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I~: It'Cl'c,eD.ta~ distrib~twn Gf ~pl~ment by llnd,lI&lLi,La~ ,~titDJ and Mlte_ Dtedl1at'jto -11l~iifill;l;frrV'Ui.':'\"""llA

lU~,~t~l~m, ~ U,u.~w-~ '~~' ~~

UJ«ftt:ed Xlrn~ttlnmn~ '~'I"i;"'i!I>iIF'Io"Q,De ,.JI" . a'-b' ;;a,;..I-;O - -c

. - ~·'5~""""",,"t ... ~ ~~'lI,;,.~,t>li.,' uta" [ U[iOP (ihl,'

~;~~[yme..nf b~ l!tdl:l. ~I', sector ana ir:ttetm~d" l((e Bid'll';. -=f' ~11P, I i2 '-.. g,~

G1<I~a.da: ~llIre~ iilI ~tibutilon ~£ em!' ym.lIDt \l.y i.t1'fl, 1lS.t~~~:l $Ief;tol an d JJ;)te.LIDediate. indu~,tm QY"£\ l1rm?ii'

t~ -1 ,','i . ,-~ --'1 &~~~l

Q1lYlit8d Strl.~'~,s: Tenl,p±Q:yment ~~tlitlCS by in,fhl.s~7.

t}!hQ;.-l:""l . .~"f·I'

~ • ~-':""i

lf1Jp'an:. 0m;p ':'~fl;fteBt ~talrisftc by i_ndus,try~ t'2tl-l'Sr9Q '.t!(~1WB~: emp'~m}'ment st~ttsfic,: ~y ·,ndustrv,

1.J.l" . ~t" ~ .. S, ~ .,

I • . ... ..-". I ~ ~

T".· :.. 9. •• ~ i, '. ~

jt'an~6.: e~p!~rtneR[ ~hit~srits, by industry; 1921 ~ 1989 I~~'~ ~~J?lo~ment sta ,isQ~ b~ industry;, t'2t~1"O

. ~f:ll'~~ ttffjp;;~a'0ID~ employm@Ilt Statisfi€s by lndU$trf

ll~' ~ -l'i1)

.~. ,~anlad!a,:: @;~pl~ylt$Qt :$mti:s~i :s by mdusuy 1.911 ~ 1 ~"2 g~G~p'~:U~ka] 'J1mUdhte (5)£ 's~lea:ed ~onmtrieJ

t]niL -,c"d ,iParJt:~= pd~l@tit.a~ distributio'n 9f emplmyme'l1t 111 ttrc·" ll.f!~.:/ti~, lQ,'~t.9~1

- "·a,an·:;, pgf;Cen~p= ~·stQ.bu{·,op. of tmlplQym~nt by ~[~~~. '10D:, , ~j',$-199{)

tieftt1i:ta-,: ~·e-· ~~~ta=~ Wfui}j,uUion. of empl~yme . X by laI~~npa~i~ "~ 1~7~1',S-9

PliJ5;aia~€: f'~ ,~J~~ntalr.' ·djs~r~b\1tinn. tJf-''t,mplQym~nt by '9~llpa'ti0A) I ~B:1-, 'J 8,9

'~IJ,~ "t :Bm:itain: I el(2't_nra:se ,~ttibUtiOfl Qf eJll,p~em t I.," ~~CJltlp(attiQll" 196'1-1.1,90

~J¥iadQ; l'1kcentage wstribntion of employment by (;fQ€,tl:m'® Gim. ~ ~ )01-19-'2

"'-: ~r· '~ ~: ..

-@J:eiln t€:sid~Rt fl,~pulation in W~rem 'mope, I 9j.[~tfJJ:Q

BJmpl0.ymen1i "11 I1lan:waeruring by maj0[ cotuttne

. and regions, 1 ~7~ ~!J"7 ,

En1p11o ym en I' .shar~s br- indusrryioccu~atlon an~ ettkmicfge:nde1i gr.oup ,g( aU workers 10 the United $ta tes, 1 '6;'0- ·~~9l~

n:f ··rIlli;.lt ·:mIA technology 'spend· n'g per worker

{i .~S'7-199.4) 1 emplDyment grQWth, (. 987-1"9'~), li"'tld une}llj?J0rmerit rate (199.5) by cbunnJ

314

3:2:0 32.·l '" 2.

3*,3 ll4

3U

128 J1i 325t

332

Ac.knowle.dg"lents 20,00

'f,Ir~t ' " il;I~~ y~ ~oarv,e .in <y:6l,GJr h&B~1 ~'S ~ 5r~'l~s_t1,~dly ~.iS:ea edi bon ~~'~Irx", ~~=:~, iQr~ 110 '.Ily :p~u~OO1e4:in Nov'~mbt'ir 1~9t~t: 'IM, J,.JT£BJ1t v ;_, si .;ft~iS 611lf,hMa;tecl·.~ w4fftt~n_in ~e I_QQ, hafi oflY&19_ It>3ims at -iQ'fi1~gna7ltm~IDl ~~!0~( tR~bID1QgiGal ~Wl~mi«6 .,andSQci~ a~elG,mentt.

tlil~t ~ltt iPJ.Gi ~tl t.n~ f.i~ , ~O~~r gen'@'nUy goWminl th'e dia8AQ is ,:ii'lk~ 11~1l!8tg}[lI~,ris p,ftsmbil !~ $e 'f~t8t edi1ibn, 1 nave net modibe.d, tb~ ,~Q~1¥ s-w~st:3!li1lt:i¥!~'~el,~lt3I&BJ'fS 9 ;~!e ~y.ttUl an,al)is: at. tn,aihly b~t;an': e i tte~ [i~v~ h,a1C ~ii€' €~J;e:.,aTlmmt still stands at pt€ - ~-, Bta b~t ~0 be.tausc

11~ '~~ .. ,. ~', ·,.·L fl- ... ''Ii:;' -", . -, "....1 11 b .... 41 .,.J k, ~L.

~au. W~e!,·: ,K'~ ~~Wltetf mwnt ana must eventua y,: e sulers~eu ~ym.e

"!~l :.el~J1?~.! ~ ,ty aud l'6L€"~iii~tf.Di[ ~,,- {he ii,tils tiler contain, 3S sceial exp'~]j!li@:Q~e £~~d '~&tt~re;ll add! :Qe2W mf_ ;infatl6n aad new kRtlw1edae .. B~tSiQ~s' 'a~~a'1~rng s)~,m,@ r0f the: infd:rm~ti~ln," l.bav:.e J~Qtr(2.,ea a }ew~,mistJl(~~f alfdi M:f@ ItmtG t~ ·-_,arif.y. ,:amtd strmgthen the KgumeIltw:h~eL' PMS- ~ .

-,da:~

... ' ..... ~

b~ SlQ: '8,~im~g, i b&--ve ihlm«£ited 'Il. "Qm IllUl tom _- - n:ts eriticslsmslivand

- )~:m.:tril~)l'~tl~llQ E·1DlP 3.'jGltlfld l1i.€ w€JI;.ld~ centrany eu:rttSBed ill a @D.~~",t d,V\' /r,aI1d g€lllJ)et,l tiv,( t1\anElJ!'{~, I i:1UIIfot Dd~ j usciee t9. 'the richtn~s @f (£l\e cb~,ba,t€ tbu~rt 'dills bo,ok has emgepd@red., to my sreat surprise, 1 jrmsl: w.arnt 'I() ~pliess ~y he'a~lt if3l:itude to readers, reviewers, a.nd '~-, ·li~;s,- '-,il1,1 '1:@. J& die timealln ett0.rt te thinkaooutthe usueS an: lfz,ed

- ~oo b~, s:C 1~la.ges4 'I ~itnhQl Glaim to be aware 0f -, Ll t.hi ~QmmJ@:nJ', ad ~': S:St11SS'~~Q~ ~l1 ~~ v:a$l~ty Q,f ~tpies a;ud tn !alliuages whi~h 1 'Qe npt lllf(el~IK-$1tanl~L B 1J1!~ Iljr thaIt~iq tnm: J iMtitutian,s and in:~tdi vidp:lls who, I, ~r their '6~mtne - ts a·na ttke .debate, they 'ql&l .. ni~ed, have helpEd: .me to 'e\1;1tef' ~1rfl\l[f!r~;~~nd QQ"'.. the quesnoJl'S 1 trsaree in 1Pis bock, wish to

<;nemd: I'is a,cltJ;lowl~dpneft an readers, and commentators, wher-

eVier' lfld wh,tl~J tbleY"' ate. ,

PI,-'st ll~' a~l, J' w~llld liilre tt0 ~xpl'ess my gratitud.e to .a_ number of

Berk~IBY CtiI"f9rnia J'anua'q 20lla

File autnxiHr 23d publf~C'rg. gratefully acknowledge permission nom .·&.e ImlTlf)w'l;Ig t~' reJlt9dtr~E cepy.r~Bht material:

·

- '~SJil\~C ~r~~ ", . !~s,tit~(e·,P'ii" ,~ti ~ Jimpl'oymrsnt ~ ~e te," fl' ia r

:fJT.s1!iA' :.r~:~.l)n fhrJ Un! 1..'8. S~, r.e.s~ 7f8~1"~7~~"i -a,na.i¥5].s ~f B1flttlpa m,f

,:aJttt~~. ~~ta~ltl~S. d3t~, ,Y' ~~~wtL~n ~_, Jare:d ]5emsrem 'anA J~hn.

~~"WAJtl~ l!Jlfe,S.a f.J{: WQt2tng A~eri':ca 19.~B.-99,~ C~ppi·· 1 :t@ Cornell tr~, ~l~rt '.Fe.s>' ,._'e~.~~ P:t)q'ey Institute, Ithaea and Lenden ..

-r:~"~~ :'&6'~,O(Blist_· Jll~~t~ "~E$Jilngt:e @'TeVCDj' , 011 rtfftotkl.Gti"lIity in th:e I ·1~ '" rj JHiti)j lW1!-1 ~f~l foutput; p1!r hdUt) 2 Sm'_au df ~3.b:Q1f 5111.-

bilQ-i f!litb\)~~' ht ~ojlbm Cor'don "in "Thenew e§anomy: ' '," k in P.'f"ff-l.rIA~1 ~~ 1m:; 1fhe JI~·mtJ,., ~,pp:.llA~ lZ.Gpy,riglt- @ I"~9 The Econe- isu,~ I Qft4@~ t~~ Jt)l }" 8.epcint. d 'L;y p~Jli~n flf the : Ubu8h,€"t~~

1P'titt EG0JlGmist: - i~~ ,!t .. ': ((IVJe£l'inj1§'r4wi~entJs p4,m~nJ}~' in. ~$ltate~ w~t:b4i1;l;t!' illG .0.tn1ti!r 'bi~m Tn1J' ,E«~amlsto, ,p,. 13'S ~ CO'YI:~t @. Tlit ,~n)ml~i~j\,. L~o~.'~lmil f~O~'Nwvtmber) .. R:eprmtHd by pelmissl00 o£ the ,-d.~li:Sl:t~.

