 2 )]
= |Mf i | (6.96)
d 64 2 |p1 | s 2s

In the CM frame

s =E1 + E2
q q
= p1 + m1 + p22 + m22
2 2
q q
= p1 + m1 + p21 + m22
2 2
(6.97)

q
s =2p21
+ + m21 m22 + 2 p41 + (m21 + m22 )p21 + m21 m22
q
s (2p21 + m21 + m22 ) =2 p41 + (m21 + m22 )p21 + m21 m22 (6.98)

s2 2s(2p21 + m21 + m22 ) + [2p21 + (m21 + m22 )]2 =4(p41 + (m21 + m22 )p21 + m21 m22 )
s2 2s(2p21 + m21 + m22 ) + 4p41 + 4p21 (m21 + m22 ) + (m21 + m22 )2 =4(p41 + (m21 + m22 )p21 + m21 m22 )
4sp21 + s2 2s(m21 + m22 ) + (m21 + m22 )2 =4m21 m22
4sp21 + s2 2sm21 2sm22 + m41 + m42 + 2m21 m22 =4m21 m22
4sp21 + s2 2sm21 2sm22 + m41 + m42 2m21 m22 =0 (6.99)

(s m21 2m2 m1 m22 ) (s m21 + 2m2 m1 m22 )


p21 = (6.100)
4s
6.5. DECAY RATES 187
p
[s (m1 + m2 )2 ][s (m1 m2 )2 ]
|p1 | =
2 s
1/2 (s, m22 , m21 )
= (6.101)
2 s
Replacing Eq. (6.101) back in Eq. (6.93) we have
1p
E1 E2 vrel = [s (m1 + m2 )2 ][s (m1 m2 )2 ] (6.102)
2
Replacing Eqs. (6.102), and (6.88) in Eq. (6.60)
s
1 2 d [s (m01 + m02 )2 ][s (m01 m02 )2 ]
d = |M fi | (2) (6.103)
64 2 2s [s (m1 + m2 )2 ][s (m1 m2 )2 ]

and, finally
1/2
[s (m01 + m02 )2 ][s (m01 m02 )2 ]

d 1
= |M|2 (6.104)
d 64 2 s [s (m1 + m2 )2 ][s (m1 m2 )2 ]
or, in terms of the kinematic function defined in eq. (6.89)

d 1 1/2 (s, m02 2 , m01 2 )


= |M|2 (6.105)
d 64 2 s 1/2 (s, m22 , m21 )

6.5 Decay Rates


Consider the matrix element of iT in (6.16)
!
X
hp|iT |k1 . . . kn iNR = (2)4 (4) p ki iMf i (6.106)
i

where the initial state is a single particle of momentum p and mass M , while the final state is
given by n particles of momenta ki and masses mi , i = 1, . . . , n. We are therefore considering a decay
process.
By using eq. (6.38) we have
! Z  n
2 1 d3 kj
Z Z X Y
4 (4)
= . . . (2) p kj dt |Mf i | (6.107)
i
2Ep j=1 (2)3 2Ekj
188 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

Therefore the differential probability is


! n
1 d3 kj
Z Z X Y
4 (4) 2
d = ... (2) p kj |Mf i | dt (6.108)
i
2Ep j=1
(2)3 2Ekj

Finally we define the decay rate d as the decay probability in which in the final state the jth
particle has momentum between kj and kj + dkj per unit time
! n
d 4 (4)
X 1 2
Y d3 kj
d = (2) p kj |Mf i |
dt j
2Ep j=1
(2)3 2Ekj
(2)4
= |Mf i |2 d(n) (p; k1 , k2 , . . . , kn ) (6.109)
2Ep

where
! n
X Y d3 kj
d(n) (p; k1 , k2 , . . . , kn ) = (4) p kj 3 2E
. (6.110)
j j=1
(2) k j

and the differential decay width in the center of mass frame

(2)4
d = |Mf i |2 d(n) (p; k1 , k2 , . . . , kn ) (6.111)
2Ep

6.5.1 Two body decays


We now consider the decay of particle of mass M decaying into two particles of 4momenta p1 , p2
and masses m1 , m2 . In the CM frame the initial momentum satisfy

p =0 M = Ep (6.112)

Therefore
(2)4
d = 6
|Mf i |2 4(2)6 d(2) (p; p1 , p2 )
2M [4(2) ]
1
= 3 |Mf i |2 4(2)6 d(2) (p; p1 , p2 )
2 M (2)2
1
|Mf i |2 4(2)6 d(2) (p; p1 , p2 )
 
= 2
(6.113)
32 M
6.6. BACKUP 189

where
d3 p1 d3 p2
4(2)6 d(2) (p; p1 , p2 ) = (4) (p p1 p2 ) (6.114)
E1 E2
The Dirac delta in eq. (6.110) can be written in the CM frame as
(4) (p p1 p2 ) = (3) (p p1 p2 )(E E1 E2 )
= (3) (p1 + p2 )(M E1 E2 ) (6.115)
and,

6 (2) d3 p1 d3 p2
(3)
4(2) d (p; p1 , p2 ) =(M E1 E2 ) (p1 + p2 ) (6.116)
E1 E2

Comparing with eq. (6.65) we see that the two quantities are the same after the replacing s M,
p01 p1 and p02 p2 . Therefore we have from eq. (6.91)
1/2 (M 2 , m22 , m21 )
4(2)6 d(2) = d (6.117)
2M 2
Replacing back in eq. (6.113)
1/2
d 1 2 (M 2 , m22 , m21 )
= |M f i |
d 32 2 M 2M 2
1
= |Mf i |2 1/2 (M 2 , m22 , m21 ) (6.118)
64 2 M 3
By using eq. (6.92) we can write this expression also as
d 1
= |Mf i |2 2M |p1 |
d 64 2 M 3
|p1 |
= |Mf i |2 (6.119)
32 2 M 2
as usually written in several texts.

6.6 Backup
Perturbation theory is developed more easily using the Hamiltonian formalism. We therefore consider
a general field theory with a Hamiltonian
H = H0 + Hint (6.120)
190 CHAPTER 6. SMATRIX

where H0 is the free Hamiltonian and Hint is the interaction term. The interaction term will be
considered small. For instance in QED
Z Z
Hint = d x Hint = d3 x Lint
3
(6.121)

with

Lint = eA (6.122)

The smallnes of the interaction follows from the fact that the parameter which turns out to be
relevatn for the perturbation expansion is = e2 /4 1/137.

SS =(1 + iT )(1 iT )
= 1 + i(T T ) + T T = 1 ,
(6.123)

T T = i(T T ) . (6.124)

Inserting a complete set of states we have

hb|T T |ai = i(hb|T |ai hb|T |ai)


!
X h i
hb|T |nihn| T |ai = i hb|T |ai (ha|T |bi)
n
X
hb|T |niha|T |ni = i (hb|T |ai ha|T |bi )
n
X

Tbn Tan = i (Tba Tab ).
n
(6.125)

if a = b

|Tan |2 = i Im Taa . (6.126)


Chapter 7

Two body decays

In this chapter we use directly the Feynman rules for Fermions to carry out the calculation of the decay
of the standard model Higgs into a pair of fermions. In chapter 8 we will obtain the corresponding
Feynman rules from the Smatrix expansion.

7.1 Particle decays


Particle decay [5] is the spontaneous process of one elementary particle transforming into other
elementary particles. During this process, an elementary particle becomes a different particle with
less mass and an intermediate particle such as W boson in muon decay.
For a particle of a mass M , the differential decay width according Eq. (6.113), is

(2)4
dn = |M|2 d(n) (P ; p1 , p2 , . . . , pn ) (7.1)
2M

The phase space can be determined from Eq. (6.110)

n n
!
X Y d3 pi
d(n) (P ; p1 , p2 , . . . , pn ) = 4 (P pi ) . (7.2)
i=1 i=1
(2)3 2Ei

We will keep the d notation until all the integrals get evaluated.
The two-body decays in eq. (6.118) is

d 1
= |Mf i |2 1/2 (M 2 , m22 , m21 ) (7.3)
d 64 2 M 3

191
192 CHAPTER 7. TWO BODY DECAYS

7.2 Width decay


Reglas de Feynman:
We consider now a general Yukawa interaction term

Lint = hHf 1 f2 (7.4)

For the H f 1 f2 decay. The interaction between the Higgs boson with fermions1 is given by the
Yukawa interaction term [1]
(v + H)
LHiggs = Gf (f R fL + f L fR )
2
Gf v Gf H
= ff ff
2 2
 1/2
= mf f f mf GF 2 ff (7.5)

Such as the electro has acquired a mass me = Gf / 2. On the other hand the coupling to be
assigned to the process vertex is Gf 2 or mf /v =.
The decay process H f f , is displayed in Fig. 7.1

Figure 7.1: Diagrama de proceso H f f

The Feynman rules, to be explained in Chapter 8 are indicated in Fig. 7.2.


In this way the scattering amplitude is
 1/2
iM = imf GF 2 u(s1 , p1 )v(s2 , p2 ). (7.6)

where p1 , s, p2 y s2 are the momentum and spines of fermion and antifermion respectively.
1
In this case we consider only electrons, by the formula is easy generalizable to other fermions
7.2. WIDTH DECAY 193

Figure 7.2: Reglas de Feynman del proceso H f f

For the general case

iM = ihu(s! , p1 )v(s2 , p2 ). (7.7)


with final masses m1 , m2 Now, having into account that 0 = 0

(u(s1 , p1 )v(s2 , p2 ))
= v (s2 , p2 )(u(s1 , p1 ))
= v (s2 , p2 )(u (s1 , p1 ) 0 )

= v (s2 , p2 )( 0 u(s1 , p1 ))
= v (s2 , p2 )( 0 u(s1 , p1 ))
= (v(s2 , p2 )u(s1 , p1 )).

Squaring M, and summing over possible polarization states of final particles, we have

X X
|M|2 = h2 (u(s1 , p1 )v(s2 , p2 ))(v(s2 , p2 )u(s1 , p1 )). (7.8)
s1 ,s2 s1 ,s2

The several sums in Ec. (7.8) can be calculated by expressing the products uv y vu en in terms of
194 CHAPTER 7. TWO BODY DECAYS

their components, as follow


X
(u(s1 , p1 )v(s2 , p2 ))(v(s2 , p2 )u(s1 , p1 ))
s1 ,s2
X
= (u (s1 , p1 )v (s2 , p2 ))(v (s2 , p2 )u (s1 , p1 ))
s1 ,s2
X
= (u (s1 , p1 )u (s1 , p1 ))(v (s2 , p2 )v (s2 , p2 ))
s1 ,s2
X X
= u (s1 , p1 )u (s1 , p1 ) v (s2 , p2 )v (s2 , p2 )
s s2

= (p 1 + mf ) (p 2 mf )
= Tr[(p 1 + mf )(p 2 mf )]. (7.9)

Taking into account that Tr[ ] = 0, and from the commutation relations for matrices

Tr[ ] = tr[ + 2g ]
= Tr[ ] + 2g Tr[1]
= Tr[ ] + 2g 4 (Tr[AB] = Tr[BA])

Tr[ ] = 4g .

