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Triangulation or precise traversing is used for horizontal

control in Geodetic survey.
In triangulation, system consists of a number of inter
connected triangles in which the length of only one line,
called base line and angle of triangles are measured very
Unit-3 precisely.
By knowing the length of one side and the three angles,
Surveying-II lengths of other two sides of each triangle can be computed.
The apexes of the triangles are known as triangulation
(5CE04) stations and whole figure is called as triangulation system or
Prof. P. V. Khandve But it tends to accumulate error of length and azimuth.
B.E.Civil, M.Tech.(Env.Engg.)(Hons.), To control this accumulation of errors, subsidiary bases are
D.B.M., D.I.D., D.I.T., D.I.J., B.A.Soc. also selected.
M.I.E., M.I.S.T.E., M.I.S.E.T, M.I.S.C.A., M.I.W.W.A., M.I.S.E.F.
At certain stations, astronomical observations for azimuth
and longitude are also made. These stations are called as
Laplace Stations.
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Object of Geodetic Triangulation Classification of Triangulation systems

To provide most accurate system of The basis of classification of triangulation
horizontal control points on which the less systems is the accuracy with which the
precise triangles may be based, which in length and azimuth of the line is determined.
turn may form a framework to which Triangulation systems of different systems
cadastral, topographical, hydrographical, depends on the extent and the purpose of
engineering and other surveys may be the survey
referred. i) First order or Primary Triangulation
To assist in determination of the size and ii) Second order or Secondary Triangulation
shape of the earth by making observations
iii) Third order or Tertiary Triangulation
for latitude, longitude and gravity.
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First Order or Primary Triangulation First order or Primary Triangulation

It is highest order triangulation system General specification Values
It is employed for determination of Earths figure 1 Average triangle closure < 1 Sec
It is used to furnish most precise control points 2 maximum triangle closure < 3 Sec
to which secondary triangulation may be 3 Length of base line 5 to 15 Km
connected 4 Length of sides of triangles 30 to 150 Km
It covers Vast area (usually whole country) 5 Actual error of base 1 in 3,00,000
Every precaution is taken for linear and angular 6 Probable error of base 1 in 10,00,000
measurement 7 Discrepancy between two measures 10mm Kilometer
Performed very accurately by expert surveyor 8 Probable error of computed distances 1 in 50000
Performing the Reductions done very carefully to 1 in 250000
9 Probable errors of astronomic azimuth 0.5 Sec
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Second Order or Secondary Triangulation Second order or Secondary Triangulation

Stations are fixed at close interval so that size of General specification Values
triangles formed are smaller than primary 1 Average triangle closure < 3 Sec
2 maximum triangle closure < 8 Sec
It is Middle order triangulation system
3 Length of base line 1.5 to 5 Km
It is done to fix number of points fixed within
framework of primary triangulation 4 Length of sides of triangles 8 to 65 Km
It is used to furnish precise control points to which 5 Actual error of base 1 in 1,50,000
third order triangulation may be connected 6 Probable error of base 1 in 5,00,000
It divides the primary triangles into small triangles 7 Discrepancy between two measures 20mm Kilometer
Moderate precaution is taken for linear and 8 Probable error of computed distances 1 in 20000
angular measurement as compare to primary to 1 in 50000
9 Probable errors of astronomic azimuth 2 Sec
Performed accurately by experienced surveyor
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Third Order or Tertiary Triangulation Third order or Tertiary Triangulation

Number of points are fixed at close interval so General specification Values
that size of triangles formed are smaller than 1 Average triangle closure < 6 Sec
secondary triangulation
2 Maximum triangle closure < 12 Sec
It is Lower order triangulation system
3 Length of base line 0.5 to 3 Km
It forms immediate control for detailed
engineering survey 4 Length of sides of triangles 1.5 to 10 Km
It divides the secondary triangles into further 5 Actual error of base 1 in 7,50,000
small triangles 6 Probable error of base 1 in 2,50,000
Less precaution is taken for linear and angular 7 Discrepancy between two measures 25mm Kilometer
measurement as compare to secondary 8 Probable error of computed distances 1 in 5000
to 1 in 20000
Performed by senior field surveyor.
9 Probable errors of astronomic azimuth 5 Sec
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Triangulation figures or Systems Triangulation

A Triangulation figure is a group of system figures
of triangles such that any figure has one
side and only one, common to each of the
preceding and following figures.
Types of Triangulation figures are -
Single chain of triangles
Double chain of triangles
Central point figures

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Single chain of triangles Double chain of triangles

