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University of Santo Tomas

Faculty of Engineering
2nd term AY 2016 2017

Experiment No. 2
Specific Heats of Solids

Section: 2 ChE-A Date Performed: February 9, 2017


Group No.: 8 Date Submitted: February 23, 2017
Leader: Talplacido, Dan Erson B.
Members: Teoso, Francheska Therese B.
Toledano, Anthon Jay B.
Tolentino, Chelsea S.
Valeriano, Karina Irene A.

Instructors: Engr. Vilma Santos


Engr. Angelo Morsiquillo

I. Objective
The objective of the experiment is to determine the specific heat of metal specimens
using the method of mixtures.

II. Discussion of Related Physics Concepts


The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature
by one degree Celsius. The relationship between heat and temperature change is usually
expressed in the form shown below where the specific heat is represented by c. The
relationship does not apply if a phase change is encountered, because the heat added or
removed during a phase change does not change the temperature.

The specific heat of water is 1 calorie/gram C = 4.186 joule/gram C which is higher


than any other common substance. As a result, water plays a very important role in
temperature regulation. The specific heat per gram for water is much higher than that for
a metal, as described in the water-metal example. For most purposes, it is more
meaningful to compare the molar specific heats of substances.
III. Set-up
2

1 3
5
4

Figure 1. Experimental Set-up

LEGEND:
1. Calorimeter 4.Outlet holder
2. Thermometer 5. Steam Generator
3. Boiler 6. Hose

IV. Data and Results


Specific heat of calorimeter (cc), in cal/g C = 0.43 cal/g C

Specific heat of stirrer (cs), in cal/g C = 0.118 cal/g C


Table 1. Data
Material of metal shot specimen Copper
Mass of specimen (mx), in g 82.03 g
Mass of calorimeter (mc), in g 178.83 g
Mass of stirrer (ms), in g 22.67 g
Mass of calorimeter and water, in g 278.83
Mass of water (mw), in g 100 g
Initial temperature of cold water, calorimeter and stirrer (To), in C 25.5 C
Initial temperature of the specimen (Tx), in C 95 C
Equilibrium temperature (Tf), in C 29.5 C
Computed specific heat of specimen (cx), in cal /g C 0.134 cal /g C
Specific heat of specimen from Table (Appendix), in cal /g C 0.093 cal /g C
Percent Error 44.09 %

Computations:
Qlost =Q gained

Qx =Q s +Q c + Qw

m x c x ( T x )=(m w c w +m c c c +m s c s )(T f T o )

82.03 ( c x ) ( 9529.5 )=[100 ( 1 ) +178.83 ( 0.43 ) +22.67 ( 0.118 )](29.525.5)

cal
c x =0.134
gC

theoexp
Error= x 100
theo

0.0930.134
Error= x 100=44.09
0.093

V. Analysis of Results
The data obtained from the experiment is shown in Table 1. Masses of specimen
(82.03g), calorimeter (178.83g), stirrer (22.67g), calorimeter with water (278.83g) and
water (100g) was determined using the lab weighing scale. The initial temperatures of
the water (25.5 C ) and the specimen (95 C) was measured using thermometer. After the
specimen was transferred in the calorimeter, the equilibrium temperature of both water
mx c x ( T x )=( mw c w +mc c c +ms c s ) ( T f T o )
and specimen was 29.5 C. The equation
was used to determine the experimental specific heat of specimen with value 0.134 cal /g
C while the theoretical value is 0.093 cal /g C. In order to determine the percent error,
theoexp
Error= x 100
with the equation theo , it shows that the percent error in the

experiment using the data acquired is 44.09%.

VI. Conclusion

Through the experiment, the students were able to learn to determine the specific heat
of metal specimens using the method of mixtures. By equating the heat energy lost by the
sample to that gained by the water, calorimeter cup, thermometer, and stirrer, the specific
heat of the metal can be obtained. The actual value of the specific heat of copper was
0.093 cal /g C. The experimental value closest to the actual value is 0.134 cal /g C. The
high percent error in the experiment indicates that there are possible reasons why the
experimental value was far from the theoretical value. There are large potential heat
losses if the substance is not well insulated. These can be accounted for but in most cases
students will not do so quantitatively. From the experiment, conservation of energy can
also be observed because energy can be converted from one form to another (potential
energy can be converted to kinetic energy) but the total energy within the domain
remains fixed.

VII. Recommendation
The group recommends the students to familiarize self with the Physics related
concepts before conducting the experiment. By having distinct knowledge of the
principle, you will know where the experiment is heading and how the outcome should
be; whether the results are inaccurate or not. The group also recommends that the
equipment to be used are handled with extreme caution, especially the copper shots. One
alteration with the number of coppers shot would greatly affect the final outcome of the
experiment. Ensure that the calorimeter is properly sealed, so heat is contained within
and would not be released. The group also recommends to be more careful in getting
measurements for more accurate results. Always double check the computations before
writing the final answer in the datasheet. Lastly, the group also recommends to always
perform the experiment with more than one trial to ensure precision of results.

VIII. References
Chemistry Libre Texts. Retrieved from
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Statistical_Mecha
nics/Properties_and_Observables/Heat_Capacity_of_Solids on February 22, 2017
HyperPhysics. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/spht.html
on February 22, 2017

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved from


https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/thermo1f.html on February 22, 2017

Teaching Advance Physics. Retrieved from


http://tap.iop.org/energy/thermal/607/page_47500.html on February 22, 2017

IX. Appendix
Figure 3. Mass of specimen (copper) is 82.03
Figure 2. Mass of calorimeter is 178.83 g.
g (260.85g-178.83g).

Figure 4. Mass of stirrer is 22.67 g. Figure 5. Mass of calorimeter and tap water is
278.82 g.

Figure 6. Initial temperature of cold water, Figure 7. Equilibrium temperature is 29.5C.


calorimeter and stirrer is 25.5C.