In this way

Tr[(p 1 + m1 )(p 2 m2 )]
= Tr[( p1 + m1 )( p2 m1 )]
= Tr[ p1 p2 m2 p1 + m1 p2 m1 m2 ]
= p1 p2 tr[ ] 4m1 m2
= 4g p1 p2 4m1 m2
= 4(p1 p2 m1 m2 ).

and X
|M|2 = 4h2 (p1 p2 m1 m2 ).
s1 ,s2

From eq. (6.115)

M =E1 + E2
|p1 | = |p2 | (7.10)
7.2. WIDTH DECAY 195

Therefore
M 2 E12 E22
E1 E2 = (7.11)
2

p1 p2 m2f = E1 E2 p1 p2 m1 m2
= E1 E2 + p21 m1 m2
M 2 E12 E22
= + p21 m1 m2
2
1
M m21 p21 m22 p21 + p21 m1 m2
2

=
2
1
M 2 m21 m22 2m1 m2

=
2
1 2
M (m1 m2 )2

=
2
Therefore, the scattering amplitude is
X
|M|2 = 2h2 M 2 (m1 + m2 )2
 
(7.12)
s1 ,s2

Replacing back in eq. (7.5)


d h2
1/2 (M 2 , m22 , m21 ) M 2 (m1 + m2 )2
 
= 2 3
(7.13)
d 32 M
After the integration in dCM = 4 we have
h2 1/2 2 2 2  2
(M , m2 , m1 ) M (m1 + m2 )2

= 3
(7.14)
8M
For m1 = m2 = mf
1/2
4m2f

1/2 2
(M , m22 , m21 )
=M 1 2
M2
4m2f
 
 2 2
 2
M (m1 + m2 ) =M 1 (7.15)
M2
and therefore
3/2
h2 4m2f

= M 1 (7.16)
8 M2
196 CHAPTER 7. TWO BODY DECAYS

In the case of the standard model Higgs with mass MH decaying to fermion pai, according to the
Lagrangian in eq. (7.5)
3/2
MH m2f GF m2f

(H f f ) = 14 2 , (7.17)
4 2 MH
In the limit mf  MH this expression reduces to

MH m2f GF
(H f f ) = . (7.18)
4 2

7.3 e + e +

e2 
v(k2 ) u(k1 ) v(k2 ) u(k1 )
 
L= (7.19)
s
Chapter 8

Feynman Rules

When the case of interacting fields are considered, the particles can be created, destroyed and scat-
tered. In essence this requires solving the coupled non-linear field equations for given conditions.
This is an extremely difficult problem which has only been solved in perturbation theory.
In the Heisenberg picture, which we have so far been using, this program is still very complex, and
it was decisive for the successful development of the theory to work instead in the interaction picture.
In section 8.1 we write the Smatrix expansion derived in Chapter 6, in the interaction picture. In
section 8.3 we show how to use the Wick expansion to calculate Smatrix elements involving scalars
and spinors.

8.1 Interaction picture


This part is based in [3]. In the Schrodinger Picture (SP) the time dependence is carried by the
states according to the Scrodinger equation
d
labeleq : 84f i |a, tiS = i |a, tiS = H|a, tiS (8.1)
t dt
With the solution given in Eq. (??)
|a, tiS = U (t, ti )|aiS . (8.2)
where U is the unitary operator [see Eq. (??)]
U U (t, ti ) = eiH(tti ) . (8.3)
Given the state |a, tiS in the SP, in the Heisenberg picture (HP) we defined the state
|aiH = U |a, tiS = |aiS (8.4)

197
198 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

Si OS in an operator in the SP, the corresponding Heisenberg operator is defined as

OH (t) = U OS U (8.5)

Hence, the transformation from HP to SP is unitary. At t = ti , states and operators in the two
pictures are the same. We see from Eq. (8.4) that in the HP state vectors are constant in time, while
from Eq. (8.5) the Heisenberg operators evolve with time. Is convenient to keep the temporal label
in the Heisenberg states

|aiH = |a, ti iH (8.6)

Eq. (8.5) ensures the invariance of matrix elements and commutation relations:

S hb, t| O
S
|a, tiS = S hb, t| U OH (t)U |a, tiS = H hb, ti |OH (t)|a, ti iH (8.7)

 S S
O , P = c OH (t), P H (t) = c
 
(8.8)

where c is a constant.
Differentiation of Eq. (8.5)
 
d H d d
O (t) = U OS U + U OS U
dt dt dt
S S
=iH U O U + U O U (iH)
= i(OH H HOH ) , (8.9)

gives the Heisenberg equation of motion

d H
O (t) = OH (t), H
 
i (8.10)
dt
The interaction picture (IP) arises if the Hamiltonian is split into two parts

H = H0 + HI . (8.11)

In quantum field theory HI will describe the interaction between two fields, themselves described by
H0
IP is related to the SP by the unitary transformation

Ui Ui (t, ti ) = eiHi (tti ) , (8.12)


8.1. INTERACTION PICTURE 199

in this way,

|a, tiI = U0 |a, tiS , (8.13)

and

OI (t) = U0 OS U0 . (8.14)

Thus the relation between IP and SP is similar to that between HP and SP, but with the unitary
transformation U0 involving only the noninteracting Hamiltonian H0 . Note that both the vector
states as the operators in the IP are time-dependent.
Differentiating Eq. (8.14) gives the differential equation of motion operators in the IP:
d I
O (t) = OI (t), H0
 
i (8.15)
dt
Substituting Eq. (8.13) into the Scrodinger Eq. (??), one obtains the equation of motion of state
vectors in the IP, If the system is described by a time-dependent state vector |(t)i
d
i |a, tiS =H S |a, tiS
dt
d
i (U0 |(t)i) =H S U0 |(t)i
  dt
d d
i U0 |(t)i + iU0 |(t)i =H S U0 |(t)i
dt dt
d
U0 H0 |(t)i + iU0 |(t)i =H S U0 |(t)i
dt
d
U0 H0 |(t)i + iU0 |(t)i =(H0 + HIS )U0 |(t)i
dt
d
iU0 |(t)i =HIS U0 |(t)i
dt
d
i |(t)i =U0 HIS U0 |(t)i (8.16)
dt

d
i |(t)iI = HII |(t)iI , (8.17)
dt
where, as in Eq. (8.14)
S S
HII = eiH0 (tti ) HIS eiH0 (tti ) (8.18)
200 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

is the interaction Hamiltonian in the IP, with HIS and H0S being the interaction and free-field Hamil-
tonian in the SP. From now on we shall omit the labels I, used in the equations to distinguish the
IP, as we shall be working exclusively in the IP in what follows.
Eq. (8.17) is a Scrodinger-like equation with the time dependent Hamiltonian HI (t). With the
interaction switched off (i.e. we put HI = 0), the state vector is constant in time. The interaction
leads to the state |(t)i changing with time. Given that the system is in a state |ii at an initial time
t = ti , i.e.

|(ti )i = |ii , (8.19)

the solution of Eq. (8.17) with this initial condition gives the state |(t)i of the system at any other
time t. It follows from the Hermicity of the operator HI (t) that the time development of the state
|(t)i according to Eq. (8.17) is a unitary transformation. Accordingly it preserves the normalization
of states

h(t)|(t)i = const. (8.20)

and, more generally, the scalar product.


Clearly the formalism which we are here developing is not appropriate for the description of
bound states but it is particularly suitable for scattering processes. In a collision processes the state
vector |ii will define an initial state, long before the scattering occurs (ti = ), by specifying a
definite number of particles, with definite properties and far apart from each other so that they do
not interact. (For example |ii would specify a definite number of electrons, and positrons with given
momenta and spins). In the scattering process, the particles will come close together, collide (i.e
interact) and fly apart gain. Eq. (8.17) determines the state |(t)i into which the initial state

|()i = |ii , (8.21)

evolves at t = , long after the scattering is over and all particles are for apart again. The Smatrix
relates |()i to () and is defined by

|()i = S|()i = S|ii , (8.22)

A collision can lead to many different final states |f i, and all these possibilities are constrained
within |()i.
The transition probability is given by

|hf |()i|2 = |hf |S|ii|2 Sf2i , (8.23)

where Sf i is the corresponding probability amplitude.


8.1. INTERACTION PICTURE 201

In order to calculate the Smatrix we must solve Eq. (8.17) for the initial condition (8.19). These
equations can be combined into the integral equation

d|(t)i = idt HI (t)|(t)i


Z |(t)i Z t
d|(t)i = i dt1 HI (t1 )|(t1 )i
|()i
Z t
|(t)i |()i = i dt1 HI (t1 )|(t1 )i

(8.24)

Z t
|(t)i = |ii i dt1 HI (t1 )|(t1 )i . (8.25)

In the limit t
Z
(0)
|()i = S |ii i dt1 HI (t1 )|(t1 )i . (8.26)

where

S (0) = 1 . (8.27)

From Eq. (8.25) we can obtain |(t1 )i at next order:


Z t1
|(t1 )i =|ii i dt2 HI (t2 )|(t2 )i . (8.28)

This equation then can be solved iteratively. If HI is small we can solve this equation by iteration
Z t Z t Z t1
2
|(t)i = |ii + (i) dt1 HI (t1 )|ii + (i) dt1 dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )|(t2 )i . (8.29)

In the limit t
 Z  Z Z t1
(0) 2
|(t)i = S + (i) dt1 HI (t1 ) |ii + (i) dt1 dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )|(t2 )i

Z Z t1
(0) (1) 2

= S +S |ii + (i) dt1 dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )|(t2 )i , (8.30)

202 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

where
Z
(1)
S = (i) dt1 HI (t1 ) . (8.31)

The next order of Eq. (8.29) is


Z t Z t Z t1
2
|(t)i =|ii + (i) dt1 HI (t1 )|ii + (i) dt1 dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )

 Z t2 Z t2 Z t3 
2
|ii + (i) dt3 HI (t3 )|ii + (i) dt3 dt4 HI (t3 )HI (t4 )|(t4 )i (8.32)

Z t Z t Z t1
2
|(t)i =|ii + (i) dt1 H1 (t1 )|ii + (i) dt1 dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )|ii

Z t Z t1 Z t2
3
+ (i) dt1 dt2 dt3 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )H1 (t3 )|ii

