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Speech Plan

When I first started to think about my speech I had no idea what I was
going to talk about because I had so many ideas ranging from GMOs to
Livestock shows. As you can see I had a wide range of agricultural related
topics to choose from. In the end, I found a topic I was passionate about
and it was grazing Livestock and their importance to the environment. Now
many people may say that this topic is not controversial enough but If you
dig into it there are some people who are against having livestock and I
want to show them some of the benefits livestock can have on the
environment.
I want to persuade the audience to support all types of grazing
animals and not view them as harmful to the environment. In my Survey, I
found that many people do not have very much knowledge on grazing
livestock but they were not opposed to having them. I was able to use this
information towards my audience analysis allowing me to tailor my
message to my audience. I look forward to sharing my knowledge on
livestock with the other members of the class. When constructing my
argument, I used a topical arrangement pattern because I went from point
to point. I believe that this arrangement pattern will be most effective when
giving my speech.
To help persuade people I am going to be using a power point and
pictures that relate to each part of my speech. Im going to keep the slide
simple and clean. I am using the color green throughout the PowerPoint
and I feel like it will help with cohesiveness of the whole presentation.
Another part of my presentation will be how I dress; I will be wearing boots
and jeans, which goes with my topic of livestock. This speech has been a
lot of fun to put together and I look forward to improving my communication
skills by maintaining eye contact throughout my presentation.
The Benefit of Grazing Livestock (Cattle)

Specific Purpose: To convince the audience that grazing animals are vital assets to the
environment.
Central idea: Today I will convince you that grazing livestock animals are assets to the
environment, they help to prevent fires, their manure can be used in fertilizers, and
ranchers plant grasses and cover crops to stop the erosion of the soil and proved feed
for the grazing animals.

Introduction

I. Cattle, they produce meat for people to eat through grazing practices. Today I will
not be talking to you about red meat and how I believe you should eat red meat.
But I will show all the benefits cattle have when they graze.
II. Oxford Dictionary defines grazing as the eating grass in a field by livestock that
are seen as an asset.
III. In recent years, there has been a lot of controversy around the grazing animal,
the cow, because they realize methane in the form of gas.
1. According to Oliver Milman a writer for The Guardian states that if cows
did not expel this gas from their systems it would build up and they would
explode.
IV. In researching and using the knowledge I already have, I am able to show you
why grazing cattle are so important to the environment.
V. Today I will convince you that cows are vital assets to the environment.

(Transition: Cattle can play a vital role in reducing the amount of fuel for a fire.)

Body

I. Grazing animals can help to prevent fires


1. They can go where other animals and humans can not
a. Cow can get in to valleys and up on hills that humans can not
b. The Taylor grazing act was passes in 1934 was passes to help
humans practice safe grazing practices on public lands and it
helped prevent over grazing.
2. They eat dead, dry grasses
a. When there is, dried grasses left on rangelands and in forests, they
can quickly become a fire started and fuel for the fire. But when
cattle are placed on these lands they eat the extra dried grasses
leaving less fuel for a fire
b. This was apparent at a Tim Lanes ranch, in Railroad Flats, CA, in
the fall of 2015. A fire broke out after PG&E was working on power
lines the fire quickly spread throughout this hilly range heading right
for Tim Lanes Ranch. However, when the fire reached his lands it
slowed do to a lack of fuel. Not only did The Owner Tim have good
forest management by removing or thinning trees he also had cattle
grazing on his property.
c. According to, John M Harper states in an article published by the
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources states
that grazing reduces fuel for fire and has the potential to be an
ecologically and economically sustainable management tool for
reduction of fuel loads for fires.
3. When animals are used to help prevent fires it is mutually beneficial
a. These animals are able to have a source of feed
b. The land is removed or excess forage material
c. And if a fire was to occur they can also be helpful after, they eat
invasive plants that are not native to the land that could squeeze
out the native plants (John M. Harper)

(Transition: Now we are going to look at how cow manure is more than just waste.)

II. When Cows defecate, their manure can provide nutrients to the soil and help
promote growth for the plants growing on the range lands.
1. Cow naturally defecate when and where they please making it hard to
control where they choose to do so, but we can still use this to our
advantage.
a. An advantage is that the manure is already on the ground it begins
to break down allowing for the nutrients that have passes through
the cows system get put back into the soil.
b. The reason manure is so good for soil is because it is naturally
occurring and it is easily absorbed by the soil.
c. Manure can also improve the moisture levels in soils, as well as
loosen compacted soils because it is organic matter.
2. Cattle manure can help re-spread forage seeds around, to help with re-
planting and it helps to stop over grazing.
a. Another reason that cow are helpful, is that they help spread seed a
crossed the rangeland from the plants that they eat.
b. The process goes like this; cattle eat the grass that is in the field.
Which cause many people to worry about the cattle over grazing
but the seeds can then work their way through their systems and
then replant themselves in the rangeland.