TJwltQ;'~rJ~lltJ.t:, !Iij,g~ j ~,1 ~i M.edJQ~id~bt 1998 fJJfmajtfif media gtoJJ.tls,~' e~m"amf JF~~r1r$,· V~'rln.nia, S~l ~ r and A,sltn:(iates,; Zenith Media;; Warm.U( g millli~.tt Ips,; eI~bnIlted by The EgQfttf)mist, 1:., p. 62 .. qQPtr~gh~ @; ~99 T, I~ EC0n~lId:st, ".IDndD (1 Deeember], lieprinted by pete' 1JID's's,ioll 0f tb~ puhlisher,

Tlfue~ i~euolJn~t: Flg4' j.l UStrttte.gic; llilfanees between 'med.ilz' gtQUPS in ,ru"JJP'~ f,~~r~,t'~ W'~'bllIg Dillon Read, elaborated by The iEtt:onl)miSt,

lq~rv,~:d UuJv:e:r~j~~~ l!~~3,!' Fii._ iJ~~ . ~!~~'r2.~f~)?Y; ~~{,~Jje1~g. fff .'~'-:~·f4f'J!l4tf:,. labor frXfG61 ifl ()~14.'~ (Jfi2unhi6.~x 119'i~-1 ~;m c" ';!lJ ape eaJrJiu v.ar=s~, >Iii- I~t

L' '-£;; . .;JI'"'., 1.:.1' iis:fl' ""I.:.. .\,.. ri.;nn\·E.l~ElIf,ii:3)i?'hAI~G. ,.,..'11

l,aiS q:Jg'W"e'ap,~tear€ru m " (ustdl:lfJti(a€?Jt~ ~,' m:3t:1:'e.t 'UP ,-" !~'~Jb£1 ~Jd.r' \ fA "".J ~N.l~ <~,a11._ 0

la~ .fl.y »4%1~tt~1rJ ~lI.1~Il0y iin 'W«; f0)'fl-,~t~R'lJini ,S::US;fai11Vin~ 't~ Ne'M ~t~n ·t~l: W~lrA" :P_it~ ,_~ _ ,<" fi@;; _,,'~ i~l, tlP'e, /:.r~1f1it!irt}n· ~g~l tl1maJ1t~g~; ~ac ,l "~ n:a"v.1@t:d IJf1'd~~F-;tirfiN ,;;~, E&,'y~ij:he CJ~£,:a~'hy ~i~ :R1 ~8Sen S1l;gg Felll'~ ,', 1i:.~~n .. ,

HmraJd Mmj'V€VSi~y Prcs&:' ~8; ~,,' ~iN~~~-:ISlt;n/i'f/1/1l ttf~'':;'" ",/{t t!1J"lt#,~fJ~ ffl·~tl.2 #f.: ~l11/p,t~:JflilIWi)(j" 1~,r;C$' U/ D1%tQ /f)~fi4;t.f:~'B;$) !j t1'aJ'~~9~,';?-~ Za ~~fli~~ "~s.4,&,~ af 'tiI!l:5. ,~it.aLte capp,,~(l~~.~_Q ' ': '~$ tjqjPl,lP:Je; fl.({~liifi~t nell!! G'D~)q;~~ e~aed .by MaJi'tlliI~!lI~,m\h€'.;&t,tu ',.~iJl;i;m,g~" tYJtt ,t;fJJ{ ':, l!$IJ' e~ftm,~- '~: m r1,~, Ftn~,it~ .,;*~. fCfiJ~~ itt, /#1911 lnft!J'r-

~= ::~'L~~~~l=~4H!sr&i;y Pnslt, (;J",righ'

Haf.\t<!:rr('! lAY' tfsi't1\ Bress: F~. ~. 12 "'A_ :.t ~l:19, '6Jf"fJ/1}~~ity

lfaFV'a.'~ tfll~iY'~ -s;ify&-€~$.: T~~1)lt 4.,].4 "J! ,,~lQymeIJt ~hllTes'lh.y indU$~' fr~Irt!/'li!R,aif!~~ ''lInd ~thm~1g,6,"d"@-, ~utR' c:d fill, r(I.~~~h~' in In's U1ll"4 .51a~f&s:;ff) f~~1~;2S ( ,«ro£OOI) " US D'8paf~lent of Comm~Ui,. 'IUf' a ~, . ,'~l~e ~®.:n~us, f P-er.",ent: Sttti1lpilt. ~lJS p:(J pulation' C6nSU5~ 196m -' - '7Q, ~~ imtlilg- 'lJly MaI-tm Ci~·D.t indi. £01 koomin§ $us-t:mnjft~ the Nww

_' . @.~r.tJ.uty; WQAI4 ff~mml, 'lJnd (;;'01fUftUmg tn tkts ,·t@tmA.ti071 itge; 'Ca 'Fn~in;Bl,!, Mij~I~:: Ma:cY'I.td Ymv~sity 1I~\S.D C",pyriglit ~ :lO on by ,til - ,f: J.i;1~s~1' Slag,; Fotl.!P.'QaliQo ..

, '21f'V9ltdl . ,'ai,Tttsil, Fl'~$= Table.,4·.2S ';lnf0T11laotion teehnolf.Jgy $PenJ.i1.1g tp B~ 'tP;rJlTt~ .~'~ (1 J:'-7;.;,..1 g~);1 'empi(J)yme:nt :goUltb (19817'-1 ~ 9:4), '!"d u~em/plf1lment t:(Jitt f;t ~5) .kl)! Wllf~~" ~en:ved fmm o~e~" Infor- 1fn:8J1fJ:n 1: ~'Ghnf!)lvgw ~l4lgtl~o k!) 1 ~fj (Parlls:. g:g€D.~ ~ a9:b, fiC. ,1 ~ 1 ); tniplbfrFU~Itlt ;gp0wth fr0ID OliCD, Labour iFfMce StQUsJlts, 197 4--1, 9.9~; >i!I1l;gm!~~~ym'tlt sees trQID OEC ,'Emplriym' ~ 0Ht"lfi2()1i Unt. 9 6), ~t"-Ul1'f,.IIecl a,Rtf eiabl1lF··· ted by Mattin CarRO· in t ··e £0 thG'Q~:un8' us- 1'€W':fl~1$fj the Nep~l:l &',vnoml: Wptkl Family an~ C~mlltJlfjJ tv: tbe:I~ ~1nQi'tlirm AJI!i; Cambridw::~ Mass.; ~'ifd Umv.·· $lty;~S, ~ynght @ i\"GMIl ~J ,the J&'liSsen .S·a_,ge F0Wldatnon.

It.e B€ t tlJ!te; Fig. 7.,,2 I< ~~ ~f 'k~/i'PiUimJ. i/e'nt'hs ~ fat-.) ~Fh s ~~~ bY;?lef~ 19-f.1::.... _:~'"I"~>'" .lK:fb,·dJ!iir.~ ~u~r!~Q~ M~j~J~.~jz1' ti~.V1'wi d~eatk: clij~I€'~ 1111 si~ ~t(.~~~~ tn I~ p: . n atI(~f WQfrlbt ~ Tw e, ,~, rllI!~ULijli'h~€cd

res:eaX'eh Pelf~er; )l'qii Q'c .. ~a;ftlme~lJ1Xflm{ter-\ lliltur~,1 ~)t'llird~gs,- f{~~e ea - .Ie~, ny'Qg'Q~~

(',(if.~ -r P us,:, 1ra.-l~ ~'\.$ ~JJ'iTB:t;~t1n i!J{wQrliJ. ~xp~rts fi65.rl"J.'5. (.p~r= , <e/n_'b:4g~ .~~ ~t- .. ' fQ:,aJj ~ .) ;.ilv,uUtttd:l hem lMF". . iretf:ion' @f T"faae, 'Slfltis"boies ~,~bQ '·4' ,(. ari:IMs ~eQs) elamG)'Iatetl py Pa:v'itl·Hetd" Anthony MreGr{~W;1 Jjtavidl rJ.~ldhlfaU» ~dJQlla,han PJrmtQ:o r;1tl)alll Tranifort.t!av,tiJ/f.! <) ~~ 1 'J2,. C4(DJ!'YJ!ight 61~:" Poli~¥15,tanf~Ed Univflrsity .1ress~ J~ .• r "a·t;iitt~,f. ~'~'linted lly pe~mi8sisn. ;of the publisher,

P~1:" p. " 'S8: la·We ~ :~~, '<'B,~entJf)r:ptl~~t:iQns Afld lflteiBrt 4ffiljate~ h~ '+r.Ptiil rlftd ~(f)ltn~), ,l,&/le:ff aft(l.i~ble ,tUZ1 (11~mb. ~,)' UNCTAD, 1'·9'7 t . ',:-': ~ l~1)~#Jf}em· R~t}tlfl:rtlJ'!I#lfftif1Jnal "PrttDt~:ti(fjnsJ MRfk.~t" S tnt tttM:re ~l!JtJ;i ~r;ftfh;p'e.·titJ,Qn P,(}ii9~} ~,_ 9~ 8) cQpJ.piledby Day. .,~ Held, Aat:hon y Mcalf~'~, D'itV"J~ '1 -tlldl~11att > 3.pd Jmna&'an Perraton, Glahal Transforrm'ftifj)I1JJS'~ "" 24$,", C.9~1~~ht @ 19'9 P.elitylS:tanf~ d University Press, (B;aobrid'le~ l1€lpriRt~d by ~er.mis8io,n of th~ publisher,

1?QJitl;~atrf6f.1 Cqmo. '~l: Table 4.:!Z 'F"or,4gn r61iri&ntp'flJpul#,t.ien in W8$1"-

Acknowledgments'99'6

Tlf:v~, ~~ ~5, 1'lieeEi 1i ~ in ~ rFtaMnt,~~my reseaee and ·.·_,a;,r~·~'ng-·~f~em) ~0 ~au~n llP wttA_IJD (9·~~:.'I\Gt,()~ I~,t .. ~.Q:aaain;g £aitecDlan

:m, ~ID'F~.tq ~~. ~apa€lty,. That _l tl~ve ~,tie:fi able to Ra~h SQlQ"e .fQ~ gf ilt~Jbt,i~; ~:W£:1ile; r:~Tlt'I'tivli", ill due to th1t ~!ll:PI!J;atiQ(l. help .• -and 'S'I£j,,<g€iJ~'t: Rt ~ ,fiiJlil:1if.el1 I~f -~ m'J~b= «.fiG ins 'tt1,'timlS

' 3 _ r .J:? -~s;

M~ .. fGst ~w;tJ ~JE'eF~st e.~L e$~Jon a _ gfillihld~1f~e:s,~t6 E~ l5sf;l~va~

L I' t... 1'~ 'J ~ ....

~ll1~~~ e ft)' BiJj'~m\tfGUl was ~5~~ ji,. in obtID:nitlg inf€u"ma.1:.i0.n fer SIV-

~Ital ~llar,yc€if~ 1ft kf;l~iRg with ih' elabcJrl:a:~' -n @£\he ';'~Dk~ in.$~GRIiI\§ ~«e,e~l' '~; .. 1a~u_~~~ th'at I ~ .:. Q not kn0'w- anti m erQLrnm.e.ntinl~ as,setsing, a.:~d ~d, . ts~.$ Q,ll ' ~t ftt'tir _ mQll~~CD~ pt i,

t .--100 w.aln'~ '~O ;li]im;.' .; ·t~ oYJ!laRiie.rs Qf itJ,uf e'~epttbma!ionm:tS wn~l!@

Ilk . '~,;:l ,;G th L 1~ '.oJ' ill· ~ ~' ',.:3 d~_'l ~:;.".J

lli~~!b} vmi:'l[;}; me-8.s. ,€)It me ~'QGw 'W~~: 1aJ.:Stl1~ft~, In. iueD~, ,anil' 'wy .F~~~ I. Cl"

'" eUr:t:A11:C' ~~, 1 f- . 1 1... ' .... L • _1 ~

m i_~d'.,;,r,~_ ,-. J;r '~I ~ma . stage Qf MtS"e a~'l['a,t~rQB~ IMcl- speClill S'e,~ C9n on

jL, . ?

tlhU Irl~ftk ~t ther]jtSl':~ "~e:tiaW0:f the American AndlrOtpQiQsidll.A$ '. m-

tl3l ,":mn'll ,e.F~ar~zed b)y IMa S~er,; the D'epartme~t g£$,eciology , ello,rtf" W}JJ ~~,1t ~~~M'€~1J .~~",~ni~~1!1 by ~Ijc W C\ieli~aat; t . intefna~tional S6IllJimQJ~ 00 B~WQ; Ii· . "J!lms Q.ljgamlei in, Brasm~ aTQuna F~emlantla He(l!l ,i,! u C~!fel@"01, as Jie. wasft§:sutnirig the. pr~sidency Qi Brazil; I.l\d Ike' eries @:r se~llin~Jr" on the bsok at Tak,g's HitQtsuba~,b+ University, ~m1t.pmz!fi:id by Shufi!c.a "Yaz:lwa~