Z t Z t1 Z t2 Z t3
4
+ (i) dt1 dt2 dt3 dt4 HI (t1 )HI (t2 ) HI (t3 )HI (t4 )|(t4 )i (8.33)

In the limit t

|(t)i = S (0) + S (1) + S (2) + S (3) |ii



Z Z t1 Z t2 Z t3
4
+ (i) dt1 dt2 dt3 dt4 HI (t1 )HI (t2 ) HI (t3 )HI (t4 )|(t4 )i (8.34)

where
Z Z t1
(2) 2
S =(i) dt1 dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )

Z Z t1 Z t2
S (3) =(i)3 dt1 dt2 dt3 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )H1 (t3 ) (8.35)

and so on we obtain the Smatrix



X
S= S (n)
n=0
t1 tn1
(i)n
X Z Z Z
=1 + dt1 dt2 . . . dtn HI (t1 )HI (t2 ) . . . HI (tn ) . (8.36)
n=1
n!
8.2. ATOMIC DECAY 203

8.2 Atomic decay


Here we follow closelly [15] chapter 3.
For the atomic decay at first order in perturbation theory, we have
Z
(1)
S = i dt h |HI (t)| i . (8.37)

where the Hamiltonian in the interaction picture is

H =HA + HEM + HI (t) = H0 + HI (t) , (8.38)

where, following the definition of the interaction picture

a (r, t) =eiHA t a (r)


=UA (t)a (r) , (8.39)

HI (t) = UA1 HI0 (t)UA . (8.40)

The several terms of the Hamiltonia are

p2e Z
HA = , (8.41)
2m re

1
Z
d3 r : 2 (r, t) : + : B2 (r, t) : ,

HEM = (8.42)
2

e2 2
  
e
HI0 (t) = pe A(re , t) + A(re , t) pe + A (re , t) , (8.43)
2m 2m

and = e2 /(4). The states as defined as

|a, ni = a (re )|ni . (8.44)

The scalar product of the atomic states requires an integration over the coordinate re
Z
ha , n |a, ni = d3 r a0 (re )a (re )hn0 |ni.
0 0
(8.45)
204 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

For one photon decay of an initial atomic state a into a final atomic state b and a photon of
energy n and polarization , the states are

|i =|, 0i = a (re )|0i


|i =|b, 1n i = b (re )|1n i , (8.46)

where

|1n i = an |0i (8.47)

is the one-photon state with frequency n and polarization . Since

h1n |A2 |0i h1n |(an an + an an + an an )|0i = h0|1n i = 0 (8.48)

and

(pe A(re , t) + A(re , t) pe ) a (re ) = i (e A(re , t) + A(re , t) e ) a (re )


= i {(e A) a + A e a + A e a }
= i {2A e a } , (8.49)

where A = 0 was used.


With all of this we have a simplified formula

 
ie
Z
Sba = i dthb, 1n |UA1 A(re , t) e UA |a, 0i
m
Z  
1 ie
Sba = i dthb, 1n |UA A(re , t) e UA |a, 0i
m
Z  
ie
Sba = i dthb, 1n |e iEb t
A(re , t) e eiEa t |a, 0i
m
Z
e
Z
= dt ei(Eb Ea )t d3 re h1n |b (re ) (A(re , t) e ) a (r)|0i
m
Z
e
Z
= dt ei(Eb Ea )t d3 re {b (re )e a (r)} h1n |A(re , t)|0i. (8.50)
m
8.2. ATOMIC DECAY 205

Since
X 1 0
h1n |A(re , t)|0i =
3
n0 h1n |an0 0 |0ieikn0 xe
n0 0
2n0 L
X 1 0
=
3
n0 h1n |an0 0 |0ieikn xe
n0 0
2n0 L
1
= 3
n h1n |1n ieikn0 xe
2n L
1
= n ein tkn re . (8.51)
2n L3

Inserting this expression into (8.50) gives

1
Sba = i2(Eb + n Ea ) Mba , (8.52)
L3
where the decaya amplitude Mba is

e 1
Z
Mba = i d3 re eikn re b (re )n e a (r) . (8.53)
m 2n

In most atomic decays, the energy of the emmited photon, which is equal to n = Eb Ea , is much
less than 1/R, where R is the size of the atomic system, and hence the maximum range of the integral
over re . In this case, the dipole approximation

eikn re 1 (8.54)

is extremely good. Then we have


e 1
Mba = n pba , (8.55)
m 2n

where
Z
pba = i d3 re b (re )e a (re ). (8.56)

The diferential decay rate, and using

[2(Ef Ei )]2 = 2(Ef Ei )T , (8.57)


206 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

we have
|Sba (T /2, T /2)|2
Wba = lim
T T
1 1
= lim 2(Eb + n Ea )T 3 |Mba |2
T T L
1
=2(Eb + n Ea ) 3 |Mba |2 (8.58)
L
Then
2 e2
Wba = (Eb + n Ea ) 2
|n pba |2 . (8.59)
V 2n m
Summing over all final photon states to get the total a b decay rate gives
X 2 e2
Wba = (Eb + n Ea ) | pba |2
n,
V 2n m2 n
X X 2 e2
= (Eb + n Ea ) 2
|n pba |2 . (8.60)
n
V 2n m

Using
V
X Z
d3 k (8.61)
n
(2)3

XZ d3 k e2
Wba = 2
(Eb + n Ea ) 2
|n pba |2

(2) 2m
e2 X d3 k
Z
= 2 (Eb + n Ea )|n pba |2
2m (2)2
e2 X d3 k
Z Z
2
= 2 |k| d|k| d (Eb + Ea )|n pba |2 . (8.62)
2m (2)2

By using |k| = , we have


e2 X
Z Z
Wba = 2 d (Eb + Ea ) d|n pba |2
2m (2)2
e2   X
Z
= d|n pba |2 , (8.63)
4 2m2
8.3. YUKAWA INTERACTION 207

where = Eb Ea . Integrating over all directions kb of the outgoing photon


XZ 8
d|n pba |2 = |pba |2 . (8.64)

3

Then the total rate for the decay of the state a into b is

e2
 
4
Wba = |pba |2 . (8.65)
4 3m2

8.3 Yukawa interaction


As a concrete example, we take a theory with a fermion field and scalar field, which interact via the
Yukawa interaction [4]:

Lint = h . (8.66)

Let the quantum of the field be denoted by B, since the particle is a boson. The quanta of the
fermionic field will be called electrons. The mass of B is M , and the mass of the electron by
m. Suppose M > 2m, so that kinematically it is possible to have the B particle decay into an
electron-positron pair. The process is denoted by

B(k) e (p) + e+ (p0 ) , (8.67)

where k, p, p0 are the 4momenta of the particles.


For the interaction Hamiltonian we have

HI = h : : (8.68)

where the required ordered product will be explained in next section. The term linear in the inter-
action Hamiltonian in the Smatrix. It is

S (1) =
Z
= ih d4 x : : . (8.69)

Z
(1)
S = ih d4 x : ( + + )(+ + )(+ + ) : . (8.70)
208 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

Lint = h : + + (+ + ) (+ + ) :


= : + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + :
= + + (8.71)

To check that only the ordered terms are different from zero we can analyse the full terms for
initial and final states defined as |ii = |0, 0 , 1 i y hf | = h1, 1 , 0 |.

+ |n i |n 1 i hn |+ hn + 1 | (8.72)

|n i |n + 1 i hn | hn 1 | (8.73)

Y lo mismo tendremos bien sea para un campo fotonico o fermionico.


El Langrangiano de interaccion de nuestro interes esta dado por


Lint = h (8.74)
Que en terminos de las componentes + y de los campos se puede expresar como
De desarrollo del langrangiano en las componentes de los campos, vemaos que terminos con-
tribuyen al elemento de matriz

h1, 1 , 0 |+ + + |0, 0 , 1 i h2, 2 , 0 |0, 0 , 0 i = 0


h1, 1 , 0 |+ + |0, 0 , 1 i h2, 2 , 0 |0, 0 , 2 i = 0
h1, 1 , 0 |+ + |0, 0 , 1 i h2, 0 , 0 |0, 0 , 0 i = 0
h1, 1 , 0 |+ |0, 0 , 1 i h2, 0 , 0 |0, 0 , 2 i = 0
h1, 1 , 0 | + + |0, 0 , 1 i h0, 2 , 0 |0, 0 , 0 i = 0
h1, 1 , 0 | + |0, 0 , 1 i h0, 2 , 0 |0, 0 , 2 i = 0
h1, 1 , 0 | + |0, 0 , 1 i h0, 0 , 0 |0, 0 , 0 i =
6 0

h1, 1 , 0 | |0, 0 , 1 i h0, 0 , 0 |0, 0 , 2 i = 0
8.3. YUKAWA INTERACTION 209

Figure 8.1: Feynman diagrams for B e+ e

The only term that contributes to the matrix element of the process is
Z
ih d4 x + . (8.75)

Let us define the oneparticle states as in eq. (??)

r
1
|B(p)i a |0i (8.76)
V p

From eq. (??)


r
1
|e (p, s)i a (p)|0i
V s
r
+ 1
|e (p, s)i b (p)|0i , (8.77)
V s
Using the commutation relations, our states are then normalized as

(2)3 3
hB(p)|B(p0 )i = (p p0 )
V
0 0 (2)3
he (p, s)|e (p , s )i = ss0 3 (p p0 )
V
3
(2)
he+ (p, s)|e+ (p0 , s0 )i = ss0 3 (p p0 ) (8.78)
V
As established in Sec. 3.1, it is convenient to work in the discrete limit where (??)

V
3 (0) = . (8.79)
(2)3
210 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

Now we can write down the action of various field operators on different one particles states. Using
the Fourier decomposition of the scalar field in eq. (??), and taking into account that ap |0i = 0, we
have
1
Z
+ (x)|B(k)i = d3 p 3
p ap eipx |B(k)i
b
(2) 2p
1 ipx 1
Z
= d3 p 3
p a
b p e b ak |0i
(2) 2p V
1
Z
= d3 p 3
p eipx [b ak ]|0i .
ap , b (8.80)
(2) 2p V
By usinbg the commutation relations in eq. (??) we have

(3) (p k) ipx
Z
+ (x)|B(k)i = d3 p p e |0i (8.81)
2p V

1
+ (x)|B(k)i = eikx |0i (8.82)
2k V
Similarly, we have

1
+ (x)|B(k)i = eikx |0i
2k V
1
+ (x)|e (p, s)i = p us (p)eipx |0i
2Ep V
1 0
+ (x)|e+ (p0 , s0 )i = p vs0 (p0 )eip x |0i , (8.83)
2Ep0 V
where k and Ep represent the energies of the scalar and the electron for the 3-momenta in the
subscripts.
Similarly, for the adjoint operators
1
hB(k)| (x) =h0| eikx
2k V
1
he (p, s)| (x) =h0| p us (p)eipx
2Ep V
1 0
he+ (p0 , s0 )| (x) =h0| p vs0 (p0 )eip x , (8.84)
2Ep0 V
8.4. WICK THEOREM 211

In the lowest order the only term which contributes to the matrix element is the term shown in
Eq. (8.75) The matrix element at first order in Eq. (8.95), between the initial and the final state is
then
Z
(1)
Sf i = ih d4 x e (p)e+ (p0 ) + B(k) .