It is used for narrow strip of terrain It is used for Wide strip of terrain
It is not so accurate for primary work since It is not so accurate for primary work since
numberb off conditions
diti tto be
b ffulfilled
lfill d iin th
the fifigure number of conditions to be fulfilled in the figure
adjustment is relatively small adjustment is relatively small
It is rapid and economical system It is rapid and economical system
To avoid excessive error, frequent setting of To avoid excessive error, frequent setting of
base line is necessary base line is necessary
Solution of triangle through the figure by two Solution of triangle through the figure by two
independent routes is not possible. independent routes is possible.
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Central Point Figure Quadrilateral Figure

It is used for cover flat topography country It is Best figure for precise triangulation
It is accurate for secondary system since number of It is most accurate for primary system since
conditions to be fulfilled in the figure adjustment is
relatively more number of conditions to be fulfilled in the
It is not rapid and economical system figure adjustment through many
To avoid excessive error, system provides desired combinations
checks on computations.
Central figures like pentagon, hexagon
It is not rapid and economical system
quadrilaterals are used in this system. quadrilaterals are used in this system.
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Triangulations figures Criteria for selection of figure

The figure should be such that computations can
be done through two independent routes.
The figure should be such that at least one, and
preferably both routes should be well
All the lines in figure should be of comparable
Very line lines should be avoided
The figure should be such that lease work may
secure maximum progress
Complex figures should not involve more than
about twelve conditions.

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Well conditioned triangles Routine of Triangulation survey

There are various triangulations figures and the
accuracy attained in each figure depends upon i) the Reconnaissance
magnitude of the angle in each individual triangle and
ii) the arrangement of triangles. Erection of signals and towers
Shape of triangles should be such that any error in
measurement of angle shall have minimum effect upon Measurement of base lines
the length of the calculated side. Such triangle is then
called as Well conditioned triangle. Measurement of horizontal angles
In triangle, one side is known from computations of the Astronomical observations of Laplase
adjacent triangle. The error in the other side will affect
the rest of triangulation figure. station
In order that these two sides be equally accurate, they Computation.
should be equal in length, this can be attained by
making triangle isosceles.
Best shape of triangle is isosceles triangle with base
angle 56014 approx. but for practical consideration
equilateral triangle is most suitable.
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Reconnaissance for Triangulation Instrument for Triangulation Survey

Working from whole to part
Great skill, experience & judgment Theodolite
Economy and efficiency of Triangulation system Prismatic compass
depends on efficient reconnaissance
Examinations of country to be surveyed Aneroid barometer
Selection of suitable sites for base lines Steel tape
S l ti off suitable
Selection it bl positions
iti ffor ttriangulation
i l ti P
f lT
Determination of inter
inter--visibility and height of Steel tape
stations Heliotropes for testing inter
Collection of miscellaneous information regarding Drawing instrument & material
communication of water, food, labor and guides
etc. Ladders, ropes, creepers etc.
Existing maps should be used
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Selection of Triangulation Station Inter--visibility and Height of Station

Station should be Inter
Inter--visible, placed upon If the distance between the stations is more and
elevated ground such as hills. difference in elevation is less, calculations are
They should form well conditioned triangles. Base necessary to determine whether it is necessary to
angle 560 ( >300 & < 1200)
elevate the station to get intervisibility or not.
Easily accessible. (Food, water and nearest
shelter should be available) Generally it is necessary to raise both th
Length of sight should not be too short or too long long. einstrument as well as signal to overcome the
They should be in commanding situation for future curvature of the earth and to clear all intervening
subsidiary triangulation extension obstructions.
For forestry area, cost of clearing, cutting and Height of instrument as well as signal depends on
building towers should be minimum. The distance between the stations
Line of sight do not pass over the towns, factories, The relative elevation of station
furnaces so that effect of irregular refraction is
avoided. The profile of intervening ground
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Distance between stations Relative elevation of stations

Distance of visible horizon from a station of known if there is no obstruction due to intervening ground to get
elevation above datum is given by necessary elevation of station at distance, so that it may be
visible from another station of known elevation
where h = height of station above datum
h1 = 0.06728 D12 formula can be used or D1 = 3.8553 h1
D = distance to visible horizon if D is known then D2 = D D1 and h2 = 0.06728 D22
R = mean radius of earth Thus required h2 is determined, if level of B is known, it can
m = mean coefficient of refraction = 0.07 for over be ascertain whether it is necessary to elevate the station B
land area 0.08 for over sea area
h = 0.06728 D2 where h in m and D in Km

h= (1 2m)
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Problem Two triangulation stations A and B are 60 Km apart

