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Glastonbury, Connecticut 06033, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT

ducts is being developed. A set of tube-like surface oriented coordinates is

employed for a general class of geometries applicable to subsonic diffusers with

offset bends. The geometric formulation is complex and no previous treatment of

this class of viscous flow problems is known to the authors. The duct centerline

is a space curve specified by piecewise polynomials. A Frenet frame is located on

the centeriine at each axial location. The cross sections are described by super-

ellipses imbedded in the Frenetframe. Duct surfaces are also coordinate surfaces,

which greatly simplifies the boundary conditions. The resulting coordinates are

nonorthogonal.

having strong flow in a primary flow direction. The derivation is coordinate

invariant and the resulting equations are expressed in tensor form. These equations

are solved by an efficient alternating direction implicit (ADI) method. This

numerical method is generally stable and permits solution in difficult geometries

using the general tensor formulation.

ANALYSIS

Subsonic flow is known, to be governed by equations which are elliptic; that is,

by equations which require downstream boundary conditions. Solution by forward

marching integration is not appropriate, at least not without some sort of iterative

procedure to satisfy the downstream boundary conditions. To circumvent this problem

for subsonic flows, so-called "parabolic flow assumptions" are used and it is

thus assumed that the pressure field appropriate for irrotational inviscid flow

through the passage represents a given, reasonable first approximation to the actual

pressure field. The parabolic flow assumptions also presume a primary flow in a

predominantly streamwise flow direction and a Reynolds number sufficiently high to

permit the assumption of negligible streamwise diffusion. The inviseid axial

pressure gradients computed with appropriate downstream boundary conditions are

"imposed" upon the flow, m u c h a s in conventional boundary layer theory, so as to

permit solution by forward marching integration for subsonic flows (of., Ref. I).

The forward marching integration requires there be no flow reversal in the primary

flow direction. For internal flows, the inviscid pressure gradients are corrected

for internal flow losses associated with the well-known viscous pressure drop and

blockage effects by a process which is consistent with forward marching integration.

The imposition of inviscid pressure gradients incorporates a ri~_r~_~the elliptic

effects associated with a subsonic pressure field without the necessity of solving

elliptic equations other than for an inviscid flow.

This work was sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center under Contracts NAS3-17522

and NAS3-19856.

362

average Navier-Stokes equations from Ref. 2 are:

.... o

(1)

o I (pViVJ + gUg+~ij)

OyJ .. Oyi

Oxs ~ J =0

i, -i,

where the y s are the curvilinear coordinat'es, the v s are the curvillnear

velocity components, ~ is the density, ~ij is the viscous portion of the stress

tensor, ~ is the pressure, gij is the inverse of the metric tensor and g = Det (glj)

and density fluctuations are neglected. In the present application, the stress

tensor was modified to neglect streamwise diffusion (Ref. 3) and the pressure

was modified by parabolic flow assumptions (Ref. 2).

At present a mixing length model is being used which employs the following eddy-

viscosity formulation for the Reynolds stresses:

= Re OX,I

The mathematical form of the expression for the turbulent viscosity follows that of

Beer and Chigier, Ref~ 4:

#_Z:pL2(2~:~)v2

Re

O)

(4)

The mixing length % is determined from the empirical relationship of McDonald &

Camarata (Ref. 5) for equilibrium turbulent boundary layers which can be written

(s)

(y) = o.o9 Bb ,o,,h

where 6b is the local boundary layer thickness, K is the yon Karman constant, taken

as 0.43, y is distance from the wall, and ~ is a sublayer damping factor defined

by

stress, ~+ = 23, and o I = 8.

The numerical method presently under development follows the general approach

developed by McDonald & Briley (Ref. 6) for laminar supersonic flow in rectangular

jets. A detailed discussion of the calculation procedure is not included here, as

such a discussion would be lengthy, and discussions of the general approach being

followed are given elsewhere (Refs. 6 and 7). The method is based on implicit

schemes which are potentially stable for large step sizes. Thus, as a practical

matter, stability restrictions which limit the axial step size relative to the

transverse mesh spacing and which become prohibitive for locally refined meshes are

not a factor in making the calculations. The general approach is to employ an

implicit difference formulation and to linearize the implicit equations by expansion

about the solution at the most recent axial location. Terms in the difference

equations are then grouped by coordinate direction and one of the available

363

the multidimensional difference equations to a sequence of one-dimensional

equations (Refs. 8 and 9). These linear one-dimensional difference equations can

be written in block-tridiagonal or a closely related matrix form and solved

efficiently and without iteration by standard block elimination techniques. The

general solution procedure is flexible in m a t t e r s of detail such as the type and

order accuracy of the difference approximations and the particular scheme for

splitting m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l difference approximations. By solving the equations

fully coupled and by employing%a formal linearizatlon procedure the application of

coupled implicit boundary conditions is straightforward. The use of coupled

implicit boundary equations played a significant role in the development and

implementation of this analysis.

This analysis in its general form has been tested by application to the flows

in ducts whose centerlines are specified by piecewise polynomial functions. Cross

sections of the ducts in planes normal to this centerline are described by the

equation of a superellipse (in local cartesian coordinates):

(7)

blxl .lyi = rn a

(sometimes called the shape factor), and m is the length of the minor axis.