(8.85)

Using Eqs. (8.83)(8.84), we obtain


1 1 1
Z
(1) 0 0
Sf i =(ih)
us (p)vs0 (p ) d4 x ei(p+p k)x p p . (8.86)
2k V 2Ep V 2Ep0 V
Since
Z
0
d4 x ei(p+p k)x = (2)4 4 (k p p0 ) , (8.87)

we obtain
" #
(1) 1 1 1
Sf i = p p (2)4 4 (k p p0 ) [(ih)
us (p)vs0 (p0 )] (8.88)
2k V 2Ep V 2Ep0 V

Comparing with Eq. (??) we have therefore that the relativistic matrix element is
us (p)vs0 (p0 ) ,
iMf i = (ih) (8.89)
and everything else is the history presented in Chapter 7.

8.4 Wick Theorem


From [4]. The normal ordering procedure involved putting all the annihilation operators to the right
of all creation operators so that it annihilates the vacuum. But the time ordering raises complications
because in it all operators at earlier times must be further to the right. So creation operators at later
times would be to the right of annihilation operators at later times, contrary to what we need for
normal ordering. The advantage of normal ordered products is that their expectation values vanish
in the vacuum.
If HI contains an even number of fermion factors, we can use the timeordered product T{. . .}
of n factors to write this expression in the equivalent form. For S (2) we have for example
Z Z Z Z Z Z
dt1 dt2 T{HI (t2 )HI (t2 )} = dt1 dt2 (t2 t1 )HI (t2 )HI (t2 ) + dt1 dt2 (t1 t2 )HI (t1 )HI (

(8.90)
212 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES
Z Z Z Z t1
dt1 dt2 T{HI (t2 )HI (t2 )} =2 dt1 dt2 HI (t2 )HI (t2 ) . (8.91)


(i)n
X Z Z Z
S =1 + dt1 dt2 . . . dtn T{HI (t1 )HI (t2 ) . . . HI (tn )} , (8.92)
n=1
n!

In terms of the Hamiltonian density, we have



(i)n
X Z Z
S =1+ d4 x1 d4 x2 . . . d4 xn T{HI (x1 )HI (x2 ) . . . HI (xn )} , (8.93)
n=1
n!

In the above perturbation formalism the states |ii and |f i are, as usual, eigenstates of the unperturbed
free-field Hamiltonian H0 . As such can be introduced inside the integrals
Sf i =hf |S|ii

(i)n
X Z Z
=1 + d4 x1 d4 x2 . . . d4 xn hf | T{HI (x1 )HI (x2 ) . . . HI (xn )}|ii . (8.94)
n=1
n!

For example, at first order


(1)
Sf i =hf |S (1) |ii
Z
=hf | i d4 x1 T{HI (x1 )}|ii
Z
= i d4 x1 hf | : HI (x1 ) : |ii . (8.95)

In order to evaluate this integrals we need to write the time ordered product in terms of the fields.
This can done by induction. We start by considering the simple no trivial case with two scalar fields
T {(x1 )(x2 )} =: (x1 )(x2 ) : + (x1 )(x2 ) (8.96)

The same expression can be obtained for fermions. Generalizing the results for n scalar or fermion
fields, but with an even number of fermions fields, we have the Wick theorem
T {(x1 )(x2 )(x3 ) (xn )} = : (x1 )(x2 )(x3 ) (xn ) : +
+ (x1 )(x2 ) : (x3 ) (xn ) :
+ : (x1 ) (x2 )(x3 ) (xn ) : + (8.97)

For details of the full result see for example [4].


8.5. SCATTERING 213

8.5 Scattering
From the previous calculation we have

(i)n
Z Z
(n)
S = d4 x1 d4 x2 . . . d4 xn T{HI (x1 )HI (x2 ) . . . HI (xn )} . (8.98)
n!
The relevant term for the scattering

e (p1 ) + e (p2 ) e (p01 ) + e (p02 ) (8.99)

is
(i)2
Z Z
(2)
S = d4 x1 d4 x2 T{HI (x1 )HI (x2 )}
2!
(ih)2
Z Z
= d4 x1 d4 x2 T{: ()x1 ()x2 }
2!
(ih)2 (ih)2
Z Z Z Z
4 4
= d x1 d x2 : ()x1 ()x2 : + d4 x1 d4 x2 : ()x1 ()x2 : +
2! 2!
(8.100)

The first term corresponds to two disconnected Feynman diagrams that does not contribute to the S
matrix. For the process at hand, we want terms where four fermionic operators are not contracted,
corresponding to the particles in the initial and final states. The second term in the previous
expansion of the Wick theorem is the only satisfying this requirement. In this way

(ih)2
Z Z
(2) + +
S (e e e e ) = d4 x1 d4 x2 (x1 )(x2 ) : ()x1 ()x2 : (8.101)
2!
The Wick contraction can be written as:

(x1 )(x2 ) =h0|T {(x1 )(x2 )}|0i


=iF (x1 x2 ) (8.102)

since

(x) = + (x) + (x) , (8.103)

T [(x1 ), (x2 )] = (t1 t2 )(x1 )(x2 ) + (t2 t1 )(x2 )(x1 ) (8.104)


214 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

h0|T [(x1 ), (x2 )] |0i =(t1 t2 )h0|(x1 )(x2 ) + (t2 t1 )h0|(x2 )(x1 )|0i
=(t1 t2 )h0|+ (x1 ) (x2 ) + (t2 t1 )h0|+ (x2 ) (x1 )|0i
=h0|(t1 t2 )(x1 )+ (x2 ) + (t2 t1 )h0|+ (x2 ) (x1 )|0i (8.105)

with
1 1
Z Z
+ (x) = 3
dp 3
p ap eipx
b (x) = d3 p 3
p ap eipx ,
b (8.106)
(2) 2p (2) 2p

we have
d3 p1 d3 p2
Z Z
ip1 x1
h0|T ((x1 )(x2 ))|0i =(t1 t2 )h0| p a
p1 e p p eip2 x2 |0i
a
(2)3 2Ep1 (2)3 2Ep2 2
d3 p2 d3 p1
Z Z
ip2 x2
+ (t2 t1 )h0| p a
p2 e p p eip1 x1 |0i
a
(2)3 2Ep2 (2)3 2Ep1 1
d3 p d3 p 2
Z Z
=(t1 t2 ) p 1 p eip1 x1 eip2 x2 h0| p2 |0i
ap 1 a
6
(2) 2Ep1 2Ep2
d3 p d3 p1
Z Z
+ (t2 t1 ) p 2 p eip2 x2 eip1 x1 h0|
ap 2 ap1 |0i
6
(2) 2Ep2 2Ep1
(8.107)

d3 p d3 p2
Z Z
=(t1 t2 ) p 1 p eip1 x1 eip2 x2 h0| p2 |0i
ap 1 a
(2)6 2Ep1 2Ep2
d3 p d3 p1
Z Z
+ (t2 t1 ) p 2 p eip2 x2 eip1 x1 h0|ap 2 ap1 |0i
(2)6 2Ep2 2Ep1
(8.108)

On the other hand



: ()x1 ()x2 := : (x1 ) (x1 ) (x2 ) (x2 ) : . (8.109)

From the Fourier expansions in eqs. (??), (??) we have that as and as are the creation and
annihilation operators for particles. As we have only particles (and not antiparticles) in the initial
and final states, the only non-zero contribution of the ordered product in eq. (8.109) must have the
order a a a a. As + and are associated to a and a respectively, the only non-zero contribution
from the ordered fermion product is
8.5. SCATTERING 215


: ()x1 ()x2 := (x1 ) (x2 )+ (x1 )+ (x2 ) . (8.110)
The relevant Smatrix element then reads
(ih)2
Z Z
(2)
Sf i = d4 x1 d4 x2
2

he (p01 )e (p02 )|iF (x1 x2 ) (x1 ) (x2 )+

(x1 )+ (x2 )|e (p1 )e (p2 )i
(ih)2
Z Z
= d4 x1 d4 x2 iF (x1 x2 )
2

he (p01 )e (p02 )| (x1 ) (x2 )+

(x1 )+ (x2 )|e (p1 )e (p2 )i
(ih)2 d4 q
Z Z Z
= d4 x1 d4 x2 iF (q)eiq(x1 x2 )
2 (2)4

he (p01 )e (p02 )| (x1 ) (x2 )+

(x1 )+ (x2 )|e (p1 )e (p2 )i (8.111)
The two particle Fock state is, after proper normalization
1
|e (p1 )e (p2 )i = as (p2 )as (p1 )|0i (8.112)
V
Therefore
d3 k d3 k
Z Z
0

+ (x1 )+ (x2 )|e (p1 )e (p2 )i = u (k)u (k0 )eikx1 eik x2
2Ek V 2Ek0 V
0
as (k)as (k )as (p2 )as (p1 )|0i (8.113)

1 1

+ (x1 )+ (x2 )|e (p1 )e (p2 )i = p p
2Ep1 V 2Ep2 V
u (p1 )u (p2 )eip1 x1 eip2 x2 u (p2 )u (p1 )eip2 x1 eip1 x2 |0i
 

(8.114)
Following similar steps, we find
1 1
he (p01 )e (p02 )| (x1 ) (x2 ) = p 0 p 0
2Ep1 V 2Ep2 V
h 0 0 0 0
i
h0| u (p01 )
u (p02 )eip1 x1 eip2 x2 u (p02 )u (p01 )eip2 x1 eip1 x2
(8.115)
216 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

As expected, the final result can be written in term of three different factors: the momentum con-
servation, normalization, and the relativistic amplitude
!
(2)
X X Y 1 Y 1
Sf i = i(2)4 4 pi p0f q Mf i (8.116)
i=1,2 f =1,2 i=1,2
2E i V f =1,2 2E 0
V f

where

u (p01 )F (p1 p02 )u (p1 )u (p2 ) u (p01 )


Mf i = (ih)2 u (p02 ) u (p02 )F (p1 p01 )u (p1 )u (p2 )
 

(8.117)

