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159 visualizações12 páginasSurvey II : Triangulation

Mar 02, 2017

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Survey II : Triangulation

© All Rights Reserved

159 visualizações

Survey II : Triangulation

© All Rights Reserved

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Triangulation

Triangulation or precise traversing is used for horizontal

Triangulation

control in Geodetic survey.

In triangulation, system consists of a number of inter

connected triangles in which the length of only one line,

called base line and angle of triangles are measured very

Unit-3 precisely.

By knowing the length of one side and the three angles,

Surveying-II lengths of other two sides of each triangle can be computed.

The apexes of the triangles are known as triangulation

(5CE04) stations and whole figure is called as triangulation system or

figure.

Prof. P. V. Khandve But it tends to accumulate error of length and azimuth.

B.E.Civil, M.Tech.(Env.Engg.)(Hons.), To control this accumulation of errors, subsidiary bases are

D.B.M., D.I.D., D.I.T., D.I.J., B.A.Soc. also selected.

M.I.E., M.I.S.T.E., M.I.S.E.T, M.I.S.C.A., M.I.W.W.A., M.I.S.E.F.

At certain stations, astronomical observations for azimuth

and longitude are also made. These stations are called as

Laplace Stations.

Trangulation by PVK 2

To provide most accurate system of The basis of classification of triangulation

horizontal control points on which the less systems is the accuracy with which the

precise triangles may be based, which in length and azimuth of the line is determined.

turn may form a framework to which Triangulation systems of different systems

cadastral, topographical, hydrographical, depends on the extent and the purpose of

engineering and other surveys may be the survey

referred. i) First order or Primary Triangulation

To assist in determination of the size and ii) Second order or Secondary Triangulation

shape of the earth by making observations

iii) Third order or Tertiary Triangulation

for latitude, longitude and gravity.

Trangulation by PVK 3 Trangulation by PVK 4

It is highest order triangulation system General specification Values

It is employed for determination of Earths figure 1 Average triangle closure < 1 Sec

It is used to furnish most precise control points 2 maximum triangle closure < 3 Sec

to which secondary triangulation may be 3 Length of base line 5 to 15 Km

connected 4 Length of sides of triangles 30 to 150 Km

It covers Vast area (usually whole country) 5 Actual error of base 1 in 3,00,000

Every precaution is taken for linear and angular 6 Probable error of base 1 in 10,00,000

measurement 7 Discrepancy between two measures 10mm Kilometer

Performed very accurately by expert surveyor 8 Probable error of computed distances 1 in 50000

Performing the Reductions done very carefully to 1 in 250000

9 Probable errors of astronomic azimuth 0.5 Sec

Trangulation by PVK 5 Trangulation by PVK 6

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Stations are fixed at close interval so that size of General specification Values

triangles formed are smaller than primary 1 Average triangle closure < 3 Sec

triangulation

2 maximum triangle closure < 8 Sec

It is Middle order triangulation system

3 Length of base line 1.5 to 5 Km

It is done to fix number of points fixed within

framework of primary triangulation 4 Length of sides of triangles 8 to 65 Km

It is used to furnish precise control points to which 5 Actual error of base 1 in 1,50,000

third order triangulation may be connected 6 Probable error of base 1 in 5,00,000

It divides the primary triangles into small triangles 7 Discrepancy between two measures 20mm Kilometer

Moderate precaution is taken for linear and 8 Probable error of computed distances 1 in 20000

angular measurement as compare to primary to 1 in 50000

triangulation

9 Probable errors of astronomic azimuth 2 Sec

Performed accurately by experienced surveyor

Trangulation by PVK 7 Trangulation by PVK 8

Number of points are fixed at close interval so General specification Values

that size of triangles formed are smaller than 1 Average triangle closure < 6 Sec

secondary triangulation

2 Maximum triangle closure < 12 Sec

It is Lower order triangulation system

3 Length of base line 0.5 to 3 Km

It forms immediate control for detailed

engineering survey 4 Length of sides of triangles 1.5 to 10 Km

It divides the secondary triangles into further 5 Actual error of base 1 in 7,50,000

small triangles 6 Probable error of base 1 in 2,50,000

Less precaution is taken for linear and angular 7 Discrepancy between two measures 25mm Kilometer

measurement as compare to secondary 8 Probable error of computed distances 1 in 5000

triangulation

to 1 in 20000

Performed by senior field surveyor.

9 Probable errors of astronomic azimuth 5 Sec

Trangulation by PVK 9 Trangulation by PVK 10

A Triangulation figure is a group of system figures

of triangles such that any figure has one

side and only one, common to each of the

preceding and following figures.