Profile of Intervening Ground and have elevations 240m and 280m resp. Find the
minimum height of signal required at B so that the
line of sight may not pass near the ground than 2 m.
The intervening ground may be assumed to have a
uniform elevation of 200 m
Minimum elevation = 200+2 = 202 m
Let us take this as datum
Height of A above the datum is h1= 240-
240-202 = 38m
The tangent distance D1=3.8553
=3 8553h1 =3
=3.8553h 855338 =23.766Km
=3.855338 =23 766Km
Distance of B from point of tangency = D1= D - D1
= 60 - 23.766 = 36.234 Km
The elevation of B above datum h2 can be found from
D2=3.8553 h2 36.234 =3.8553 h2 h2 = 88.33 m
Elevation of line of sight at B = 202 + 88.33 = 290.33 m
x 1 2m
h = 1 ( h2 + h1 ) + 1 (h2 h1 ) ( s 2 x 2 ) cos ec 2 Ground level at B = 280 m
2 2 s 2R Minimum height of signal above ground at B = 290.33 280
Trangulation by PVK 27 = 10.33 m Trangulation by PVK 28

Problems Towers
The altitude of two Structure erected over a station
proposed stations A for support of instrument and
and B 100 Km apart,
observing party
are 420m and 700 m
resp. The intervening It is provided when station, signal
obstruction situated at or both are to be elevated
C, 70 Km from A has
Inner tower for instrument
an elevation of 478m.
Ascertain if A and B are Outer tower for Observer etc
intervisible, and if Masonry / Timber / Steel
necessary find by how
much B should be 10 m / 25 m / 50 m
raised so that the line Portable / Foldable steel tower
of sight must nowhere
be less than 3 m above
the surface of ground. Trangulation by PVK 29 Trangulation by PVK 30


Signals Phase of signal

Phase of signal is the error of bisection
A signal is a device erected to define the exact position of an which arises from the fact that, under
observed station. lateral illumination, the signal is partly in
light and partly in shade.
Types are i) Daylight or nonluminous signal The observer sees only the illuminated
Sun or Luminous signal portion and bisects it.
Thus it is apparent displacements of
Night Signal signals.
Requirement of Signals are For this Phase correction is thus
necessary so that the observed angle
It should be clearly visible may be reduced to that corresponding to
against any backgound center of signal.
The correction can be applied in two
It should be capable of being conditions
accurately centered over station mark i) when observation is made on the bright
It should be suitable for accurate bisection 206265r cos 2
It should be free from phase, or should exhibit little phase = 2
Distance 206265r cos
ii) When observation is made on the =
bright line Distance
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Selection of Site for Base Line Reduction to Mean Sea level

The site should be fairly level The measured horizontal distance
should be reduced to the distance
For sloping ground slope should be uniform at the mean sea level called as
Undulating ground should be avoided. Geodetic distance.
If the length of the base is reduced
The site should be free from obstructions to mean sea level, the calculated
throughout the whole of the length length of all other triangulation
The line clearing should be cheap lines will be also corresponding
p g to
that mean sea level.
The extremities of the base should be inter-
inter-visible L = measured horizontal distance
at ground level D = equivalent length at MSL
The ground should be reasonable firm and h = mean equivalent of base line
above MSL
smooth, no ponds and water gap
R = Radius of Earth
The site should suit extension to primary Correction Cmsi = L D = Lh/R
triangulation (-ve)
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Extension of Base : Base Net Base Net Layout

There are great variety of
The base lines are usually much shorter than extension layout. but
the average length of triangle sides. This is following points should be
mainly due to two reasons considered while
i) It is often not possible to get a favorite site for selecting the layout
a longer base and Small angles opposite the
known side must be
ii) It is difficult and expensive to measure lone avoided
base lines.
The net should have
Hence in connecting the comparatively short sufficient redundant lines
base line to the main triangulation, badly to provide three or four
conditioned figure must be avoided by side equations within the
expanding base line in a series of stages. figure
The group of triangles meant for extending the Subject to above, it
base is known as BASE NET. should provide quickest
extension with the fewest
Trangulation by PVK 35 stations. Trangulation by PVK 36


Typical Base Extension Independent Vs Conditioned Quantity

An observed quantity may be classified as
i) Independent and ii) Conditioned.
An Independent quantity is the one whose
value is independent of the values of other
quantity. It bears no relation with any other
quantity and hence change in the other quantity
does nott affect
ff t the
th value
l off this
thi quantity.
tit Ex.
reduced levels of several bench marks.
Conditioned quantity is the one whose value is
dependent upon the values of one or more
quantities. Its value bears a rigid relationship to
some other quantity or quantities. It is also called
as dependent quantity.
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Direct / Indirect Observation Weight of an Observation