(Transition: Lastly we are going to look at how these ranchers and grazing animals are
helping stop soil erosion.)
III. Cattle are vital in helping stop soil erosion. Cattle need to eat grasses and if there
is not enough grass ranchers will plant grasses for the cattle to eat, which also
helps to prevent soil erosion. However, if ranchers leave their cows in field to
long this can lead to overgrazes and soil erosion, something that ranchers do not
want. We are going to contemplate what ranchers do to prevent this problem.
1. We are first going to take a look at what over grazing means
a. According to Gallagher USA to overgraze is to graze land or plants
before it has been able to recover from the previous grazing period
or beyond the lands capacity to sustain stock.
b. Now may ranchers try to prevent overgrazing because it is in the
best interest of the land, the cattle, and for them. But not every
rancher follows safe and sustainable practices.
c. However, we must not let the few who dont care over shadow
those who are taking the right steps to preserve the land so they
can feed their cattle in the years to come.
2. To prevent over grazing and soil erosion farmers, have in place many
measures to protect the land, and preserve the environment.
a. One way ranchers try to prevent over grazing and soil erosion is
through field rotation, where the cows move from field to field
allowing for the grasses to regrow from grazing period to grazing
period.
b. The next way that ranchers help stop these problems is by planting
seeds in the fields. This helps promote the growth of new grasses
c. The third way to prevent over grazing is to have some stock piled
grain to feed the animals as well, some grain rancher my use is
distillers grain which is a bi-product of ethanol and alcohol, which
allows for the feed not to wasted. This way the cattle can eat the
grain while the lands regrow grasses to hold the soil in place.

(Transition: I have tried to convince you that the act of grazing and grazing cattle are
vital to the environment, and now I will take any questions you may have.)

Q&A

(Transition: Thank you for all the questions)

Conclusion

I. As you can see cows do more than just produce meet for people to eat.
II. Today we have been able to see how cattle can help prevent or slow fires, how
their manure is use for fertilizer and how they are used to prevent soil erosion
III. For rancher raising grazing animals is a way of life that can be truly rewarding
because grazing cattle have so much to offer, and hopefully you are convinced
that cattle are valuable to our environment.

Bibliography

"Cattle Grazing Can Help Prevent Wildfires." Facts About Beef. Facts About Beef, 20
Oct. 2015. Web. 24 Feb. 2017.
"Grazing and Livestock." English Oxford Living Dictionary. Oxford University Press,
2017. Web. 24 Feb. 2017.
Harper, John M. "Cattle Grazing and Fire Protection." ANR Blogs. Regents of the
University of California, 9 Dec. 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2017.
Milman, Oliver. "Dairy Groups Blast Methane Reductions: 'Cows Expel Gas so They
Don't Explode'." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 10 Aug. 2016. Web.
24 Feb. 2017.
"Overgraze." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2017.
"Overgrazing & Preventative Management Strategies." Overgrazing & Preventative
Management Strategies. Gallagher Group, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2017.
"Passage of the Taylor Grazing Act." Passage of the Taylor Grazing Act. N.p., n.d. Web.
24 Feb. 2017.
Phipps, Nikki. "Manure as Fertilizer: How Manure Effects the Soil." Gardening Know
How. Gardening Know How, 24 Dec. 2015. Web. 24 Feb. 2017.

Speaker Outline
Introduction
I. Cattle, they produce meat for people to eat through grazing practices, today I will not be
talking to you about meat and how I believe you should eat red meat but I will show all
the benefits cattle have when they graze.
II. (Proposition statement) Today I will convince you that cows are vital assets to the
environment.
III. Read slide 2
IV. In researching and using the knowledge I already have, I am able to show you why
grazing cattle are so important to the environment.
(Transition: Cattle can play a vital role in reducing the amount of fuel for a fire.)
Body
I. Cows used to help prevent fires
1. Which side is likely to have more fuel for a fire?
2. (Slide words in grey) (Cite Oxford Dictionary)
3. Tim Lanes Story.
4. According to, John M Harper, in an article published by the University of
California Agriculture and Natural Resources, he states that grazing reduces fuel
for fire and has the potential to be an ecologically and economically sustainable
management tool for reduction of fuel loads.
(Transition: Now we are going to look at how cow manure is more than just waste.)
II. Cows manure is a source of fertilizer both in the field and sold in stores.
1. Advantages
(Transition: Lastly we are going to look at how these ranchers and grazing animals are helping
stop soil erosion.)
III. Help prevent soil erosion
1. To stop soil erosion most ranchers are in the practices of not letting their animals
overgraze
2. According to Gallagher USA to overgraze is to graze land before it has been able
to recover from the previous grazing period or beyond the lands capacity to
sustain stock.
3. Many ranchers are taking the steps to prevent over grazing so lets not let them
be over shadowed by those who dont practice sustainable grazing
4. Read slide 7 and explain
(Transition: I have tried to convince you that the act of grazing and grazing cattle are vital to the
environment, and now I will take any questions you may have.)
Q&A
(Transition: Thank you for all the questions)
Conclusion
I. As you can see cows do more than just produce meet for people to eat.
II. Today we have been able to see how cattle can help prevent or slow fires, how their
manure is use for fertilizer and how they are used to prevent soil erosion
III. For rancher raising grazing animals is a way of life that can be truly rewarding because
grazing cattle have so much to offer, and hopefully you are convinced that cattle are
valuable to our environment.

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