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(Contains Hard to Find I, II, III, IV, and V with index)

Volume 1

Jim Burke
109 Dorchester Pines Court
Cary, NC 27511
Jim Burke

September 18, 2006

Table of Contents

I. PREFACE.................................................................................................................................................. 6

II. SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND PROTECTION ....................................................................... 7

A. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 7
B. FAULT LEVELS ...................................................................................................................................... 7
C. LOW IMPEDANCE FAULTS .................................................................................................................... 8
D. HIGH IMPEDANCE FAULTS ................................................................................................................... 8
E. SURFACE CURRENT LEVELS ................................................................................................................. 9
F. RECLOSING AND INRUSH ....................................................................................................................... 9
G. COLD LOAD PICKUP ........................................................................................................................... 10
H. CALCULATION OF FAULT CURRENT .................................................................................................. 11
I. RULES FOR APPLICATION OF FUSES ................................................................................................... 12
J. CAPACITOR FUSING ............................................................................................................................ 13
K. CONDUCTOR BURNDOWN ................................................................................................................... 14
L. DEVICE NUMBERS .............................................................................................................................. 15
M. PROTECTION ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................... 16
N. SIMPLE COORDINATION RULES ......................................................................................................... 17
O. LIGHTNING CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................................................... 18
P. ARC IMPEDENCE ................................................................................................................................. 19
III. TRANSFORMERS ................................................................................................................................. 20
A. SATURATION CURVE ........................................................................................................................... 20
B. INSULATION LEVELS ........................................................................................................................... 20
C. -Y TRANSFORMER BANKS ................................................................................................................ 21
D. TRANSFORMER LOADING ................................................................................................................... 21
IV. INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS ..................................................................................................... 23
A. TWO TYPES ......................................................................................................................................... 23
B. ACCURACY .......................................................................................................................................... 23
C. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS .............................................................................................................. 23
D. CURRENT TRANSFORMER .................................................................................................................. 24
E. H-CLASS .............................................................................................................................................. 24
F. CURRENT TRANSFORMER FACTS ....................................................................................................... 24
G. GLOSSARY OF TRANSDUCER TERMS.................................................................................................. 26
V. RULES OF THUMB FOR UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS ................................................ 28

VI. CONDUCTORS AND CABLES ........................................................................................................... 29

A. CONDUCTOR CURRENT RATING ........................................................................................................ 29
B. FACTS ON DISTRIBUTION CABLE........................................................................................................ 29
C. IMPEDANCE OF CABLE........................................................................................................................ 30
VII. DSG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................. 31

VIII. DANGEROUS LEVELS OF CURRENT ............................................................................................. 32

IX. CAPACITOR FORMULAS .................................................................................................................. 33

X. EUROPEAN PRACTICES .................................................................................................................... 35
A. PRIMARY ............................................................................................................................................. 35
B. RELAYS ................................................................................................................................................ 35
C. EARTH FAULT PROTECTION .............................................................................................................. 36
D. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 36
XI. POWER QUALITY DATA ................................................................................................................... 38
A. MOMENTARIES ................................................................................................................................... 38
B. SAGS .................................................................................................................................................... 38
C. POWER QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS.................................................................................................... 38
XII. ELECTRICITY RATES ........................................................................................................................ 40

XIII. COSTS ..................................................................................................................................................... 42

A. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 42
XIV. RELIABILITY DATA............................................................................................................................ 44

XV. INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL STUFF .................................................................................... 45

XVI. MAXWELLS EQUATIONS ................................................................................................................ 49

Hard to Find - Part II

XVII. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 50

XVIII. CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................ 50

XIX. DISTRIBUTED RESOURCES.............................................................................................................. 51

XX. RELIABILITY ........................................................................................................................................ 53

1. TYPICAL EQUIPMENT FAILURE RATES .......................................................................................... 53
2. PRIMARY OUTAGE RATES .............................................................................................................. 53
3. EFFECT OF MAJOR EVENTS ............................................................................................................ 53
4. INDICE DEFINITIONS ....................................................................................................................... 54
5. VOLTAGE SAGS ............................................................................................................................... 55
6. INTERRUPTION SURVEY .................................................................................................................. 55
7. LOADING .......................................................................................................................................... 55
XXI. MODERN PHYSICS .............................................................................................................................. 56

XXII. LOADING ............................................................................................................................................... 57

1. TRANSFORMER LOADING BASICS ................................................................................................... 57
2. EXAMPLES OF SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER LOADING LIMITS ..................................................... 58
3. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS ..................................................................................................... 59
4. AMPACITY OF OVERHEAD CONDUCTORS....................................................................................... 59
5. EMERGENCY RATINGS OF EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................... 60
6. MISCELLANEOUS LOADING INFORMATION .................................................................................... 60
XXIII. COMPUTER JARGON 101 .................................................................................................................. 63

XXIV. DECIBELS .............................................................................................................................................. 65

XXV. FAULTS AND INRUSH CURRENTS .................................................................................................. 66

XXVI. CUSTOM POWER DEVICES .............................................................................................................. 67

XXVII. COST OF POWER INTERRUPTIONS ............................................................................................... 68

XXVIII. COST OF SECTIONALIZING EQUIPMENT ................................................................................... 69

XXIX. MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................... 70

XXX. MAJOR EVENTS ................................................................................................................................... 71

XXXI. LINE CHARGING CURRENT............................................................................................................. 72

XXXII. OVERCURRENT RULES ..................................................................................................................... 73

Hard to Find - Part III











Hard to Find Part IV





Hard to Find Part V

(Grounding, BPL and other miscellaneous topicspage 103)


I. Preface

There have been little tidbits of information I have accumulated over the past 40 years that have helped
me understand and analyze distribution systems. I have pinned them to my wall, taped them to my
computer, stuffed them in my wallet and alas, copied them for my students. Much of them are hard, if
not impossible, to find in any reference book. A large percentage of them could also be classified as
personal opinion so they should be used carefully. For whatever, I hope they are as useful to you as
they have been to me.
Over the many years, this document has taken on a life of its own. There have been many suggestions
and much help from so many distribution engineers that it is impossible to thank all of you. From the
new topics such as stray voltage and grounding to the many surveys weve all done together
(lightning, loading, etc) and finally the less serious sections like Ways We Scare Ourselves and
Airline Cabin Announcements, this has been a lot of fun to work on.
Jim Burke 8/05

II. System Characteristics and Protection

A. Introduction

The distribution system shown below illustrates many of the features of a distribution system making it
unique. The voltage level of a distribution system can be anywhere from about 5 kV to as high as 35 kV
with the most common voltages in the 15 kV class. Areas served by a given voltage are proportional to
the voltage itself indicating that, for the same load density, a 35 kV system can serve considerably
longer lines. Lines can be as short as a mile or two and as long as 20 or 30 miles. Typically, however,
lines are generally 10 miles or less. Short circuit levels at the substation are dependent on voltage level
and substation size. The average short circuit level at a distribution substation has been shown, by
survey, to be about 10,000 amperes. Feeder load current levels can be as high as 600 amperes but
rarely exceed about 400 amperes with many never exceeding a couple of hundred amperes.
Underground laterals are generally designed for 200 amperes of loading but rarely approach even half
that value. A typical lateral load current is probably 50 amperes or less even during cold load pickup

B. Fault Levels

There are two types of faults, low impedance and high impedance. A high impedance fault is
considered to be a fault that has a high Z due to the contact of the conductor to the earth, i.e., Zf is high.
By this definition, a bolted fault at the end of a feeder is still classified as a low impedance fault. A
summary of findings on faults and their effects is as follows:
138 kV Distribution
Substation Transformer

ISC = 10,000 A 13.8 kV

Feeder Breaker

Peak Load = 600 Amps

Three Phase, 4-Wire,
Multigrounded Fuse Cutout

Normally Open Tie Switch


4-15 Holmes/Transformer
Single Phase Sectionalizer

Fixed Capacitor Bank

Three Phase Recloser

Switched Capacitor Faulted Circuit Indicator
Bank (=600 kVAR)

Normally Open Tie

Underground Lateral

Normally Open Tie
Elbow Disconnect

Figure 1. Typical distribution system
C. Low Impedance Faults

Low impedance faults or bolted faults can be either very high in current magnitude (10,000 amperes or
above) or fairly low, e.g., 300 amperes at the end of a long feeder. Faults able to be detected by normal
protective devices are all low impedance faults. These faults are such that the calculated value of fault
current assuming a "bolted fault and the actual are very similar. Most detectable faults, per study data,
do indeed show that fault impedance is close to 0 ohms. This implies that the phase conductor either
contacts the neutral wire or that the arc to the neutral conductor has a very low impedance. An EPRI
study performed by the author over 10 years ago indicated that the maximum fault impedance for a
detectable fault was 2 ohms or less. Figure 2, shown below, indicates that 2 ohms of fault impedance
influences the level of fault current depending on location of the fault. As can be seen, 2 ohms of fault
impedance considerably decreases the level of fault current for close in faults but has little effect for
faults some distance away. What can be concluded is that fault impedance does not significantly
affect faulted circuit indicator performance since low level faults are not greatly altered.


Fault Current in Amps

Bolted Fault

Z Fault = 2 Ohms

0 5 10 15 20


Figure 2. Low impedance faults

D. High Impedance Faults

High impedance faults are faults that are low in value, i.e., generally less than 100 amperes due to the
impedance between the phase conductor and the surface on which the conductor falls. Figure 3, shown
below, illustrates that most surface areas whether wet or dry do not conduct well. If one considers the
fact that an 8 foot ground rod sunk into the earth more often than not results in an impedance of 100
ohms or greater, then it is not hard to visualize the fact that a conductor simply lying on a surface cannot
be expected to have a low impedance. These faults, called high impedance faults, do not contact the
neutral and do not arc to the neutral. They are not detectable by any conventional means and are not to
be considered at all in the evaluation of FCIs and most other protective devices.

E. Surface Current Levels

Current Level in Amperes








0 Type of
Figure 3. High impedance fault current levels

F. Reclosing and Inrush

On most systems where most faults are temporary, the concept of reclosing and the resulting inrush
currents are a fact of life. Typical reclosing cycles for breakers and reclosers are different and are shown
below in Figure 4.
"Fast" Operations "Time Delay" Operations
(Contacts Closed) (Contacts Closed)


Load Current
2 Sec 2 Sec 2 Sec Lockout
(Contacts Open)



Reclosing Intervals
(Contacts Open)

Line Recloser
30 5 15 30
Cycles Seconds Seconds Seconds

Dead Time

Current vs. Time

Feeder Breaker Reclosing

Figure 4. Reclosing sequences

These reclosing sequences produce inrush primarily resulting from the connected transformer kVA. This
inrush current is high and can approach the actual fault current level in many instances. Figure 5 shows
the relative magnitude of these currents. What keeps most protective devices from operating is that the
duration of the inrush is generally short and as a consequence will not melt a fuse or operate a time
delay relay.

G. Cold Load Pickup

Cold load pickup, occurring as the result of a permanent fault and long outage, is often maligned as the
cause of many protective device misoperations. Figure 6, shown below, illustrates several cold load
pickup curves developed by various sources. These curves are normally considered to be composed of
the following three components:


P.U. of Full Load




Transformers Laterals Feeders
Figure 5. Magnitudes of inrush current

1) Inrush lasting a few cycles

2) Motor starting lasting a few seconds
3) Loss of diversity lasting many minutes.

When a lateral fuse misoperates, it is probably not the result of this loss of diversity, i.e., the fuse is
overloaded. This condition is rare on most laterals. Relay operation during cold load pickup is generally
the result of a trip of the instantaneous unit and probably results from high inrush. Likewise, an FCI
operation would not appear to be the result of loss of diversity but rather the high inrush currents. Since
inrush occurs during all energization and not just as a result of cold load pickup, it can be concluded
that cold load pickup is not a major factor in the application of FCls.


Figure 6. Cold-load inrush current characteristics for distribution circuits

H. Calculation of Fault Current

Line Faults Line-to-neutral fault =

3 2 l
Where Z is the line impedance and 2Z is the loop impedance assuming the impedance of the phase
conductor and the neutral conductor are equal (some people use a 1.5 factor).

Line-to-Line Faults =

Transformer Faults Line-to-neutral or three phase =

Line-to-Line =

where l = RL2 + 2L
2( + l )

Z T % 10 E 2
ZT =

I. Rules for Application of Fuses
1) Cold load pickup - after 15 minute outage, 200% for.5 seconds
140% for 5 seconds
after 4 hrs, all electric 300% for 5 minutes

2) "Damage" curve - 75% of minimum melt

3) Two expulsion fuses cannot be coordinated if the available fault current is great enough
to indicate an interruption of less than .8 cycles.

4) T - SLOW and "K - FAST

5) Current limiting fuses can be coordinated in the sub-cycle region.

6) Capacitor protection:

The fuse should be rated for 165% of the normal capacitor current. The fuse should
also clear within 300 seconds for the minimum short circuit current.
If current exceeds the maximum case rupture point, a current limiting fuse must be
Current limiting fuses should be used if a single parallel group exceeds 300 KVAR.

7) Transformer

Inrush - 12 times for .1 sec.

25 times for .01 sec.

Self protected - primary fuse rating is 10 to 14 times continuous when secondary

breaker is used.

Self protected - weak link is selected to be about 2 1/2 times the continuous when
no secondary breaker is used (which means that minimum melt is in the area of 4 to
6 times rating).

Conventional - primary fuse rated 2 to 3 times.

General Purpose current limiting - 2 to 3 times continuous.

Back-Up current limiting - the expulsion and CLF are usually coordinated such that
the minimum melt I2t of the expulsion fuse is equal to or less than that of the back up

8) Conductor burn down - not as great a problem today because loads are higher and
hence conductors are larger.

9) General purpose - one which will successfully clear any current from its rated maximum
interrupting current down to the current that will cause melting of the fusible element in
one hour.

10) Back up - one which will successfully clear any current from its rated maximum
interrupting down to the rated minimum interrupting current, which may be at the 10
second time period on the minimum melting time-current curve.

11) CLF - approximately 1/4 cycle operation; can limit energy by as much as 60 to 1.

12) Weak link - in oil is limited to between 1500 and 3500 amperes.

13) Weak link - in cutout is limited to 6000 to 15000 asymmetrical.

14) Lightning minimum fuse (12T-SLOW), (25K-FAST).

15) Energy stored in inductance = Li2

16) The maximum voltage produced by a C.L. fuse typically will not exceed 3.1 times the
fuse rated maximum voltage.

17) The minimum sparkover allowed for a gapped arrester is 1.5 x 1.414 = 2.1 times
arrester rating.

18) General practice is to keep the minimum sparkover of a gapped arrester at about 2.65 x
arrester rating.

19) MOVs do not have a problem with CLF kick voltages.

J. Capacitor Fusing

1) Purpose of fusing:

a. to isolate faulted bank from system

b. to protect against bursting
c. to give indication
d. to allow manual switching (fuse control)
e. to isolate faulted capacitor from bank

2) Recommended rating:

a. The continuous-current capability of the fuse should be at least 165 percent of

the normal capacitor-bank (for delta and floating wye banks the factor may be
reduced to 150 percent if necessary).

b. The total clearing characteristics of the fuse link must be coordinated with the
capacitor case bursting curves.

3) Tests have shown that expulsion fuse links will not satisfactorily protect against violent
rupture where the fault current through the capacitor is greater than 5000 amperes.

4) The capacitor bank may be connected in a floating wye to limit short-circuit current to
less than 5000 amperes.

5) Inrush - for a single bank, the inrush current is always less than the short-circuit value
at the bank location.

6) Inrush - for parallel banks, the inrush current is always much greater than for a single

7) Expulsion fuses offer the following advantages:

a. they are inexpensive and easily replaced.

b. offers a positive indication of operation.

8) Current limiting fuses are used where:

a. a high available short circuit exceeds the expulsion or non-vented fuse rating.
b. a current limiting fuse is needed to limit the high energy discharge from adjacent
parallel capacitors effectively.
c. a non-venting fuse is needed in an enclosure.

9) The fuse link rating should be such that the link will melt in 300 seconds at 240 to 350
percent of normal load current.

10) The fuse link rating should be such that it melts in one second at not over 220 amperes
and in .015 seconds at not over 1700 amperes.