SJj~~~li- e0U~,8'D)e·s 'in sev'eral ~gllnm:ies read cue-fuLty the dNft.,ofthe Al'0!~k, ·~n ;fitU ~' spiciJic' Ch~apftlS, and ~.enl (t"Ol1siderable tmIt cernll\~·tiM.g $1,1l it., le ailin,g". _, . subs~anti.al and extensrve _ ev.isi0tJ.8 of he n·~ •.. TllJ~ mjBtalies . ba remain in the bOQk are entir ~ly mine. Many lrrQ:siti~e~ Et@nrt iiJUll€"q' "~rf;. :tleiPs" I w·- nt to aGkn. rledge the G': Regiai ,.""ts III ~l1:bIi!R.s. C~o.J Martin Ca:rntJy~ Alain -_ouraine, Aath~ y 5.·-€l:~r1l8, Ij,Qa ieJ, BeU~ JeittF Leal, :5bujir0 ~a2a~i:~ Peter Hall,. Ch ~~lQe

H:si~ ~mu~t1~JI Hsins, 'raI1¥Qj,s, . , Mich«el Borras, Harley Shaike.p,

IPlrolo'g,ue: the Net and '-,he Sel,f

~i::11 Sima Ilian ~ t0ttf:ptzlU. ~ l

5

leEhnlQI0.g~, SsC11,efy,. aA:d Historicall Ch:an,gle

T:l[e a,jQ;JF In,al ion. lre~hn.f~iogr ,re~Qit '"t}hln, ~E~l'ls:e &f rt:a p.;e~ive~s It;~fr,mIJ~l~l1: ~~,btht Wbi ,< ,I,~' IeJ.:l " b; f.rllmQtl a~dvit¥., will b~ my e,~'B: B-(~)lnt ,~~11 a~~I~Yl1in, ~(t ,(::o,~~~,tR{i~t1"\~f t~ Il~W ~:eQ~~ elf, sooIety" ana clIlture ,~', ~t"]!,' ~l"~~§j _ ~;' or€1fhG!d,~11U!gie.21'~ eheiee d()~ R(!;jt iml,1y that neW

. ,bl:f;al fta~m~~l!ld ,r,ti)g~. es em~' a ~a ~ijlnile~~n£e ~Y ·techD.Q~ogimJ E;blo~ng:e. Qf ~·~I· ;" I~Gh]il0:lQ-!)!' ·d:ees rIat tie;fe~mine. .s'ijciety .. ~ NBr clee5l", S~~~f~t;~ 1;qym~'~:, ~o tIr~ff€.,~~f ~~eDti~llt:lsioCal than:: 're sinse many 'llIcro,'t$) iJ:n;::U~:dln~~, [md, '·.l,i1~Ht~ lIHiOO'tl~gl)tS"s, aM ,~'tICf1t~n;f!lc}ria iSln~ mtecVenf

"]]1 "~ ~'~~".~s·. ,E s~u~:m:d1fj,c ,ai~o~ery., t1:&hrre,t!t)lgiaal ~nll:raJ1"~, anid

~cia]~ D I ~pn~'rian!" Si~ t - ai, tbte~:&fur, ~u1Eco1"tle d.'t.E)f~nds on a Gem'l? lex ,att:eflFt d£ inieACtileR~ s jIndg"erl~ ,th~. 'di~~a IB'}' [f!Glint1)lbigiOi) I, ~4ft@t.~ms,ltt :'~lP ,~ba,1J.li"l, f-af:11: ~o4elin,~ siir.l£,C: ~eclln'Qlagy: is' :sl£l~i~ny,a:ad ~;~d e;~"'.i~.a.I' hil~t ~t U~JI_st'i ~jd .01';. :reJptes@ted Witl10ut its t~_lQgieal 1~0i®1s:~'1'Tf.ttlS"" ~'iliv~cn in. tbe lr~ilOs a [lew'~t~dtp'ol~., at 'PaC'a., ([tt,iapi~~€1 ale'QIE" a m!G)'~a:r~ 'r~hn~l,bgy', Game tel be contirut~d nmjnly iiFJ:iJ!,:e UID~te,ifI1,L.la~e~, (51 - , ,~b~~1!'l )~, ifw~~ ~~sp,tGi:fit'Segmenlt of' Amed-

: ~R. ~6~i'€'ty."~k im tntera"crifJn wit, t ': '€ 1.1a1Hll (~0nomy I aU with ~ClrJ,4 '&~0~ft€i~11i'~i~ '~~at ;ra:aJteJri:~lili~d in b:D a new wa -raf" prt!rdu.dng~ ~Plnmuni-, 'cal'fii~l.g, 'l~fiJ.:alJ.lf~,gjng" Qa4 Jivi6;r. TnaJL·tbg [cCU1Sstitution of this paradigm tt:,~, )~ p'JatJ;~ ~;iq ~e itli~d Smlt1!S, gtn,~ tg' ~01l}e ~~ent . n CalionUa., and ~ ,the,· ~/fch~~ p'lE'o'fu1ah>jy ha,' cQI1siQt1;abl~ ~QnSeque~,c~ Ear the &a-ms aiDa 0v.,(l)1~tL@n - @,~ new ]nformlltitfUl t~Qhn.o10gteJ~ 'P'Gr' instan~ in spite (9'¥ t.he de ~isive~,eh ~ &1 ~ilimry fy'B,atih;g- and ~markets iR "iosteIiqg, early

:: ~~' ~~, . ,j~f the l:1 e"tt1f~'Ill~(§S :wu~h:1~~ d- rIa!; the 1 '4(ls-1~~"al-, th:c tl!~n;otl;i€~ 1 ~~$(mnlfiRg u'! at, )l;fJ~k pl~, 0 e in 'fue ~ly 19708 can b€ s:Qme~0W !:,h~jt'd ·t~ -tbe G2w.tttJt 0.' - t£reedQPl imdiviQ: a1l ~Dva,tioll1; and ~m'r~pren£Jllfi'l!lism that ~~~W' eut ef ~e 19~'~8' c~tur€ ?~ American, rca!IIDJP"I)Sles" M@t se rnw,u:b. mterms mf Its pclitics s,m~er&i11oo~ Vall, was, 'c '·ntd is, Qj sol~d mastJlun ~~f1!hf C-G ' $etvativft yare"~ and mejt JnD.ev.a'~~s wer:~, l'ncta-l'uli:t1c'at, but i'(b regard tt) social values' 0f braking ~w~, '·fn:~m. '~'falfj1ri6h::d ,'tt&r~~f be,.havior. both in. ·om,ery t 1 rge ~md m -dt'e :business w' ld. The empn: slS on ,ersonalized d'evic~s, Oft

,!, ee ~~"'e :atlalrs~s , .~ _.0 e'd . n eur.lb (128ah'h~ also Webst.er t 1991). .

II!ID My ,dJ.sCt]"~@rll ~ - hina's irnt:€tru!~d t.e~togicaJ dev~l0'l~ment .rel~f:$ l}1:ainly 9R an ~~Ela~R1fd~t1JilH ~r ~~~~'P.Jt~r l~y luJ . Me~, \ 151'.91); 2Q9~38') and on a most .msightfui, "althQ. ~.oJr"Iil)Eiv.~;,~11 b ~pJ~li ~~3:D (12.8'9).

l_m,oJlisrn ~IP""tDlada todJe~t'wpmlenr h~rd I'fl b:llnp~,;,;L. t-'6 J, .. 'c l' · _I •

. -f~' "'1~'" . -, I~~;"!!.:.~~U" .,;.e1!:lntQ Qg·IC1tl I,]]

nijV_~!,t1~~I .. ~ ~ I~ 1- '{:~JlI mrfil~~ ':urQl[' &tQ'PpBd etQl~O;!ta1. 'de1:~rii0:rQflbf1 as a

El$U'ltt ~F lI)IH']P t!Mw'oE.tks I!.U !0utherfl.t:a.;m"'" l.ip'l...,~: .... .:l-.,..... -" ~ _ ,~

. .... _ b" " .' :.-., < -;A, ... '~ ,1(l~I_J1 ~fI1!1,;,,- 0On51J,C rv,a:trl@.,fII. I

il'il a ~ LII!I'~ 'N'a!!j su ,." '. nated [~ aar ~ I!!JtUFR l '1;Jro d utt~ on ttl t)rd er te 1r:'e'a a

,gl·o,wr~g:· 1~.' :,~ula~I(}J" .'. _m._ f:-aC'tt~ WeD-1~'n ~ir~ni .tI~, is !l~~e. -fu.l book

.. !~~e~,"e, )~~~ ~~. ~ 11 t,o N~~~h:~ll' . 'q _ - ewbat excessive en 1!nu:s1al;m tQ!' the tfR'S. \@ f :-~~~~e$e tr~d,tHi;)nal tecbn~LQ&y - etw"ith: Qrl,ding his sh~r d fI1~~Ii1it-1 ~(, - ·t~'j)l :t~~ .. N e'e'~b~~'~ $ ~,~'JiI'1I:rr(eDIrn! l.if~l,gnl w- J;~. Q ill a ta t fQt

r)' ub'~le]_\:. _ a\l~Jai'll~~J~ al l [[I[~£a~e ~;e'\-Ii;I'~n t~Je "/'I~e '~tO.J?lc,en t It _- ~t:l1i nese sci- 6n~~ a"J~.d Itl~~ '~~Hra.Uel-l~-rhs ~ tbines~ ,e~:vit~lio' do.rmlna[~ by t_\ie

~X'~Gf~lI:'S '~~s~~:~~ li. ak ~ . i~, IllW s~' to he tim, OiIJOW ~fiotpr iH~ ~~,:P!~Ui1i '_0 I ',nest- [e,al:ilBoJer l€.Ql ret -da -QT tn mod.em nmes~

"t,€. .t "eh't"]1_Qr;iID:m mat -.~ g.rorpO[· _ d in t_ lee ~ps~ techn0i~iEa\inng~. i(sdom was? fG' 'C~m:'UtHiI.~" tll[ulQ'['llH!:ru:atl, in rcli~ LYaJlcls ()cf; the SC;l're; ~'(ne(t 1~~'~,., ~ G~I!J1~£~ali~~ U-[]!Q!e[ tb~ ~n~ and ~in:~ dlDa6ti~'8. lQ'St If A ~eJIes ~ Ul ~~ROIQ~l,~(l miU'~lVal Id'n:' ,and., part~y 5,~:a,~. c Q,f:: tli~i_,r dedi ~ ~,I!:i OJTJ tE), f¢)~e. th ' " t.te ' ultural :and s0cia1 refit s \v 0; e f(;fGu'se~ en art

:h J m..a!li1ji~}). ~rl?1d. se If-PLl~m ' fion~js,-ll-U~" me imperial tH!l_l!fUIUlor3c;y-. :rIJl!~~:_ .. wb.~-t'" t$0es .~'@fH:m. IDe. b,e wru,ei : is ~,e r~'l o· the ~ate, and d:\'e el1J~,r1f~,!ng (fj:rtJi(. ''-'~~~ ~ oif iriif! 'pOtlGY. Why wonld ~~S,m:tc d~])J:· n~t! ben ,~:fu?~ ,gl~t1·~~t)!}~}i',dr:an[j,c~qtm~~[ in hL:stery; gIld had ,~s'mbl~is,hOO au agt'i-