COMPUTATIONS

of the analysis and computer program. Flow in the entrance region of a circular

straight pipe was computed at a Reynolds number of 500. At an inlet Mach number

of 0.01 the results, Fig. i, compared very favorably with incompressible experimental

data, Ref. i0. For a pipe of noncircular cross section at a Reynolds number of

50 O, the inlet Math number was progressively increased from 0.01 to 0.i, 0.2 and

0.3 and the expected effects of compressibility were observed. For the case with an

entrance Math number of 0.3 the calculation proceeded until the flow choked, Fig. i.

This behavior corresponds to that expected from solution of the initial value problem

posed. Additional calculations using a variety of cross sections have also been

performed including elliptical cross sections of shape factors, b, from 1.0 to 2.0

and superelliptical cross sections of superelliptic exponent (a in Eq. 7) from

2.0 to i0.0, shown in Fig. 2. Three of these are shown in Fig. 2.

A series of calculations has been performed for flow through a duct which

undergoes an S-shaped bend, as in Fig. 3. These cases were run at a Reynolds number

of 500 and an inlet Mach number of 0.I. Four different duct cross sections were

used: circular, elliptic with shape factor of 1.5, elliptic with shape factor

of 0.667, and superelliptic of exponent I0.0. Although the required inviscid

pressure field can be generated by numerous methods, in the S-shaped bend cases

considered here a suitable three-dimensional inviscid pressure field was not yet

available. The inviscid pressures were generated at each axial station by a highly

approximate method based on a free vortex pressure distribution using the local

radius of curvature of the centerline. Some sample cross flows near the start of

the first bend are presented in Fig. 4. Turbulent flow through the tighter

S-shaped bend of Fig. 3 was computed at a Reynolds number of 105 . Several laminar

and turbulent calculations were also performed for transitions from a nearly square

to round cross section as shown in Fig. 5,

3~

CONCLUSIONS

ducts has been outlined. A surface-oriented coordinate system is used for a general

class of geometries applicable to subsonic diffusers with offset bends. The

approximate set of governing equations are applicable to viscous flows having

strong flow in a primary flow direction. The formulation is coordinate invariant

and the resulting equations are expressed in tensor form. These equations are

solved by an efficient alternating direction implicit (ADI) method. This numerical

method is generally stable and permits solution in difficult geometries using the

general tensor formulation. Further development of the analysis and numerical

method appears warranted by the results described here.

REFERENCES

Viscous Flow in Ducts. Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 14, 1974, p. 8.

Dimensional Turbulent Duct Flow Analysis. NASA CR-3029, 1978.

International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics, 1978.

Computing the Turbulent Boundary-Layer Development. In Proceedings,

Stanford Conference on Computation of Turbulent Boundary Layers, Vol. I,

Published by Stanford University, 1969, pp. 83-98.

or Inviscid Gas. Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1975,

p. 150.

Subsonic Flow in Curved Passages. United Technologies Research Center Report

R75-911596-8, 1975.

9. Yanenko, N. N., The Method of Fractional Steps, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.

i0. Reshotko, E., Experimental Study of the Stability of Pipe Flow, Pt. i

Establishment of an Axially Symmetric Poiseuille Flow. Jet Propulsion

Laboratory Progress Report No. 20-364, October 1958.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are indebted to Mr. B. Anderson of NASA Lewis Research Center

for kindly constructing the plots presented in Figs. 2, 3, and 5.

365

FIGURE I

O I"1 0 ' ~ DATA OF RESHOTKO

= PREDICTION

RADIUS, R

V e l o c i t y Profiles in t h e Entrance Region o f a Circular Pipe

SUPERELLIPTIC EXPONENT C = 3

4.0 CHOKED / I i

&5

&C

uE

Mi - 0.2

2.6

Mj - 0.1

2.0 M i " 0.01

t.5

I I I, I I I I

1.0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 0,8

X/R

Re

E f f e c t o f Mach N u m b e r on Centerline V e l o c i t y R a t i o

FIGURE 2

CO

03

03

Computational

planes

1.1 1.5

2.0

Shape factor

FIGURE :5

CO

03

.,,j

(FLOW LEFT TO RIGHT)

Ol = 1N~NOclX':] '1::)no OIJ.cll773~3clFIS CI3A~IFK)

....... i":i', * ~vo ".'i:" a i ........

f , . . . I ! |

' I

I t , . '

I " " "

I I

. . . . . . . //

S'I = 3dVHS '1017(11 011d1773 C]3A~I17C)

_. :..~ ...... .. _ - . .

"~, _-- ---~'-~'~~-- /

,m ,.e ,p~ ,ha ~* . 'lo . 1.4, *

~,,,, .'.... .. : . . , / ~

10170 ~IV717D~IIC) CI3A~II7O

,,.'" .".'"'..--"'.'-. "".. I

0 IJ P ~ p

\' ,,' ,' , ' . :. . ... "z/

\\-., : : - ; ; //

~"~- "-- - - - i //

s10ncl Cl3A~ln0 NI $31110073A M07.-I SSO~IC)

3~Ii'19 I:I

89~

369

FIGURE 5

I

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