11) The fuse rating must be chosen through the use of melting time-current characteristics
curves, because fuse links of the same rating, but of different types and makes have a
wide variation in the melting time at 300 seconds and at high currents.

12) Safe zone usually greater damage than a slight swelling.

a. Zone 1 - suitable for locations where case rupture/or fluid leakage would
present no hazard.
b. Zone 2 - suitable for locations which have been chosen after careful consideration
of possible consequences associated with violent case ruptures.
c. Hazardous zone unsafe for most applications. The case will often rupture
with sufficient violence to damage adjacent units.

13) Manufacturers normally recommend that the group fuse size be limited by the 50%
probability curve or the upper boundary of Zone 1.

14) Short circuit current in an open wye bank is limited to approximately 3 times normal

15) Current limiting fuses can be used for delta or grounded wye banks provided there is
sufficient short circuit current to melt the fuse within cycle.

K. Conductor Burndown

Conductor burndown is a function of (1) conductor size (2) whether the wire is bare or covered (3) the
magnitude of the fault current (4) climatic conditions such as wind and (5) the duration of the fault

If burndown is less of a problem today than in years past it must be attributed to the trend of using
heavier conductors and a lesser use of covered conductors. However, extensive outages and hazards
to life and property still occur as the result of primary lines being burned down by flashover, tree
branches failing on lines, etc. Insulated conductors, which are used less and less, anchor the arc at one

point and thus are the most susceptible to being burned down. With bare conductors, except on multi-
grounded neutral circuits, the motoring action of the current flux of an arc always tends to propel the arc
along the line away from the power source until the arc elongates sufficiently to automatically extinguish
itself. However, if the arc encounters some insulated object, the arc will stop traveling and may cause
line burndown.

With tree branches falling on bare conductors, the arc may travel away and clear itself; however, the arc
will generally re-establish itself at the original point and continue this procedure until the line burns down
or the branch falls off the line. Limbs of soft spongy wood are more likely to burn clear than hard wood.
However one-half inch diameter branches of any wood, which cause a flashover, are apt to burn the
lines down unless the fault is cleared quickly enough.

Figure 7 shows the burndown characteristics of several weatherproof conductors. Arc damage curves
are given as arc is extended by traveling along the phase wire, it is extinguished but may be re-
established across the original path. Generally, the neutral wire is burned down.

Figure 7. Burndown characteristics of several weatherproof conductors

L. Device Numbers
The devices in the switching equipment are referred to by numbers, with appropriate suffix letters (when
necessary), according to the functions they perform. These numbers are based on a system which has
been adopted as standard for automatic switchgear by the American Standards Association.

Device No. Function and Definition

CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMER is a transformer which

serves as the source of a-c control power for operating a-c devices.
BUS-TIE CIRCUIT BREAKER serves to connect buses or bus
sections together.
A-C UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY is one which functions on a given
value of single-phase a-c under voltage.
TRANSFER DEVICE is a manually operated device which transfers
43 the control circuit to modify the plan of operation of the switching
equipment or of some of the devices.
instantaneously on an excessive value of current.
A-C OVERCURRENT RELAY (inverse time) is one which functions
when the current in an a-c circuit exceeds a given value.
A-C CIRCUIT BREAKER is one whose principal function is usually
to interrupt short-circuit or fault currents.
GROUND PROTECTIVE RELAY is one which functions on failure
of the insulation of a machine, transformer or other apparatus to
64 ground. This function is, however, not applied to devices 51N and
67N connected in the residual or secondary neutral circuit of
current transformers.
OVERCURRENT RELAY is one which functions on a desired value
of power flow in a given direction or on a desired value of
overcurrent with a-c power flow in a given direction.
PHASE-ANGLE MEASURING RELAY is one which functions at a
predetermined phase angle between voltage and current.
DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT RELAY is a fault-detecting relay which
87 functions on a differential current of a given percentage or amount.

M. Protection Abbreviations

CS -Control Switch
X - Auxiliary Relay
Y - Auxiliary Relay
YY - Auxiliary Relay
Z - Auxiliary Relay

1) To denote the location of the main device in the circuit or the type of circuit in which the device is
used or with which it is associated, or otherwise identify its application in the circuit or
equipment, the following are used:

N Neutral
SI - Seal-in

2) To denote parts of the main device (except auxiliary contacts as covered under below), the
following are used:

H - High set unit of relay

L - Low set unit of relay
OC - Operating coil
RC - Restraining coil
TC - Trip coil

3) To denote parts of the main device such as auxiliary contacts (except limit-switch contacts
covered under 3 above) which move as part of the main device and are not actuated by external
means. These auxiliary switches are designated as follows:

a" - closed when main device is in energized or operated position

"b - closed when main device is in de-energized or non-operated position.

4) To indicate special features, characteristics, the conditions when the contacts operate, or are
made operative or placed in the circuit, the following are used:

A- Automatic
ER- Electrically Reset
HR- Hand Rest
M- Manual
TDC- Time-delay Closing
TDDO- Time-delay Dropping Out
TDO- Time-delay Opening

To prevent any possible conflict, one letter or combination of letters has only one meaning on
individual equipment. Any other words beginning with the same letter are written out in full each
time, or some other distinctive abbreviation is used.

N. Simple Coordination Rules

3 Main

Time Overcurrent Pickup

2x Load (Minimum)
2x Load

1 Lateral

2x Full Load

2x Full Load

Figure 8. Burke 2X rule

There are few things more confusing in distribution engineering than trying to find out rules of
overcurrent coordination, i.e., what size fuse to pick or where to set a relay, etc. The patented (just
kidding) Burke 2X Rule states that when in doubt pick a device of twice the rating of what it is you're
trying to protect as shown in Figure 8. This rule picks the minimum value you should normally consider
and is generally as good as any of the much more complicated approaches you might see. For various
reasons, you might want to go higher than this, which is usually OK. To go lower, you will generally get
into trouble. Once exception to this rule is the fusing of capacitors where minimum size fusing is
important to prevent case rupture.

O. Lightning Characteristics
1) Stroke currents

a. Maximum - 220,000 amperes

b. Minimum - 200 amperes
c. Average-10,000 to 15,000 amperes

2) Rise times 1 to 100 microseconds

3) Lightning polarity - approximately 95% are negative

4) Annual variability (Empire State Building)

a. Maximum number of hits 50

b. Average 21
c. Minimum 3

5) Direct strokes to T line - 1 per mile per year with keraunic levels between 30 and 65.

6) Lightning discharge currents in distribution arresters on primary distribution lines

(composite of urban and rural)

Max. measured to date approx. 40,000 amps

I% of records at least 22,000 amps
5% of records at least 10,500 amps
10% of records at least 6,000 amps
50% of records at least 1,500 amps

7) Percent of distribution arresters receiving lightning currents at least as high as in Col. 4.

Table 2

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4

Urban Circuits Semi-urban Circuits Rural Circuits Discharge Circuits
20% 35% 45% 1,000 amps
1.6% 7% 12% 5,000 amps
.55% 3.5% 6% 10,000 amps
.12% .9% 2.4% 20,000 amps
.4% 40,000 amps

8) Number of distribution arrester operations per year (excluding repeated operations on
multiple strokes).

Average on different systems - range .5 to 1.1 per year

Max. recorded 6 per year
Max. number of successive
operations of one arrester
during one multiple lightning
stroke - 12 operations.

P. Arc Impedence
While arcs are quite variable, a commonly accepted value for currents between 70 and 20,000 amperes
has been an arc drop of 440V per foot, essentially independent of current magnitude.

Zarc = 440 l / I l = length of arc (in feet) I = current

IF = 500 amperes = I

Arc length = 2 ft.

Zarc = 440 2/5000 = .176 ohms Arc impedance is pretty small.

III. Transformers

A. Saturation Curve

Figure 9

B. Insulation Levels
The following table gives the American standard test levels for insulation of distribution transformers.

Table 3

Windings Bushings
Impulse Tests
Bushing Withstand Voltages
(1.2 x 50 Wave)
Chopped Wave

Class and
frequency Minimum Time to Full 60-cycle One- 60-cycle 10- Impulse 1.2 x 50
Dielectric Flashover Wave minute Dry second Wet Wave

kV kV kV Microseconds kV kV (Rms) kV (Rms) kV (Crest)

1.2 10 36 1.0 10 10 6 30

5.0 19 69 1.5 60 21 20 60

8.66 26 88 1.6 75 27 24 75

15.0 34 110 1.8 95 35 30 95

25.0 40 145 1.9 125 70 60 150

34.5 70 175 3.0 150 95 95 200

46.0 95 290 3.0 250 120 120 250

69.0 140 400 3.0 350 175 175 350

C. -Y Transformer Banks
The following is a review of fault current magnitudes for various secondary faults on a -Y transformer
bank connection:

Figure 10. -Y transformer banks

D. Transformer Loading
When the transformer is overloaded, the high temperature decreases the mechanical strength and
increases the brittleness of the fibrous insulation. Even though the insulation strength of the unit may
not be seriously decreased, transformer failure rate increases due to this mechanical brittleness.

Insulation life of the transformer is where it loses 50% of its tensile strength. A transformer
may continue beyond its predicted life if it is not disturbed by short circuit forces, etc.

The temperature of top oil should never exceed 100 degrees C for power transformers with
a 55 degree average winding rise insulation system. Oil overflow or excessive pressure
could result.

The temperature of top oil should not exceed 110C for those with a 65C average winding

Hot spot should not exceed 150C for 55C systems and 180C for 65C systems. Exceeding
these temperature could result in free bubbles that could weaken dielectric strength.

Peak short duration loading should never exceed 200%.

Standards recommend that the transformer should be operated for normal life expectancy.
In the event of an emergency, a 2.5% loss of life per day for a transformer may be

Percent Daily Load for Normal Life Expectancy with 30C Cooling Air

Table 4

Duration of
Self-cooled with % load before peak of:
Peak load
Hours 50% 70% 90%
0.5 189 178 164
1 158 149 139
2 137 132 124
4 119 117 113
8 108 107 106

IV. Instrument Transformers
A. Two Types
1) Potential (Usually 120v secondary)
2) Current (5 amps secondary at rated primary current)

B. Accuracy
3 factors will influence accuracy:

1) Design and construction of transducer

2) Circuit conditions (V, I and f)
3) Burden (in general, the higher the burden, the greater the error)

C. Potential Transformers



RCF= True Ratio (RCF generally >1)

Marked Ratio

Burden is measured in VA VA = E2


10:1 R X

10V .9v Zb

True Ratio = 10 = 11.1

RCF = 11.1 = 1.11
Marked Ratio = 10 = 10

Voltage at secondary is low and must be compensated by 11% to get the actual primary voltage using
the marked ratio.

D. Current Transformer
True Ratio = Marked Ratio X RCF
RCF = True Ratio
Marked Ratio

E. H-Class

Vs is fixed
Is varies Nearly constant ratio error in %

Burdens are in series

e.g. 10H200 10% error @ 200V

20 (5 amp sec) = 100 amps Zb = 200/100 = 2

5 amps to 100 amps has 10% error if Zb = 4

If Zb = 4

200V/4 = 50 amp (10 times normal)

H-class constant magnitude error (variable %)

L-class constant % error (variable magnitude)

True Ratio = Marked Ratio X RCF
Assume Marked is 600/5 or 120:1 at rated amps and 2 ohms

1.002 and 1.003 are from

manuf. chart
5 amp 2

@ 100% amps True = 120 X 1.002 X 5 secondary

primary = 600 X 1.002 = 601.2
@ 20% amps True = 600 X .2 X 1.003 = 120.36 (Marked was 120)

F. Current Transformer Facts

1) Bushing CTs tend to be accurate more on high currents (due to large core and less saturation)
than other types.

2) At low currents, BCT's are less accurate due to their larger exciting currents.

3) Rarely, if ever, is it necessary to determine the phase-angle error.

4) Accuracy calculations need to be made only for three-phase and single-phase to ground faults.

5) CT burden decreases as secondary current increases, because of saturation in the magnetic

circuits of relays and other devices. At high saturation, the impedance approaches the dc

6) It is usually sufficiently accurate to add series burden impedance arithmetically.

7) The reactance of a tapped coil varies as the square of the coil turns, and the resistance varies
approximately as the turns.

8) Impedance varies as the square of the pickup current.

9) Burden impedance are always connected in wye.

10) "Ratio correction factor is defined as that factor by which the marked ratio of a current
transformer must be multiplied to obtain the true ratio. These curves are considered standard
application data.

11) The secondary-excitation-curve method of accuracy determination does not lend itself to general
use except for bushing-type, or other, CT's with completely distributed secondary leakage, for
which the secondary leakage reactance is so small that it may be assumed to be zero.

12) The curve of rms terminal voltage versus rms secondary current is approximately the
secondary-excitation curve for the test frequency.

13) ASA Accuracy Classification:

a. Method assumes CT is supplying 20 times its rated secondary current to its burden.

b. The CT is classified on the basis of the maximum rms value of voltage that it can
maintain at its secondary terminals without its ratio error exceeding a specified amount.

c. "H" stands for high internal secondary impedance.

d. "L" stands for low internal secondary impedance (bushing type).

e. 10H800 means the ratio error is l0% at 20 times rated voltage with a maximum
secondary voltage of 800 and high internal secondary impedance.

f. Burden (max) - maximum specified voltage/20 x rated sec.

g. The higher the number after the letter, the better the CT.

h. A given l200/5 busing CT with 240 secondary turns is classified as l0L400: if a 120-turn
completely distributed tap is used, then the applicable classification is 10L200.

i. For the same voltage and error classifications, the H transformer is better than the L for
currents up to 20 times rated.

G. Glossary of Transducer Terms

Voltage Transformers - are used whenever the line voltage exceeds 480 volts or whatever lower
voltage may be established by the user as a safe voltage limit. They are usually rated on a basis of 120
volts secondary voltage and used to reduce primary voltage to usable levels for transformer-rated

Current Transformer - usually rated on a basis of 5 amperes secondary current and used to reduce
primary current to usable levels for transformer-rated meters and to insulate and isolate meters from
high voltage circuits.

Current Transformer Ratio - ratio of primary to secondary current. For current transformer rated 200:5,
ratio is 200:5 or 40: 1.

Voltage Transformer Ratio - ratio of primary to secondary voltage. For voltage transformer rated
480:120, ratio is 4:1, 7200:120 or 60:1.

Transformer Ratio (TR) - total ratio of current and voltage transformers. For 200:5 C.T. and 480:120
P.T., TR = 40 x 4 = 160.

Weatherability - transformers are rated as indoor or outdoor, depending on construction (including


Accuracy Classification - accuracy of an instrument transformer at specified burdens. The number

used to indicate accuracy is the maximum allowable error of the transformer for specified burdens. For
example, 0.3 accuracy class means the maximum error will not exceed 0.3% at stated burdens.

Rated Burden - the load which may be imposed on the transformer secondaries by associated meter
coils, leads and other connected devices without causing an error greater than the stated accuracy

Current Transformer Burdens - normally expressed in ohms impedance such as B0.1,B-0.2,B-0.5,B-

0.9,or B-1.8.Corresponding volt-ampere values are 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, 22.5, and 45.

Voltage Transformer Burdens - normally expressed as volt-amperes at a designated power factor.

May be W, X, M, Y, or Z where W is 12.5 V.A. @ 0. 1Opf; X is 25 V.A. @ 0.70pf, M is 35 V.A. @ 0.20 pf,
Y is 75 V.A. @ 0.85pf and Z is 200 V.A. @0.85 pf. The complete expression for a current transformer
accuracy classification might be 0.3 at BO. 1, B-0.2, and B-0. 5, while the potential transformer might be
0.3 at W, X, M, and Y.

Continuous Thermal Rating Factor (TRF) - normally designated for current transformers and is the
factor by which the rated primary current is multiplied to obtain the maximum allowable primary current
without exceeding temperature rise standards and accuracy requirements. Example - if a 400:5 CT has
a TRF of 4.0, the CT will continuously accept 400 x 4 or 1600 primary amperes with 5 x 4 or 20 amperes
from the secondary. The thermal burden rating of a voltage transformer shall be specified in terms of
the maximum burden in volt-amperes that the transformer can carry at rated secondary voltage without
exceeding a given temperature rise.

Rated Insulation Class - denotes the nominal (line-to-line) voltage of the circuit on which it should be
used. Associated Engineering Company has transformers rated for 600 volts through 138 kV.