.~i't~[ ~~!l ~a'IDn S'fi~en.l. ~_rJ i"lP~0Y.e ·~gLi.G~r~l ~rorlu~vtty sm~e

rth -'. ~an, fel)_~d ~u~~~nly be:o:~ - inhibited h, Ij~bn:m:l ;.,icai rrmGVQ,Bl0' . ~,~ fttrlh~,Jlhng geQ8r~lDl1ital t-lWloJrRtlon. and ~balldoniag.th ,0. if(Sr'I'1[€: imp I~ hlJ,-ge shi~, bW ~4 -,QI? Th~' ~hvi(JU "3n,~ . er rsthat it Wi,

I1(fj~,.t - e ~S~I~~'~ !!~~ )Jelt' fl;~Y b~~~alJ. eli.' ,£~~aW~f: t){5Dt&IRilr ~B.S~S

bu t Ibe~&~l se d!l~ bu rea II a~ltti6: I[ lass OOCSl'm e Ii!J!i)£e' dee,ply enlr~Qc:hed in wb,€ i;diru1ru: r'I:Ui0t'l cl;.t;l ': ~Q 1;} lttl1g: t11 - n llSUal peri ·d of lUiDJ, ' -- nre: ltd ,i.: li1Ylllnapii~.

tl~~~ ~~ilil,g ~Q ~- [~k'f~ it H~paaTs, ~t the ,6~[eIrninilil.g.fii~r {Of t,e.!,h-

I (2j:l'~ zie 1 G:oID~~afi$m was, fh,e rulers lears Q'f the potentially disTHpt iv~ rmipat(~t$~(jj.f re:~d}n@,~il~al dhallge on so~ial stahility~ Nnm.&r0uS'0J'~es ~)'~JP!0;seclluBi@ difjusi~:n 0f 'f,echnGl<~gy 1n t:bilia, a$ Ul :.' h~ s,n;ieti ~t

~llln:~-. ~[atly tkre tuI~a~~I/I~1..guilds, B~trleaJ:lQrats content with t%¢ st rus grrm c _-'1 Iri-, ,_ f)~ . "Rl1~C1 .'1 t ij 'e ~e -rsibiliry. of 1r~g:~ir41g'G ·-ial eonfiicts th.at 'lJ~I'tdcl, ciij~, -~'S€~' wirlt cithl€r"si(i):ur~e_~ of latent apposition in a so iety that

t ~vcl, ~g k;@.p.;t U1\lJd.er ,&l1tr1.11 ~~. .several centuries. Even the 0 enli~ll~d Man~k~ de~~Olts at the eig.htumihent.tuy K- ang Chi· and

: . '~, ie rr L UII[lg'J fmous ed their efforts en pI:.cjfi at' an and ,0 der, rather d,;a,-. elJ;J, ~meashing new develop . I t. ~nvtf sely -eJqllotati0n nd Cfinjl'~ --18 -w'ltn fo:]t!Lgners, bey~nd ¢wtt011ed tra e ,and the acq.trisitioR qf~\H~.~.fM9,n,sl- we, 'f; drem€:Q a De.,t um1€cessary~ at W0,t:Jt threaten[ililg, b _=' G. lJ!lole ($.£ tth~ lil_rt-ainry they would i~P~1" A bureaucratic state

11

13

L~> ~""~.,' tthl~"h~l?g ~I1stittl: ~~n , ~r ,mdeW, Ind[ut~Hnf dle St«ttlo :fr1l Jfii.i~t®,~ )~a~ ~l!\0~1€;$ 'tjtrQ~§h.·w~cib tlhlS 'd~ve~~pme]l, Qf ~t.Qd!JtJlve Ii'irGe5, ~:I.. ~s , ,JPjn~e ~.,r~~RalkSl ~~e '~tl~ftt't> '~iSlfj~ 'of t~bnel0~gy and its. iru~e~ _. Wlf!- a~~ 'a;;g: 'I n SLQ;a.~!] ~~ "a1!4~!nsllliS '

'rbij~ is '?~t dli~e'ren, ~:the ~ e' th~ ell~}T~ti:~~ ruo,gi,~ rev0l'uni·@1i\., lIt ,1·v~~J~.a '.e€l 'aa . :.lffas~.dl n~t bf aGcidf!ut, in lin ' ~ 'rrnr,LGal pf;tief~ 91'~11't. ii10sru 1iest1:11c-tml~ ~£ taint"a1ism~ '~I wht~ It was an es.:seRt~al l@aJ, :rRi1i$,~ ~f. ,fi,ew -i~"'C\ety em,e(t;iu~,lr0m thts :pfcbc' ,s tbf ~h'an}f .

~wcl~ £:a_i't~J:iiJt ~n'd i~ftThtm.~l~nf&l~~l~ . '9r~&eD'tin,~ e.ollsiderable· !lis~ W,[],~ V'i.Jil1a~m n l~b.~'.erent Q~luJ'"td'e'S, a~~r}ttli~g ('0. tfle~ f. hi:soory, talttllff, . 1I(iD} ~l '. :np' liS:., ind meirr ap~4ific, I6lat:~lDtlSlllp ret g~obal capital ism J' _' tmJ~)lrlJrUtt~10'1ia li. €b:l1le~ '~f"

IIAf:Qf'mlatlm,nal'ism, Indu.,·tri:al:iJ.m, C,apitii-lism .. 51ail,:II.1:; M'O'~ie5 luf Deve'opme.nt and Modlss of Ptoduc.tiolA

_ ~ oo0Fma~EiIQrn._ we~:n'[lQl~w I~vo'lu~iQn was imttllmf;ltal ID 'a!1(irWIn'-' II$li€ ~tti.,],Mn~m~'tt.ID. ~. Ql, }~(!(~menlal pr~c€~,s GiffJ~s:tIUGU1ring. 01 the (~JI.,:·t: ['st S'~~tM iFomtt~ l~~Qs, 9Uwa ds:~ In the Pl(1)t€SS~ this tecJ;mg'i}~aa' fW&~lttiGcrr was itseJfsh~,p'@d~ in its develQp;m!en~.aii.n manifesta:-;ulCIrm b¥ 'Eire 10t;i~ : :tu!1 intexeBts (91 advaneedeapitalism without being -l)®,d!l\l~ .,le ttl 1tl\.-. e c c. (~S ion tft such! iRt~r'ests_"rbe 'al ;emative system ($J.r

:JY ~··a l, ¢1r'gaRiz!i~Qn p~e$J_ ' in ttw hl.s~~ric.al ~~e.ri sd, ;taqsm,) also tried 'ro ~e ... fl~m~ thl@ mea:ns',sf a;~c:(;u:npli.shin.g its structural g@al:i while ~l'.feL €1:vlimg 'th~' '"-SI@,EliG~'0f tb.~~g~gQhlg~, that is 'Iii~ meaning o{x@stQuctaring ~0" 1'fJ¢ e.s.trf)i~d. ~o -'&USSifUTh). Y;€t SQWif!t '£ta)ism fa.ileg in_ its, ~pt. ta

'l~L -lrn€)if-t ~ _." ,""l~;aRst.o:g tititwl}ok s~l_cm" ttl 3, huge _Xl nt llec- use Qf tJlf· ]'_ c; :H~tl ~~'f . ,tal~sm ti ,assiml,late aed use rhe principles of ilmJ€}_rl1lJaJm:~1l8itiS]:11 ~bodigd in new in ermatiou te€bnQlep as I shall ~l~:~ue h!l '~hi"s '~~Qk (v01um:e m) on tbe JiaJis (tf emt'iiiOIi «L'lalysi~.,

.. ' ]rtin~e·s(e S'ill'1r~Sm seemed ,0 succeed by ~ frQIli sta.,tism to statet ~;' l~R~ta~m ana ~'llte~ati0n in :g obal '@tQuQnlle netwerks, Raetually ~: ·e.mil'l~S . lj!)J;~r ~ ~e 'QI " '&lf21pmental 'state. model of .:east ASian ~~~1 't.1!~ml1t 'dti'E ~ tbl e . .s,Qci:wlis .with ell inese cbaraceensrics" of ·oHlo.lll ,ide(dl(g)i¥l'~' as I sR.~All slse try to. d~.scuss In volume HI. Ne~e ~e les~, it ill bigd,Jy ,ijL€.~ly that the precess of stntGmiral ~ ns!crr~~9n m C~a will~ U.RQIt:,rgomajet 'po11tica,1 Qenfrct~ and ~StItut~Q~ c~ange In .ti(l: €om.ms;re .rs, The oo1l.aps ·bi ·tattsm {with rare exceptians, fo

15

11

'I ~€!,iI'~iHj~ '~~ ii' 'e, 'lrnaJi~~~ ~lse of. new~ th.rot]J~on th"8'~g)d1aelien zt)fl, J. I~ IJiElJ .iaLn@~, "r;G,~6SSeS. nA d:Lf n,:-wJ .hri'f~,tmatioDa~l m,Qde" f ld€v'elQ.,};)"" '1m ,',[ ~m;'E s .~.I!~e ~f., P,[IO Cl~lDt~ ~~.t:y ~ be S ]fl tb~ [e:~hnoJf1gy !jet k[1Q~w'le~F g'~1iJL'elt~1rtrom, ] ]]JFm:r;m-ra t!~11l, ?'te'€i,:S~ ng; ~nd ~ b ro,' CiI~,A\mnll catioo. ro be S~1IH~", Itt1,'e~]~dg;~ ,a·n;~ ,·nf~iuna.tien s= l~n1t~i.!:~J $me,pts in an n~rod~

"r d,€v.g1ojllment, ',.uiJt;~ the ~~r~,' ess ", prGduaFI@'Il. ]~, alw9.¥'S 'bas.tt1 en

,om,e' te.v~1 " kl" 'D,~'~edge .an~ l'm the FfCO:te,~ iIlg .~·f in (lema imR.l' He _ € :',~r ; W I,~'at: 1.S s'p-eeJ$u~ ft} lh~ lni~' ma'tinn al m G aJ@f;G.f d:e.ve'tGpmertt 1 tihe aCCiGilll' . 'f ltJiIJilwl~~llc tljp~ln 1fnlf.l'w;h~~ldB·: it· ~l f ~$ rt:\1e m"'s,in source O£~;r[\Q'"'" d14fiQ,~yJJIrf. ~se.~' cj~ •. ~r 1,1~ Irll .. Qlllm'a~tio~ p~;{1J,ee'as,ing is fgejllS£H QI;I'im.'p.r9,.VJrIlS. ,~'t~. (~'el~J~nnt~1j~ ,f, ih.~Qnrf.l:a;r~ an pIa ,f -ina as a g(Jtlrte of pt'[01dl!D,' I' i;v"it¥, J!lJl a vH~~L1'~ .US. c~i!rGiei{)£' in~er~tif}n , ' "tWe~;n,the.~Qwlf:age ~UiliC' s <, ·t~(:Jilf,l~olpgy a'nm: the p.f)~-icacien at tec..nnalQm-· re lmP1fPN

I f].@iW ~ e,d.llt ~eHl@ji~ ] e I1J iU~jjd id. I'· ati'loUl p (iqc~$in~: 'tbis i . why ~'gj GJn;iThg' p'~p~lll:ar .~ !·lit'~~~'1 I ~:~] thlS new mlfJQr:~ dj Q'eveibp'm~nt informati~mJt.l €gu1J1~f~:m ~l b~' the emergente .,0: a t1ew' 'te~bnC:JlogicCQJpFlr.cllgm li~secl. en i:nf@:l?Jma.t.:i.r(9I1i1 teehndt_ S:t ~. ,I: ghap'ter 1}~

E:a~~ -1n ire 10!£ d~\7;1~le:@.nu~At has -alse ,R str~ aUy ~ett\ftnin p.er'k~,~'m~:a~ ,y~cipL€: a ~t1lilid "\vfuclI mchrr910gical ~'I'OC6sse..s af' 0r:8an.~glt'l llld11lSTWla1l,S'M l' JQt:lm~ tpwa~d e:;0[1~i~ grDw~:I that is. to' ' .. d ,mm1t]m:wL~ ~®I;IiJ_'l11!~ inlormationfltHsm is. Qri.~reitaVo(a1:d~ te€~nQtQJ~"al ~.; tvgJ!l~~m~ lAa.1 is ~~lcld tH,~ secumulatio of kn0w~"edp and

