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Elementary Linear Algebra

UVM/IIS

Thursday, July 8, 2010


EUCLIDEAN SPACE
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Euclidean Space is
The Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space
of Euclidean geometry, as well as the
generalizations of these notions to higher
dimensions.

The term “Euclidean” is used to distinguish these


spaces from the curved spaces of non-Euclidean
geometry and Einstein's general theory of
relativity.

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Euclidean Space

Euclidean n-space, sometimes called Cartesian


space, or simply n-space, is the space of all n-
tuples of real numbers (x1, x2, ..., xn).
n
It is commonly denoted R , although older
n
literature uses the symbol E .

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Euclidean Space

n
R is a vector space and has Lebesgue covering
dimension n.
n
Elements of R are called n-vectors.

R 1= R is the set of real numbers (i.e., the real line)


2
R is called the Euclidean Space.

Thursday, July 8, 2010


One Dimension
1
R = R is the set of real numbers (i.e., the real line)

-∞ 0 ∞

√2

-∞ 0 1 √2 ∞
(1.41)

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Two Dimensions
2
R is called the Euclidean Space.

P(-2, 1)

-∞ 0 ∞

-∞

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Three Dimensions

y
P(2, 2, -2)

-∞ 0 ∞
x

z -∞

Thursday, July 8, 2010


n Dimensions
1
R Space of One Dimension (x, y)
2
R Space of Two Dimensions (x, y)
3
R Space of Three Dimensions (x, y, z)
4
R Space of Four Dimensions (x1, x2, x3, x4)
n
R Space of n Dimensions (x1, x2, x3, ...., xn)

Thursday, July 8, 2010


SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
x1 + x 2 = 1
x1 - x 2 = 1

HAS ONLY ONE SOLUTION:

x1 = 1
x2 = 0 0
-∞ ∞

-∞

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
x1 + x 2 = 1
x1 + x 2 = 2

HAS NO SOLUTIONS

-∞ 0 ∞

-∞

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
x1 + x 2 = 1
2x1 + 2x2 = 2

HAS INFINITELY MANY
SOLUTIONS

-∞ 0 ∞

-∞

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Solutions of Systems of
Linear Equations
In general:

A SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS CAN HAVE EITHER:


No solutions
Exactly one solution
Infinitely many solutions

Definition: If a system of equations has no solutions it is called


an inconsistent system. Otherwise the system is consistent.

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Matrix Notation
MATRIX = RECTANGULAR ARRAY OF NUMBERS

( )( ) )
0 1 -2 4
3 -1 1
2 0 0 1
2 0 2
1 1 3 9

EVERY SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS CAN BE


REPRESENTED BY A MATRIX
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Elementary Row
Operations
1. INTERCHANGE OF TWO ROWS

( )( ) ) 0

1
1

1
-2

3
4

9
1

0
1

1
3

-2
9

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Elementary Row
Operations
2. MULTIPLICATION OF A ROW BY A NON-ZERO NUMBER

( ) ( ) ) 1

5
0

5
3

1
4

0
*3
1

5
0

5
3

1
4

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Elementary Row
Operations
3. ADDITION OF A MULTIPLE OF ONE ROW TO ANOTHER ROW

( ) ( ) ) 1

5
0

5
3

1
4

0
*2
1

7
0

5
3

7
4

Thursday, July 8, 2010


How to Solve Systems
of Linear Equations

( )
-1 2 3 4
-x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 4

)
2x1 + 6x3 = 9 2 0 6 9
4x1 - x2 - 3x3 = 0
4 -1 -3 0

( )
x1 = ...
x2 = ... NICE MATRIX
x3 = ...

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Linear Algebra Application
Google PageRank

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Early Search Engines

SEARCH QUERY
DATABASE OF
WEB SITES LIST OF MATCHING WEBSITES
IN RANDOM ORDER

PROBLEM:
HARD TO FIND USEFUL SEARCH RESULTS

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Google Search Engine

DATABASE OF SEARCH QUERY


WEB SITES
WITH MATCHING WEBSITES
RANKINGS! IMPORTANT SITES FIRST!

Thursday, July 8, 2010


How to Rank?

VERY SIMPLE RANKING:

Ranking of a page = number of links


pointing to that page

PROBLEM: VERY EASY TO MANIPULATE

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Google PageRank
IDEA: LINKS FROM HIGHLY RANKED PAGES
SHOULD WORTH MORE

IF
Ranking of a page is x
The page has links to n other pages
THEN
Each link from that page should be
worth x/n

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Google PageRank
THIS GIVES EQUATIONS:

x1 = x3 + 1/2 x4
x2 = 1/3 x1
x3 = 1/3 x1 + 1/2 x2 + 1/2 x4
x4 = 1/3 x1 + 1/2 x2

Thursday, July 8, 2010


Google PageRank
MATRIX EQUATION:

( ) ( )( ) )
x1 0 0 1 1/2 x1

x2 1/3 0 0 0 x2
=
x3 1/3 1/2 0 1/2 x3

x4 1/3 1/2 0 0 x4

COINCIDENCE MATRIX
OF THE NETWORK
Thursday, July 8, 2010
Google PageRank

( ) ( )( ) )
x1 0 0 1 1/2 x1

x2 1/3 0 0 0 x2
=
x3 1/3 1/2 0 1/2 x3

x4 1/3 1/2 0 0 x4

( x1, x2, x3, x4 ) is an eigenvector of the


coincidence matrix corresponding to the
eigenvalue 1.

Thursday, July 8, 2010