An observation is the numerical value of a The weight of an observation is a number giving an
indication of its precision and trustworthiness when
measured quantity and may be either direct or making a comparison between several quantities of
indirect. different worth.
If a certain observation is of weight 4, it means that it is
A Direct observation is the one made directly four times as much reliable as an observation of weight 1.
on the quantity being determined. e.g. the When two quantities or observations are assumed to be
measurement of a base
base, the single equally reliable, the observed values are said to be of
equal weight or of unit weight.
measurement of an angle etc. Observations are called as weighted observation when
An Indirect observation is one in which the different weights are assigned to them.
observed value is reduced from the Observations are required to be weighted when they are
made with unequal care and under dissimilar conditions.
measurement of some related quantities. Weights are assigned to the observations or quantity
e.g. the measurement of angle by repetition observed in direct proportion to the number of

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Values and Errors Types of Equation

Observed value of quantity An observed value of quantity
is the value obtained when it is corrected for all the known
errors. Observation Equation An observation equation is
True value of quantity The true value of a quantity is the the relation between the observed quantity and its
value which is absolutely free from all errors. The true value numerical values.
of a quantity is indeterminate since the true error is never
known. Conditioned Equation A conditioned equation is
Most Probable value The most probable value of a the equation expressing the relation existing
quantity is the one which have more chances of being true between the several dependent
p q
than has any other. It is deduced from the several
measurement on which it is based. Normal Equation A Normal equation is the one
True error A true error is difference between true value of which is formed by multiplying each equation by a
a quantity and its observed value. coefficient of unknown whose normal equations to
Most Probable error Quantity which added to, and be found and by adding the equations thus formed.
subtracted from the most probable value to bet most chance
true value. As the number of normal equations is same as the
Residual Error A residual error is the difference between number of unknowns, the most probable values of
most probable value of a quantity and its observed value. unknown can be found from these equations.
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Satellite Station : Reduction to Centre Position of Satellite

In order to secure well conditioned triangles or Station
better visibility, objects such as church spires,
steeples, flag poles, towers etc are sometimes d sin( + )
selected as the triangulation stations. 1 ( Second ) = 206265
When the observations are to taken from such c
a station, it is impossible to setup an
instrument over it. d sin
In such case subsidiary station, known as 2 ( Second ) = 206265
satellite station or eccentric station or false a
station is selected near to main station as d = eccentric Distance between B and S
Observation are taken to the other = observed angle towards Station A
triangulation stations with same precision as if = ASC
it is true station.
These observations are later corrected and = observed angle towards Station B
reduced to what they would have been if the
true station was occupied. = BSC
The operation of applying the correction due to 1 = angle a station A
eccentricity of the station is generally known
as Reduction to Centre. 2 = angle a station C
The distance between the true station and = True angle at B ( angle ABC)
satellite station is determined either by method
of trigonometrically leveling or by triangulation. AC = b, AB = c, BC = a
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True Angle from satellite station Correction to observed angles

d sin 1 1, 2 = angle towards A1, A2
1 ( Second ) = 206265
D1 Sin1" D1, D2 = distance of A1, A2, ..
Case-1 S1 to the left of B
Case- 1, 2 = correction to angle 1, 2
d sin 2
= + 1 - 2 2 ( Second ) = 206265 BS = d = distance of satellite station
D2 Sin1" to be taken as meridian for measuring
Case--2 S2 to the right of B
Case angle.
= - 1 + 2
Case--3 S3 between AC & B
= - 1 - 2
Case--4 S4 on other Side of B
= + 1 + 2

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Most probable value Assignment - 3

Most probable value = Arithmetic mean
Probable error = Es = Problem 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.21, 9.22
Es = 0.6745
wv 2

n 1
W = weight of observation
V = probable residual error in observation
N = no. of value

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Trangulation by PVK 55 Trangulation by PVK 56

Trangulation by PVK 57 Trangulation by PVK 58

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Trangulation by PVK 61 Trangulation by PVK 62

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Trangulation by PVK 65 Trangulation by PVK 66


Prof. P. V. Khandve
B.E.Civil, M.Tech.(Env.Engg.)(Hons.),
D.B.M., D.I.D., D.I.T., D.I.J., B.A.Soc.
M.I.E., M.I.S.T.E., M.I.S.E.T, M.I.S.C.A., M.I.W.W.A., M.I.A.S.

Trangulation by PVK 67