,~w'a{" c,.l~~hr~:~ l~viet' I x- ,~mL]~'li .l{i~ in iRihOnatien p1:UJf:ess-ing., While ft'L!i~€1i ~Viels @l two"~tt~cltle·n;ra}r nO':QiJ.la,'iy re,uit in highe~ l~'S~of BUt]LillJtc ~r l:!mit e;f input ... i;[ is th pursuit of ka~wiedg'" anti jhl@rm~ti.tm il] a:t C IJ rar~¢t-ej:i~~5 tk~ 'tltcm:oi0iiGal prod ucrion function under

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~:al~r.~a.'~l <~}!,Il;iL .. S,UIJL"

tbl~~ug~ .tt, ~l'lnQfiQgf and t~dmi~L Telitigns.nip. S)f '"rod:uct~n .. If!' Grg ~A!li~~'d in p~mra~bfms gr~sJnatitiLg in be do, 1 " t sp " - of sociuy ffe'f e a~ple dile preduction process the military-industrial complex) 'lih,.~ ifiu;se' rtlr0' 19h(l'U.~ t!ttt''Wh01e set of seeial relationships ana social

..--- ~R,elb:e GUE 1"g

,lttiQ~l' ,S ~ 1! 9..w4 ~mtl ~ ~.V'~ t1~t&'eJateRed t sP~~J inRa.ti0o 0Ut e>'l EOR

~' el, '" ~;y.eJFllFO[~Ut' 8nd Flt'jBlre~~,jed in. a" '~',rnc.~ of ~d'",,; .. ,t,;. , ," ~. -,

~ ", - -, ""0' , if,· l' -' r 1o;!lI' IPa ~U,'€,turlJt$.ill;;l I:

1J,~~gm~, "~~ I!F6)i"~ - ~ ,e:1; ~~:I~l a!ild eTir-;or tba,t~~~nti~ltl$ imrG\ ,tb~ fgr,ns

'~lrmb ,8 ~TIllIt~~~ lfe€],S. ltv;e ,e,lftu;t M 'l11~nulmt~ n p'T::l·l""""~'~:.-ltiA - 1, .?r.OJ .... If-'n.J1e

Or. '. ' ',5,." ~ 1,.- ~~, ,'11> 'rt' A,.,'IS~.ti-d' ;jc'\:i!!H, :anu ,Y'l"," m<L£l-

m·~ "1 ']rirftlliH; moL ~~; Sl~ .', itll e- ,'IU.~~ . .r.o-*, ,b~it'IIl''P''~'e'D' ;,.-...,. .nl" 't::,.. 1 M. ,r ,i."41 I~ 'b' b' .,J,' '

,~ -~~, ,.~ .~. - li;,.""'1II.L1b: ~ ,1j"Ij','!I.;,' ~.r' aJ ana ~a, 01;' it at lll..B"ta@t-

,~~ 'bu;g ,til1bJ.,mlit:1 llJ th"~'" ·~\',,;he1.ls kf.~w 'll model. In 'a lI"'Ir'I.ll l;. ~:I'I, ~ _'

. 'HL.~ "~ ;:a; .k 1 . ~ 11.'1 , ,oIi.!W I.~~l! ,a Sle~·

,~ !" 'B1'~'""i ~." Jd::~t!.111 ~ft fi»:i!. ~ ','Ie] ["""-ci iIlS~[''f";UIiJ,O' " ~ ,...,..l in - tb - m", '-, "~~" ,i~ ~ , j', _ : .'_', ",',' _ ~ " "'L~ W. ',~u.u _ l:3!tZ anaJemen.t 0I

~IIlfm:s. .ttlm.e~l;:gE f:om ,mIlhJ~s;~ d~~F!'[fen.tFio: bJ..<~ a~{·l"''''·!~.c!'t lJ&i o"C _ £!,

" ., , . J'~ 'L ,\~ . 131 I(w.c. ' tf"" ,L!I!II..~ H' !lo.iiW C Ql.li, 'I]!~TIV.

!:"if=-'" ~ .... ~j rfiID~ nl .~1il~Jffi:Q1 "'~ ~~, . :rrrdati G!ort,"ll j!I'l.,]" Q's~,,~ , n 'r.IIlr." 'I' ~ b: l1i;. e r.'!I',:'ii'l' ._";__J, " ~ . ni '-1Ji !Oi"'""~ .~J ~ ",:' ,v_..,:.!!'.lII..Il).]Jl ',F.' t' '- .;II;.'~L~ "~I5!i~ . y;i.1.:JUUet!t:Vl -, t 0'1

f.~~~J '.a.~ ~~pjtaJ~ 1~b~,~¥Htg. p.li,®d~l1C,bOD,. ~iF,~~ia.'i~, . "Gtlllta;rget:&

se:[.zr.l~"\r. '.~ 0 _ "~~~. W!EI],~ ~~ ~~~. m;. lt~advta,m;~e1ius ~Dudiden:~ faf~P[f)'it: ~~' Jllng ,~~eF~he),~ ,a,Im~ ~Jlla'~Ul,g t~'e: s'fa,,~~, su~ ''lIlt l~F prm.ducru{\~]~ ~,Sll ~~d ~€lc~!e'~llr~DT€5S: ,'£ natiQR~1 ~o$'rramies Gften t~ dilld.et;t[IFtf-ea~ 15f . ~QC~] '~€lf€J~t~em ~nd p u bUt in\tI;e,~ {'egul~ri ons. T eeh~'~' ~ili IP1 ~n~Qiv.'i~-t:l Q ;i1)d " " gallH~ar)£Jna] .oha,ng_e ~fbu:lm:g}~n ile*i&il-

ir 'a~~ ~ .a-da.~1ta~ ~]lt¥ ~ ~e;Oi ~ ~ ~ bspl Q.:,¢1¥ ~lt~al i'D ensuring the slteetd _In'€1 .Jfiie,ii~Q~' <Ji !i~S,,_~1lIitfl!l~~~ if €an b~' a+glIe(i tllat w~th..'out newiIF1lbJ.r,~tl::~.0D 1!~~m·', .lY gt~lbaJ lGilp"':italism wtntl~ b~\te bbe.}j a ranchIllitni~;d, .r(Wailiii~, Ie_bile ~~a:g~~ t w'€l:ulll. ~ve bees reduced to 'abo! '~I~,niIm;miin.~, $ilttl I" ~ ,tQ\1l\d~ [af s~ntting In hH~d1 cailit~l goods~ ~cl. lil~~ b€!:<DS:IP.1!ll~" I "~[Q'U)G.· \ll.0ul~ ]llO;~ ha:vt been .s_uifieie;Ftt to camyen:-sa > ~ • ~l:J.]~ tlm [f~~~£., "~JI ~ ,'p'g])B~ ~,~L@lila,mg. Tbu~~ informatil!fnaJ.ism is .m6"G ' €I UB.~:@;IC,a.lls":;f!)n and'e.j L} - ::.nali~;i Q' -, c;lpitaiism, as mdUSkial. ism, Wa& ln~[, ~ ';ne its ,~~nstimtlO :IS a. l:Ile1te 'f prcuJu~qn. Te be: :RUH'ie:' Ith~ J~~88. :m~lt€sru;:ue~r~ nad. very diHereat m~sta"ti0ijS in '~,' ~Illli~ie!lt~~~,d dIj, w~ld, aJ I ~ij J)rie~YS\lCVl:Y in .e~p-

~~f l: ,~ w~~ !dl¥~r.el!l fr9"Bl 'l;t~ fi;l ~d,amen~1 lDlle by tlW mlh ,rt

~€W"nesia~&m.. ·m"if· ~@ Rt.a.:gim a,d;qu,jw'S,t£'a~OIl~ a~;al y tmatmgven ...- "~ _ fi ~~tt1W >,s few dl~ Mrerican 'ef;BIiLomy at the nd 'Sf the eupb,~.r~;· , ' "f aJFtb;1fJ{{Ci~l ~tifllu.latif.fl1~ it'a: iOID'ewnat limited m Western

l!lfIJ(Q:~ '~~l;.U(€ ~~'s:~ ':,et;B r:ID'$~stQn~' y m. die tksrrrantlm& of the w 1- fu'~ 'S' a11!€: ~, ' '€I ~ (I1lJt!! ~~tiu~1tt Ii ht~r mruk@,t flexibility, with tlie result ~f ~ising u.l[i1empl'~.:ntu~:1il~ -~~, the" ur()_P~IiL U.n.iao" it W'8:S am~a. ·bed in .la~aliTh wi~hG1!lt . _ amati¢~'Ghaages by-emp1hasizing pfGduetiv¢r and oomJ;"t!:tJ' [V ness l~)IA ,he basis of technQt(i)f:Y and cooperation ra her than ~, iJm,~(t'at~anI8 I~'J @lita:t[gn, RnU} internafianal pressure, fereed a san ~t0 @.lliQ;.hl~fe~ p:,e~€1;~lJ£tj~f.l and tQI broa8ening-the role of an 'UflptomGU(i, . -', ·:f.~trdra('~ t~ur flla~k'f ';- ani!ll.t .pll!l11ged iI!ltoa. m~i€),I r:ec~dion, in the t 9i~O"." t~e' ~e(D.' <~Pli -' " {jf Africa (~'EeP S\1fllth Afriea 'and Bt>tsw8:Qa) a.n,d La tin ~erJr a (Wlth tRCie'keepti§}D of Ch.i).e ~d Cslornbia), whtn

llil.1neJ.t~l1a.tk€l'aa[ -fV:!l'bn;~'~ry F'u~tl pelic1es cut the moaey suppLy and redlfue0dJ w.~~'S, H.g:d i'11ilJFBDN in 'or-der tf)i 'helll~'g~nize con~ti6ns of g10- ,02 ] tt":8)_p,itaJ a~el:lfmtlila tlQI1 a"~u};td the- W6f ld, kestructnrtng prQGeeded

28 Ar, 'J~tf.~.,. 2Jl ~il h l2.aJ1t's~ u.niq U0n!l!~S J n m'~QcltQ;,I,t;le-a J~ltrsjl~Gt~ v,e.,~ .see, $lh~1 i, (l~ i!'9~I). iQ a:~ ~he S'O€j,l!1.I rC)(~ts Nt. S p~n i$h d i ~f~~~nn;es, izIDd gfn'l,:dlllJjl' i,~s I)~S"'·· _·atl;g1ll1l:hl&, ' Q!aJnhmr,larffiu"" , $C'e1Jb (19.'~1

11t11e Sa'it 'illil Ih1e Info1rmati'ollal Society

NMU ~~~~ tft&~?Qle~es atltmtegml~mg'lh world .iR ~lnbal oot~fj g (i"I~ ~rJY:w,:m., 0 lallllt)f~ ~,"run~ltre~-'me:wtate~ COmULUD,1(:a non b~ets

i2 YQ:s,hin0 .r.fl~~1, 1~. 38 i(taUt~~ln r1 g94t?4'i.

~~ ,,,r~UL~>&jne' ,,] 5i'~. jj~. Pl~~~mulsJ~~lU]J hi, .t1aJi€~., Jf ~BJ~~:j'mo: ,: :-~ l~s_~ (f<~f~:: )G~ ~I.~ ~m_D" l~tie~~,

l.6 8a-.gimv (, "ill: ~,). ]k7 rHl~gle'w' lf~~= ~ . l,!~ 1f'~Jjgl,!,w ~ \L'S:4~ tS}

a~' [Fmr. (ljb~~n~w fm:rrn,J )~£ ,l1eirt1i]( nDi(~d to identity in.expliGit o,posttioo tQ gl:o~aiization, ~~ ~h€' QX~pl!~t~ tID1:'~alta,l¥ is ,U.nGIt:p"t~R in ,'~:ast 'lis e ' al. (199~).