The two contributions are displayed in Fig. 8.2 Since


1
F (q) = (8.118)
q2 m2

In the limit q 2  m2
1
F = (8.119)
m2

h2  0
u (p01 )u (p2 ) u (p01 )u (p1 )
u (p02 )u (p2 )

Mf i = 2
u (p2 )u (p1 )
m
h2
u(p02 )u(p1 )
= 2 [ u(p01 )u(p2 ) u(p01 )u(p1 )u(p02 )u(p2 )] (8.120)
m
For one interaction of type we should have

h2
Mf i = 2
u(p02 )u(p1 )
[ u(p01 )u(p2 ) u(p01 )u(p1 )
u(p02 )u(p2 )] (8.121)
m
For the interaction of a fermion pair with W , we know from the standard model Lagrangian [1],
that
g2
(1 5 ) (8.122)
2 2
Therefore in this case

= (1 5 ) (8.123)
8.5. SCATTERING 217

e (p1) x1 e (p2)

B(p1 p2 )

x2

e (p2) e (p1)
e (p1) x1 e (p1)

B(p1 p1 )

x2
e (p2) e (p2)

Figure 8.2: fermion scattering


218 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

2
For p  MW the analysis is similar to the previous one with

W (x1 )W (x2 ) =h0|T {W (x1 )W (x2 )}|0i


d4 q g iq(x1 x2 )
Z
2
e (8.124)
(2)4 MW

For the process

e (p) + (k) (p0 ) + e (k 0 ) (8.125)


2
the global coupling for p  MW is

g2 GF
2
= (8.126)
8MW 2

After the replacement GF / 2 h2 /m2 , we have

(2) 1 1 1 1
Sf i = i(2)4 4 (p1 + p2 p01 p02 ) p 0 p 0 Mf i (8.127)
2E1 V 2E2 V 2E1 V 2E2 V

where
GF
Mf i = ue (p02 )ue (p1 )
u (p01 )u (p2 ) (8.128)
2
The corresponding Feynman diagram is shown in Fig. 8.3 Therefore we have

GF
Mf i = ue (p02 ) (1 5 )ue (p1 )
u (p01 ) (1 5 )u (p2 ) (8.129)
2
We now must sqaure the scattering amplitude, M, and summing up over final spin states, and
averaging over the intial spin states, as we did in Eq. (??). The result that will be obtained in detail
in Chapter 9 for the muondecay is

|M|2 = 64 G2F (p1 p2 )(p01 p02 ) (8.130)

From Eq. (??)

s m2
 
d 1
= |M|2 (8.131)
d 64 2 s s m2e
8.5. SCATTERING 219

e (p1) x1 e(p2)

W (p1 p2 )

(p2) x2 (p1)

Figure 8.3: scattering with four fermions

The center of mass (CM) frame is defined by the condition in Eq. (??):

p1 + p2 = 0 (8.132)

The function in Eq. (8.127)

(4) (p1 + p2 p01 p02 ) = (3) (p1 + p2 p01 p02 )(E1 + E2 E10 E20 ) (8.133)

implies
(
p1 = p2
CM
p1 + p2 p01 p02 = 0 (8.134)
p01 = p02

Moreover

s = E1 + E2 (8.135)

In the CM frame

s = (E1 + E2 )2
q q 2
2 2 2 2
= p1 + m1 + p2 + m2
q q 2
2 2 2 2
= p1 + me + p1 + me (8.136)
220 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES

Therefore
E2 = |p1 | (8.137)
We already have the expression for |p1 | as given in eq. (??). In this case m2 = 0, and m1 = me , so
that
s m2
|p1 | = e (8.138)
2 s
From (8.137)

s =E1 + E2
=E1 + |p1 | (8.139)

E1 = s |p1 |
s + m2e
= s+
2 s
2s s + m2e
=
2 s
s + m2
= e (8.140)
2 s
Then, by using Eqs. (8.134), (8.137) and (8.138), and (8.140), we have
p1 p2 =E1 E2 p1 p2
=E1 |p1 | + p21
(s m2e )(s + m2e ) (s m2e )2
= +
4s 4s
(s m2e )
= (s + m2e + s m2e )
4s
1
= (s m2e ) (8.141)
2
As p22 = p02 2 = 0, we have from function
(p1 + p2 )2 =(p01 + p02 )2
(p1 + p2 )2 =(p01 + p02 )2
2 2
p21 + 2p1 p2 + p22 =p01 + 2p01 p02 + p02
2
p21 + 2p1 p2 =p01 + 2p01 p02
m2e + 2p1 p2 =m2 + 2p01 p02 (8.142)
8.5. SCATTERING 221

1
p01 p02 = p1 p2 (m2 m2e ) (8.143)
2

1
p01 p02 = (s m2 ) (8.144)
2
Replacing back in Eq. (8.130) and then in Eq. (8.131) we have

s m2
 
d 1 1 1
= 64G2F (s m2e ) (s m2 ) (8.145)
d 64 s s me
2 2 2 2

d G2 (s m2 )2
= F2 (8.146)
d 4 s

G2F (s m2 )2
= (8.147)
s
Note that s.
222 CHAPTER 8. FEYNMAN RULES
Chapter 9

Three body decays

9.1 Muon decay


For a three body decay we have from eq. (7.1)

1 1 2 4 d3 p1 d3 p2 d3 p3
d = |M| (P p 1 p 2 p 3 )
(2)5 2M 2E1 2E2 2E3
3
1 1 d p1 d3 p2 d3 p3
Z
2 4
= |M| (P p1 p2 p3 )
(2)5 2M 2E1 2E2 2E3
(9.1)

9.1.1 Amplitude estimation


Since M is dimensionless, the amplitude averaged over spins for decay must be

|M|2 = CG2F m4 . (9.2)

We use
1
C = (2 2 1 1) = 2 (9.3)
2
The first factor is for the initial average and the factor are for the number of spin states of , e and
the two neutrinos.

223
224 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

Consider first the integral


d3 p1 d3 p2 d3 p1 d3 p2
Z Z
4
(P p1 p2 ) = (E E1 E2 ) 3 (P p1 p2 )
2E1 2E2 2E1 2E2
3
d p2
Z Z
= (E E1 E2 ) 3 (P p1 p2 )d3 p1
4E1 E2
d3 p2
Z Z
= (E E1 E2 ) 3 (p1 + p2 P)d3 p1
4E1 E2
d3 p2
Z Z
= (E E1 E2 ) 3 [p1 (P p2 )]d3 p1 (9.4)
4E1 E2
using
Z
(x x0 )dx = 1 (9.5)

we have
d3 p1 d3 p2 d3 p2
Z Z
4
(P p1 p2 ) = (E E1 E2 )
2E1 2E2 4E1 E2
3 3
d p1 d p2 p22 d|p2 |d
Z Z
4
(P p1 p2 ) = (E E1 E2 ) (9.6)
2E1 2E2 4E1 E2
Since |p1 | = |p2 | we have

E = E1 + E2 =(m21 + p21 )1/2 + (m22 + p22 )1/2


=(m21 + p22 )1/2 + (m22 + p22 )1/2 (9.7)

differentiating this equation with respect to p2


2|p2 | 2|p2 |
 
dE 1
= +
d|p2 | 2 (m21 + p22 )1/2 (m22 + p22 )1/2
 
1 1
=|p2 | +
E E2
 1 
E1 + E2
=|p2 | (9.8)
E1 E2
Therefore
 
dE E1 E2
d|p2 | = (9.9)
|p2 | E1 + E2
9.1. MUON DECAY 225

replacing back in eq. (9.6)


d3 p1 d3 p2 p22 d
 
dE E1 E2
Z Z
4
(P p1 p2 ) = (E E1 E2 )
2E1 2E2 |p2 | 4E1 E2 E1 + E2
|p2 | d
Z
= dE (E E1 E2 )
4(E1 + E2 )
|p2 |
Z
= d (9.10)
4E
For a relativistic particle |p2 | E2 = E/2 and
d3 p1 d3 p2
Z
4 (P p1 p2 ) = 2 (9.11)
E1 E2
Applying this result to eq. (9.1) we have
1 1 d3 p1 d3 p2 d3 p3
Z
2 4
d = |M| (P p 1 p 2 p 3 )
(2)5 2M 2E1 2E2 2E3
3
1 1 d p1 d3 p2 d3 p3
Z
2 4
= |M| (P p1 p2 p3 )
(2)5 2M 8E1 E2 E3
3
1 1 d p1
= 5
|M|2 (2)
(2) 2M 8E1
G2F m4
Z
2
= p d|p1 | d
8(2)4 m E1 1
G2F m3
E 2 dE1 (4)
8(2)4 E1 1
G2F m3
E1 dE1 (9.12)
4(2)3
As the maximum value of E1 is m /2
G2F m3 m /2
Z
E1 dE1
4(2)3 0
G2F m3 m2
= , (9.13)
4(2)3 8
or
3 G2F m5
= . (9.14)
4 192 3
226 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

9.1.2 Amplitude calculation


The Standard Model Lagrangian includes

2g
L= (eL eL W+ + eL eL W + L L W+ +
L L W )
2
g
= (e PL eW+ + e PL e W + PL W+ + PL W )
2
g
= (e (1 5 )eW+ + e (1 5 )e W + (1 5 )W+ + (1 5 ) W )
2 2
(9.15)
where
(e PL eW+ ) = e PL (e ) W = e PL 0 e W = e 0 0 PR 0 e W
= e 0 0 PL e W = e PL e W (9.16)
We can build the effective Lagrangian
Applying the Feynman rules to the diagram in fig. 9.1 we have the amplitude
ig 2

g + q q /MW
2

M= u3 (1 5 )u1 2
u4 (1 5 )v2 (9.17)
8 q 2 MW
where u (v) is for an incoming particle and u (
v ) is for an ongoing particle (antiparticle).
The Dirac equations for spinors u and v are
(p m)u = 0 (p + m)v = 0
u(p m) = 0 v(p + m) = 0 . (9.18)
In this way
1 1
q (1 5 )u1 u4 q (1 5 ) = 2 (1 + 5 )qu
2  1u  5 )
4 q(1
MW MW
m me
= 2
(1 + 5 )u1 u4 (1 5 ) (9.19)
MW
the term in q q can be safely neglected. The term q 2 is m2 is small compared with m2W . Therefore

ig 2
M= 2
u3 (1 5 )u1 u4 (1 5 )v2
8MW
iGF
= u3 (1 5 )u1 u4 (1 5 )v2 (9.20)
2
9.1. MUON DECAY 227