Polarity - the relative polarity of the primary and secondary windings of a current transformer is
indicated by polarity marks (usually white circles), associated with one end of each winding. When

current enters at the polarity end of the primary winding, a current in phase with it leaves the polarity end
of the secondary winding. Representation of primary marks on wiring diagrams are shown as black

Hazardous Open-Circulating - operation of CTs with the secondary winding open can result in a high
voltage across the secondary terminals which may be dangerous to personnel or equipment. Therefore,
the secondary terminals should always be short circuited before a meter is removed from service. This
may be done automatically with a by-pass in the socket or by a test switch for A-base meters.

V. Rules of Thumb for Uniformly Distributed Loads

It is very helpful to be able to perform a quick sanity check of system conditions "usually in your head" to
develop a "feel" for whether there might be a problem. Three very helpful rules assuming a uniformly
distributed load are as follows:

1) Capacitor placement - "2/3 rule"

2/3 L

2/3 kVAR

Figure 11. Optimum capacitor placement

"Optimum placement of capacitors at 2/3 the distance of the line, sizing the bank to meet 2/3 of
the feeder VAR needs."

2) Losses - "1/3 rule

1/3 L

100% Load

Figure 12. Equivalent losses

"Place all the load at 1/3 the distance to obtain the same losses as an evenly distributed load."

3) Voltage drop - "1/2 rule"

1/2 L

100% Load
Figure 13. Equivalent voltage drop

"Place 100% of load at 1/2 point on the feeder to obtain the same voltage drop as the voltage at
the end of the feeder for a uniform distribution load."

VI. Conductors and Cables

A. Conductor Current Rating

Table 5

Wire Size Amps

6 55
4 75
2 105
1/0 145
2/0 170
3/0 200
4/0 240
336 330
397 370
565 480
795 620

B. Facts on Distribution Cable

1) Cable replacement occurs usually after 2 or 3 failures.

2) TRXLPE and EPR use is increasing.

3) Conduit is on the rise but most cable is direct buried.

4) About 60% of all cable is still going in direct buried.

5) Most common method to find fault is radar with a thumper, followed by a thumper by
itself then an FCI.

6) Most utilities use an insulating jacket type, followed by the use of the semi-conducting

7) 30% use fiber optics in the underground system for telephone, SCADA, computer-to-
computer, video, etc.

8) Jacketed EPR has good record.

9) HMWPE and non-jacketed XLPE have bad records.

C. Impedance of Cable

Impedance of the main feeder is:

1) .122 + j .175 ohms/mile (12kV, 1000 KCM)

2) .119 + j .190 ohms/mile (35kV, 1000 KCM)

Impedance of the lateral feed is:

1) .502 + j .211 ohm/mile (12kV, 4/0, 3)

2) .500 + j .238 ohm/mile (34kV, 4/0, 3)

3) 1.445 + j .552 ohms/mile (12kV, #4, 1)

4) 1.607 + j .595 ohms/mile (34kV, #4, 1)

Table 6

VII. DSG General Requirements

1) Voltage - Customer shall not cause voltage excursions. Any voltage excursions must
be disconnected within 1 second.

2) Flicker - 2% at the dedicated transformer.

3) Frequency - < 5% Hz and removed in < .2 seconds

4) Harmonics - < 5% - sum of squares

5) Faults - Remove DSG in < 1 second for utility fault

6) Power factor - .85

VIII. Dangerous Levels of Current

Figure 14. Effect of Current on Humans

IX. Capacitor Formulas

Nomenclature: C = Capacitance in F

V = Voltage
A = Current
K = 1000
1) Capacitors connected in parallel: CTotal = C1 + C2 + C3 + - -

2) Capacitors connected in series:

CTotal = C1 x C2 For two capacitors in series

C1 + C2

CTotal = 1 For more than two capacitors in series

1 + 1 + 1 + --
C1 C2 C3

3) Reactance Xc (Capacitive)

a. Xc = 106

b. Xc = 2653 at 60HZ (1F = 2653 )


b. Xc = KV2 x 103

4) Capacitance C

a. C= 106
(2f) Xc

b. C= KVAR x 103

5) Capacitive Kilovars

a. KVAR = (2f)C (KV)2


b. KVAR = 103 (KV)2


6) Miscellaneous

a. Power Factor = Cos KW



X. European Practices

A. Primary

Distribution System
400 kV 36 kV to 33 kV
500 kV 300 kV 22 kV
Generator 765 kV 11 kV 380/222V

345 kV 34.5 kV 34.5 kV
500 kV 69 kV 24.9 kV
765 kV 115 kV 13.8 kV
138 kV 13.2 kV
230 kV 12.47 kV
United States

Figure 15. European / US Voltage Levels


380Y/220V, 3-Phase, 4-Wire


416Y/240V, 3, 4-Wire

208Y/120V, 3, 4-Wire & 1, 120/240V, 3-Wire


Figure 16. European Secondary

B. Relays
TMS - Time multiplier setting (similar to time dial)
CTU - Earth fault relay set between 1 % and 16 % of rated current
CDG 11 - Standard overcurrent relay
CDG 13 - Very inverse
CDG 14 - Extremely inverse relay
CTU 12 - Definite time relay

C. Earth Fault Protection

Based on the premise that all loads are 3 phase and balance
Considers the effect of line capacitance mismatch
Uses residual current

D. General

Autoreclosure on overhead is normal

Use normally open loop most of the time
Even on a 3-wire system there may be some unbalance due to capacitors which must be
considered when setting the earth relay
Conventional relays will not operate for unearthed systems
For ungrounded systems:
current and voltage unbalance must exceed a predetermined amount
phase angle must occur within a specified range (makes capacitor application difficult)
I (fault) is highly influenced by the capacitance of the network
Maximum fault levels allowed are:

Table 7

33 25
22 20
11 20

11-kV system is mostly radial and underground

33-kV system is looped and mostly underground
Most 4l5-volt transformers are l00 kVA or less and about 50% loaded

Table 8 - Distribution System Design Comparison

U.S. Europe
380 Wye/220, 4-wire.
416 Wye/240, 4-wire (UK)
1-phase transformers heavily overloaded 25 Residential units in 300-500 kVA range No
kVA typical. overload
100 to 200 dwellings per transformer 3-phase
4 homes/transformer fairly typical xfrms >> $ 1-phase 5 to 10 radial, 3-phase, 4-wire
secondary feeds, per transformer
Higher load density Less load per home than U.S.
Fuses are typically expulsion Fuses are current limiting

132 kV

33 kV
No Fuses
Zig-Zag Resistance Clearing Time 5-8 Cycles
Grounded Distance (sometimes) and Overcurrent
Zone 1-5-8 Cycles
Zone 2-30-33

33 kV

11 kV

Figure 17. 33 kV/11 kV Distribution

XI. Power Quality Data
A. Momentaries
Typical number of customer momentaries caused by the utility system 5
Typical number of customer momentaries for all causes 10

B. Sags
Typical number of customer sags caused by the utility system 50
Typical number of customer sags for all causes 350
*Voltage below .9 PU of nominal

C. Power Quality Organizations

Committee/Standard Activity
Characterizing Power Quality/Power Quality Indices/General Power Quality
Power Quality Standards coordinating committee Coordinates all power quality standards activities
IEEE 1159 A number of task forces addressing different aspects of power
Monitoring Power Quality quality monitoring requirements and definitions
IEEE 141 General guidelines for industrial commercial power systems
Red Book
IEEE 241 General guidelines for commercial power systems
Gray Book
IEEE P519A Developing application guide for applying harmonic limits
Filter Design Task Force Guidelines for harmonic filter design
Task Force on Harmonic Limits for Single Phase Developing guidelines for applying harmonic limits at the
Equipment equipment level
Voltage Sags/Momentary Interruptions
IEEE 493 Industrial and commercial Power system Reliability
Gold Book
IEEE 1346 Evaluating compatibility of power systems for industrial
process controllers
Steady State Regulation, Unbalance, and Flicker
ANSI C84.1 Voltage rating for power systems and equipment
IEEE Flicker Task Force Developing a coordinated approach for characterizing flicker
Wiring and Grounding/Powering Sensitive Equipment
IEEE 1100 Emerald Book Guidelines for powering and grounding sensitive equipment
National Electric Code Safety requirements for wiring and grounding
IEEE 142 Industrial and commercial Power System grounding
Green Book
OEEEA NSI C62 Guides and standards on surge protection
Distribution Systems/Custom Power Solution
IEEE 1250 Distribution Power Quality Working Guide on equipment sensitive to momentary voltage variations
IEEE 1409 Developing guidelines for application of power electronics
Custom Power Task Force technologies for power quality improvement on the distribution

D. Categories and Typical Characteristics of Power System Disturbances

Table 9

Typical Voltage
Categories Typical Duration
Transients Impulsive nsec to msec na
Oscillatory 3 msec 0.8 pu
Short Duration
Instantaneous Sag .5 30 cycles 0.1 0.9 pu
Instantaneous Swell .5 30 cycles 1.1 1.8 pu
0.5 cycles 3 sec Less than 0.1 pu
Momentary Sag 30 cycles 3 sec 0.1 0.9 pu
Momentary Swell 30 cycles 3 sec 1.1 1.4 pu
3 sec 1 min Less than 0.1 pu
Temporary Sag 3 sec 1 min 0.1 0.9 pu
Temporary Swell 3 sec 1 min 1.1 1.4 pu
Long Duration
Sustained Interruption Longer 1 minute 0.0 pu
Undervoltage Longer 1 minute 0.8 0.9 pu
Overvoltage Longer 1 minute 1.1 1.2 pu
Voltage Imbalance Steady state .5 2%
Waveform Distortion DC Offset Steady state .05 2%
Harmonics Steady state 0 20%
Inter-harmonics Steady state 0 20%
Notching Steady state NA
Noise Steady state 0 1%
Voltage Fluctuations Intermittent 0.1 7%
Power Frequency
Less than 10 sec NA

XII. Electricity Rates
Table 10

For Medium Size Commercial and Industrial

Utility Commercial $/kWh Industrial $/kWh
A $0.1067 $0.0899
B $0.1761 $0.0732
C $0.1672 $0.1058
D $0.1482 $0.0998
E $0.1328 $0.1039
F $0.1279 $0.0720
G $0.1690 $0.0950

Table 11

Twelve Most Expensive Companies Investor-Owned Electric Utilities

Dec.'91 - Feb.'92
Company State Avg. Cost $/kWh* National Rank
Long Island Lighting Co. New York $0.156 1
Philadelphia Electric Co. Pennsylvania $0.152 2
Pennsylvania Power Co. Pennsylvania $0.148 3
Duquesne Light Co. Pennsylvania $0.146 4
Consolidated Edison Co. New York $0.137 5
Western Mass. Electric Co. Massachusetts $0.137 6
Hawaii Electric Co. Hawaii $0.136 7
Nantucket Electric Co. Massachusetts $0.135 8
Commonwealth Electric Co. Massachusetts $0.131 9
Orange & Rockland Utilities Inc. New York $0.130 10
Citizens Utilities Co. Kauai Div. Hawaii $0.125 11
United Illuminating Co. Connecticut $0.124 12
*For monthly residential sales of 500 kWh.
Source: National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners

Table 12

Twelve Least Expensive Companies Investor-Owned Electric Utilities

Dec.'91 - Feb.'92
Company State Avg. Cost $/kWh* National Rank

Washington Water Power Co. Idaho $0.041 191

Pacific Power & Light Co. Washington $0.043 192
Washington Water Power Co. Washington $0.044 189
Idaho Power Co. Oregon $0.047 188
Idaho Power Co. Idaho $0.047 187
Kentucky Utilities Co. Kentucky $0.051 186
Portland General Elec. Co. Oregon $0.052 185
Puget Sound Power & Light Co. Washington $0.053 184
Potomac Electric Power Co. Dist. of Col. $0.054 183
Minnesota Power & Light Co. Minnesota $0.054 182
Pacific Power & Light Co. Oregon $0.055 181
Kingsport Power Co. Tennessee $0.056 180
*For monthly residential sales of 500 kWh.
Source: National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners

XIII. Costs

A. General
1) Annual system capacity:

Generation: $ 704/kW
Transmission: $ 99/kW
Distribution: $ 666/kW
Total: $1469/kW

2) Cost of capacitors (installed)

Substations: $ 9/kVAR
Line: $ 5.5/kVAR
Padmounted: $ 21/kVAR

3) Transformers (installed)

a. Single phase padmounts (installed)

12.5 kV (loop feed) 34.5 kV (loop feed)

25 kVA $2552 $3119
50 kVA $2986 $3931
75 kVA $3591 $4725
100 kVA $4972 $5728

b. Three Phase Padmounts

12.5 kV (loop feed) 34.5 kV (loop feed)

75 kVA $ 7,749 $10,584
150 $ 9,450 $11,605
300 $11,718 $15,574
500 $13,608 $20,034
750 $21,357 $21,377
1000 $25,515 $28,350
1500 - $40,824
2500 - $50,841

NOTE: Above costs include necessary cable terminations, pads, misc. material and transformer,
but no primary or secondary cable.

4) Substation costs (includes land, labor, and material)

a. 115-13.2kV, 20/37.3 MVA, 4 feeder substation $3,348,000

b. 35-12.5 kV, 12/16/20 MVA, 2 feeder substation $1,026,000
c. 115-35kV, 60/112 MVA, 5 feeder substation $4,050,000
d. 230-13.2 kV, 27/45 MVA, 5 feeder substation $3,960,000
e. 230-34.5 kV, 60/112 MVA, 5 feeder substation $5,040,000

5) Miscellaneous costs:

a. Cable (approximate)

Mainline, conduit $ 90/ft

Mainline, D.B. $ 38/ft
Lateral, conduit $ 63/ft
Install transformer $ 2,698
Change out transformer $ 2,822
Install - 3 switch $ 20,871
Replace - 3 switch $ 11,203
Install - 1 fuse switch $ 11,367

6) Cost of replacing cable:

a. 1 - $180/ft.
b. 3 - $360/ft.

7) Elbows (installed) - $111 each

XIV. Reliability Data

Table 13

Failure Rate Data

Component Failure Rate
Primary Cable (polyethylene) 6/100 mi-yr (conductor miles)
Secondary Cable (polyethylene) 10/100 mi-yr (circuit miles)
Transformers, single phase, padmounted 0.4%/yr
Transformers, three-phase, padmounted 0.62%/yr
Transformers, single phase, subsurface 0.3%/yr
Switches, oil, subsurface 0.12%/yr
Switches, air, padmounted 0.12%/yr
Fuse cabinet, single phase, padmounted 0.1%/yr
Fuse cabinet, three-phase, padmounted 0.2%/yr
Primary splices, rubber molded .01%/yr
Rubber molded, loadbreak .06%/yr
Rubber molded, non-loadbreak .06%/yr
Tees, 600 amp .02%/yr

Typical values for customer based indices are:

SAIDI - 96 min/yr.
SAIFI - 1.18 interruptions/yr.
CAIDI - 81.4 min/yr.

XV. Industrial and Commercial Stuff

Utility engineers have historically needed to know a lot about their own system and very little about their
customers system and loads. Competitive times and the emphasis on power quality have forced the
utility engineer to venture to the "other side of the meter" to address the power related concerns and
problems of specific industrial processes and components. The purpose of this section is to address
some of the more commonly encountered terminology, equipments and problems that the utility
distribution engineer generally has a hard time finding.


a. Major Categories of Motors

Alternating Current Types


Induction-Run, Capacitor Start
Induction-Run, Split Phase Start
Universal (Commutator)

Direct Current Types

Shunt-Characteristic: Electromagnetic Field
Shunt-Characteristic: Permanent Magnet Field
Series-Characteristic: Series Field Only
Compound Wound

b. KVA/Hp Conversions (at full load)

Induction 1 - 100 Hp 1.0
Induction 101 - 1000 Hp 0.95
Induction > 1000 Hp 0.9
Synchronous 0.8 pf 1.0
Synchronous 0.9 pf 0.9
Synchronous 1.0 pf 0.8

c. Reduced-voltage Starters

Table 14

Reduced-Voltage Starter Type Line Current As % Of Full-Voltage Starting

Autotransformer 50% tap 30%
Autotransformer 65% tap 47%
Autotransformer 80% tap 69%
Wye-delta 33%
Part-Winding 70%
Primary Resistor 80% tap 80%
Primary Resistor 65% tap 65%

d. Characteristics of Motors

DC Motors
Advantage of DC Motor is that the torque-speed characteristic can be varied over
a wide range and still have high efficiency
3 Basic Types - Shunt, Series and Compound
Shunt - In this motor the field current is independent of the armature having been
diverted (shunted) through its own separate winding. Increasing the field current
actually causes the motor to slow down. Torque and power however are higher.
Series - The series motor is identical in construction to the shunt motor except the
field is connected in series with the armature. At startup, armature current is high,
so flux is high and torque is high. If load decreases, speed goes up. Series
motors are for high torque, low speed applications such as the starter motor of a
car or the motors used for electric locomotives.
Compound - A compound motor carries both a series field and a shunt field. The
shunt field is always stronger. As load increases, the shunt field remains the same
but the series field increases. At no load it looks like a shunt motor.