4tJ Te trrarn ( W9] ),. 4'1 Wi:e"j~ 'f~aJ {1~~~J.

4< 'f Se0i ~r i 11.5J:anc~ t~igs. ~ l' ~j! ~ 1fept.1 ,"1 ~;.93 ),"

Tltni S l:i n at a b~j&f >,~ .~ ~iD_:0:ut \1.' ,~:~, les 'i'W'L fl ~1,Q r ~J{iUl' n,~O" :';"'iJi'l iDJ; -~. f _ .

" _. " . '!i;{~~. W.El.d .... >W'i -"fu~ lIi~;.,~ .,.,VllI~en'e. 0 Vll,['lOUS

~1i~~ ,~~~,tEl Q:ro :a~ft~ '~d ~. e6Jl~n~ .rml1 mu~le SUUEC~'~ it-ao£s 110ft l~lt€~Jcl ;r.~ ~~s~u~ 'e~,· n.g h~rur "PGst .. ~dugtti~r'lis,m ~r th~"infQr~ ~a tJ ,~~ .. ~- ~~~. ,'~~Ir~)Jt th~~(dnlgp ~~t-.. nlt!~ p;re$cntaricn 5 '0 f these thet1- r~s ?tl! In'alfa, J~ .~. Wi'!~lIJ! Y:all@UI> l'thqtttill '14 indlldln~ my OWIll. s ~: rFJrlmat1.']~· [sha/ll fi1a;~ ~OO,t ~bllfe., i'~~~ttltt wh~:n n.e€ftssali¥ trm.r t111f:.&ake (If '~~ ~ ~.r~.~~'f~4 'bH ~.- %~:.~aie nld'Jkl~t[;f 'ere'aten in 11,.' L~ll6s around ~ aw [)'~~.r.fl 1tl~or.: ~ ~ b;elng '_~," ,m-r :PUt fuUy's~ati~ed with the ~~lei=

I~rot ·~-r.i.~ ::'~ ,,~Ila'ill~~ e:~, l! F>alA~_.a~vl~ 0ft the' secial and ide ~lop,i~ ~ ... ~~;a~, . ,m ' .. ~sr-m~~.lky"4'as Mil as wim tlw·· , iQ1G~ical ~ i$~~tl F1 ~f iH~f.st'l~ocltrn f3bC"(;lpt@5 pc:rfurlllt!d by S ~ Lash" 4~ I :" _

~,at~n:~I~ 0.~ ~lanx. drn;¥)~lll~br~ ~G. ~a~~ au~hQr~, and ~icularl¥ ~c:f the'

f~Ii·e.&~~·J" ~~~lJ~I~~11il~'lll~~f~II11~ AlaLf:l TQU~aille and D:a.Erl~l ~~~ 'a's w~ll ~~" _ ~ i~~. Q ',,' . ~~ _}& 1ili:ee.:t:; .~. t w~® sfMilsetl too.;ne_,v, r Ie ~:u:tt issugs i ust b~f-0'@ 11rlsr<le:ai:k lI!~ lSi:'7~,) .... lGe!: P~u~fir~a.s,"49 And I duly acknowledge

~rjpi :,§~¥wEd ,0 ~ .n~~pts w·b~1ll - use them as oo.~1s in DlJ :p.eci..fiic a aty' es, If,t I 'h!tit. e ~. to CQDS'tt: .. lct a. d.isc0nr\'c~ as 3U[Ono.mous aad nan:~\gljStU!jd~lIm£t .as. ~tl~"sibl~~ in_t~grlltiqg IllateriaI, and ,ab?$enra1;J:.orn; frGm ¥.acr-i0~ ~;en~lr,~~s~ withmut sU'pmitetnj: cA€: fualkr [.0 the' p~ rt.visiti~ ~~$ tli!t ~: l~Jl@;~'a_wbi,al jurm)e where hav~ lived, (j rnmately. among fMh.~·~ a~ri~'~tieJi f.ijjr ~]1)" ·st 11 feaIfi..

,n' ~~al! v~ "wnne '~iS.ing a m~ieaJt amIDllllt of tatij,tieal sources ,8!nd ~m'Jj"iJ.ri~aJ. JJuJd~_g _ kaNe ~e~ t~ millimize tb proEessins:nf data '~i€l~lttiJtlfJnifr. ~JFl ,alr(~ad'~ e~~Jl~i'¥'elr. el1l:nee;rsf)\fl1·· bdQk:~ ~[her.:e£Qt" I tend

,~ .A 1.] ~fl.d ~ \_I'Vt~" m:f. sa ':oia~GaJ fbtori~ QH p~t-11J.~~l'ti lism ,nd infai1~atkinlli_sm ~!i. ~£rD (m~,a~). [:~~ ~~e nueUecfu';1J aM t'trlllLl:IoJeg,u;aj WJ!pJ.'!s af nonens of . JnlOm1iltl2,n Si11~ie'tw" . see 1ll0rdi iUl~ Millie (19'£8) lrnd lte (J 99Ia}, SwaJ~6 ~ml,er (198~tl· ~~ (1988);

O)WiIIJ;m,m$.r~',~~8r·~~hfa}pg;~d (i~~C',),..._ "_ '.' _ . .... 4,~ (ffi~Ii'.~htr~~I· &'Sp~'tLVes 0l pu.s.t~IR,du's:tnaLIsnL~ SIt: lI1'Onijbtb.~~ W 6dwartl (1910)t

It·.. .~ ('['.s:6) ,I&ye~ f -',~~~l'u '$;h~ii It f.9, Qn T~Uf ine tl'991). Fur a c~~flUal aiti.gue ~ 0lJ[_ !&~j Ii)" 1 en1'Pb.~,<sis ~ ~nf~rnla ~il()1'1 t.~bIU;)]O~ se PQsunan ( 19..il,J.

~$ 'Fer m;y ()~'!tn, 'I!;;ri,i!i,q~ (jrf pes "Ii.n:drus~ial'fsm~ see ' asteUi (lJ9:t~ U96)& 46 ~ce yon (:1 '94F l1jel Seidmafhan,d Wagntp (19"1),.

4 7. 'U~,,"Ve1' (' 91fe~!

4i8 1L~jhll t ~;t~},).

A~ :p,A;u_ijLIi'~.! (1~i:; IS~, 1 ~O .... '}.

11

r-h-,t!!I InformatiDn re(hn~,Jo,§y RevQlution

£t Bt(r)(~b (l'f7 1:; 11:~ /.11'011\ t;ntpubUs"hem text" q ; Gte..! with~empbasis: a:cidtd by Bell (1:' '76: 2'~·.

~ itiLrr(~j:9~~~ul~fJ~r.'11.

r ]Felli' a. 't[mu['I:tWl.~ LD£olin}~-d, ~itbolJgh ~~ii~m..mJ.y CGl.l~v. tsiil'J' a~wn d.f tile EOn~ \re'FgI:n€t: b6~_n d1@11\'liitd.0~~€~1.re.vohtti0n .. and the bmadtr iruQr arion teduiulogy maIn .. . 'it)l'J,., S ~ _' ~ oily (1~9$ ) ..

,iFMiSste~ {( t' 8' 8~;, liCIltfDl ist il;H:_' J~~:tl~,9.n (1989)- a;p1)M (1,9;90); tlrexle.r _ DO Pemrsoo elSk.9i1 ),' billU]fl,itl a~ - sip (l~a); ~ndero (U.Hl. Layins·and L~yin.s '(J1915) Ly.GD and G( ,ifl~U' "~~'~:) .

. ~ 'Ne - :t'JeiP~fnte 1 ],~gi9Ji) •

1 ~ J("1:(tt~~,ellg ,ab:d 'fiit[t5eU (A~67Y.

<1i I oo'a,~~i~es tile £Un'.ead!~dme~al revcQilJ1Iitlll is HQ:t.the (j~ lit] oj klf.llQvl!l~ =!_Il. inf~l!ma~~n~ !lUt tb: . a~1:imt~Oft ~sti'l!:h kn€!W!~~' ~JiIt!I. 11'lh~ ~ IfDeNill .EI:~ ~ti'iilll' 1\,Ra ~a~ IlI'r6~&smet<!:~~lIIiFt:£{I'~ de_Vi:lilil .in -a (;!:IIDtUatiV,f; 'fret1back pel! k~ f! ~~a1i?IlIJlla in uses of I , ... ~ ion_!4 AE! iUustr:Jt~ !'l'Iay cW;t: ., ,fhJs:aoad,y~ ~e 11I~ iii new tWteeQllJ'mlplj~Dstecli~l0! ~

{,m ~,e, f!!2I:8t ~ lillt!eai .. hav:~ gane th$~11 thll1i:e 'distinct 'S1;lJges: )he al:l~I~n·f m~ all''eJtJer~'tI<tm. ~ a.id "J'~~Um

. ~J~ - ~,;~~- > ).; •• t51i :'&;",,-11_ ~- ·itt #10'0'" - .~;' :..!-..:.u..L~~ l iF, :.

't>f lil!PIl'"C;ioIlllt~11I1i . l!fl 'Ill.~ J1U'~< ...... (i) il ... s,es.. Ti;;u ILl6JJgli!;4m l'l'w.tit!iL pr. c

r:€.~ ~Nt~b~I~M!Jr~ b!p. ~g. in ~~l'I~!U':!s. CCmiM~,f' XlI thl! tblWE! .. ~ Jflc:. u.ltel!:'8 Lellhlef! t~ .' .. eiog:f." ~ftg. an£[ en&i1 np ~" ·ent'lDl'i~ i@1.C!IiW;Qdil;s and fin.~ !'lew !l11I.p1k.ations. ~ . e~d,,IW: lOillC!l p ~twoo!JL IB1l~od ~1Ug new tmehn!i.llblP\> u_sirtg it, a~ ievdoe-

~Fti ~,t I i~iltc{ .~~w,. :fll~S 1il ~.cun~sm udl. fasf~r ,WI, .~~~ ~~e ~~w t,<ie " - Im~~QJj~l iJl~I~~' ~ . tet\liIlIi. ~Sllll!ll of rec.hn.~_ ~~ly ~plififl. tb.'€!

p@wer o£ ~h.:tm:~, a_I! t1! ~tmes. all}'ll'o:pmate~ ,and te:~.by irs ustES< .elY li!fijf~ tiCl)ll teEhRe1a~es are .~ slnlply tOG S !Iitl Iii .:;1,.1117 Jilt~~" l~]lrt ,p~ '.~,(!e:_ $,€:l.' ';0. ~~ dlll·.;:e·p'~d. O'~)ets a~ut1 tigers m~y meGGtne thE

. am~., T!Hll·1tIiS mtvs, ea« tak.t: ~~trJtd il t~bbrrolol1 a -l\l1 the' C!nt of the

~ 10: 1i (,0. 'Illeij .w in . ~ OOltpte.t .. and rq ~a~[ ,5). There is >th~~. "'.~Qti!I.'jJi1Sfti.(i(Jhl€:fW1m ·hh.e soeisl R[Q~~s of CfJl~and 111),~ u1Iati"iil~ £ymlllJi . d1M ctpllMJi: af soCiety) and rbi' Cl(l.~ to reliIu€~ and ~jJ&1!i:te gt;lods and . -.1:-:600 {di~,pr4i!ducrive fallen). :Prn:~ l\b;~ l·m.~ )~ bis '@!),,; tke ht.uman mind: is a, ~ pr~ve [brae, not

jlJ". . Oil ~t· vs flkQfit, ~ ~. p ~ d 11€t11OOl S,stew,. . .

