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Valentine Tinaj

Activity 1.1.1 History of Civil


Engineering and Architecture
Introduction
Can you name any of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World? Each was a feat of
civil engineering and architecture. What causes structures such as these to fill us
with awe even today? What is it that makes them seem more wondrous in our time
of modernization? These structures have paved the way for many new advances in
the design of the structures you see today.

In this activity you will learn about the history of civil engineering and architecture.
You will see differences between the two professions and learn of their beginnings.

Equipment
History of Civil Engineering and Architecture presentation

Procedure
In this activity you will investigate the history of civil engineering and architecture.
You will see differences between the two professions and learn of their beginnings.

1. Define civil engineering.


An engineer trained in the design and construction of public work, such as bridges
and other large facilities.

2. Define architecture.
Art and science combine together and they design based on what people like.

3. Describe the origination of the concept of architecture?


The concept of architecture has been around ever since humans have been
building homes.

4. In ancient times how were building materials chosen?


In the ancient time building materials were chosen based on resorts and climates.

5. Give two examples of vernacular architecture.

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Igloo's use ice and snow, Egyptian pyramids use mud and stone.

6. Name and describe the type of system used to create many early buildings.
The Post and Lintel system has been used throughout time. It's a vertical post,
and a horizontal lintel.

7. What was the purpose of the Egyptian pyramids? Mexican pyramids?


Egyptians buried the kings in them, Mexicans used the pyramids for rituals and
others were sacred.

8. What kind of construction method was used to build the Parthenon? Made a
simple sketch to illustrate.

Post and Lintel.

9. What problem in architecture led to this form of construction?


Post and Lintel allows an entrance and it is a stable way to support the roof.

10. Explain how an arch is created.


Blocks are placed in a curved formation and at the top where they connect is a key
stone.

11. How is the vault used in civil engineering?


For the construction of bridges, highways and other passages.

12. Give an example of an arch and dome system.


Ross graben bridge, Switzerland, St Peters Basilica in Rome.
13. Give an example of a modern material we have that was not available to the
ancients. How did this restrict construction in ancient times?

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We have steel today which is lightweight and strong. They were restricted because the
strong materials they used were heavy and would cause a building to collapse under its
own weight.

14. What was the purpose of the Roman aqueducts?

It delivered water to a town or place of need

15. Compare ancient Greek roads to ancient Roman roads.

Greek roads were built to transport goods while the Romans used roads to transport
troops.

16. Describe an ancient Roman bridge.

They were the first large and lasting bridges built. They were built with stone and used
arches as their main structure.

17. How did building materials and methods change after the Romans?

They created better roads and people began to use arches and domes.

Conclusion
1. Give an example of a modern pyramid not shown in the presentation. How does
its function differ from that of the Egyptian pyramids? What do you think accounts
for this difference?
Great Pyramid of Cholula. These pyramids are dedicated to the gods, not to pharaohs.
This difference is due to religion.

2. Give an example of a modern structure that uses an arch and dome system.

The golden dome

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3. What is the main purpose of modern roads? How is the cost of modern roadways
defrayed?
To transport goods and people across the country or to your destination. It is defrayed
by taxes.

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CEA Unit 1 Lesson 1.1 Activity 1.1.1 History Civil Engineering and Architecture Page 4