Types of Triangulation figures are -

Single chain of triangles

Double chain of triangles

Central point figures

Quadrilaterals

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It is used for narrow strip of terrain It is used for Wide strip of terrain

It is not so accurate for primary work since It is not so accurate for primary work since

numberb off conditions

diti tto be

b ffulfilled

lfill d iin th

the fifigure number of conditions to be fulfilled in the figure

adjustment is relatively small adjustment is relatively small

It is rapid and economical system It is rapid and economical system

To avoid excessive error, frequent setting of To avoid excessive error, frequent setting of

base line is necessary base line is necessary

Solution of triangle through the figure by two Solution of triangle through the figure by two

independent routes is not possible. independent routes is possible.

Trangulation by PVK 13 Trangulation by PVK 14

It is used for cover flat topography country It is Best figure for precise triangulation

It is accurate for secondary system since number of It is most accurate for primary system since

conditions to be fulfilled in the figure adjustment is

relatively more number of conditions to be fulfilled in the

It is not rapid and economical system figure adjustment through many

To avoid excessive error, system provides desired combinations

checks on computations.

Central figures like pentagon, hexagon

It is not rapid and economical system

quadrilaterals are used in this system. quadrilaterals are used in this system.

Trangulation by PVK 15 Trangulation by PVK 16

The figure should be such that computations can

be done through two independent routes.

The figure should be such that at least one, and

preferably both routes should be well

conditioned

All the lines in figure should be of comparable

length

Very line lines should be avoided

The figure should be such that lease work may

secure maximum progress

Complex figures should not involve more than

about twelve conditions.

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There are various triangulations figures and the

accuracy attained in each figure depends upon i) the Reconnaissance

magnitude of the angle in each individual triangle and

ii) the arrangement of triangles. Erection of signals and towers

Shape of triangles should be such that any error in

measurement of angle shall have minimum effect upon Measurement of base lines

the length of the calculated side. Such triangle is then

called as Well conditioned triangle. Measurement of horizontal angles

In triangle, one side is known from computations of the Astronomical observations of Laplase

adjacent triangle. The error in the other side will affect

the rest of triangulation figure. station

In order that these two sides be equally accurate, they Computation.

should be equal in length, this can be attained by

making triangle isosceles.

Best shape of triangle is isosceles triangle with base

angle 56014 approx. but for practical consideration

equilateral triangle is most suitable.

Trangulation by PVK 19 Trangulation by PVK 20

Working from whole to part

Great skill, experience & judgment Theodolite

Economy and efficiency of Triangulation system Prismatic compass

depends on efficient reconnaissance

Examinations of country to be surveyed Aneroid barometer

Selection of suitable sites for base lines Steel tape

S l ti off suitable

Selection it bl positions

iti ffor ttriangulation

i l ti P

Powerful

f lT

Telescope

l

stations

Determination of inter

inter--visibility and height of Steel tape

stations Heliotropes for testing inter

inter--visibility

Collection of miscellaneous information regarding Drawing instrument & material

communication of water, food, labor and guides

etc. Ladders, ropes, creepers etc.

Existing maps should be used

Trangulation by PVK 21 Trangulation by PVK 22

Inter

Station should be Inter

Inter--visible, placed upon If the distance between the stations is more and

elevated ground such as hills. difference in elevation is less, calculations are

They should form well conditioned triangles. Base necessary to determine whether it is necessary to

angle 560 ( >300 & < 1200)

elevate the station to get intervisibility or not.

Easily accessible. (Food, water and nearest

shelter should be available) Generally it is necessary to raise both th

Length of sight should not be too short or too long long. einstrument as well as signal to overcome the

They should be in commanding situation for future curvature of the earth and to clear all intervening

subsidiary triangulation extension obstructions.

For forestry area, cost of clearing, cutting and Height of instrument as well as signal depends on

building towers should be minimum. The distance between the stations

Line of sight do not pass over the towns, factories, The relative elevation of station

furnaces so that effect of irregular refraction is

avoided. The profile of intervening ground

Trangulation by PVK 23 Trangulation by PVK 24

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Distance of visible horizon from a station of known if there is no obstruction due to intervening ground to get

elevation above datum is given by necessary elevation of station at distance, so that it may be

visible from another station of known elevation

where h = height of station above datum

h1 = 0.06728 D12 formula can be used or D1 = 3.8553 h1

D = distance to visible horizon if D is known then D2 = D D1 and h2 = 0.06728 D22

R = mean radius of earth Thus required h2 is determined, if level of B is known, it can

m = mean coefficient of refraction = 0.07 for over be ascertain whether it is necessary to elevate the station B

land area 0.08 for over sea area

h = 0.06728 D2 where h in m and D in Km

D2

h= (1 2m)

2R

Trangulation by PVK 25 Trangulation by PVK 26

Profile of Intervening Ground and have elevations 240m and 280m resp. Find the

minimum height of signal required at B so that the

line of sight may not pass near the ground than 2 m.