Figure 9.1: Tree level diagram for muon decay

M is a dimensionless scalar. The relevant coupling is


g2 GF
2
= . (9.21)
8MW 2
The conjugate is, following the same steps that in eq. (9.16)
ig 2
M = 2
u3 (1 5 )u1 ] [
[ u4 (1 5 )v2 ]
8MW
ig 2
M = 2
[ v2 (1 5 )u4 ] .
u1 (1 5 )u3 ] [ (9.22)
8MW
Multiplying M and M we have
g4
|M|2 = 4
u3 (1 5 )u1 u1 (1 5 )u3 ]
[
64MW
u4 (1 5 )v2 v2 (1 5 )u4 ]
[
g4
= 4
L M (9.23)
64MW
where
L = u3 (1 5 ) u1 u1  (1 5 ) u3
 

M = u4 (1 5 ) v2 v2 

(1 5 ) u4
 
(9.24)
228 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

L = u3 u3 (1 5 ) u1 u1  (1 5 )
 

= (u3 u3 ) (1 5 ) (u1 u1 )  (1 5 )
 

= Tr [(u3 u3 ) (1 5 )(u1 u1 ) (1 5 )] (9.25)

Using

X X
u(p, s)
u(p, s) = (p + m) v (p, s) = (p m)
v(p, s) (9.26)
s s

X
L = Tr [(p 3 ) (1 5 )(p 1 + m ) (1 5 )]
s
h i

=p3 Tr (1 5 )(p1 + m ) (1 5 )
h i
=p3 Tr ( 5 )(p1 (1 5 ) + m (1 5 ))
h
=p3 Tr p1 (1 5 ) p1 5 (1 5 )
+m (1 5 ) m 5 (1 5 )]
h
=p3 Tr p1 p1 5 p1 5 + p1 5 5
+m m 5 m 5 + m 5 5 ] (9.27)

as the trace of an odd number of matrices is zero, we have

X
L =p3 p1 Tr 5 5 + 52
 
s

=2p3 p1 Tr [ (1 5 )] (9.28)

Similarly

X
M = 2p4 p2 Tr  (1 5 )
 
(9.29)
s
9.1. MUON DECAY 229

substituting back in eq. (9.23) we have,

g4
|M|2 = 4p3 p1 p4 p2 Tr [ (1 5 )] Tr  (1 5 )
 
4
64MW
g4
= 4
4p3 p1 p4 p2 (64  )
64MW
g4
= 4
4 64(p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
64MW
4g 4
= 4 (p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
MW
2
g2

=4 8 2
(p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
8MW
 2
GF
=4 8 (p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
2
=128 G2F (p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
G2
=256 F (p3 p4 )(p1 p2 ) . (9.30)
2

The demonstration of the used TrTr identity can be found in Appendix B. of [7].
The spinaveraged differential decay width for e e is

1 d3 p3 1 X d3 p 2 d3 p4
 
1 2 4
d = |M| (p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 )
(2)5 2E1 2E3 2 2E2 2E4
3
1 1 X 1 d p2 4 3
d p3 d3 p4
= |M|2 (p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 )
2E1 2 (2)5 8E2 E3 E4
4 3
1 4g 1 d p2 4 d3 p3 d3 p4
= 4
(p 1 p 2 )(p 3 p 4 ) (p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 )
2 MW (2)5 2E1 2E2 2E3 2E4
4
2g
= p p d3 p4 I (9.31)
5
16(2) MW 4
E1 E4 1 4

where the covariant integral I on the neutrino momentum is

d3 p2 d3 p3
Z
I = p3 p2 4 (p p2 p3 ) . (9.32)
E2 E3
230 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

The variable p in ec. (9.32) is defined as p = p1 p4 = p2 + p3 . Moreover


p2 =p22 + p23 + 2p2 p3
=m2e + m2 + 2p2 p3
2p2 p3
g p p =2g p3 p2
p p =2p3 p2 . (9.33)
I must have the form
I = g A(p2 ) + p p B(p2 ) . (9.34)
Defining the itegral I as follows
d3 p2 d3 p3
Z
I= 4 (p p2 p3 ) , (9.35)
E2 E3
Since
m2 0 =E2 p2
E2 =p2 (9.36)
and in addition the integral I is covariant, we choose to evaluate it in the rest frame of the two
neutrinos |p2 | = |p3 |, which implies E2 = E3 .
d3 p 2 d3 p3
Z
3
I = (E E2 E3 ) (p p2 p3 )
E2 E3
d3 p2
Z Z
= (E E2 E3 ) 3 (p p2 p3 )d3 p3
E2 E3
| {z }
=1
(E 2E2 ) 2
Z
= p2 d|p2 |d
E22
(E 2E2 ) 2
Z
= E2 dE2 (4)
E22
Z   
E
=4 2 E2 dE2
2
Z  
1 E
=4 E2 dE2
2 2
=2 (9.37)
9.1. MUON DECAY 231

then multiplying (6.13) by g and p p successively gives, using eq. (9.33)

d3 p2 d3 p3 p2
Z
2
g I = 4A + p B = p3 p2 4 (p p2 p3 ) = I = p2
E2 E3 2

In order to compute p p I , we make use of the fact that it is a Lorentz invariant quantity, so
that we may evaluate it in any reference frame. In particular, we can evaluate it in the rest frame of
the neutrinos involved in this process. This means that p = p2 + p3 = (p0 , 0) and E2 = E3

p p I = p2 A + p4 B (9.38)
Z 3
d p2 d3 p3
=p p p3 p2 4 (p p2 p3 )
E2 E3
Z 3
d p2 d3 p3
= E3 p0 E2 p0 4 (p p2 p3 )
E2 E3
Z
0 2
= (p ) d3 p2 d3 p3 4 (p p2 p3 ) (9.39)
Z
0 2
= (p ) d3 p2 (p0 2E2 )
 2
1 p0 p2 p2
Z
2 2
= (p) dE2 E2 d ( E2 ) = 4
2 2 2 2
4
p
= (9.40)
2

where the usual tricks have been used to simplify the integrals, using the delta function inside.
Therefore
p2
A = ( B) (9.41)
4

p4 p4
( B) + p4 B =
4 2
B
+B =
4 4 2
3B
=
4 4

B = (9.42)
3
232 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

p2
A= ( )
4 3
p2 2
= ( )
4 3
p2
= (9.43)
6

g p2 + 2p p .

I = (9.44)
6
Substituting back in eq. (9.31) we have
2g 4
d = 4
p1 p4 (g p2 + 2p p )d3 p4
16 6(2) MW E1 E4
5

2g 4
d = 4
[(p1 p4 )p2 + 2(p p1 )(p p4 )]d3 p4
16 12(2)4 MW E1 E4
2g 4
d = 4
[(p1 p4 )p2 + 2(p p1 )(p p4 )]d3 p4 (9.45)
192(2)4 MW E1 E4
For further evaluation we will use the rest frame of the decaying muon. In this frame the four
momentum are
p1 =(m , 0)
p4 =(E4 , p4 )
p =p1 p4 = (m E4 , p4 )
p2 =E 2 p2 = m2 2m E4 + (E42 p24 ) = m2 + m2e 2m E4 (9.46)
Moreover
p1 p4 =m E4
p p1 =m2 m E4
p p4 =m E4 E42 + p24 = m E4 m2e
p24 = m2e = E42 p24 p24 = E42 m2e
|p4 | =(E42 m2e )1/2
d|p4 | 1 2E4 E4
= 2
=
dE4 2 (E4 me )2 1/2 |p4 |
E4
d|p4 | = dE4
|p4 |
d3 p4 =p24 d|p4 | d = |p4 |E4 dE4 d (9.47)
9.1. MUON DECAY 233

Substituting back in eq. (9.45) we have


2g 4
d = 4 4
|p4 | dE4 d[(m2 + m2e 2m E4 )m E4 + 2(m2 m E4 )(m E4 m2e )] (9.48)
192(2) MW m
Neglecting electron mass we have |p4 | = E4 , and
2g 4 (4)
d = 4
E4 dE4 [(m2 2m E4 )m E4 + 2(m2 m E4 )m E4 ]
192(2)4 MW m
2 2g 4
= 3 4
m E42 [m2 2m E4 + 2m2 2m E4 ] dE4
192(2) MW m
4g 4 2
 2 
= 4
E4 3m 4m E4 dE4
192(2)3 MW
4g 4
 
2 2 E4
= 4
m E4 3 4 dE4
192(2)3 MW m
4g 4 m4 2E4 2
      
2E4 m 2E4
= 4
32 d
192(2)3 MW 4 m m 2 m
5  2 
4 m 2E4
   
4g 2E4 2E4
= 4
32 d (9.49)
192(2)3 MW 8 m m m
E4 varies from 0 to E4max can be obtained from (me = 0)
p1 p4 = p2 + p3 . (9.50)
The square of he factor on the left is
(p1 p4 )2 =p21 + p24 2p1 p4
=m2 + m2e 2p1 p4 . (9.51)
We have then using eqs. (9.47)(9.50)
2p1 p4 =m2 + m2e (p1 + p4 )2
2m E4 =m2 + m2e (p2 + p3 )2
m2 (p2 + p3 )2 . (9.52)
(p2 + p3 )2 is the invariant mass squared of the + e system, which ranges from 0 to m2 . For
(p2 + p3 )2 = m we have E4min = 0, while for (p2 + p3 )2 = 0 we have E4max = m /2. The missing
integration on d is in the variable x such that
2E 2Emax
x= , xmin = 0 , xmax = = 1. (9.53)
m m
234 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

Therefore

4g 4 m5 1 2
Z
= 4
x [3 2x] dx
192(2)3 MW 8 0
4g 4 m5 1
= 4
192(2)3 MW 8 2
5
g 4 m
= 3 4
192 8MW 4
g4 2
= m5
64MW 192 3
4

G2 2
= F 3
m5
2 192
G2
= F 3 m5 (9.54)
192

From Eq. (9.49), we also have

4g 4
E42 3m2 4m E4 dE4
 
d = 3 4
192(2) MW
g4 4 2
 2 
= 4
E 4 3m 4m E4 dE4
32MW 6(2)3
G2F 2 2
 2 
= E 4 3m 4m E4 dE4
3 8 3
G2
 
