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black holes are one of the strangest
things in existence
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they don't seem to make any sense at all
where do they come from and what happens
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if you fall into one
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stars are incredibly massive collections
of mostly hydrogen atoms that collapsed
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from enormous gas clouds under their own
gravity in their core nuclear fusion
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crushes hydrogen atoms into helium
releasing a tremendous amount of energy
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this energy in the form of radiation
pushes against gravity
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maintaining a delicate balance between
the two forces as long as there is
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fusion in the core a star remains stable
enough but four stars with way more mass
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than our own Sun the heat and pressure
at the core allow them to fuse heavier
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element until they reach iron unlike all
the elements that went before the fusion
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process that creates iron doesn't
generate any energy iron builds up at
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the center of the star until it reaches
a critical amount and the balance
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between radiation and gravity is
suddenly broken the core collapse it
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within a fraction of a second
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the star implodes moving at about a
quarter of the speed of light
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feeding even more mass into the core
it's at this very moment that all the
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heavier elements in the universe are
created as the star dies in a supernova
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explosion
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this produces either a neutron star or
if the star is massive enough
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the entire mass of the core collapses
into a black hole
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if you looked at a black hole what
should already be seeing is the event
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horizon anything that crosses the event
horizon needs to be traveling faster
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than the speed of light to escape
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in other words it's impossible so we
just see a black sphere reflecting
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nothing but if the event horizon is the
black part
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what is the whole part of the black hole
the singularity
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we're not sure what it is exactly a
singularity may be infinitely dense
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meaning all its mass is concentrated
into a single point in space with no
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surface or violence or something
completely different
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right now we just don't know it's like a
dividing by zero error by the way black
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holes do not set things out like a
vacuum cleaner
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if we were to swap the Sun for an
equally massive black hole
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nothing much would change for Earth
except that we would freeze to death of
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course what would happen to you if you
fell into a black hole
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the experience of time is different
around black holes from the outside
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you seem to slow down as you approach
the event horizon so time passes slower
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for you at some point you would appear
to freeze in time slowly turn red and
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disappear while from your perspective
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you can watch the rest of the universe
in fast-forward kind of like seeing into
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the future
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right now we don't know what happens
next but we think it could be one of two
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things
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Weimer you die a quick death a black
hole curved space so much that once you
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cross the event horizon there is only
one possible direction you can take this
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literally inside the event horizon
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you can only go in one direction it's
like being in a ready tiny that closes
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behind you after each step the mast of a
black hole is so concentrated at some
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point even tiny distances of a few
centimeters would mean the gravity acts
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with millions of times more force on
different parts of your body your cells
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get torn apart as your body stretches
more and more until you're a hot stream
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of plasma one at home white to you die a
very quick death
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very soon after you cross the event
horizon you would hit a firewall and be
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terminated in an instant
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neither of these options are
particularly pleasant
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how soon you would die depends on the
mass of the black hole a smaller black
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hole would kill you before you even
ended its event horizon while you
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probably could travel inside a
supermassive black hole for quite a
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while
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as a rule of thumb the further away from
the singularity you are
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the longer you live black holes come in
different sizes
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there are stellar mass black holes with
a few times the mass of the Sun and the
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diameter of an asteroid and then there
are these supermassive black holes which
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are found at the heart of every galaxy
and have been feeding for billions of
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years
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currently the largest supermassive black
hole known as s500 14 + 8 140 billion
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times the mass of our Sun it is 230 6.7
billion kilometers in diameter which is
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47 times the distance from the Sun to
Pluto as powerful as black holes are
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they will eventually evaporate through a
process called Hawking radiation to
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understand how this works
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we have to look at empty space empty
space is not really empty but filled
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with virtual particles popping into
existence and the nominating each other
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again
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when this happens right on the edge of a
black hole one of the virtual particles
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will be drawn into the black hole and
the other will escape and become a real
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particle so the black hole is losing
energy this happens incredibly slowly at
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first and get faster as the black hole
become smaller when it arrives at the
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mass of a large asteroid
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it's radiating at room temperature when
it has the mass of a mountain
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it radiates with about the heat of our
Sun and in the last second of its life
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the black hole radiates away with the
energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a
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huge explosion
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but this process is incredibly slow the
biggest black holes we know might take
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up to eight googled years to evaporate
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this is so long that when the last black
hole radiates away
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nobody will be around to witness it the
universe will have become uninhabitable
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long before then
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this is not the end of our story there
are loads more interesting ideas about
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black holes will explore them in part to
a big thanks to Fraser came for help
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with this video by the way we've made
some cuts out wallpapers in 4k for
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different screen sizes you can get them
on our patreon page which also helps us
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to make more videos like this December
the first month ever
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with three videos