The diagram shown below illustrates the basic characteristics of these motors:

Figure 18 - Typical speed versus load characteristics of various dc motors

Induction Motors

Most frequently used in industry (simple, rugged and easy to maintain)

Essentially constant speed from 0 to full load
Not easily adapted to speed control
Stationary stator
Revolving rotor (slip ring at end)
Conventional 3 phase winding
Squirrel-cage windings (copper bars shorted at end)

The characteristics of the induction motor are illustrated below:

Figure 19
Synchronous Motors

The most obvious characteristic of a synchronous motor is its strict

synchronism with the power line frequency.
Its advantage to the industrial user is its higher efficiency and low cost in large
Biggest disadvantage is added complications of motor starting.
A synchronous motor is identical to a generator of the same rating.
Synchronous motors are only selected for applications with relatively
infrequent starts since starting is more difficult and usually requires the use of
induction (squirrel cage) motor.

e. Adjustable-Speed Drives

Adjustable speed drives have the advantage of being both efficient and reliable
Used for compressors, pumps, and fans that have variable-torque requirements
Six basic types:
DC drive with DC motor
Voltage-source inverter with induction motor
Slip-energy recovery system with wound-rotor motor
Current-source inverter with induction motor
Load-commutated inverter with synchronous motor
Cycloconverter drive for either a synchronous or an induction motor

The figure, shown below, is a one line diagram for a typical current-source inverter. The
current-source inverter has a phase controlled rectifier that provides a DC input to a six-step
inverter. The reactor provides some filtering. Control of the inverter serves to regulate current
and frequency, rather than voltage and frequency as with the voltage-source inverter.

Figure 20 Typical current-source inverter (A) and one with a 12-pulse
power conversion unit (B) required by larger motors

XVI. Maxwells Equations
When in doubt, you can always go back and derive whatever you need to know using Maxwells
equations (that's what my professor told me . right!!!!!!!!) So here goes:

Gauss law for electric fields

E dA = 0

Gauss law for magnetic fields

B d A = 0

Generalized Amperes law

B ds = I +
0 0 0
dt s
E dA

Faradays law

E ds = dt s
B dA

Got that!!!!!!!!

Hard to Find.Part II

XVII. Introduction
Since Part I was a huge success, I decided to write Part II to address issues Im seeing as a result of de-
regulation. As usual, many of the topics are completely unrelated and it is questionable if they have
anything to do with the major theme. They are simply things that I see from time to time that keep
cropping up and I forget where the reference material I found on that topic might be. So, I put them

As usual, some things in this document are not guaranteed. I have tried to find good sources for the
majority of this material. Personally, I only write what I believe and try very hard to make it correct, as
well as useful

Finally, a note to the New Engineer: Computer programs are useful but understanding stuff is a lot

XVIII. Contents
Part II is meant to supplement the original document. Part I is the blue collar stuff that makes the
traditional distribution engineer impossible to replace. Part II addresses some old issues (that needed
some updating) and some new issues (that have become important in this de-regulated environment).
Anyway, I hope they are some use to you. Some of the topics covered are:

Distributed Resources Maintenance

Reliability Decibels
Modern Physics Computer Jargon 101
Communications Equipment Loading
Custom Power Cost of Interruption
XIX. Distributed Resources
Interesting Points DR Efficiencies
Fuel cells need to be replaced Gas fired combined cycle 60%
every 5 years Microturbines 20% to 40%
Gas fire combined cycle plants Fuel Cells 35% to 55% (de-
have efficiencies approaching 60% rate by 50% after 4000 hours)
Niche markets for DG may Aero-derivative Gas Turbines -
approach 5% of new capacity 40%
Microturbines range from 25 kW Reciprocating Engines 45%
to approximately 50 kW. The early
models operated for about 2000
Technical Specifications
hours before being pulled from
Disconnect from utility:
- Microturbine efficiency is about Within 6 cycles if voltage falls
20 to 30%. They lose below 50%
efficiency due to size and the Within 2 seconds if voltage
need to compress gas. The exceeds 1.37 per unit
larger units approach 40%. Within 6 cycles if frequency if
Some spin at 96,000 rpm. frequency raises above 60.3 Hz or
Fuel cells benefit from modularity, falls below 59.3 Hz
quiet operation, efficiency, and low Inverter should not inject dc current
pollution. Most fuel cells require an in excess of 0.5% of full rated
external reforming device to output
produce hydrogen for the stack. Must disconnect in 10 cycles for
Efficiency of the direct fuel cell is potential islanding situation.
about 50 to 55% while with a
reformer is about 35% to 40%.
Availability is considered good at
98% (This translates into about 7
days out of service per year
compared to most US customers
seeing only 2 hours out per year).
Fuel cells need to be derated by
50% after less than a year (4000
PV - Not a serious option
Wind - done fairly well but suffers
from low capacity and mechanical
Aeroderivative Gas Turbines offer
efficiencies of more than 40% and
are proven and reliable.
Reciprocating Engines Durable,
reliable, low cost and proven. Some
models push efficiencies of 45%.
Emissions are a concern but
solvable. Water injection, used by
Caterpillar to showed reductions in
pollution of as much as 50%.

Hard to Find.Part II
DR Costs

Wind Systems $2000 per peak kW

Fuel Cells $3500 per kW
Solar (home, installed) $62,000 per kW
Solar panels $600 per kW
Batteries $100 per kW
Backup Generator $300 per kW
Inverter $600 per kW
UPS $1500 per kW
Motor/Generator $400 per kW
SMES $250 per kW
Capacitor $50 per kW
Flywheel $300 per kW
Microturbines $600 per kW
Reciprocating Engine $500 per kW

Examine your DG options closely.

Mistakes could be costly!!
XX. Reliability
1. Typical Equipment Failure Rates

Cable Primary .03

Cable Secondary .11
Switch (Loop) .05
Elbow .0067
Splice .0068
Fuse (transformer) .005
Circuit Breaker .0066
Bus .22
Station Transformer .02
Overhead Line .2
Distribution Transformer .005
Lateral Cable .1

2. Primary Outage Rates

0.35 5 kV

0.3 15 kV
0.25 25 kV
Lightning Tree Equip. Other Total


3. Effect of Major Events

Major Event Major Events

Included Excluded
1990 202 2.3 1.6 145 1.8 1.4
1991 360 2.4 1.7 143 1.8 1.5
1992 225 1.9 1.5 150 1.7 1.4
1993 161 1.7 1.4 151 1.6 1.2
1994 153 1.7 1.3 149 1.6 1.1
1995 187 2.8 2.3 145 1.5 1.4
1996 168 1.9 1.6 147 1.6 1.2
1997 560 2.8 1.8 166 1.8 2.4
1998 230 2.4 2 140 1.7 1.7
4. Indice Definitions

SAIFI [system average interruption Values of these indices vary widely

frequency index (sustained interruptions)]. depending on many factors, including
The system average interruptions climate (snow, wind, lightning, etc.), system
frequency index is designed to give design (radical, looped, primary selective,
information about the average frequency of secondary network, etc.), and load density
sustained interruptions per customer over a (urban, suburban and rural). Typical
predefined area. In words, the definition is:
values seen by utilities in the United States
total number of customer
total number of customers

To calculate the index, use the following 110 min/yr 1.4 int/yr 79
equation: min/yr

SAIDI (system average interruption

N i Some utilities are already measuring
NT indices to reflect system disturbances,
other than interruptions, that cause
duration index). This index is commonly
sensitive loads to misoperate. One of
referred to as Customer Minutes of
these, the momentary average interruption
Interruption or Customer Hours, and is
event frequency index,
designed to provide information about the
(MAIFI) is an index to record momentary
average time the customers are
outages caused by successful reclosing
interrupted. In words, the definition is:
operations of the feeder breaker or line
recloser. This index is very similar to
SAIFI, but it tracks the average frequency
customer interruption durations of momentary interruption events. In
SAIDI = total number of customers served words, the definition is:

To calculate the index, use the following

equation: Total number of customer
MAIFI E = momentary interruption events
CAIDI (customer average interruption
Total number of customers

r N i i

duration index). CAIDI represents the
To calculate the index, use the following
average time required to restore service to
the average customer per sustained
interruption. In words, the definition is:
ID N e i

customer interruption durations NT

CAIDI = total number of customers interruptions
(Typical value for MAIFI is 6 interruptions
To calculate the index, use the following per year).

r N
i i

5. Voltage Sags
Typical values of SARFI:

N i
SARFI 90 50
NT SARFI 70 20
SARFI 50 10
SARFI 10 5
where %V = rms voltage threshold 140, 120,
Typical number of sags for all causes = 350
110, 90, 80, 70, 50, 10
Typical number of momentaries for all causes =
N i = number of customers experiencing rms
< % V for variation i (rms > % V for % V >
N T = Total number of system customers

6. Interruption Survey

65% report information to regulators

37% calculate MAIFI
83% feel indices should be calculated separately from generation and transmission
76% feel that scheduled interruptions should be calculated separately
70% have major event classifications
94% use computer programs to generate reliability indicies

7. Loading

Increased loading of equipment will take life out of the equipment and could ultimately contribute to
equipment failure. The following are some important considerations when overloading equipment, especially
Insulation life of a transformer is when it loses 50% of its insulation strength.
The temperature of top oil should never exceed 110C for transformers having a 65C average
winding rise.
Peak short duration loading should never exceed 200%.
Hot spot should never exceed 180C for 65C systems due to the possibility of free bubbles that
could weaken insulation strength. Under normal conditions, hot spot should not exceed 130C.
Transformers should be operated for normal life expectancy.
A 2.5% loss of life per day may be acceptable in the event of an emergency.

XXI. Modern Physics
Too often, distribution engineers are told theyre behind the times. So Ive included a few tidbits so you can
impress your friends with your range of knowledge. You never know when you might need the following:
Big Bang The progression of the Big Bang is considered to be as follows:
0 to 10^-43 seconds - ?????????
10^-43 seconds Quantum Gravity
10^-12 seconds Quantum Soup
10^-16 seconds Protons and Neutrons form
1 minute Helium formed
5 minutes Helium complete
500,000 years Atoms form Background radiation (COBE)

Forces There are now considered to be 3 forces which are as follows:

Gravity Strong (color)

Color Charge The so called color force does not fall off with distance and is as follows:
Red Blue
Quarks Quarks are the fundamental particles (called fermions) of nature. There are 6:
Up Quark
Down Quark
Charmed Quark
Strange Quark
Top Quark

Hard to Find.Part II

XXII. Loading

Probably no area of distribution engineering causes more confusion then does loading. Reading
the standards does not seem to help much since everyone appears to have their own
interpretation. Manufacturers of equipment are very conservative since they really never know
how the user will actually put the product to use so they must expect the worst. On the other
hand, many users seem to take the approach that since it didnt fail last year with traditional
overloading values, it wont fail this year either. In fact, it wont fail until after retirement. Heck!
Save a Buck and Get a Promotion. The author of this document is not a psychology major and
frankly has no idea of what the thinking was when much of the following was produced. The
material that follows, however, was taken from sources with excellent reputation. Use it with

1. Transformer Loading Basics

All modern transformers have insulation systems designed for operation at 65C
average winding temperature and 80C hottest-spot winding rise over ambient in an
average ambient of 30C. This means:
65C average winding rise + 30C ambient = 95C average winding
80C hottest spot rise + 30C ambient = 110C hottest spot

(OLD system: 55C winding rise + 30C ambient = 85C average winding temperature
65C hotttest spot + 30C ambient = 95C hottest spot)

Notice that 95C is the average winding temperature for the new insulation system
and the hottest spot for the old. A source of immense confusion for many of us.
The temperature of the top oil should not exceed 100C. Obviously, top oil
temperature is always less than hottest spot.
The maximum hot-spot temperature should not exceed 150C for a 55C rise
transformer or 180C for a 65C rise transformer.
Peak .5 hour loading should not exceed 200%
The conditions of 30C ambient temperature and 100% load factor establish the basis
of transformer ratings.
The ability of the transformer to carry more than nameplate rating under certain
conditions without exceeding 95C is basically due to the fact that top oil temperature
does not instantaneously follow changes in transformer load due to thermal storage.
An average loss of life of 1% per year (or 5% in any emergency) incurred during
emergency operations is considered reasonable.
Most companies do not allow normal daily peaks to exceed the permissible load for
normal life expectancy.
The firm capacity is usually the load that the substation can carry with one supply line
or one transformer out of service.
Emergency 24 Hour Firm Capacity usually means a loss of life of 1% but is
sometimes as much as 5% or 6%.
The following measures can be used for emergency conditions lasting more than 24
Portable fans
Water spray
Interconnect cooling equipment of FOA units.
Use transformer thermal relays to drop certain loads.

2. Examples of Substation Transformer Loading Limits

The following is an example of maximum temperature limits via the IEEE for a 65C rise

IEEE Normal Life Expectancy

Top Oil Temperature 105C
Hotspot Temperature 120C

This next example shows the loading practice of various utilities for substation transformers:

Normal Utility Utility Utility Utility Utility Utility Utility

Condtions A B C D E F G
Top Oil 95 110 95 95 95 110 110
Hotspot 125 130 120 110 120 140 120
Top Oil 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
Hot Spot 140 140 140 130 140 140 140

What happens when the hotspot is raised from 125C to 130C? This is shown as follows:

Maximum Hotspot % Loss of Life, Annual

125 0.3366
130 0.5372

An example of the effect of load cycle (3 hour peak with 70% pre-load for 13 hours and 45%
load for 8 hours) and ambient on transformer capability via the ANSI guide is shown below:

Peak Load for Normal Life Emergency Peak Load with 24-
Expectancy Hour Loss of Life
Transformer 10C Ambient 30C Ambient 0.25% 1.0%
20000 - OA 30,000 24,200 28,400 32,000
15000/2000 28,700 23,800 27,500 30,700
12000/16000/ 27,500 23,200 26,800 29,700
20000 FOA 27,500 23,200 26,800 29,700

The following is the effect on transformer ratings for various limits of top oil temperature:

MVA Top Oil Temperature

Normal Rating 50 95C
New Rating 55 105C
Emergency Rating 59 110C

3. Distribution Transformers

The loading of distribution transformers varies more widely than substation units. Some utilities
try to never exceed the loading of the transformer nameplate. Others, particularly those using
TLM, greatly overload smaller distribution transformers with no apparent increase in failure rates.
An example of one utilities practice is as follows:

Padmounted Submersible
KVA Install Range Removal Point Install Range Removal Point
25 0-40 55 0-34 42
50 41-69 88 35-64 79
75 70-105 122 65-112 112
100 106-139 139 113-141 141

4. Ampacity of Overhead Conductors

In part 1 of the Hard-to-Find, I listed some conservative ratings for conductors per the
manufacturer. The table below shows the rating of conductors via a typical utility:

ACSR All Aluminum

Conductor Normal Emergency Normal Emergency
1/0 319 331 318 334
2/0 365 379 369 388
3/0 420 435 528 450
4/0 479 496 497 523
267 612 641 576 606
336 711 745 671 705
397 791 830 747 786

5. Emergency Ratings of Equipment

The following are some typical 2 hour overload ratings of various substation equipment. Use at
your own risk:

Station Transformer 140%

Current Transformer 125%
Breakers 110%
Reactors 140%
Disconnects 110%
Regulators 150%

6. Miscellaneous Loading Information

The following is some miscellaneous loading information and thoughts from a number of actual

a. Commercial and Industrial Transformer Loading

Load Factor % Transformer Load Limit
0-64 130%
65-74 125%
75-100 120%
b. Demand Factor
Lights 50%
Air Conditioning 70%
Major Appliances 40%
c. Transformer Loading
Distribution transformer life is in excess of 5 times present guide levels
Distribution guide shows that life expectancy is about 500,000 hours for 100C
hottest-spot operation, compared to 200,000 hours for a power transformer.
Same insulation system.
Using present loading guides, only 2.5% of power transformer thermal life is
used up after 15 years.
Results of one analysis showed that the transition from acceptable to
unacceptable risk (approximately an order of magnitude) was accompanied (by
this utility) by only a 8.5% investment savings and a 12% increase in transformer
Application of transformers in excess of normal loading can cause:
Evolution of free gas from insulation of winding and lead conductors.
Evolution of free gas from insulation adjacent to metallic structural
parts linked by magnetic flux produced by winding or lead currents
may also reduce dielectric strength.
Operation at high temperatures will cause reduced mechanical
strength of both conductor and structural insulation.
Thermal expansion of conductors, insulation materials, or structural
parts at high temperature may result in permanent deformations
that could contribute to mechanical or dielectric failures.
Pressure build-up in bushings for currents above rating could
result in leaking gaskets, loss of oil, and ultimate dielectric failure.

