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They are deuterostomes

They have notochord

Tunicates have notochord only in
the free living larval tail
Efficient movements are the
results of segmented skeletal
muscle blocks attached to
Lancelets retain the notochord for
the whole life
They have tubular nervous system
The anterior nerve cord develops
into a brain
Adult tunicates and lancelets
retain the gill slits for filter
feeding and gas exchange
Gill slits are replaced by gills in
fish and lungs in terrestrial
Tunicates are small marine filter
Tunicates are sessile in adult
Some tunicates live individually in
a sac-like covering of proteins and
a cellulose type carbohydrate
called tunic.
Only the free living tunicate larva
has a tail and notochord
The other name for
protochordates is urochordate
referring to the tail
Some protochord species share
common tunic to form a colony

Lancelets are small 5 cm

streamlined marine invertebrates
Cephalocordates are free
swimming fish like animals
Cephalochordates are buried in
the sand mouth sticking out
Lancelets retain chordate feature
throughout life

Vertebrates arose from free

swimming larval stages of
ancestral sessile filter feeding
animals 500 million years ago.
Fishes are the most numerous and
diverse vertebrate group
Evolution of fishes started in the
beginning of the paleozic era
First jawless, then cartilaginous
and bony fishes evolved
Fishes are streamlined and have
segmented trunk muscles
Special ossified connective tissue
(fish bone) support the muscles
Fishes have fins supported by
rays or spines
The paired fins are the pectoral
and pelvic fins
The unpaired fins are the dorsal,
anal and caudal fins
Slimy scaly skin covers the fish
body (compound epithelium does
not keratinize)
Mucus provides protection against
friction and infections
The dermis contains pigment and
receptor cells plus thin bony
plates called scales
Body is darker on dorsal side=
sign of aquatic adaptation
The lateral line system is a fluid
filled canal with sensory receptors
detecting water currents
Gills are respiratory organs of
foregut origin
Gills are thin lamellae rich in
blood vessels exchanging O2 and
CO2 gases
Skin breathing is also possible
and important
Fishes have adapted different
digestive systems with large liver
but no salivary glands
Predators have rootless teeth
Excretory organ is simple kidney
All fishes have a single circuit
The two chambered heart includes
an atrium and a ventricle
Fishes are cold blooded
(poikilothermic) body temperatue
changes with the environment
The largest part of the fish brain
deals with chemical senses
Jawless fishes are the most
ancient group including the
ectoparasite Lampreys with
suction oral disk
Cartilaginous fishes include
sharks and rays with cart.
Endoskeleton hardened by
calcium carbonate
Sharks have special sandpaper
quality spiny scales and have no
swim bladder
Cartilaginous fish have 5-7 gill
Sharks are specialized predators
with asymmetrical caudal fin
Sharks have jaws with 6-20 rows
of continually replacing teeth
Sharks have well developed
sensory organs vision and sense
of smell and Lateral line
Cartilaginous fishes have cloaca
(common excretory, reproductive
and digestive system tube)
Sharks have internal fertilization
and development inside the
Bony fishes have bony internal
Gill cavities are covered by
Most bony fishes are ray finned
Bony fishes have symmetric
caudal fin with two lobes
Age of fish corresponds to growth
rings of (scales scales reduce
Bony fishes have swim bladder
internal sac filled with gas
Bony fishes have separate sexes
but changing sex is not
Spawning is laying the eggs
hundreds to 9 million Fertilization
is external
In some species parental care
Bony fishes are divers predators
herbivors omnivores svavengers
or parasites
Bony fishes have great economic
importance cod, carp, herrings
sardines, pike,catfish
Lungfishes can survive dry
conditions by burrowing and
having lungs
Lobe finned fishes including
Latimera (living fossil) are
believed to be direct ancestors to
amphibians (fins to limbs