The intervening ground may be assumed to have a

uniform elevation of 200 m

Minimum elevation = 200+2 = 202 m

Let us take this as datum

Height of A above the datum is h1= 240-

240-202 = 38m

The tangent distance D1=3.8553

=3 8553h1 =3

8553h

=3.8553h 855338 =23.766Km

=3.855338 =23 766Km

Distance of B from point of tangency = D1= D - D1

= 60 - 23.766 = 36.234 Km

The elevation of B above datum h2 can be found from

D2=3.8553 h2 36.234 =3.8553 h2 h2 = 88.33 m

Elevation of line of sight at B = 202 + 88.33 = 290.33 m

x 1 2m

h = 1 ( h2 + h1 ) + 1 (h2 h1 ) ( s 2 x 2 ) cos ec 2 Ground level at B = 280 m

2 2 s 2R Minimum height of signal above ground at B = 290.33 280

Trangulation by PVK 27 = 10.33 m Trangulation by PVK 28

Problems Towers

The altitude of two Structure erected over a station

proposed stations A for support of instrument and

and B 100 Km apart,

observing party

are 420m and 700 m

resp. The intervening It is provided when station, signal

obstruction situated at or both are to be elevated

C, 70 Km from A has

Inner tower for instrument

an elevation of 478m.

Ascertain if A and B are Outer tower for Observer etc

intervisible, and if Masonry / Timber / Steel

necessary find by how

much B should be 10 m / 25 m / 50 m

raised so that the line Portable / Foldable steel tower

of sight must nowhere

be less than 3 m above

the surface of ground. Trangulation by PVK 29 Trangulation by PVK 30

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Phase of signal is the error of bisection

A signal is a device erected to define the exact position of an which arises from the fact that, under

observed station. lateral illumination, the signal is partly in

light and partly in shade.

Types are i) Daylight or nonluminous signal The observer sees only the illuminated

Sun or Luminous signal portion and bisects it.

Thus it is apparent displacements of

Night Signal signals.

Requirement of Signals are For this Phase correction is thus

necessary so that the observed angle

It should be clearly visible may be reduced to that corresponding to

against any backgound center of signal.

The correction can be applied in two

It should be capable of being conditions

accurately centered over station mark i) when observation is made on the bright

portion

It should be suitable for accurate bisection 206265r cos 2

It should be free from phase, or should exhibit little phase = 2

Distance 206265r cos

ii) When observation is made on the =

2

bright line Distance

Trangulation by PVK 31 Trangulation by PVK 32

The site should be fairly level The measured horizontal distance

should be reduced to the distance

For sloping ground slope should be uniform at the mean sea level called as

Undulating ground should be avoided. Geodetic distance.

If the length of the base is reduced

The site should be free from obstructions to mean sea level, the calculated

throughout the whole of the length length of all other triangulation

The line clearing should be cheap lines will be also corresponding

p g to

that mean sea level.

The extremities of the base should be inter-

inter-visible L = measured horizontal distance

at ground level D = equivalent length at MSL

The ground should be reasonable firm and h = mean equivalent of base line

above MSL

smooth, no ponds and water gap

R = Radius of Earth

The site should suit extension to primary Correction Cmsi = L D = Lh/R

triangulation (-ve)

Trangulation by PVK 33 Trangulation by PVK 34

There are great variety of

The base lines are usually much shorter than extension layout. but

the average length of triangle sides. This is following points should be

mainly due to two reasons considered while

i) It is often not possible to get a favorite site for selecting the layout

a longer base and Small angles opposite the

known side must be

ii) It is difficult and expensive to measure lone avoided

base lines.

The net should have

Hence in connecting the comparatively short sufficient redundant lines

base line to the main triangulation, badly to provide three or four

conditioned figure must be avoided by side equations within the

expanding base line in a series of stages. figure

The group of triangles meant for extending the Subject to above, it

base is known as BASE NET. should provide quickest

extension with the fewest

Trangulation by PVK 35 stations. Trangulation by PVK 36

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An observed quantity may be classified as

i) Independent and ii) Conditioned.

