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# Elementary Linear Algebra

UVM/IIS

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

EUCLIDEAN SPACE
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Euclidean Space is
The Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space
of Euclidean geometry, as well as the
generalizations of these notions to higher
dimensions.

## The term “Euclidean” is used to distinguish these

spaces from the curved spaces of non-Euclidean
geometry and Einstein's general theory of
relativity.

Euclidean Space

## Euclidean n-space, sometimes called Cartesian

space, or simply n-space, is the space of all n-
tuples of real numbers (x1, x2, ..., xn).
n
It is commonly denoted R , although older
n
literature uses the symbol E .

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Euclidean Space

n
R is a vector space and has Lebesgue covering
dimension n.
n
Elements of R are called n-vectors.

## R 1= R is the set of real numbers (i.e., the real line)

2
R is called the Euclidean Space.

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

One Dimension
1
R = R is the set of real numbers (i.e., the real line)

-∞ 0 ∞

√2

-∞ 0 1 √2 ∞
(1.41)

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Two Dimensions
2
R is called the Euclidean Space.

P(-2, 1)

-∞ 0 ∞

-∞

Three Dimensions

y
P(2, 2, -2)

-∞ 0 ∞
x

z -∞

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

n Dimensions
1
R Space of One Dimension (x, y)
2
R Space of Two Dimensions (x, y)
3
R Space of Three Dimensions (x, y, z)
4
R Space of Four Dimensions (x1, x2, x3, x4)
n
R Space of n Dimensions (x1, x2, x3, ...., xn)

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
x1 + x 2 = 1
x1 - x 2 = 1

HAS ONLY ONE SOLUTION:

x1 = 1
x2 = 0 0
-∞ ∞

-∞

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
x1 + x 2 = 1
x1 + x 2 = 2

HAS NO SOLUTIONS

-∞ 0 ∞

-∞

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
x1 + x 2 = 1
2x1 + 2x2 = 2

HAS INFINITELY MANY
SOLUTIONS

-∞ 0 ∞

-∞

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
In general:

## A SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS CAN HAVE EITHER:

No solutions
Exactly one solution
Infinitely many solutions

## Definition: If a system of equations has no solutions it is called

an inconsistent system. Otherwise the system is consistent.

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Matrix Notation
MATRIX = RECTANGULAR ARRAY OF NUMBERS

( )( ) )
0 1 -2 4
3 -1 1
2 0 0 1
2 0 2
1 1 3 9

## EVERY SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS CAN BE

REPRESENTED BY A MATRIX
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Elementary Row
Operations
1. INTERCHANGE OF TWO ROWS

( )( ) ) 0

1
1

1
-2

3
4

9
1

0
1

1
3

-2
9

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Elementary Row
Operations
2. MULTIPLICATION OF A ROW BY A NON-ZERO NUMBER

( ) ( ) ) 1

5
0

5
3

1
4

0
*3
1

5
0

5
3

1
4

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Elementary Row
Operations
3. ADDITION OF A MULTIPLE OF ONE ROW TO ANOTHER ROW

( ) ( ) ) 1

5
0

5
3

1
4

0
*2
1

7
0

5
3

7
4

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

How to Solve Systems
of Linear Equations

( )
-1 2 3 4
-x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 4

)
2x1 + 6x3 = 9 2 0 6 9
4x1 - x2 - 3x3 = 0
4 -1 -3 0

( )
x1 = ...
x2 = ... NICE MATRIX
x3 = ...

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Linear Algebra Application

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

Early Search Engines

SEARCH QUERY
DATABASE OF
WEB SITES LIST OF MATCHING WEBSITES
IN RANDOM ORDER

PROBLEM:
HARD TO FIND USEFUL SEARCH RESULTS

## DATABASE OF SEARCH QUERY

WEB SITES
WITH MATCHING WEBSITES
RANKINGS! IMPORTANT SITES FIRST!

How to Rank?

## Ranking of a page = number of links

pointing to that page

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

IDEA: LINKS FROM HIGHLY RANKED PAGES
SHOULD WORTH MORE

IF
Ranking of a page is x
The page has links to n other pages
THEN
Each link from that page should be
worth x/n

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

THIS GIVES EQUATIONS:

x1 = x3 + 1/2 x4
x2 = 1/3 x1
x3 = 1/3 x1 + 1/2 x2 + 1/2 x4
x4 = 1/3 x1 + 1/2 x2

## Thursday, July 8, 2010

MATRIX EQUATION:

( ) ( )( ) )
x1 0 0 1 1/2 x1

x2 1/3 0 0 0 x2
=
x3 1/3 1/2 0 1/2 x3

x4 1/3 1/2 0 0 x4

COINCIDENCE MATRIX
OF THE NETWORK
Thursday, July 8, 2010

( ) ( )( ) )
x1 0 0 1 1/2 x1

x2 1/3 0 0 0 x2
=
x3 1/3 1/2 0 1/2 x3

x4 1/3 1/2 0 0 x4

## ( x1, x2, x3, x4 ) is an eigenvector of the

coincidence matrix corresponding to the
eigenvalue 1.