Increased resistance in the contacts of tap changers can result
from a build-up of oil decomposition products in a very localized high
temperature region.
Reactors and current transformers are also at risk.
Oil expansion could become greater that the holding capacity of the
Aging or deterioration of insulation is a time function of temperature,
moisture content, and oxygen content. With modern oil preservation
systems, the moisture and oxygen contributions to insulation deterioration
can be minimized, leaving insulation temperature as the controlling
Distribution and power transformer model tests indicate that the normal life
expectancy at a continuous hottest-spot temperature of 110C is 20.55
Input into a transformer loading program should be:
Transformer characteristics (loss ratio, top-oil rise, hottest spot rise,
total loss, gallons of oil, weight of tank and fittings.
Ambient temperatures
Initial continuous load
Peak load durations and the specified daily percent loss of life
Repetitive 24 hour load cycle if desired
Maximum permitted loading is 200% for power transformer and 300% for a
distribution transformer.
Suggested limits of loading for distribution transformers are:
Top-oil 120C
Hottest - spot 200C
Short time (.5 hour) 300%
Suggested limits for power transformers are:
Top-oil 100C
Hottest-spot 180C
Maximum loading 200%
Overload limits for coordination of bushings with transformers is:
Ambient air 40C maximum
Transformer top-oil 110C maximum
Maximum current 2 times bushing rating
Bushing insulation hottest-spot 150C maximum
Current rating for the LTC are:
Temperature rise limit of 20C for any current carrying contact in oil
when carrying 1.2 times the maximum rated current of the LTC
Capable of 40 breaking operations at twice rate current and KVA
Planned loading beyond nameplate rating defines a condition wherein a
transformer is so loaded that its hottest-spot temperature is in the
temperature range of 120C to 130C.
Long term emergency loading defines a condition wherein a power
transformer is so loaded that its hottest-spot temperature is in the
temperature range of 120C to 140C.
The principle gases found dissolved in the mineral oil of a transformer are:
Nitrogen: from external atmosphere or from gas blanket over the
free surface of the oil
Oxygen: from external atmosphere
Water: from moisture absorbed in cellulose insulation or from
decomposition of the cellulose
Carbon dioxide: from thermal decomposition of cellulose insulation

Carbon monoxide: from thermal decomposition of cellulose
Other Gases: may be present in very small amounts (e.g. acetylene)
as a result of oil or insulation decomposition by overheated metal,
partial discharge, arcing, etc. These are very important in any
analysis of transformers, which may be in the process of failing.
Moisture affects insulation strength, power factor, aging, losses and the
mechanical strength of the insulation. Bubbles can form at 140C which
enhance the chances of partial discharge and the eventual breakdown of the
insulation as they rise to the top of the insulation.. If a transformer is to be
overloaded, it is important to know the moisture content of the insulation,
especially if its an older transformer. Bubbles evolve fast so temperature is
important to bubbles formation but not time at that temperature. Transformer
insulation with 3.5% moisture content should not be operated above
nameplate for a hottest spot of 120C. Tests have shown that the use of
circulated oil for the drying process takes some time. For a processing time
of 70 hours the moisture content of the test transformers was reduced from
2% to 1.9% at temperature of 50C to 75C. Apparently only surface moisture
was affected. A more effective method is to remove the oil and heat the
insulation under vacuum.

XXIII. Computer Jargon 101

Theres a lot of new terminology out there for the distribution engineer to assimilate these days.
This section outlines some of the terms and concepts we see with the emphasis these days on
data and voice communications.

1. Telecommunications is defined as the exchange of information, usually over a

significant distance and using electronic equipment for transmission.
2. The PBX, is a private business exchange. It is the most advanced customer-
premises equipment telecommunications solution. A PBX acts like a mini-central
office. Almost all are digital.
3. Asynchronous Transmission means each device must be set to transmit and
receive data at a given speed, known as a data rate. This type of transmission is
also known as start-stop transmission because it uses start and stop bits.
4. Synchronous Transmission normally involves large blocks of characters, and
special sync characters which are used to adjust to the transmitters exact speed.
5. The organizations which have the most impact on data communications are:
6. RS-232-C is one of the most common interfaces for data communications in use
today. It is an EIA standard defining exactly how ones and zeros will be
7. DDS is AT&Ts Dataphone Digital Services which provides digital circuits for data
transmission speeds of 2400, 4800, 9600, 56 kbps and 64 kbps.
8. T-1 carrier service transmits at 1.544 Mbps an carries approximately 24 channels.
9. ISDN is the Integrated Services Digital Network
10. For Fiber Optic cable, data rates can exceed a trillion bits per second.
11. Satellite bandwidth can be up to many Mbps.
12. Baseband is a single data signal transmitted directly on a wire.
13. Broadband transmits data using a carrier signal.
14. Buffering is holding data temporarily, usually until it has been properly sequenced,
as in packet switching networks, or until another device is ready to receive it, as in
front-end processors.
15. Polling is the method used by a host computer or front end processor to ask a
terminal if it has data to send.,
16. Selecting is the method used by a host computer to ask a terminal if it is ready to
receive data.
17. A Front End Processor can perform:
18. Error detection
19. Code conversion
20. Protocol conversion
21. Data conversion
22. Parallel/Series conversion
23. Historical logging
24. Statistical logging
25. Security Measures:
26. Secure transmission facility
27. Passwords
28. Historical and Statistical Logging
29. Closed user group
30. Firewalls
31. Encryption and decryption
32. Secret keys

33. Communications architectures and protocols enable devices to communicate
in an orderly manner, defining precise rules and methods for communications and
ensuring harmonious communications among them.
34. In Packet Switching Networks, the data is separated into packets or blocks, and
sent through the packet switching network to the destination.
35. A Local Area Network is a privately owned data communications system that
provides reliable, high speed, switched connections between devices in a single
building, campus or complex.
36. Client/Server - rather than running all applications on a single mainframe, users
can access programs on servers attached to a LAN when a common database or
resource is important. Bridges are used to extend LANs beyond its usual distance
37. Bridges are used to connect two or more networks that use similar data
38. Routers interconnect LANs and do not require all users to have unique addresses
(as do bridges).
39. Gateways connect networks using different communications methods.

XXIV. Decibels
Heres some interesting information on decibels:

Decibels Power Change Decibels Power Change

1 1.25 10 10.0
2 1.58 11 12.6
3 2.0 12 15.8
4 2.5 13 20.0
5 3.15 14 25.1
6 4.0 15 31.6
7 5.0 20 100
8 6.3 30 1000
9 7.9 40 10000

1 db = lowest sound that can be heard

30 db = whisper
70 db = human voice
100 db = loud radio
120 db = ear discomfort

XXV. Faults and Inrush Currents
The following are some observations of the author based on many years of monitoring. The
following statistics are real and based on actual measurements:

Voltage unbalance is generally less than 1%

Harmonics at the substation are generally less than 1 or 2%
40% of faults occur in adverse weather
Average line-to-ground fault current was 1530 amps.
Faults generally lasted 10 cycles with 2 seconds the maximum
Essentially there is no fault impedance (see HtoF #1)
Voltage rise during a fault was about 4% at the substation and 35% on the feeder
Average fuse I^2*t was 227,000 amp^2 sec, with the highest being 800,000 amp^2
What you calculate is what you get.
79% of all faults involve only one phase
Most faults occur with 5% of peak voltage so offset is minimal
Average DC offset was 1.1 with a time constant of 2.81 milliseconds
Inrush average was 2500 amps. And max. was 5700 amps.
Peak offset was 5.3 per unit and average time constant was 3 cycles
Cold Load Pickup looks like inrush.

XXVI. Custom Power Devices
Custom Power Devices are devices rated above 600 volts that are used to increase power
quality. Though not widely used, these devices are available to the industry to reduce the impact
of distribution disturbances, primarily sags. A few of these devices are described as follows:

Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) The DSTATCOM is a power

electronic device that responds in less than a cycle. It shields customers from
voltage sags and surge problems cause by sudden load changes on the system.
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) The DVR system is a series-connected
power electronic device that restores voltage quality delivered to a customer
when the line-side voltage deviates. The device supplies the elements missing
from the waveform in less than one cycle.
Medium-Voltage Sub-Cycle Transfer Switch (SSTS) This device provides
power quality to customers that are served radially and have access to an
alternative power source. Switching between the preferred and alternative
source is done wthin 0ne-sixteenth of a second.
Solid-State Breaker (SSB) This is a fast acting sub-cycle breaker which
instantaneously operates to clear an electrical fault from the power system. In
combination with other electronic devices, the SSB can prevent excessive fault
currents from developing and improve PQ.
Static Var Compensator (SVC) This device uses capacitors, an inductor, and
a set of solid-state switches to provide power factor correction or voltage
regulation. Constant power factor and constant line voltage are possible using
the device.

XXVII. Cost of Power Interruptions
The cost of an interruption is probably one of the most difficult to assess. On the one hand, when
the perception is that the utility will pay the costs from commercial and industrial customers are
always high via survey data. On the other hand, when the cost of correction of the problem is
determined to be the customers responsibility, the costs are much lower. The following are
some of these survey costs. Use with caution:

Type of Industrial Cost per peak

/Commercial KW

Electrical Products $7.60

Crude Petroleum $240.30
Machinery $6.70
Paper Products $6.60
Logging $1.80
Printing and Publishing $5.20
Primary Textiles $15.10
Transportation $37.40
Textile $15.10
Automotive $36.90
General Merchandise $26.20
Household Furniture $34.70
Personal Services $0.30
Entertainment $20.70

XXVIII. Cost of Sectionalizing Equipment

The following are some approximate costs of equipment used for sectionalizing:

Fuse Cutout $1300

Gang Operated Switch $5500
Disconnect Switch $2500
OCR $9000
DA Load Break $33,000
DA Recloser $40,000

XXIX. Maintenance of Equipment

Some of the diagnostic and assessment techniques used for utility equipment is as follows:


Overall dielectric Drive contact PD Techniques Stator/Rotor
DGA, position, constant 0.1 Hz off-line Windings insulator
onlineVHF/UHF PD velocity, detection and resistance,
vibrational localization, conductor
analysis, trip-coil online VHF resistance
current detection, ,polarization index,
single/double loss angle,
sided localization capacitance PD
in point to point measurement, high
cables and voltage tests, video
branched endoscopy
Tap Changer Secondary Diel
dynamic resistance, System trip-coil Spectrosocopy
drive power current loss angle,
Bushing loss Overall Dielectric
angle, capacitance online PD,
vacuum leak
Core no load
Paper - furfural

Transformer Lifetime from furfural analysis:

Lifetime primarily determined by mechanical condition of paper insulation

Degree of polymerization (DP) measure for mechanical strength
DP decreases from about 1200 (new) to 250 (end of life)
DP determined from correlation with product of furfural and CO-concentrations
Decay curve from accelerated aging study
Lifetime time prediction from (series) of DP values

XXX. Major Events
In the area of reliability indicies some utilities are allowed to exclude major events (storms, etc.).
The concern in the industry is what constitutes a major event. There are many definitions. The
two most popular are:

10% of the system is out of service for usually 24 hours

Exclusion of events outside 3 sigma. This definition is based on Chebyshevs
Inequality (you needed to know that right!). Anyway, outages a utility may have
during the year have a probability distribution. This concept basically says that
events not within 3 standard deviations of the mean can be excluded. For reference,
approximately 56% of events are within 1 standard deviation, 75% are within 2
standard deviations and 89% are within 3 standard deviations. So this would mean
approximately 10% could be excluded.

XXXI. Line Charging Current
Im asked about once a year how much capacitance a line has. Always have trouble finding an
answer so Im putting it here. Charging KVA (3 phase) can be approxiated by the formula:
Charging KVA = 2.05 (kV)^2/Z, where Z is the characteristic impedance of the line. Some
approximations, which may be helpful, are as follows:

kV Overhead Underground
(kVAR) (kVAR)
15 1 10
25 3 30
35 6 60
115 66 660
230 265 2,650
500 1,250 12,500

XXXII. Overcurrent Rules
1. Hydraulically controlled reclosers are limited to about 10,000 amperes for the 560
amp coil and 6000 amperes for the 100 amp coil.
2. Many companies set ground minimum trip at maximum load level and phase trip at 2
times load level.
3. A K factor of 1 (now used in the standards) means the interrupting current is constant
for any operating voltage. A recloser is rated on the maximum current it can interrupt.
This current generally remains constant throughout the operating voltage range.
4. A recloser is capable of its full interrupting rating for a complete four-operation
sequence. The sequence is determined by the standard. A breaker is subject to
5. A recloser can handle any degree of asymmetrical current. A breaker is subject to an
S factor de-rating.
6. A sectionalizer is a self-contained circuit-opening device that automatically isolates a
faulted portion of a distribution line from the source only after the line has been de-
energized by an upline primary protective device.
7. A Power Fuse is applied close to the substation ( 2.8 to 169kV and X/R between 15
and 25)
8. A Distribution Fuse is applied farther out on the system (5.2 to 38kV and X/R between
8 and 15).
9. The fuse tube (in cutout) determines the interrupting capability of the fuse. There is an
auxiliary tube that usually comes with the fuse that aids in low current interruption.
10. Some expulsion fuses can handle 100% continuous and some 150%.
11. Type K is a fast fuse link with a speed ratio of melting time-current characteristics
from 6 to 8.1 (speed is the ratio of the 0.1 minimum melt current to the 300 second
minimum melt current. Some of the larger fuses use the 600 second point.
12. Type T is a slow fuse link with a speed ratio of melt time-current characteristics from
10 to 13.
13. After about 10 fuse link operations, the fuse holder should be replaced.
14. Slant ratings can be used on grounded wye, wye, or delta systems as long as the line-
to-neutral voltage of the system is lower than the smaller number and the line-to-line
voltage is lower than the higher number. A slant rated cutout can withstand the full
line-to-line voltage whereas a cutout with a single voltage rating could not withstand the
higher line-to-line voltage.
15. Transformer fusing 25@0.01, 12@0.1, 3@10sec.
16. Unsymmetrical Transformer Connections ( delta/wye):
17. Fault Type Multiplying Factor
18. Three-phase N
19. Phase-to-phase .87 (N)
20. Phase-to-Ground 1.73 (N)
21. Where N is the ratio of Vprimary/Vsecondary
22. ( Multiply the high side device current points by the appropriate factor)
23. K Factor for Load Side Fuses
a. 2 fast operations and dead time 1 to 2 seconds = 1.35
24. K Factor for Source Side Fuses
a. 2 fast-2 delayed and dead time of 2 seconds = 1.7
b. 2 fast-2 delayed and dead time of 10 seconds = 1.35
c. Sometimes these factor go as high as 3.5 so check
25. Sequence Coodination Achievement of true trip coordination between an upline
electronic recloser and a downline recloser, is made possible through a feature known
as sequence coordination. Operation of sequence coordination requires that the

upline electronic recloser be programmed with fast curves whose control response
time is slower that the clearing time of the downline recloser fast operation, through the
range of fault currents within the reach of the upline recloser: Assume a fault beyond
the downline recloser that exceeds the minimum trip setting of both reclosers. The
downline recloser trips and clears before the upline recloser has a chance to trip.
However, the upline control does see the fault and the subsequent cutoff of fault
current. The sequence coordination feature then advances its control through its fast
operation, such that both controls are at their second operation, even though only one
of them has actually tripped. Should the fault persist, and a second fast trip occur,
sequence coordination repeats the procedure. Sequence coordination is active only
on the programmed fast operations of the upline recloser. In effect, sequence
coordination maintains the downline recloser as the faster device.
26. Recloser Time Current Characteristics
a. Some curves are average. Maximum is 10% higher.
b. Response curves are the response of the sensing device and does not include
arc extinction.
c. Clearing time is measured from fault initiation to power arc extinction.
d. The response time of the recloser is sometimes the only curve given. To obtain
the interrupting time, you must add approximately 0.045 sec to the curve
(checktheyre different)
e. Some curves show max. clearing time. On the new electronic reclosers, you
usually get a control response curve and a clearing curve.
f. Zl-g = (2Z1 + Z0)/3
27. The 75% Rule considers TCC tolerances, ambient temperature, pre-loading and
pre-damage. Pre-damage only uses 90%.
28. A back-up current limiting fuse with a designation like 12K means that the fuse will
coordinate with a K link rated 12 amperes or less.
29. Capacitor Fusing:
a. The 1.35 factor may result in nuisance fuse operations. Some utilities use 1.65
b. Case rupture is not as big a problem as years ago due to all film designs.
c. Tank rupture curves may be probable or definite in nature. Probable means
there is a probability chance of not achieving coordination. Definite indicates
there is effectively no chance of capacitor tank rupture with the proper 0%
probability curve.
d. T links are generally used up to about 25 amperes and K link above that to
reduce nuisance fuse operations from lightning and in
30. Line Impedance Typical values for line impedance (350kcm) on a per mile basis are
as follows:

Zpositive Z0
Cable UG .31 + j0.265 1.18 + j0.35
Spacer .3 + j0.41 1.25 + j2.87
Tree Wire .3 + j0.41 1.25 + j2.87
Armless .3 + j0.61 .98 + j2.5
Open .29 +j0.66 .98 + j2.37

31. 1A-3B is a necessary when sectionalizers are used downstream from the recloser.
32. Vacuum reclosers have interrupting ratings as high as 10 to 20kA.
33. Highest recloser continuous ratings are 800 and 1200 amperes.
34. Sectionalizer actuating current should be <80% of backup device trip current.
35. Interrupting ratings of cutouts are approximately 7 kA to 10 kA symmetrical.

36. K Factor can mean a voltage range factor or a shift factor caused by the recloser
heating up the fuse.
37. Sectionalizer counts should normally be one count less than the operations to lockout
of the breaker or recloser
38. Sectionalizer memory time must be > than cumulative trip and reclose time.
39. Fuses melt at about 200% of rating.
40. Sectionalizers have momentarr ratings for 1 second and 10 seconds.
41. 25% Rule for fuses includes pre-load, ambient temperature, and pre-damage.
42. Characteristics of Chance Sectionalizers include:
43. 100 amp continuous
44. 160 amp actuating
45. 2 counts
46. 12,000 amp momentary
47. 4,000 amp @ 1 second
48. 2500 amp @ 10 second
49. 0.3 amp detector threshold
50. Minimum time delay = 80 ms
51. Reset time approximately 25 seconds
52. Minimum duration of current impulse approximately 1 to 3 cycles.
53. Short time curves are 20% of the normal curve ( in time).
54. Long time curves are 10 times the normal
55. The PCD2000 incorporates a 32 bit microprocessor and a 16 bit microprocessor.
56. The PCD has the following relays:
57. 27 Undervoltage
58. 32 Directional Power
59. 46 Negative Sequence
60. 50 Instantaneous
61. 51 Inverse Time
62. 59 Overvoltage
63. 67 Directional Overcurrent
64. 79 Reclosing
65. 81 - Frequency

Jim Burke 12/10/04

XXXIII. Hard to Find Information on Grounding

Im not sure anyone really understands grounding. There are a number of things in life
that are simply not going to be crystal clear in my lifetime and this is one of them. Here are some
interesting bits of wisdom that might help you out in trying to make sense of so many conflicting
you hear. As a great philosopher once said, Dont let knowledge interfere with your
education. One final thingas usual, none of this is guaranteed!
NESC (IEEE C2-1997) requires:
9 Neutral must be continuous
9 Does not allow earth as a sole conductor
9 Does not require specific grounding resistance for multigrounded systems
9 Multi-grounded systems achieve their performance by having many grounds
9 Requires that surge arrester conductors be at least #6 copper or #4 aluminum
9 Requires grounds at transformers and customer meters
A good approximation for a 10 foot ground rod is that the resistance in ohms equals the
ground resistivity in ohm-meters divided by 3. For an 8 foot ground rod, divide by 2.5.
Soil resistivity is the resistance of a certain volume of soil. Normally, resistivity is
specified in ohm-meters. The resistance between opposite faces of a cube of soil (e.g. 1
meter on a side) is its resistivity.
Being wet decreases contact resistance by a factor of about 10.
The current that kills is about .1 amps. Very high currents actually have less chance of
killing you, so be careful.
We lean against trees that touch high voltage wires all the time and nobody dies. There
is an explanation for this.
Over half the world uses a non-effectively grounded system and it works. This in itself
should make you question whether good grounding is an absolute requirement for
performance. It depends!!
If you put electrodes across your head with 110 volts across them you will draw about
1100 milliamperes (apparently not much in there to cause resistance). If you put the
same voltage between your hand and your foot, you will probably draw less than 1 mA. If
youre wet this could go up to about 100 mA. I guess the conclusion you can draw from
this is If you have a low resistance brain and like to play with 110 volts in the shower,
you deserve to die. This is probably the reason why they tell you, in those operating
instructions, not to take your toaster in the shower.
Butt Plate resistance is generally greater than 5 times more than that of a ground rod.
Electrode diameter does not significantly affect ground rod resistancebut depth does!
Space ground rods at least 10 feet apart to get maximum effectiveness.
Substation Ground resistance should be less than about 5 ohms. Having a lower
resistance does not mean the substation is safer. Substation grounding is more
dependent on the design of the ground mat (see IEEE Guide for Safety-AC Substation
Grounding, ANSI/IEEE 80-1986). There is no simple relationship between the resistance

of the substation grounding as a whole and the maximum shock current a person might
be exposed to.
One of the problems of ungrounded systems was that as the systems grew, faults were
no longer self clearing due to the large capacitive currents.
When doing soil resistivity measurements (4-Point Measurement), the distance
between electrodes should be 20 times the electrode depth. The depth of the resistivity
measurement is equivalent the distance between electrodes.
For a multigrounded system a fault about 2 miles from the substation produces the
highest overvoltage on the unfaulted phases of about 135%.
Moisture Content in the soil dramatically affects soil resistivity. Soil with no water has 2
million times as much resistivity as soil with 30% moisture content.
Temperature changes between 68 degrees and 14 degrees F, change the resistivity of
soil by a factor of about 40.
Length is more important than width for a ground rod
The resistance of an 8 foot ground rod for one utility varied between 40 ohms and 1150
To measure ground resistance for an 8 foot ground rod, the distance to the furthest test
electrode should be about 72 feet (3 point test.middle conductor is at 45 feet).
20 ground rods produce a ground rod resistance about 1/10th of a single ground rod
Magnitude of swells depends on system grounding
Delta systems have good characteristics and they are not grounded
Current split between the earth and the neutral conductor during faults is about 50/50
A broken conductor can create an overvoltage of about 1.8 per unit during a line-to-
ground fault
High impedance faults almost always have a fault impedance above 100 ohms.
Ground rod resistance does not significantly affect fault current levels
Fault levels should be calculated with 0 ohms fault impedance
Shield wires need low ground resistances and arresters do not.
Severe Stray Voltages exist at about 7 volts. 1 to 2 milliamperes (about 0.5 to 2 volts)
can cause significant behavioral change in cows
Good Grounding is Important for:
- Lightning surge dissipation
- Level of swells

Good Grounding does not significantly affect:

- Line protection using arresters
- Fault levels

XXXIV. Reliability Trends

Talk is cheap! Ive heard a lot about how utilities are trying to improve reliability but nothing
as to how this can be accomplished in lieu of the following:
1. Elimination of experienced engineers
2. Reduction of participation in standards activities
3. Loss of control over generation and transmission
4. Decaying infrastructure

5. Purchase of products on price
6. Elimination of R&D
7. Overloading of equipment
8. Severe reduction of budgets and manpower
9. Loss of control over day-to-day activities
10. Not in My Backyard politics

XXXV. Load Survey Results

I get into more discussions on what is a typical loading on utility feeders do we did a little survey.
Question: What is your typical (average) feeder loading in amperes? What is your typical peak
load (not emergency) that will occur on a fairly regular basis?

Utility Average Peak

1 175-225
2 191 318
3 200 300
4 300
5 300 550
6 200 320
7 350 600
8 200 800
9 200 300
10 100 150
11 100 400
12 500 700
13 250-300
14 400 512
15 150 300
16 200 450
17 67 102
18 100 200
19 250 350
20 200 300
21 400 600-700
22 150 200
23 300 450
24 338
25 192 373
26 530 840
27 300 500
28 200 400
29 300 400
30 100 200
31 300 400
32 200 400
33 100 250
34 350
35 300 450
36 200 400
37 400 500
38 240
39 200 420
40 200 350
41 100 350
42 300 400
43 200 320

* About 30% of these values come from co-ops which tend to have lower load levels

XXXVI. Lightning Damage Survey

. After a lightning storm, you can find various forms of damage. Some of the damage may
be caused by the lightning stroke (the spectacular stuff) and some may be caused by fault
current during the flashover. I suspect sometimes its difficult, if not impossible, to tell the
difference. In any case, Ill let you decide. I have listed the comments I received (paraphrased in
some instances) as shown below:
1. Most of the time the damage we have seen from lightning hitting a pole it that the pole
splinters into many pieces..Most of our pole fires are associated with tracking due to an
insulator breaking down
2. Pole explodes like a hotdog in a microwave..shatters pole 30-40 feet or morenew
poles are more often damaged than old ones because they are still wet from
treatmentrarely see pole fires due to lightning
3. Poles split with large chunk blown out..damage similar to a tree except not all the way
down.not sure whether damage is from lightning or follow currentsteam splits the
4. Concrete poles with neutral in static position.hole was blown out the side of the pole
near the top.hole was not large enough to cause structural damage
5. The higher voltage systems tend to sustain the most damage, we rarely have a problem
at 2400 volts.Lightning blows off arrester grounds of most porcelain typeblows lots of
tap fuses.lose transformerswe have very, very few pole fires. All new poles are
treated with penta, but we have CCa and creosote..
6. We see damage such as pole mounted transformers blowing their lid offinternal
damage to mid line reclosers
7. Manufacturer comments: We see one or two switches come back every year with what
appears to be direct lightning damageoccasionally we see damage to the control-
although not as often as you might thing because of the grounding design of the overall
8. I saw one instance where the top of the pole was shattered, one third of the exposed
distance, with wood fragments and various pieces scattered up to fifty feet away
9. Burnt or charred pole tops (evidence of fires that may have burnt itself out)..pole top
blown to pieces mostly at the power or communication levels (suspected due to quick
release of energy from the moisture in the pole): and charred paths down the pole
surface to ground with poles relatively intact
10. Splitting from the top to the neutral position. The only difference is that when lightning
hits and there is a flashover, in due time the leakage over to the pole causes the pole to
smolder and burn. Also, when farmers are burning off their wheat fields and the pole
catches fire, we have been to the location and found nothing but ashes with the
conductor still hanging with the hardware still attached
11. Poles split out at the top, most of the time resulting in the PTPIN barely hanging from
the pole or completely blown off the pole. In some cases, insulator damage is
apparent.this type of damage may not show up for a couple of days when changes in
humidity creates blinking lights
12. We have experienced pole fires, overhead conductor pitting and underground cable
failures (usually a few days after the lightning storm

XXXVII. Substation Voltage Regulation
The following are some of the comments I got back (25 utilities responded) on regulation
practices in substations. Ive had to abbreviate most of them. A lot of good points. I appreciate
the response:

1. Who builds 3 phase regulators?

Very few of respondents could answer this one
Virginia Transformer, Pennsylvania Transformer, Delta Star, GE, and Siemens(most
mentioned) appear to still be making these units. A number of responses thought they
were no longer made.
Some utilities only purchase single phase units
Many utilities dont purchase any regulators
Regulators have high failure rate

2. Why choose LTC over bus voltage Regulators and vice versa?
Single phase control gives better balance and reliability
Do not like to install LTC in single ended substations due to the difficulty in getting the
transformer out of service to do maintenance on the LTC
Do not use LTC above 24.9kV
Regulators (1 phase) allow us to balance better
Easier to have spare using 1 phase regulator
Connectivity and communication is easier with 1 phase units
Dont like having regulation in the transformer (LTC) due to reliability concerns
LTC better because it is one device and has less chance of failure than 3 devices
Land area is less for LTC
Use bothcriteria of choice is based on load..prefer single phase regulators
More expensive to maintain LTC
New transformer 20 MVA or higher use LTC
Fail 1 transformer per year due to LTC problem (this is a large utility)
Do not believe being able to bypass single phase regulator is an advantage
Education is easier for single phase regulators
Use regulators on 10 MVA and below and LTC on larger units
Dont like the idea of LTC since it can make the transformer unuseable
Our choice based on cost
Regulators help us because our feeder loads have different characteristics

3. Philosophy of regulation for each feeder?

Regulators allow us to balance feeder voltages
Individual regulators see less total contact activity
Choice based on load level
Regulators give us more capacity capabiity

LTC can make voltage problems worse for some phases and feeders
We use both
Easier to maintain feeder regulators with minimal impact to our customers
Whichever cost less to give us good regulation
Regulators allow better control to control peak loads
On rural feeders some lines are much longer than others so individual control works
In general, we regulate by circuit. We have one station that is bus regulated. About 5 of
our 170 circuits are from LTC banks
Our mobiles do not have regulation so LTC is a problem when we have it
We regulate individual feeders as necessary with a combination of line regulators, and
switched and fixed capacitors out on the line
We have short and long lines. Individual circuit regulators give more flexibility.

XXXVIII. Ways We Scare Ourselves

Michael Crichton, of Jurassic Park fame,(who has a medical degree) has some interesting
comments recently, some of which are very applicable to the utility industry and its defensive
posture. Here are some of the scares the American public have let get out of control:
1. We are going to freeze, the earth is becoming too cold, we are going into an ice
age. Any responsible scientist knows this. 1972
2. We are going to sizzle, global warming will be so bad well have palm trees in
Montana 1982
3. In the 1970s the world will undergo famines hundreds of millions of people are
going to stave to death - Paul Ehrlich. He argued for population control. The
Club of Rome (a global think tank) predicted a work population of 14 billion in the
year 2030 with no end in sight. Now we expect that world population to peak at 9
billion and then decline.
4. In 1972, the Club of Rome predicted that we would exhaust our supplies of gold,
mercury, tin, zinc, oil, copper, lead and natural gas by the year 1993.
5. In 1960 we predicted that the use of computers would replace work and wed
have trouble finding things to do with all our leisure time. By the end of the
century, Americans were regarded as overworked, overstressed and sleepless.
6. The health threats posed by power lines lasted more than a decade and
according to one expert cost the nation $25 billion before many studies
determined it to be false. Ironically, 10 years later, the same magnetic fields
formerly feared as carcinogenic now are welcomed (magnetic therapy).
7. Heres some others:
Swine flu
Endocrine disrupters
Electric razors
Florescent lights
Computer terminals
Road rage
Killer bees
Cell phones

Ive seen a heap of trouble in my life, and most of it never came to pass Mark Twain

If you really want to scare yourself unnecessarily, Think About This:

a. The number of physicians in the United States is 700,000
b. Accidental deaths caused by physicians per year is 120,000
c. Accidental deaths per physician is 0.171 (per Dept. of Human Services)
Then think about this:
a. The number of gun owners in the US is 80,000,000
b. The number of accidental gun deaths per year (all age groups) is 1,500
c. The number of accidental deaths per gun owner is .0000188
Statistically, doctors are approximately 9,000 times more dangerous than gun owners
FACT: Not everyone has a gun, but almost everyone has at least one doctor

XXXIX. Cost of Poor Power Quality

A study by a major US utility produced the following table regarding the cost of poor
power to an Industrial Customer:

Disturbance Cost per Event Annual Frequency

Voltage Sags $7,694 22.9
Momentary Outage $11,027 2/4
1 Hour Outage notice $22,973 1.1
1 Hour Outage no notice $39,459 1.1
4 Hour Outage $74,835 1.1

Heres a thought: the power of the cars and trucks sold in the US in 2003 is 2.5 times more than
the total U.S. generating capacity Not sure where that puts the electric car?