4 E4
= F 3 E42 3m2 1 dE4 (9.55)
12 3 m

G2F 2 2
 
d 4E4
= m E 3 (9.56)
dE4 12 3 4 m
9.2. THREE BODY DECAYS IN RADIATIVE SEESAW 235

Without neglect the electron mass we have


2g 4
d = 4
|p4 | dE4 d[(m2 + m2e 2m E4 )m E4 + 2(m2 m E4 )(m E4 m2e )]
192(2)4 MW m
4g 4
= 4
dE4 (E42 m2e )1/2 [m3 E4 + m2e m E4 2(m E4 )2
192(2)3 MW m
+ 2m3 E4 2(m E4 )2 2m2 m2e + 2m m2e E4 ]
4g 4
d = 4
dE4 (E42 m2e )1/2 [3m3 E4 + 3m2e m E4 4(m E4 )2 2m2 m2e ] (9.57)
192(2)3 MW m
The decay width, in terms of x = me /m is
Z m (1+x2 )/2
4g 4
= 4
(E42 m2e )1/2 [(3m2 + 3m2e 4m E4 )m E4 2m2 m2e ] dE4
192(2)3 MW m me
4g 4 m6
= 3 4
I (x) , I(x) = 1 8x2 24x4 ln(x) + 8x6 x8
192(2) MW m 16
G2F m5
= I (x)
192 3
2 5
m

GF
= I (x) , (9.58)
2 96 3

9.2 three body decays in radiative seesaw


We have the Lagrangian [14]
L =ab hj N j PL La b + h.c.
=hj N j PL L1 2 hj N j PL L2 1 + h.c.
=hj N j PL 0 hj N j PL l + + h.c (9.59)
where
(N j PL l + ) = l PL 0 Nj = l PR 0 Nj (9.60)
Therefore
L =hj N j PL 0 hj N j PL l + + hj PR Nj 0 hj l PR Nj
1
= hj N j (1 5 ) 0 hj N j (1 5 )l + + hj (1 + 5 )Nj 0 hj l (1 + 5 )Nj (9.61)

2
236 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

Figure 9.2: Tree level diagram for Nj decay

Applying Feynman rules to the diagram in fig.2 Nj (p1 ) l (p3 )h+ , h+ l+ (p2 ) + Ni (p4 ).
we have the amplitude

 
1
M = ihj u3 (1 5 )u1 hi u4 (1 5 )v2
q 2 M2
 
1
ihj u3 (1 5 )u1 hi u4 (1 5 )v2
q 2 M2
iHij
u3 (1 5 )u1 u4 (1 5 )v2 (9.62)
M2

where

Hij = hj hi + hi hj (9.63)

iHij
M = 2
u3 (1 5 )u1 ] [
[ u4 (1 5 )v2 ]
M
iHij
= [
u1 (1 + 5 )u3 ][
v2 (1 + 5 )u4 ] . (9.64)
M2
9.2. THREE BODY DECAYS IN RADIATIVE SEESAW 237

Multiplying M and M we have


2
Hij
2
|M| = 4
u3 (1 5 ) u1 u1 (1 + 5 ) u3 ][
[ u4 (1 5 ) v2 v2 (1 + 5 ) u4 ]
M
2
Hij
= 4
[u3 u3 (1 5 ) u1 u1 (1 + 5 ) ][u4 u4 (1 5 ) v2 v2 (1 + 5 ) ]
M
2
Hij
= [(u3 u3 ) (1 5 ) (u1 u1 ) (1 + 5 ) ][(u4 u4 ) (1 5 ) (v2 v2 ) (1 + 5 ) ]
M4
2
Hij
= Tr[(u3 u3 )(1 5 )(u1 u1 )(1 + 5 )] Tr[(u4 u4 )(1 5 )(v2 v2 )(1 + 5 )] (9.65)
M4
Using eq. (9.26), and neglecting charged fermion masses
2
2Hij
|M| = Tr[p 3 (1 5 )(p 1 + Mj )(1 + 5 )] Tr[(p 4 + Mi )(1 5 )p 2 (1 + 5 )]
M4
2
Hij
= LM (9.66)
M4

L = Tr[(p 3 p 3 5 )(p 1 + p 1 5 + Mj + Mj 5 ] (9.67)

L = Tr[p 3 p 1 + p 3 p 1 5 + Mj p 3 + Mj p 3 5 p 3 5 p 1 p 3 5 p 1 5 p 3 5 Mj + Mj 5 ]
=2 Tr[p 3 p 1 ]
=2p3 p1 Tr[ ]
=8p3 p1 g
=8(p3 p1 ) (9.68)
Similarly
M = 8(p4 p2 ) (9.69)
Therefore
2
Hij
|M|2 = 64(p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
M4
2
Hij
|M|2 = 4 64(p3 p4 )(p1 p2 )
4M4
(9.70)
238 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

In this way, comparing with eq. (9.30), the results for the moun decay can be directly used after the
replacements
2
g4 Hij
4

64MW 4M4
2
g4 16Hij
4

MW M4
m Mj
me Mi
x= . (9.71)
m Mj
The decay width is according eq. (9.58)
2
16Hij 4 Mj6
(Nj l l Ni ) = I (x)
M4 192(2)3 Mj 16
(hj hi + hi hj )2 Mj5
= I (x) (9.72)
2M4 192 3
where
Mi
I(x) = 1 8x2 24x4 ln(x) + 8x6 x8 , x= . (9.73)
Mj
Similarly the decay through 0 is
(hj hi + hi hj )2 Mj5
(Nj Ni ) = I (x) (9.74)
2M40 192 3
In this way, for example for N2
X X h22 h21 + h21 h22 + 2h2 h1 h2 h1 M 5
(N2 l l+ N1 ) = 4
2
3
I (x)

2M 192
h22 h21 + h21 h22 + 2h2 h1 h2 h1 M25
= I (x) (9.75)
2M4 192 3

X h22 h21 + h21 h22 + 2(h2 h1 )2 M25


(N2 l l+ N1 ) = I (x)

2M4 192 3
h21 h22 + (h1 h2 )2 M25
= I (x) (9.76)
M4 192 3
9.2. THREE BODY DECAYS IN RADIATIVE SEESAW 239

In general
h2i h2j + (hi hj )2 Mj5
 
X Mi
(Nj l l+ Ni ) = I

M4 192 3 Mj
h2i h2j + (hi hj )2 Mj5
 
X Mi
(Nj Ni ) = I (9.77)

M40 192 3 Mj

For fix i and j


+
M40
P
Br(Nj l l Ni )
P = 4 (9.78)
Br(Nj Ni ) M
while for
4
P
Br(N3 N2 )h22 h23 + (h2 h3 )2 M
+
I(M2 /M3 )
h21 h23 + (h1 h3 )2 M40
P
Br(N3 l l N1 )
Br(N3 l l+ N2 ) h22 h23 + (h2 h3 )2
P
P +
2 2 I(M2 /M3 ) (9.79)
Br(N3 l l N1 ) h1 h3 + (h1 h3 )2
For N2 the total decay width is
" #
 M25

M1 1 1
tot (N2 ) = h21 h22 + (h1 h2 )2

I 4
+ 4 (9.80)
192 3 M2 M M0

And the individual branchings through given by eq. (9.72).


For N3 we have several possibilities for signals with charged leptons. The cleanest one is when
N3 decay only through through an intermediate N2 .
The branching of N3 to two charged leptons plus missing energy is either
Br(N3 l l N1 ) (9.81)
where the N3 is reconstructed, or
l l N1 ) = Br(N3 N2 ) Br(N2 l l N1 )
Br(N3 |{z} (9.82)
0

that seem to be very difficult to reconstruct. This also seem to be an irreducible background for
Br(N2 l l N1 ) (9.83)
To get rid of processes like the one in eq. (9.82) must be Br(N3 N2 ) is suppressed. This
happens if
240 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

I(M2 /M 3)  1. In this case the mutilepton signal for N3 is also suppressed. Clearly this
happens for M2 M3 as I(x) is a sharpest function which controls the kinematical suppression.
We show below for an specific point that even for M3 M2 20 GeV, we can have the Branching
in eq. (9.81) sufficiently large.
M  M0
In appendix 9.A, it is shown a full set of yukawas consistent with neutrino physics. For this
solution
Br( + N3 ) Br( + N2 )
0.61 0.37
Br( + N1 ) Br( + N1 )
Br( + N1 ) 0.51 Br( + N2 ) 0.19 Br( + N3 ) 0.30 (9.84)

Below we estimate the branchings to N3 l l+ N1 or N3 N2 l l+ N1 . For this we


need the Branchings for N2 l l+ N1 compared with Branching to N2 N1 . In general this is
From this, the visible decays are using eq. (9.78)
+
P
Br(N2 l l N1 )
X
P 0.758 Br(N2 l l+ N1 ) = 0.431 (9.85)
Br(N 2 N1 )

On the other hand the chanels for N3 are N3 l l+ N1 , N3 N1 , N3 l l+ N2 , and N3


N2 . From eqs. (9.78) (9.79)
+
P P
Br(N3 N2 ) Br(N3 l l N2 )
P +
0.0812 P +
0.0615
Br(N3 l l N1 ) Br(N3 l l N1 )
P
Br(N3 N1 )
P +
1.320 (9.86)
Br(N3 l l N1 )

X 1
Br(N3 l l+ N1 ) = 0.406

1 + 0.0812 + 0.0615 + 1.320
X
Br(N3 N1 ) 0.536

X
Br(N3 N2 ) 0.030

X
Br(N3 l l+ N2 ) 0.025 (9.87)

9.2. THREE BODY DECAYS IN RADIATIVE SEESAW 241

The expected background for N2,3 l l+ N1 is


X X
Br(N3 N2 ) Br(N2 l l+ N1 ) 0.030 0.431 = 0.013 (9.88)

We have that
" #
 M25

 2 2 2 M1 1 1
tot (N2 ) = h1 h2 + (h1 h2 ) I +
192 3 M2 M4 M40
X
vis (N2 N1 ) (N2 l l+ N1 )

h21 h22 + (h1 h2 )2 M25


 
M1
= I
M4 192 3 M2
X
vis (N3 N1 ) (N3 l l+ N1 )

h21 h23 + (h1 h3 )2 M35


 
M1
= I
M4 192 3 M3
X
invis (N3 N2 ) (N3 N2 )

h22 h23 + (h2 h3 )2 M35


 
M2
= I .
M40 192 3 M3

From above equations we can obtain the following observable:

Brinvis (N3 N2 ) Brvis (N2 N1 )


Brvis (N3 N1 )
   
h2 h3 +(h2 h3 )2 M35
2 2
M2 h21 h22 +(h1 h2 )2 M25 M1
M 40 192 3
I M3
M 4 192 3
I M2

=  
h21 h23 +(h1 h3 )2 M35
M 4 192 3
I M M3
1
tot (N2 )

h22 h23 + (h2 h3 )2


 
M2 1
= 2 2 I  
h1 h3 + (h1 h3 ) 2 M3 4 1 1
M0 M 4 + M 4
0
2 2 2
h h + (h2 h3 )
 
M2 1
= 22 32 I  
h1 h3 + (h1 h3 ) 2 M3 M 40

1 + M4

242 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

9.A Sample point


write(32,*) (h(i,1),i=1,3),(h(i,2),i=1,3),(h(i,3),i=1,3)