An Independent quantity is the one whose

value is independent of the values of other

quantity. It bears no relation with any other

quantity and hence change in the other quantity

d

does nott affect

ff t the

th value

l off this

thi quantity.

tit Ex.

E

reduced levels of several bench marks.

Conditioned quantity is the one whose value is

dependent upon the values of one or more

quantities. Its value bears a rigid relationship to

some other quantity or quantities. It is also called

as dependent quantity.

Trangulation by PVK 37 Trangulation by PVK 38

An observation is the numerical value of a The weight of an observation is a number giving an

indication of its precision and trustworthiness when

measured quantity and may be either direct or making a comparison between several quantities of

indirect. different worth.

If a certain observation is of weight 4, it means that it is

A Direct observation is the one made directly four times as much reliable as an observation of weight 1.

on the quantity being determined. e.g. the When two quantities or observations are assumed to be

measurement of a base

base, the single equally reliable, the observed values are said to be of

equal weight or of unit weight.

measurement of an angle etc. Observations are called as weighted observation when

An Indirect observation is one in which the different weights are assigned to them.

observed value is reduced from the Observations are required to be weighted when they are

made with unequal care and under dissimilar conditions.

measurement of some related quantities. Weights are assigned to the observations or quantity

e.g. the measurement of angle by repetition observed in direct proportion to the number of

observations.

Observed value of quantity An observed value of quantity

is the value obtained when it is corrected for all the known

errors. Observation Equation An observation equation is

True value of quantity The true value of a quantity is the the relation between the observed quantity and its

value which is absolutely free from all errors. The true value numerical values.

of a quantity is indeterminate since the true error is never

known. Conditioned Equation A conditioned equation is

Most Probable value The most probable value of a the equation expressing the relation existing

quantity is the one which have more chances of being true between the several dependent

p q

quantities.

than has any other. It is deduced from the several

measurement on which it is based. Normal Equation A Normal equation is the one

True error A true error is difference between true value of which is formed by multiplying each equation by a

a quantity and its observed value. coefficient of unknown whose normal equations to

Most Probable error Quantity which added to, and be found and by adding the equations thus formed.

subtracted from the most probable value to bet most chance

true value. As the number of normal equations is same as the

Residual Error A residual error is the difference between number of unknowns, the most probable values of

most probable value of a quantity and its observed value. unknown can be found from these equations.

Trangulation by PVK 41 Trangulation by PVK 42

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In order to secure well conditioned triangles or Station

better visibility, objects such as church spires,

steeples, flag poles, towers etc are sometimes d sin( + )

selected as the triangulation stations. 1 ( Second ) = 206265

When the observations are to taken from such c

a station, it is impossible to setup an

instrument over it. d sin

In such case subsidiary station, known as 2 ( Second ) = 206265

satellite station or eccentric station or false a

station is selected near to main station as d = eccentric Distance between B and S

p

possible.

Observation are taken to the other = observed angle towards Station A

triangulation stations with same precision as if = ASC

it is true station.

These observations are later corrected and = observed angle towards Station B

reduced to what they would have been if the

true station was occupied. = BSC

The operation of applying the correction due to 1 = angle a station A

eccentricity of the station is generally known

as Reduction to Centre. 2 = angle a station C

The distance between the true station and = True angle at B ( angle ABC)

satellite station is determined either by method

of trigonometrically leveling or by triangulation. AC = b, AB = c, BC = a

Trangulation by PVK 43 Trangulation by PVK 44

d sin 1 1, 2 = angle towards A1, A2

1 ( Second ) = 206265

D1 Sin1" D1, D2 = distance of A1, A2, ..

Case-1 S1 to the left of B

Case- 1, 2 = correction to angle 1, 2

d sin 2

= + 1 - 2 2 ( Second ) = 206265 BS = d = distance of satellite station

D2 Sin1" to be taken as meridian for measuring

Case--2 S2 to the right of B

Case angle.

= - 1 + 2

Case--3 S3 between AC & B

Case

= - 1 - 2

Case--4 S4 on other Side of B

Case

= + 1 + 2

Most probable value = Arithmetic mean

Probable error = Es = Problem 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.21, 9.22

Es = 0.6745

wv 2

n 1

W = weight of observation

V = probable residual error in observation

N = no. of value

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Problem

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Thanks!

Prof. P. V. Khandve

B.E.Civil, M.Tech.(Env.Engg.)(Hons.),

D.B.M., D.I.D., D.I.T., D.I.J., B.A.Soc.

M.I.E., M.I.S.T.E., M.I.S.E.T, M.I.S.C.A., M.I.W.W.A., M.I.A.S.

khandvesir@gmail.com

Trangulation by PVK 67

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