XXXX. Windpower Update

At a meeting I attended earlier this year, I jotted down the following comments made with regard
to windpower:
Big PQ issue for windpower is voltage flicker
Need about 30 mph wind to get full kW
About a 30% capacity factor is considered OK
GE is a big player and owns about half the market
6 Gigwatts are now installed
Some units have a load factor under 5%
A lot of these installations are really hobbies
Iowa has the most number of windturbines for schools
Cost is between $1000 and $5000 per kW

Rural Electrics are greatly encouraged by the government to install windpower
Some put DG in to avoid going to court (interesting)

XXXXI. Fault Impedance

Back to one of my favorite issues!!!!!! (see part I). The origin of the use of the fault impedance
value of 40 ohms (or 30, or 20) is apparently the result of an AIEE paper entitled Overcurrent
Investigation on a Rural Distribution System written in 1949 by G. Lincks, D. Edge, W. McKinley,
and J. Leh. This is an excellent paper describing measurements taken during the years 1944 to
1947. It is especially impressive considering the monitoring capability at the time the data was
It is interesting that the paper describes many aspects of overcurrent protection and actually adds
the figure, shown below, as almost an afterthought. There is very little description of the data
shown in this figure except for the following: The assumed 40-ohms fault resistance used in
this investigation, proved to be more than ample for determining minimum fault currents
and might have been reduced to 30 ohms.

Current Level in Amperes







0 Typ e o f S urface

Figure 1 High Impedance Faults

Figure 2 - Aspects of Overcurrent Protection Data from 1949 AIEE Paper

The authors also state that they wouldnt expect fault impedance to vary with system
voltage level.

The subject paper and discussion provide insight into how the values that the industry now uses
for fault impedance had their origin. There are, however, some points that should be made with
respect to the above:

1. Maximum fault levels for bolted faults in this study were on the order of 500 amperes
or less with the vast majority being less than 200 amperes (almost 40 ohms of
impedance for a bolted fault).
2. Load levels may not have been subtracted from the calculation. This would result in
a huge error since the high impedance fault levels are around 50 amperes or less
and load currents could be considerably higher. There is no indication that load
currents were subtracted out of the calculation. If the recorders only triggered on a
fault event, it might not have been able to record pre-fault load data with recorders of
this vintage.
3. The authors of the paper indicated that use of 40 ohms proved more than
ample.and might have been reduced to 30 ohms. All data in the past 30 years
indicates that use of 40 ohms would be extremely inadequate and values around
200 ohms or more would be needed to have any significant effect.
There have been many, many tests on downed conductors performed by utilities,
manufacturers, universities, EPRI and consultants. The results have been consistent at all
voltage levels, indicating the use of 40 ohms impedance provides virtually no level of
protection for high impedance faults. No tests have shown anything to the contrary. A
summary of some of these findings is shown below:

Texas A&M (EPRI)

Surface Fault Current
Dry asphalt 0
Concrete (non-reinforced) 0
Dry sand 0
Wet sand 15
Dry sod 20

Dry grass 25
Wet sod 40
Wet grass 50
Concrete (reinforced) 75

Surface Type Fault Current in RMS amps.
Old Gravel 5-25
Grass 55-65
Dirt/Sand 8-12
Concrete 28-36
Old Gravel 2-15
Reinforced Concrete 30-80
Old Gravel 5-12
High Impedance fault current levels are very low and almost always should be represented by an
impedance of 80 ohms or more (e.g. 80 amperes of fault current is approximately equal to 100
ohms of fault impedance on a 13.8 kV system or 90 ohms on a !2.47 kV system). Fault
impedances of 200 ohms or more would have to be used to simulate average fault levels caused
by most high impedance faults. All the data that could be found, which represents the past 25
years of research, suggests that the use of 10, 20, 30 or 40 ohms has virtually no value in helping
detect high impedance faults. No research the author is aware of, in the past 40 years, supports
use of these values and there is no evidence that fault impedance varies depending on primary
distribution voltage level or distance from the substation.

XXXXII. Explanation of Voltage Ratings
I always have trouble remembering this material. A little hard to readsorry!

Voltage Unbalance seems to confuse many. Here are some things to keep in mind:

Voltage Derating for polyphase equipment

% Voltage Unbalance Derating Factor
5 .75
4 .82
3 .90
2 .95
1 .99
0 1.0

The formula to calculate voltage unbalance is %Unb = 100 X (Max. deviation from Average V
(Average Voltage)

Standard Nominal Voltages are as follows:
Three Wire Four Wire

2400 4160Y/2400
4160 8320Y/4800
4800 12000Y/6930
6900 12470Y/7200
13800 13200Y/7970
23000 13800Y/7970
34500 20780Y/12000
(bold indicates preferred voltage levels)

Jim Burke

Introduction I have so many requests lately on the subjects of stray voltage, capacitor
application and power quality standards that I thought Id add a few pages on these subjects.

XXXXIII. Stray Voltage

Stray Voltage has always been a term related to steady state voltages between the
neutral and ground that caused problems for dairy farms and swimming pools. As such, stray
voltages were not lethal. The term stray voltage is taking on a life of its own and becoming all
things to all people. The following are terms interchanged with the term stray voltage which are
incorrect and causing a lot of the present confusion:

a. Stray Voltage the term as generally defined by utility engineers refers to the voltage
imposed on the distribution primary neutral due in large part to return currents (unbalanced
loads). In the context of the last 40 years, the voltage is associated with problems in dairy farms
and generally the voltages do not exceed about 8 volts. They are not easily mitigated and are not
considered dangerous or lethal (unless, of course, you consider the 9 volt battery in your radio a
threat to your life).
b. TOV Temporary Overvoltages are commonly referred to as stray voltages which they
are not. TOVs are 60 Hz overvoltages that occur on the unfaulted phases of a 4-wire multi-
grounded system during a fault (see Fig. #1). Temporary overvoltages can be a consideration for
voltage sensitive equipment such as surge arresters.
c. Contact Voltage We normally use the term contact voltage to address the condition
where the hot lead (120 volts or more) contacts the outside shell of something like a streetlight.
This voltage is dangerous and can result in death. Contact voltage is not stray voltage although
it is sometimes misapplied in this context.


Maximum L-N Voltage (p.u.)



1.3 4 gpm
1.25 8gpm



1 10 100 1000
Ground Footing Resistance (ohms)

Figure #1 Impact of Grounding on TOV

Problems in Identifying Stray Voltage Causes

Stray voltage (neutral-to-earth) is caused by voltage drop and ground currents that could
have their origin either on the utility system or the customer premises itself. The problem can be
very difficult to analyze since the return path of the unbalanced currents is complex and system
changes to mitigate the problem can often cause the opposite effect. Over the years the greatest
interest in stray voltage has been in the area of dairy farming, since cows are sensitive to stray
voltage, which may affect production. Swimming pools with plastic liners have also become an
The path of unbalanced current flow on a distribution system is not obvious. One thing
that greatly complicates an accurate model is that the loads are distributed making the flow of
current between the neutral and earth very complex.
Figure #2 shows the percentage of current in the neutral for various sizes of wire. The
fault, in this case, is located 10 miles from the substation and as we can see, most of the current
at the fault location (could be load as well) is in the neutral. Near the middle of the feeder there is
very little exchange of current, which means that in this area the stray voltage problem should be
less. However, we start to see a shift in current near the substation which indicates higher stray
voltages in the vicinity of the substation.

Figure #2 Division of Current for Various Neutral Conductor Sizes

Figures #3 and #4 (not related to the example above) illustrate the typical effect of unbalance
current flow on stray voltage. Figure #3 shows that the stray voltage level at substation is high,
as it also is at the end of the feeder. There are 2 interesting things to point out. First, the stray
voltages near the substation are opposite to those at the end of line (current reversal) and
voltages in the middle of the feeder are relatively low. Also, it is interesting to note that if the
substation ground is good (1 ohm) things get worse in some areas and better in others.

Figure #3 Effect of Substation Grounding on Stray Voltage

Figure #4 shows the effect of changing the system pole ground rod resistances from 5 ohms to
50 ohms. As can be seen, stray voltages are reduced, but not as much as one might think. In the
areas with the highest stray voltage, the benefit of improving grounding is questionable.

Figure #4 Effect of Pole Grounds on Stray Voltage

XXXXIV. Airline Cabin Announcements:

All too rarely, airline attendants make an effort to make the in flight "safety lecture" and
announcements a bit more entertaining. Here are some real examples that have been
heard or reported:

1. On a Southwest flight (SW has no assigned seating, you just sit where you want)
passengers were apparently having a hard time choosing, when a flight attendant
announced, "People, people we're not picking out furniture here, find a seat and get in it!"

2. On a Continental Flight with a very "senior" flight attendant crew, the pilot said, "Ladies
and gentlemen, we've reached cruising altitude and will be turning down the cabin lights.
This is for your comfort and to enhance the appearance of your flight attendants."

3. On landing, the stewardess said, "Please be sure to take all of your belongings. If you're

going to leave anything, please make sure it's something we'd like to have.

4. "There may be 50 ways to leave your lover, but there are only 4 ways out of this

5. "Thank you for flying Delta Business Express. We hope you enjoyed giving us the
business as much as we enjoyed taking you for a ride."

6. As the plane landed and was coming to a stop at Ronald Reagan, a lone voice came
over the loudspeaker: "Whoa, big fella. WHOA!"

7. After a particularly rough landing during thunderstorms in Memphis, a flight attendant

on a Northwest flight announced, "Please take care when opening the overhead
compartments because, after a landing like that, sure as hell everything has shifted."

8. From a Southwest Airlines employee: "Welcome aboard Southwest Flight 245 to

Tampa.. To operate your seat belt, insert the metal tab into the buckle, and pull tight. It
works just like every other seat belt; and, if you don't know how to operate one, you
probably shouldn't be out in public unsupervised."

9. "In the event of a sudden loss of cabin pressure, masks will descend from the ceiling.
Stop screaming, grab the mask, and pull it over your face. If you have a small child
traveling with you, secure your mask before assisting with theirs. If you are traveling with
more than one small child, pick your favorite."

10. "Weather at our destination is 50 degrees with some broken clouds, but we'll try to
have them fixed before we arrive. Thank you, and remember, nobody loves you, or your
money, more than Southwest Airlines."

11. "Your seat cushions can be used for flotation; and, in the event of an emergency water
landing, please paddle to shore and take them with our compliments."

12. "As you exit the plane, make sure to gather all of your belongings. Anything left behind
will be distributed evenly among the flight attendants. Please do not leave children or

13. And from the pilot during his welcome message: "Delta Airlines is pleased to have
some of the best flight attendants in the industry. Unfortunately, none of them are on this

14. Heard on Southwest Airlines just after a very hard landing in Salt Lake City the flight
attendant came on the intercom and said, "That was quite a bump, and I know what y'all
are thinking. I'm here to tell you it wasn't the airline's fault, it wasn't the pilot's fault, it
wasn't the flight attendant's fault, it was the asphalt."

15. Overheard on an American Airlines flight into Amarillo, Texas, on a particularly windy
and bumpy day: During the final approach, the Captain was really having to fight it. After
an extremely hard landing, the Flight Attendant said, "Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to
Amarillo. Please remain in your seats with your seat belts fastened while the Captain taxis
what's left of our airplane to the gate!"

16. Another flight attendant's comment on a less than perfect landing: "We ask you to
please remain seated as Captain Kangaroo bounces us to the terminal."

17. An airline pilot wrote that on this particular flight he had hammered his ship into the

runway really hard. The airline had a policy which required the first officer to stand at the
door while the Passengers exited, smile, and give them a "Thanks for flying our airline."
He said that, in light of his bad landing, he had a hard time looking the passengers in the
eye, thinking that someone would have a smart comment. Finally everyone had gotten off
except for a little old lady walking with a cane. She said, "Sir, do you mind if I ask you a
question?" "Why, no, Ma'am," said the pilot. "What is it?" The little old lady said, "Did we
land, or were we shot down?"

18. After a real crusher of a landing in Phoenix, the attendant came on with, "Ladies and
Gentlemen, please remain in your seats until Capt. Crash and the Crew have brought the
aircraft to a screeching halt against the gate. And, once the tire smoke has cleared and the
warning bells are silenced, we'll open the door and you can pick your way through the
wreckage to the terminal."

19. Part of a flight attendant's arrival announcement: "We'd like to thank you folks for
flying with us today. And, the next time you get the insane urge to go blasting through the
skies in a pressurized metal tube, we hope you'll think of US Airways."

20. Heard on a Southwest Airline flight. "Ladies and gentlemen, if you wish to smoke, the
smoking section on this airplane is on the wing and if you can light 'em, you can smoke

21. A plane was taking off from Kennedy Airport. After it reached a comfortable cruising
altitude, the captain made an announcement over the intercom, "Ladies and gentlemen,
this is your captain speaking. Welcome to Flight Number 293, nonstop from New York to
Los Angeles. The weather ahead is good and, therefore, we should have a smooth and
uneventful flight. Now sit back and relax... OH, MY GOD!" Silence followed, and after a few
minutes, the captain came back on the intercom and said, "Ladies and Gentlemen, I am so
sorry if I scared you earlier. While I was talking to you, the flight attendant accidentally
spilled a cup of hot coffee in my lap. You should see the front of my pants!" A passenger
in Coach yelled, "That's nothing. You should see the back of mine

XXXXV. Power Quality Revisited

Utility companies have always made major efforts to provide reliable power with good
characteristics. The term power quality, however, took on an entirely new meaning about 20
years ago resulting from concerns with sensitive loads such as computers, PLCs, digital clocks
and VCRs. In these 20 plus years, no one has successfully been able to come up with a
definition of what constitutes good power quality. Power quality, like beauty, seems to be in the
eye of the beholder. While there is no agreed upon definition for good power quality, much work
in the areas of harmonics, surges, voltage flicker, interruptions, etc. has taken place.

The purpose of this section is to update the reader on the status of all these areas that
comprise the term power quality. Much has been done in terms of measurement,
standardization, surveys, and mitigation that this paper will attempt to summarize in a meaningful

Over the years, the number one problem with discussions between utility engineers and
customers has been in the area of definitions. Industrial engineers tend to refer to power
disturbances as dips, blips or flicker. For many of them (especially those without electrical
backgrounds), a blip could encompass anything from a momentary interruption to a sag, or even
voltage flicker. Figure shown below, illustrates some of the more common power disturbance
that are considered power quality problems that could result in mis-operation of sensitive
equipment. A brief, non-IEEE, definition of some of these disturbances is as follows:

Figure 5-Typical Voltage Disturbances

Sags Sags are voltages between 90% and 10% of system nominal voltage. They
generally are caused by large loads starting or system faults. Generally faults on the customers
systems and on the utility system cause sags much deeper than those on events such as motor

Swells Swells are phase to ground power frequency voltages between 110% and
140% that are the result of having a line-to-ground fault on an adjacent phase. The duration of
the swell is dependent on how fast the system fault is cleared by the protection scheme.

Harmonics Harmonics are considered steady state events, where the 60 Hz waveform
of voltage and/or current becomes distorted. Harmonics are not normally caused by the utility
system itself. Instead, they are the result of non- linear loads, such as computers, dimmer
switches, arc furnaces, etc. These loads can inject harmonic currents into the utility system and
in severe cases cause problems for surrounding customers.

Surges - Surges are transient overvoltages that usually last less than a few
milliseconds. They are typically the result of lightning and equipment switching.

Interruptions Interruptions are a complete loss of voltage to one or more customers.