-0.00188878597 0.000780236776 0.000248251388


-0.000352494763 -0.000180683976 -0.00122443053
0.000392272581 0.00120920029 -0.0012245638

So that

h21 4.238 106 h22 1.656 106


h23 3.116 106 h1 h2 2.208 107
h1 h3 1.015 107 h2 h3 1.143 106 (9.89)

h21 h22 + (h1 h2 )2 7.067 1012 h21 h23 + (h1 h3 )2 1.321 1011
h22 h23 + (h2 h3 )2 6.465 1012 (9.90)

The spectrum consistent with neutrino data is

M1 6.16918656 KeV M2 22.8695451 GeV M3 43.126911 GeV


M0 139.1382 GeV M 149.1382 GeV (9.91)

I(M1 /M3 ) 1 I(M2 /M3 ) 0.126 (9.92)

9.B Preliminary discussion


One interesting possibility in view of the large invisible direct decay, like N3 N1 , is to get the
observables from the missing plus one energetic lepton (coming from + ) signal. May be decays like

+ l+ N3 l+ E T
+ l+ N2 l+ E T
(9.93)
0
Once R,I , or are produced the full list of signals is: For production. The decay to Nj is

3h2j 1/2 Mj2 + m2


 
+ + 2 2 2

( l Nj ) = M , Mj , m 1 (9.94)
16M M2
9.B. PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION 243

3h2j 1/2 Mj2 + m2


X  
+
l+ Nj ) 2 2 2

( = M , Mj , m 1 (9.95)

16M M2

with
 h 2 i1/2
1/2 M2 , Mj2 , m2 = M2 + Mj2 m2 4M2 Mj2 (9.96)

Neglecting m with respect to N2,3 , we have for j = 2, 3


" 2 #1/2
Mj2 4Mj2
1/2 M2 , Mj2 , m2 M2

1+ 2
M M2
1/2
Mj2 4Mj2

2
M 1 + 2 2
M M2
1/2
Mj2

2
M 1 2 2
M
Mj2
 
2
M 1 2 (9.97)
M

Therefore
2 2

Mj
3h2j M

1 2 j = 2, 3
X
( + l+ Nj ) M
16
1 j=1

Mj2

2
3hj M 12 2

j = 2, 3
M
16 1 j=1

(9.98)

In this way
X
tor ( + ) = ( + l+ Nj )
j

M22 M32
    
3M 2 2 2
h1 + h2 1 2 2 + h3 1 2 2 (9.99)
16 M M
244 CHAPTER 9. THREE BODY DECAYS

+ +
Br( + Nj )
P
( l Nj )
= P
Br( + Ni ) ( l Ni )
+ +

h2j 1 2Mj2 /M2


2
hi 1 2Mi2 /M2
h2j
(1 2Mj2 /M2 )(1 2Mi2 /M2 )1
h2i
h2j
2 (1 2Mj2 /M2 )(1 + 2Mi2 /M2 )
hi
h2j
 2
Mj Mi2
 
2 12 (9.100)
hi M2

For three branchings we should have

a+b+c=1
b c 1
1+ + =
a a a
1
a= (9.101)
1 + b/a + c/a

In this way
1
Br( + N1 ) = Br( + N3 ) Br( + N3 )
(9.102)
1+ Br( + N1 )
+ Br( + N1 )

From eq.

Br (N3 N1 )
= (9.103)
N2 )
Br(N3 |{z}

Chapter 10

Renomalization at 1-loop

In this chapter we study the renomalization of the mass terms and the gauge coupling in the context
of a Yang-Mills theory

10.1 Self-energy

El Lagrangiano de interaccion entre gluones y fermiones y entre fotones y fermiones es

 
a
f Qf f A
X X

Lint =gs q q Ga + e
q
2 f

f Qf f A
X X
=gs q (Ta ) q Ga + e
q f

fi (Qf ij )fj A ,
X X
=gs q (T a ) q Ga + e (10.1)
q f

Generalizando para un acoplamiento entre un boson gauge y un fermion, tenemos

Lint = g a (T c )ab b Gc . (10.2)

245
246 CHAPTER 10. RENOMALIZATION AT 1-LOOP

(i)2
Z Z
(2) (2)
S =S = d4 x1 d4 x2 T{HI (x1 )HI (x2 )}
2!
(ig)2
Z Z
d4 x1 d4 x2 T{: a b Gc (T c )ab x d e Gf (T f )de x :}
   
=
2! 1 2

(ig)2
Z Z
d4 x1 d4 x2 : a b Gc (T c )ab x d e Gf (T f )de x : +
   
=
2! 1 2

(ig)2
Z Z
d4 x1 d4 x2 : a b Gc (T c )ab x1 d e Gf (T f )de x2 : +
   
+ (10.3)
2!

(i)2
Z Z
(2) (2)
S =S = d4 x1 d4 x2 T{HI (x1 )HI (x2 )}
2!
(ig)2
Z Z
d4 x1 d4 x2 T{: a Gc b (T c )ab x d Gf e (T f )de x :}
   
=
2! 1 2

2 Z Z
(ig)
d4 x1 d4 x2 : a Gc b (T c )ab x d Gf e (T f )de x : +
   
=
2! 1 2

2 Z Z
(ig)
d4 x1 d4 x2 : a Gc b (T c )ab x1 d Gf e (T f )de x2 : +
   
+ (10.4)
2!
The self-energy diagram give to arise
dd k 1 g c
Z
ab 2 4d
i (p) = g (T )ad (T c )db (10.5)
(2)d p 
k m k2

iab (p) = (T c )ad (T c )db (p) (10.6)

dd k (p 
k + m)
Z
2 4d
(p) = ig (10.7)
(2)d [(p k)2 m2 ]k 2
Changing variables
1
dd k 0 (p(1
 z) k 0 + m)
Z Z
2 4d
(p) = ig dz (10.8)
0 (2)d [k 0 2 m2 z + p2 z(1 z)]2
Applyng the formulas
1 ( d/2) 1
Z
dd p =i d/2
+ 2pq M
p2 2 () [q M 2 ]d/2
2

p ( d/2) q
Z
dd p 2 = i d/2 (10.9)
p + 2pq M 2 () [q M 2 ]d/2
2
10.1. SELF-ENERGY 247

We get in the first place that the integration in 


k is zero. Moreover, defining

M 2 = m2 z p2 z(1 z) (10.10)

and taking into account that q = 0, we have

1 (2 d/2)
Z
dd k 0 2 = i d/2
(10.11)
[k m2 z + p2 z(1 z)]2 (2)[m z + p2 z(1 z)]2d/2
2

Since

(n) = (n 1)! (10.12)

so that (2) = 2, then

1 (2 d/2)
Z
dd k = i d/2 (10.13)
[k 0 2 m2 z + p z(1 z)]
2 2 [m z + p2 z(1 z)]2d/2
2

Let

=4d = 2 d/2 (10.14)
2
In this way we are interested in the limit 0:
1
i d/2  z) + m)
(p(1
Z
2 4d
(p) = ig (2 d/2) dz
0 (2)d [m2 z + p2 z(1 z)]2d/2
Z 1
=g 2 4d (2 d/2)(4)d/2 dz  z) + m)
(p(1
0 [m2 z + p2 z(1 z)]2d/2
(4)2d/2 1 (p(1 z) + m)
Z
2 2 2d/2
=g ( ) (2 d/2) dz 
(4)2 0 [m2 z + p2 z(1 z)]2d/2
(4)/2 1  z) + m)
(p(1
Z
=g 2 (2 )/2 (/2) dz
(4)2 0 [m2 z + p2 z(1 z)]/2
/2
g 2 (/2) 1 2 2
m z + p z(1 z)
Z 
=
16 2  z) + m)
dz (p(1
42
(10.15)
0

From the Dirac algebra in d-dimensions

=d =(2 d) = (2 + ) (10.16)
248 CHAPTER 10. RENOMALIZATION AT 1-LOOP

Therefore
1 /2
g 2 (/2) m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
Z 
(p) = dz (p(2 + )(1 z) + dm)
16 2 0
 42
/2
g 2 (/2) 1 m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
Z 
=
16 2  z) + (4 )m + p(1
dz [2p(1  z)] 42
0
/2
g 2 (/2) 1 m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
Z 
= dz {2p(1
 z) + 4m + [p(1
 z) m]}
16 2 0 42
/2
g 2 (/2) 1 m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
Z 
= dz {2p(1
 z) 4m [p(1
 z) m]} (10.17)
16 2 0 42
Since
2
(/2) = + O()

a =1 + ln a + (10.18)
Z 1
g2

2
(p) dz {2p(1
 z) 4m [p(1  z) m]}
16 2 0
m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
  

1 ln
2 42
Z 1
g2
    
2 2
= dz (2p(1
 z) 4m) [p(1  z) m]
16 2 0
m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
  

1 ln
2 42
1
g2
 
2
Z
dz [2p(1 z) 4m] [2p(1
 z) 4m] 2[p(1
 z) m]
16 2 0 
m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
  

1 ln
2 42
1
g2

2
Z
2
dz [2p(1 z) 4m] [2p(1
 z) 4m] 2[p(1
 z) m]
16 0 
m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
 
[2p(1
 z) 4m] ln (10.19)
42
Since
1 1
1
z 2 1
Z Z
dz =1 (1 z)dz = z = (10.20)
0 0 2 0 2
10.2. OTHER 249

we have
g2

2
(p) 2
[p 4m] [p 4m] [p 2m]
16 
Z t
m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
 
2  z) 2m] ln
dz[p(1
0 42
g2
= [p 4m]
8 2  Z t
g2 m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
 
p + 4m p + 2m 2  z) 2m] ln
dz[p(1
16 2 0 42
g2
= [p 4m] + finite (p) (10.21)
8 2 
where
Z t
g2 m2 z + p2 z(1 z)
  
finite (p) = p(1 + ) 2m(1 + 2) + 2  z) 2m] ln
dz[p(1
16 2  0 42
(10.22)
Finally
g2
ab (p) = 2
[p 4m] (Tc Tc )ab + ab
finite (p) (10.23)
8
For SU (N ) we have
N2 1
(T c T c )ab = ab C2 (F )ab (10.24)
2N
where
N2 1
C2 (F ) = (10.25)
2N
is the Casimir for SU (N ). In this way
g2
ab (p) = C2 (F ) [p 4m] + ab
finite (p) (10.26)
8 2

10.2 Other
The other loop calculation and the renormalization procedure are explained in scan of the following
notes: http://gfif.udea.edu.co/cf/Renormalization.pdf (PDF 13M)
250 CHAPTER 10. RENOMALIZATION AT 1-LOOP
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