'l'I't,. ~~ .~1:1ttJ:!I~i.'!~$ : 00 'SlI·.tem:s:, -and ~enettG ~~ ~ p:li0gualil!l,1iIiI!iq are all am~ aiId ~xte~ns of the ham:UiI. Jii'itnd. WJar: W'@ ~~" ,3,nd .h.Qrw· W~ t . , " -ec~me ~xpr.cSsed in goods serv~:. )1lilatei[a:l·and m~ llall.(il\lt~t. be it it31l! !ike~. tpilDsportar.i1l3I1. a~n.ti t~Jn. 1 1itm,:,€~t0nS s:·~.stems eompuJttt.s, missi1ts~ healrb,

~]lIitaI~· ,~() D·a~. TJii gt'PWina wttlgmti01l between mind ~d JiIiIa~. iflii!ludmg,.th:e Dm ~he:, i$. ~€elinlwhat Bruce Mazlish

€!MrS tiI!l '. f@J!lTrttt dl,i(\')13J;timrity'" '; trW,! IDlle h!.:tw.em umatis and rna-

t,b.une ,Fl!I idamentaLLy a~<n.u: w:ay'wC''are bern we lift, we ~e we.li'lrk we p' oduce . 'We! WJllS1:Imc . drgam;.· · fight, ~ . ~. Of ~~. <J:1!Ihn:Vin:stltuh0fl3l 'COnte~ts Ilfia puwpsefuloeja! ~~ de:. £~i\V~W intl!rliu with, ~he KW teehnelegieel syst~~ b~ thi)s system litas 1 fs ,IiWR~ lemLietl61ed lqg;ic, characterized by the eapacity te translate

1 '. Dj~a~., 1$'1)! 'I a!G&n~r I~ 1 '9~$.}, HaH and Pres-tUB (19'881~ '&n::by (1'5t til ~ ltl ~3 i 't ~j9"~).

~Ih~ Em~tri.~, ~ :» ~1£1); Bar {'k!l'2) , 1 f M'~i ]~." l191~~l.

'22 ,S;Lflg~r,",e!L "~ . .tl~1~81;, Nt91iyr (1' 5,;) .. HQWftV,eT, as·MblYrr liim~ pojn~pt, an lnte:r~ E4~e ~~I1'W'~tn .S~i,011E~i;:g'Lnd r~echn~l9!m' was aMU pI¢Stn)t in th~ fmt itlihl:sniai revolution in .1Sntal'l]_, Tb,u:s,W'Q~~ 8 dle~~ha hD'fo~oe'm£nt G)f the- ~ream engia-e designed by Neweo~~ f(l~Jk pbu.'€ in 1nm' a~IIL(!)n w,i,rh 1lts fliienai)artd prGtect0ii Joseph Slack, prGfessm of.cbemim-y n - h~IP ~i~ I;SJrzy G~ 1(J,1\fS.[5(~W, wJ(tre W:atts ,va apP0ilueti in 1757' s, "Nt ffie.matl"llilstrumen~ N~l~ell r -' ~ Yni "er~if1 . MGt wht«C(e hll ondu.€1ttd his fil.'v.H . ~ imenrs on mntlelbp n:Ge N ~!\V, I-nlen eItgjn~~ see lJiekinse c (l~·_;'g)l. nd, d, Vblb~loh:d (19S!! 673) r-epo ~ that ~ yumlii $d~~~l~'(1JmLltrlt G'f a sendeasee f.or be SftA-IDjrSepamted ftom t~·~lLinder-·in>'Wbic.h tJ:te RTSfet1 ni~~ \vas l~h~'S'ieily ll~ up \¥i,th a.Dd in$pl!.ea by tlte~9cienti6c r~hes'QfJesep 1,1 ~tk {] 7',28:4911 nh~ ~~0 les.~gJi t3 cn"rB miitr.y u 01. fJJw Umvers:rJty.

Jl P4a~7'f' 9JG~ 62).

24 J~a¥I~ {t9'flJ' n~rw"id ~l'Ia g~u:m rllcStr.'J~JI t\.[rdWf ,1 <"e~)I. tl i ,~~~:erlbeci1g ~1Hid ~ ,!1i~{t~~~Jj ~ t!T8t) .'

~~ 'j.Q~~~' er a~i f~> §4f.

1. 7 Re;s '~' i ¥, ~j~:~ sG..e ,IE' tk§~ d: 3L It 1 ,~') f9r th~ a:[prneGt, and Su~g-er et at. (1'9 j ) Eer

l,t hj~~0rj! 'at LSviiHb,;{t~

~. ~~~ .. t~ M .~,Q).,

~ 9; 1'1:'ie111 'J nlil, D[!escQr]], (lf9flg~t:: 11 ~1',.

]~ .. ~be Gflj;ght ~1' rt-:he G$D pt ref ~lnWeh Of . fl~dv.flGn~ ~ .~ n;~ed ~,$ .t\yclalot ,ml~~J)ii , It wa, at~t\l bIn,pli. j'b~'!re'Sin,t~rl he'w;br~OJ AndeMOU tl?ijS) an~in tbe ela~ratiOIl ~,: A1linhl Ii' ,( fl·' s~1. A~pr" I~ ~b sa.m( dme, Pe:tel1 'll~nd r in ~r~ley . RQbeIti) t"'A~ni' i.IL ~r;.Han~, :.and .... nit -MaiUat in Lausanne, £Qgefher £Or a blief periad lth the tat '~1ippe t-\~E!idSi)li ,·ta[i~fd m "de'jf.0.lGJ) empi~iG anidy~ .af m' eox 0finnG\t;ttib~ a tb:mleth·at r tiy

~e ] .. ~~ :~e42ome a 4.0 ~ t .·ear.~ _k iud,Ultfr in t~ 1990,. . . ., . . ..

. ~] fl,l~i~ ~if~t 'di~~,y .' ~~Jj of llhf Jiist:Qr.iQa1 ~ndltiftD.S tpT nhe c1USteIlllg '~1 te¢~mlo~81 l ru],~n ~~~(fI ~ ~~,on~~ tte ugd'~rm.Aen wir.htn the I.imit~ of this chapter. U~lul reB~ons ali the

~ja'OO,1r ~an be fcn:rrxd in ,_-'ilt~ (11.9.: t& ~ GIld Wokyt (1;J9m)~ See alm'M;akyr (I. UQ: 293)~

l~ ~~e;n.d~, '?~.j 1~~}i )])~!i fi'2t_'l 33 MqF1:r (l·f$A: ,~rltJ.;

~~ FJQDMOO (.psa~ ·~8J~-afli~ ~~~ret.a~ {uti9{)J .

...

Ther H],s1o,il,;al §equen~c~e <~'f' t~e' Ifrli iQRl1mlitt:ion T,e,n;mp"ug'y< A\eV91~IIG'n

,j;~> An ~'~'{[ €I ~li\:.~~. i:n 'lihe~~]~f;orrln'luttu;stqr,. odpaterl b,Y GJ)r.6o. MCQret ~lW.mim ,E}I:fllntd~, he "re-~'~Jl~l~ ~~ ,~J~~l1 ~al1fe) s~u,p eempan:y'/~' tb~ WG:rld~ i~t.tm 0~.:Of ~dt~ Tl.'l:0Sll! ,~fiin:a IJ~ Ir:r.UI!S In nv€'JliQ~ '~11:0H :CS;

41. h' ~ntm1:'mR.~iort' n;p,~Clrilln nh_qt:emp :r <i wi~y avail. hl@ ill n~wsp,peB anAmaga· ~m~~'~ I ~ lir~~Q md¢~· ,,' , ,. it FflP ~ tor r,@dill~, tD! Bi~tin~~ We~k TiJe ~~n(Jntlst-, Wired .. -Jdr;'.uJif/1l ,'. ,,,Jrii:lJt\ ~fl~ .... ~~ Y'QrJt rim~'8!1 EI p~ M., lad tbq ,(3t2 franc;s(q ,cp~Qaide~ which. ~~SbtL;L;>t~ irl:)!' ~ratfflyJwefi~.~y .tnmr.matiilHl stapl~.< ItulSQ;eo.mes fmm occaslanal eM1S 'OR mhfm~J'mr ma,Uti~ ':V,:~;li,lh~Q~1e~~ues(-and. .friends d\i;tO'und. Bellaley anti S~anfeTd, knowledgeable ahe'lu(.m1OO[(li0tli~ \fld 5ie;lsgy, sma aG@ai "tep w~tk isldusID tow . I do not GGllSiner. ir lfDe~SHJt")f. '~QI ijlwii~ht ~Gtail~a r fe[ffn'~ 0 data at SUGb. ge'h~ta! ,diarao.teT:I ~pt when a _lh"fn fi'D~ Of! q ~Qte ef.u(tld bt harc!l to fin.'.

~1. ':~~, M~lIs.~I_m..d;fresllmm (1'98'ih ~azHsh (199)).

4t 1 J 'tihiltk mM~ ai.~v.inh· tl1e (ndn~k'11l1 rtvolu:ti0nS'~ thete will be several.m.&rmauon teeh .. if1;~lk~~~ k~J1.lil,l\1JDriG~l{li at w 1ii~h '~11~' 'bll~l ~o.n1tiNted in the 1979.5 is bnl,. the first. Ptobably the seE6ntl~, :in· v~,e."~arli'b~ t:win'~~~h(s:t . ellt1l 'ry , "viU ,give mom iml'~iWit role to tht biQ.io~ 1E'll:·,,('J1l1tq OI'0~:'l I ill c[Bg~ ;~ 't~JI~UJtwo 'whdl n~ cpmpu .er te€hnplGgi~~

~ ~un -and Nl~i[rl0tl~Jd '1.~:Sl}. 15 M"oJi~j! f 1 ~~a; J ~ j ¥.

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N@;twTJrk t,e:f:hn(!Jictgies and pervasive cemputing

'I[ dbl€.l,J.·rE' 15r!Q~c ~~-c:~.mmum.i£atiQn power of the Internet. together v.Mwlt ;1l~~ ft. fVietID~- nts in telecOmnl.umciti0ns and eemputing; induced .~nQ·tb· .. co nlr.aj~r teehnelogi,aI shift from decentralized staad ai0D.e mrlil~~tt[~m{PJ!]!lef$ 8LQ:d mlinf!'ameS tG pervasiv ~m uting by m er¢OD.-

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~ft~is. ~e€fu.n01@liml ,l.ystelFtc in.which We ate"fu1ly-~~rsed at.the da;wn

~i~.i~_ih\t~m'tjeji~st (l.entU_If,: Game tQ.pt.hc in ~e .1'7OS~ Bflcause of the ~nllStt~lt.aG- dii_ ~p~[ifli~ hist0IicaJ. c9nten~ for t6cbnplogj~ ~j~ Itl"Er8_ -alTh~ ill~ - '~·e par. ": ulaf arm of int raetien be.tweert t~hn01Qgy s.l,'1 .e rely; ?t i~ im~ftant·t0 r.ec-a.ll a 'w datesasseciated with·essenti~ll d~s -=-.~tv:el"j~@~ :~iFl! irti0mrlI,a:til)n etilin.0tOgies. All of them 'have some~li!J;~' ~'oqem~alj iR1leQlmmJaR~ w~ile mainly hased on pxeviody e~ lk:lll€'w.te~~- a·nd tdeV'&h~p'ed in p m ongatio Qf. key. wcmolQjies _ ItJPre:,en' ',- m a 'IQJlalitat:i v.e le]a.p' Iorw.3rd in·1the mass' eCtiffU.sl0. . G£1l"'·..,.....,.. ,....",.,... -)'.Q~GJlgy· i-·: 'Clftmlll~u~~~~·:~al a·m.dciviIian appUtriiuns be~ust 0ftb.~' 'A-~"'l~

'SU~,iillity ,-11}il tJl!!it' deCrEasiJ1Jg~ ~~$t with. intRIsing ~ua1i~. •

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'The Info~ma,1ion Technology aradlgm

~o W,iIDams (.129.1,. i1 .JIis~l~g and WhlclJiv}J I 19~t1.lM 1j''#sl)li~s Wt~. k (U<:~ .~, :t~1MHll).' ~! Ha]~ (1:tSfb;). fbi A1J,en ('~99~/.

~4 See .I0,I:;3P ana lfsts ~~f frerrO.~ J, i('eU:Y (1 fJ'~: ~ i~ f~r aiR ,h~~~mf,iq~ J, ft ~ - ~ eeri'le Il~.flet be:h~B'en mm,d }lfl!O madlines) j¢0 M-&1~tHM ~ 9$l~I)):' ~~OO' 'ill. tJh~~~I.ret~Gal "~.I"·'loio"'''''~~¥ ~1'9i~~.

JilICi{)gn i[ot~lt tn'a h~maR bi~ltfgiea1 ev~lutio~l now ~t wrderst~Q.d m En[1l~~[ tMms fQrGeS UP'~D humankind - os -- the Cansc·OUSnes5: Ha

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"'IS J~lelnlenb -I (fljl~9~~ C, "ia. f'~ :~(),)~; Ci&l-' ,. an~ '~1y,Jll1an '(ltl:@~~, s.~ng~nl1erger and C~FAP~e~1 (~'1~V~e.~- t .9Jj:3.){, erru : . 8Jl1lM.Frs.illl am. (1 ~~~(~; __ uJl:I;]_h;Jg (~9~)~ tirmt (J "7:'~ ~~ e.~~I, ~J21.9~ -~:i-t@~ ..

',ar il8Jfl1~ (lJ$9)~ $m:l[e;nlftn (] 9.Jl~', 17 Rei!G~ t 1;.9'i1)"

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l~n~. ~M 'in Jl(l·~~J ·s:rjtln.al 'tlJmI~El1f~~~ ~!,~~ ~av~~(lIl i~~JMl

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As lUl Qn Va. J(;,~ "s~MiiHtd lC]tiJ.ilt're' ,8,; ,,d trtd~·a: la-u;o:fg\Ea~ts t-teafi eciaJ ilBd €:'G'@fllo.lflll~( link, ·t'G' fihei:r h0Rlt: @}untrires_ thrt;''i simU].blFU!Oasl!. open ~h.f nl~rk~t's, rna fluftictl!ltrRg and" ef2lmdrica] Br~ll]s: 'IIB ,BfQI:\¥\ing re~iQns: }

1&8" ~J Natj(i)n~l Sci~~_H~r:d '('l~H. liv'9' $odtt (1~t8),

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The New ~ (anomy

'1b(~; Dew l{Z' rnrPmy :e~8ed in a given tim~:I the 1990s, a given,s~tet fb~ tbl~'~~ ~~a:'~~ and .r~uRdI&om specific ind}Jltries, niiiDly ~~-

~'1r~ ~ :f~ <pf!fi~leatcd ifl t]ili; ~oc'ti'Qn are '~:GiJ11 t~~mie~. sJa~i~~itll ~m~ees>l" ~ .'

1'0 bJ~blrW .. 1 ~ tlh~ irJUlS]MSS p.res£. Th [~S; .Itmter a-r;~ i:n "~h.,e p~ mi:u:'d@m3?iuandlso nUI._"'",l 1¥'.t.9'~l':!J neae~s.a.r~ t· p.iij1(~fI~tc:&~~~~clISdU.f:t$ f~. e1jmb: igiUI'~ ~~:IRr: wltlgTb1lih'etr~1tv.~nl€tt~ ~~~ ~U]Jl~ rt llS~ b~ Ja~~ t~ ~ ml€:(' EJc !,~ft:;1.~n~. 1 1:9 l~nder ff91~, ,bJ.

149

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3 1

TI~e~et~Drk Enterpris,e: the ~ulturer In'stitutians

~ 0"-· 1.1 j

anw'_,,'rgan,lzatlons gt the

I' formational Economy

The j1l)_m.rmati9na1ICBnIQ.lI'. Q;S wi:tlh: all hi$t&iiraUJI A'~,.; .. -,."" ,

,. 'il!... . - "'l wtii~ll V!!l; lQ:nn~

0f,!f)i~ru~~ IS _Cl1laEIlC~eJii2icd by i ~'tultllrl:'and ins~ns •

t 1}{ t:1d1[Rf(:. III cl'ils anaiytiC3!1 mamewo£, shlilu!d nat bec~idcmd as aet "F va lue ,and bejje&!hJke~ 1'0 a l'!a ~cular sOciety. ~"lll::hamr.;ld~ t~ dev rgp~t ill' ~ mfaIlll1 'Q0nal :gl0bal ,*oo.olllf is Qre_ QSI':ly its O'Jftl:tr,ge¥l~ 1m. ~ cl:iffe:rem'tulWtaYll:tiional edntc~ inN:anb }oo,e:ri£.a,~, in Western Eug12.e:, in Jajlan, in dle If'Qbiik cimle ;, in Rus-

ia, im " atin A:lueci€a, as weU ~s its plaJUitaJ'y [~ (~g all ~" tt'ie and ~,.diRg eQ' 'a mnltit:~ bmework of .ref: , ~. fad, d Gbe a Feill:pt's ~ prCi!]lQ~ a dioorr g~ "irultfil::;!l et,bnomK:.s" to lm(:otldt for new developmem J;l~eeeSS'e$ 0n the basis m philOllephi't5 and mentalities (sm;h as ~nfu¢i:anism), pattieul:u:ly in the: Alian l!a~ I have n!1llt [:, .' isred til suutmy of @lpiridal £fSta[Gh.z . ut Ute:- cllV:trsity uf !rul[tural €Pflfi!.Us whese tb~informationalc:coo.f:)m): em~~ and. evol\' . does not PIt lude the ~stence 0 it CQIDDlQll tnatriJ!; of O~ational ftlFJl[}S ill tht: ~~sses ,'pnrduaion,consumprlon and distribution. I Wi th<llil!it suWil EllgaBi~l\)nJd 'a)f1'llDg$lents technelogieal ttial.l~, s~tr; JJoti~e!i. <1m! ~j, JJls" Sok~tigi.~s mukl net he~hletQ e~e ~ther'm~ !NW econOl'lUc SyliteltJ:., ®ntEni'1, along, w:tth it grcrwmg number ~

I~ 11 t, m ' ,,'. ....L sel ~I." t...--dgn"'llen" . tallv .threun-k, melt'

. ~Q'Hl!fS~ ["oat NZt1~,£llreSJ:n,,"ap, 'Est mem~e v ... .,tUU ~,. . "I SU

a'r"·· ":nIZltlD'na.l1 'Tr~aJett'flJlri.5 in "'_lhf! Renrk(l:t\ltfn:g of GJpitan§1fI .nlll in tfile Tmlt5jflD'fl frQrh Ihdlrls'tliia'li~m to; I t1'fiiJ'fili1ll."io11fl,a Ilsl1.

T~ ~@t\@.\m·re f!,tfttt ~ttIliE'ina ,fit ,: 1~1. t!ll,~IlB in G[ u.~e4, 'a nuenb eli 'fir ree - ga~irm;g' st~a;t!t~l~" ~ kbImllS, tU~.1tlS ~ J)1~RrJ' ~r.taJ}§~k$~ llatttt,IJlUtr..lY PlQf.e "and ,',/~b;]~ ~(.~:~,e "h~~ fh,,@ e: @J!u,nlli~ tr.isi6 ~j 1r:' e l~l~Ull-e~)llteGl fr€Jm, ,tbIe ~~n;'$l~stieal oi the ma ~s'-;frfi'(l,ilblCti(till sf)':s'c-em" ~nstllt\lJ;!ti3itl ~n Diid im..l!r8~~~"IJ. ,clivide~' in t:me flI,$:€&ry b:f :ea.pit:allii:~ .. '~ Fmr enb.~rs,; s'u~l1 ~! $,1)®rpm:'8fnm HQlfni~~n llnLe.1dififwf,w. Qf 1hew"~', :Ia~t:a~t~at :f~tmsJ. ~~ (flf. wi~iG11; n'9:a ~j.r,eaAIJJy ,b~frn p'm",ltJ:t$te~1 Jilt '$~0Iill~ i~ttieB iar !nn;s lit ,mB.flY ~~e,~!lJi "" , w;sr." the "'~ . ~'lil:se ,. ~" "~1ie '~~ri~is, fbi ,~~~it'abni~ in "tn-e- pEOi

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4 6:4~'1"t ( '$})J2-;, ~t~). " "

~ WJWamsqn ft~8jj,; ·a~EI~bel1. aJl~1 ea:m,heU fl~2~, W}a;lijQn (1".'4). I: Pia,re And $: ~d frr9i9lJr~ .

., ]:.1tu.1i,~o,n f :~:$l9~'J.

TH Ii NFfrWQa,t; ~lPd'ii'11!! .

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~fhira.l:/1 blil~ness. and th~ ,,;£Is of 'tbe I~rge rfl!J'rpJor.:ation: myth and reality

,-- s'~G:'.en.d.~ dis,tim;(tt~CD.~~ €.~pb~,I~ed b, antll¥ t$ ~ recent years is th" eJ'i&iis WJft;hrl /ir;wge, j!)vtf;1m~ . ~f.ir!l. M&llienr;/J'@fstnqJl a. 'd ~u~ fiffflS' rJi ,r&i¢H!~ .. : r mnfffflldt"ian and ~ff as 0f jlJ)b t1rlb:ti:mq ( some ,!~~f.JeF~€~ s, the i$~ '~~'$~ G~rp0Bal~()n is. he Be'-essary €Q~' ce Qf dll! '~iSl~"~' ~';a'~a~dllze:tt mass pro.cl~Qn wbih; the tevival.of mas-

·1t~fJ1i2l~~ -, G[~ft pri9~ I ~Qll ;an~ 'exible sMe€ial\~ + • a is hetter enacted h,. rSMaJi h~l'~imesse!2J: B~DDt~tr .MarriSQIl has written J de 3statiug· em-

'.;". I l.· f L" L · 1'6 ,A~- .-.J .. ~ his ~

II?,u:rI:GSl ·.t ~." ~ q(l1tE; 0 t.U1II 1jJf!l~lf-·' ~GQ '[[In.! to . anal sis, base;d tID clata

~(j)m, ike Mnit~ 5r~tes~ West ~~il tiaItqpe:, and JapaIb, ltHge' C~I3." -ni'~;.~ l1rtl ve C0n ~.Elt1em to l(;oneotltrat6 ,8, grow· DI PfQPortion 0f ea-pi " ']!la li<.'ar~«~ in ,11 ma;jmr €€@l1omi@s" their shate fif emptorm,en ~ l11,)t 'GJ1:~Ja~cl in~ tt£e p'~st ,d!e€aEL. ~ elfG~t . he. UK; smaU and medium

irilll\s ~l1ma~ft b,' ~ftd. Ia'fg.t: under the finartei al, c:oJllI1lf!rciai . and· toohD!i1!l.llftraJ '~Ql;gtr··.f of la,ge car, or atf OIlS; Ie ak~ €€lD.tcm.ds that small ~'uS]IlUt~;9&eS a,,~·1«8s' rreebt}fllogica.lly advanced" and less a~ e to innovat t'e:6,~J[1fj!~gir@'al~Y" in LUGcess and in product than arger q. ~I~n.@~~ mm $.c' ba.fjs ~I the wOFk Qf a number of taliaq res~-Ch rs I~lfialtu~h~i ran~ 1i€!Jus8,i1 pa, - ~,cu1ar 11 he shews how the:an€\l~e of fib~·b!i' ~pe€iaJli~at'0Jil" th,e Italian iiJ!m~ in 1:he industrial distIi ~ sf$mJl~aRnl ~ ~ I.a~a da:rrjus' the early 1990sl, went throup. a series of ~~