The industry defines momentary interruptions as those lasting 5 minutes or less. A sustained
interruption is defined as loss of power for more than 5 minutes. It should be noted that the utility

industry defines reliability indices on the basis of momentary and sustained interruption
parameters only.

Voltage Flicker (not shown) Voltage Flicker is a repetitious variation in the luminance
of a light source. The visibility of this fluctuation is a function of the repetition rate, the change in
voltage and the type (and rating) of the light source. Voltage flicker can be seen with very small
changes in voltage and is an annoyance to humans and not considered to be a problem for most
sensitive loads.
Overview of Industry Standards and Activities
The following is a list of the status of some of the significant PES industry activities in
many of the utility distribution power quality areas:
Reliability IEEE Guide for Electric Power Distribution Reliability Indices - P1366.
The purpose of this guide is to foster a uniformity of terms and definitions among utilities as well
as to establish consistent reporting practices and calculation methodology. The group has also
been at the forefront of performing surveys to help utilities benchmark their systems.
Harmonics ANSI/IEEE Std 519, IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements
for Harmonic Control in Power Systems. The purpose of this document is to establish goals for
the design of electrical systems that include both linear and nonlinear loads. The voltage and
current waveforms that may exist throughout the system are described, and waveform distortion
goals for the system designer are established. This document addresses the steady state
limitations and sets a level of harmonic quality that should be provided at the point of common
Sags There are no utility guidelines for sags. The IEEE has established a task group
whose purpose is to establish guidelines with respect to the measurement and effect of voltage
sags. The group is presently addressing the steps necessary to develop sag indices. These
indices will no doubt have to address such items as the magnitude and duration of the sag as
well as the number of phases involved.
Swells - The magnitude of a swell is largely a function of the system grounding.
Information on the magnitude of swells for different types of system grounding can be found in
the IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems, Part IV-
Distribution. Work in this area has not really taken place for the past 10 years.
Voltage Flicker Most utilities continue to use the General Electric Flicker Curve,
originally published in 1921. A study published in 1994 by EPRI/CEA indicated that new
electronic and compact florescent lighting may be more or less prone to flicker that the standard
incandescent. Lamp dimming practices too, made flickering lamps more visible. The IEEE is
sponsoring a Task Group on Voltage Flicker. This group has proposed the adoption of the IEC
Flicker Standards with some minor commentary to reflect the difference in secondary voltage

Industry Surveys, Guidelines and Statistics

One of the problems a utility has in assessing their power quality is finding information to
compare how they are doing with others. We all recognize that utilities are vastly different when
compared on the basis of load density, weather conditions, animals, etc. and hence it may be
impossible to come up with performance standards in most of these areas. It is, however, good
to know how you generally compare. The purpose of this section is to provide data from a
number of sources in the area of power quality that may prove helpful in any assessment of this

Reliability Reliability for most utilities means, sustained interruptions, i.e.

interruptions of power to one or more customers lasting more than 5 minutes. While there are
many indices in use today, the primary indices being used by most utilities are SAIDI (average
amount of time a customer would expect to be without service), SAIFI (average number of times
a customer would expect to see an interruption of more than 5 minutes), and CAIDI (average
duration of an interruption). It should be noted that survey data in these areas is flawed since

utilities vary in how accurate their interruption numbers actually are. Utilities using sophisticated
computer systems to track outages accurately tend to have higher interruption times than those
that dont. It has even been suggested that most of the utilities in the first quartile (best) are able
to do so because they do not keep accurate records. Some typical outage numbers (SAIDI) are
shown in Figure, below.

Minutes per Year


150 121
100 67

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Figure 6 Average Time Without Service (SAIDI)

Sags While sags are not reported to utility commissions, some monitoring studies have
been performed to give customers some idea of what to expect. The index used in most of these
studies is SARFI. SARFI represents the average number of specified rms variation
measurement events that occurred over the assessment period per customer served. For
example, if a customer saw 75 sags below 90% of voltage, that would be reported as SARFI90.
Likewise, if a customer saw 20 severe sags below 70% of nominal voltage, that would be
reported as SARFI70. Some typical SARFI values are shown in Figure 1 below.

Number of Incidents





Figure 1 Typical Number of Sags per Year (SARFI)

Harmonics Harmonics are produced by nonlinear loads on the utility power system
such as static power converters, computers, and saturated magnetic devices. Harmonics can
result in such concerns as resonance, transformers overheating, sensitive equipment mis-
operation, etc. While harmonics have always been a major concern for industrial and commercial
customers with nonlinear loads, it is only within the past 20 years that the utility industry has
voiced any major concerns. This concern is based on the growing use of these harmonic
producing devices and their cumulative effect on the operation of the power system and
connected customers. To date, it is rare that a utility system sees an ambient level of harmonics
that will cause serious concern. To help insure that critical levels of harmonics do not become a
future problem, the industry has come up with a recommended practice for harmonic control

referred to as IEEE 519. The voltage limits recommended (simplified) in this document are
outline in Table 1.

Table 1 Voltage Distortion Limits

Voltage at PCC (point of common coupling) Total THD % (total harmonic distortion)
69 kV and below 5.0
69.001kV to 161kV 2.5
161.001 and above 1.5

Nonlinear loads produce harmonic currents, which in turn can distort the voltage. How
much the voltage is distorted is a function of the source impedance (high short circuit areas have
low source impedance and vice versa). Since these loads can be evaluated in terms of current
distortion prior to their actual installation, these current levels can be used (injected into a load
flow) to produce voltage distortions which can be evaluated based on the parameters shown in
Table 1. The industry has come up with limits for current distortion based on system short circuit
level. If the system short circuit level is high (source impedance low), a higher level of harmonic
current is allowed since it will have less effect on voltage distortion. Table 2, shown below, is a
simplified version these limits.

Table 2 Current Distortion Limits (120V to 69kV)

Isc/Iload Total Demand Distortion (TDD)

<20 5.0
20-50 8.0
50-100 12.0
100-1000 15.0
>1000 20.0

Flicker Voltage flicker is the amplitude modulation of the fundamental frequency

voltage waveform by one or more frequencies (typically less than 30 Hz). These modulations,
which can be quite small, can cause visible brightening and dimming of connected lights. Voltage
flicker is primarily a visual perception problem and not a cause of equipment malfunction. For the
past 80 years the industry has almost universally employed the so-called GE Flicker Curve
shown in Figure . Until recently, there were no generally accepted standards for voltage flicker
measurements. There is an international standard now in place, which allows flicker to be
measured and evaluated on a common basis.

Figure 7 GE Flicker Curve (1921)

Surges Surges normally refer to voltage transients resulting from lightning and
switching. These surges can have a high enough voltage level to cause insulation to break down
resulting in failure of the equipment. Surges are very common since they can be the result of
simply turning on a light switch (current chopping e=L*di/dt). Surges per a study performed some
time ago and found in C62.41 are shown in Figure .

Events per Residence per




350-500 500-1000 1000-1500 1500-2000
Surge Voltage Range

Figure 8 Typical Surges in Residence

XXXXVI. Application of Capacitors

The application of capacitors has become commonplace in the United States. There was a
time when the application of capacitors on a wide scale basis was unusual because losses didnt
cost that much and regulators handled the voltage drop quite well.

Things have changed. Losses are a major concern. Voltage quality, due to more sensitive
loads, is an issue. Finally, in todays world of cutting costs, capacitors are seen as the cheap
way to reduce losses and get more watts out of whats already there.
The purpose of this section is to very briefly review some of the considerations distribution
engineers might address in the application of capacitors.

Benefits of Capacitors
The proper application of capacitors serves to reduce the system current and raise the system
voltage. This accomplishes 3 benefits:
1. Reduces loading of thermally limited equipment.
2. Reduces system voltage drop
3. Reduces system losses
The application of capacitors benefits the entire system and the value of these benefits for the
entire system should be considered when considering how many capacitors should be installed.
It should not be overlooked that kilovars flowing through the system cause reactive as well as
real losses. This means that when a certain quantity of kilovars is required at the load, more than
that will be required at the source of the kvars.

Typical Placement Studies

Most utilities try to apply capacitors optimally. Years ago, when voltage levels were low and
wire sizes were smaller, an optimal placement study might mean placement of the capacitor
banks to obtain a reasonable voltage profile. Today, optimum placement normally means place
to minimize losses at the lowest cost.

Placement Studies are normally performed in one of two ways:

Place capacitors until optimum power factor is reached (point where the cost of adding bank
exceeds value of losses reduction and equipment utilization benefits).
Place capacitors until a predetermined power factor is met. This number is sometimes quite
Optimal placement would be easy if the load didnt change. The problem with placement
studies is that loads change during the day, week, month and most schemes have to deal with all
these changes as best they can. Shown below, is a plot of a scheme that was not optimized for
the summer peaking period. As can be seen in figure 9, the var needs change dramatically over
a fairly brief period of time. The challenge to the distribution engineer is to pick the correct size of
the banks to be used, the placement of these banks and minimize the cost.







8:30 7:00 5:30 4:00 2:30 1:00 23:30 22:00 20:30 19:00 17:30 16:00 14:30 13:00 11:30 10:00 8:29
6/30/98 7/1/98 7/2/98 7/3/98 7/4/98 7/5/98 7/5/98 7/6/98 7/7/98 7/8/98 7/9/98 7/10/98 7/11/98 7/12/98 7/13/98 7/14/98 7/15/98



Figure 9 Plot of MW and MVARS

Shown in figure 10 are typical placement scenarios for a feeder having 10 nodes (in this case
the nodes were 10 miles apart). As can be seen, the plot shows optimum placement of both the

fixed and switched banks. This placement was determined using a computer optimization runs at
various load levels.


800 Switched
1-2 2-3 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 5-7 7-8 7-9 9-
Optimum Capacitor Location

Figure 10 Optimal Placement

One method which helps assess how much of the needs can be satisfied with fixed banks is
the use of a cumulative loading curve as shown in Figure 11. As can be seen, the load is virtually
always at 50% or greater. This curve is also valuable for setting stages of the controls.

Percent of Time





0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00%
Percent of Peak Load

Figure 11 Cummulative Loading Curve

Control of Switched Banks

The control of a switched capacitor bank is very dependent on things like cost, type of load,
climatic conditions, voltage concerns both on the distribution and subtransmission system,
amount of acceptable complexity, etc. There are several types of control in use today:
Power Factor
Combinations of the above
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of each of these controls is briefly described as
- Voltage is relatively inexpensive and works well when voltage varies with load. On short
feeders where voltage drop is not great this method is difficult to coordinate. On modern
systems, it is generally used as an over-ride for emergency voltage conditions.
- Current control responds to loading well. It does require a current transformer which adds
to the expense. Major problem with current control is that it cannot differentiate between low
power factor loads like air conditioners (summer) and high power factor loads(winter)like
resistive heating.
- VAR control is effective for minimizing losses and can differentiate between summer and
winter peaks. It is expensive since it requires both CTs and PTs. It is very difficult to set
VAR controlled capacitors optimally when multiple switched banks are used.

- Temperature is simple and inexpensive. It seems to work very well in many areas of the
country where air conditioning load dominates peak conditions. One drawback is that it
does not recognize holidays or weekends and for this reason usually requires some sort of
voltage override.
- Time is also simple and inexpensive. It does not sense abnormal loads and can often get
out of sync due to extended power outages, holidays, etc. The more modern voltage
controllers avoid most of the concerns associated with the older mechanical units and have
had good success in some areas.
- Power Factor is similar in application to VAR control. One consideration with this type of
control is a low power level, low power factor load could switch the banks in unnecessarily
(the opposite could also be true).
- Automation of capacitor controls is showing very strong promise and customer acceptance
since the costs of these schemes is coming down and the benefits, in todays environment
can be significant. Some of the benefits of automating the banks are greater flexibility,
better VAR support for transmission, control schemes are simpler, and it is easier to detect
failed banks.
- Combinations of the above are commonplace especially where voltage is used as an over-
ride for emergency conditions.

VAR Requirements of Substation Transformers

One the more recent concerns for vars is the increasing need to compensate for reactive losses
in the substation transformer. This problem has sort of snuck up on some utilities due to the
following scenario. Utility X purchases a transformer back in 1970 with a triple rating
(OA/FA/FOA). To reduce some of their concern for their growing short circuit levels they
purchase a transformer with a higher than normal impedance. In their effort in the late 90s to
reduce cost, they decide to load these transformers according to the loading guides instead of
the more conservative approach of the past since transformers rarely fail due to overload. The
problem is this: if we assume a 30/40/50 MVA transformer at 14% impedance and loaded to
130%, this transformer will have over 15 MVARs of losses. Thats a big bank in the world of
distribution. At 100% of rating the losses are about 10 MVAR.

Capacitor Protection
A. Effect of Grounding
There are a number of ways to ground capacitor banks. While grounded wye banks are
normally used, there are sometimes reasons why this connection may not be optimum. A
summary of considerations in this area is as follows:
A three phase capacitor may be connected in delta, wye-ungrounded or wye-grounded.
Delta or ungrounded wye offer the greatest possibility of neutral inversion or a resonant
condition when one or two conductors on the source side of the bank are open. It can
consequently be a problem to locate these banks on the load side of a switch or fuse.
Grounded wye banks are usually used on 4 wire multi-grounded systems only. A grounded
wye bank on an ungrounded system creates a ground source that may interfere with
sensitive relaying as well as contribute to overvoltages during ground faults on these
ungrounded systems.
Grounded wye banks are generally easy to clear since there is adequate ground current. On
the other hand, ungrounded banks have the currents limited to 300 percent of normal phase
current by the impedance of the other two legs. The fuse must have a continuous current
rating of 135% of rated current of the bank and clear in 5 minutes for reasonable
coordination. It is sometimes difficult to satisfy both conditions.
To summarize:
For delta or ungrounded systems, delta connected banks are usually used except at system
locations where fault current is excessive, ungrounded banks are most common.

For grounded, 4-wire systems, grounded banks are used in most locations. Where fault
current is excessive, ungrounded banks are used. Ungrounded banks should be used on the
load side of switches.
In substations the banks are almost always wye-connected. On delta systems they are
always ungrounded and on 4-wire systems they are either grounded or ungrounded.
B. Fusing
When a capacitor bank fails, the energy stored in its series group of capacitors is available to
dump into the combination of the failed capacitor and fuse. The failed capacitor and fuse must
be able to absorb or hold off this energy with a low probability of case rupture of the capacitor
unit. The available energy is about 3.19 joules per kVAR. The available energy is compared with
the rating of the fuse and capacitor unit. This is one of criteria for selecting a current limiting fuse
for high energy applications (large banks) as opposed to an expulsion fuse.
Capacitor Switching
Most textbooks on distribution engineering (including my own ) cover the mechanism by which
capacitors can cause overvoltages as a result of either energization, or de-energization with
restrike. While even low level capacitor switching transients have been known to cause
misoperation of customer equipment (e.g. adjustable speed drives), we rarely encounter
switching transients on distribution systems which can cause utility equipment failure. The
conditions that can create problems on distribution systems normally occur at the higher voltage
levels while switching large capacitor banks or long distances of cable. Digital calculations of
transient overvoltages are shown below, for an actual 34.5kV underground system having a
very large 15 MVAR capacitor bank at the substation.
- Energization of a 15 MVAR substation bank = 2.65 p.u.
- De-energization of 15 MVAR substation bank with re-strike >3 p.u.
- Energization of Feeder Cable = 2.18 p.u.
- Cable De-energization (no restrike) = 1.0 p.u.
- Pre-insertion resistors reduce surges by about 40% for energization of the substation bank.

Series Capacitors
Series capacitors were used some years ago when systems were lower voltage, wire was
smaller and power factor was low (uncorrected). Series capacitors were used to instantly
respond to load changes resulting in voltage flicker. Over the years, series capacitors obtained
somewhat of a poor reputation (some say undeserved) for causing system problems, some of
which are addressed below. Modern systems generally do not see as much benefit from series
capacitors since system power factors are generally higher. However, there have been a
number of modern applications where series capacitors have proven very effective and without
the possible problems due in some part to modern series capacitor design.

Large Motor Load

Figure 12 Series Capacitor Application

Some of the collective application wisdom, with regard to series capacitors, is as follows:
Applicable to radial load circuits supplying loads of about 70 to 95 percent lagging power
factor. Below that, shunt are usually better and above that, the benefits are low.
KVAR in series caps is generally less than half that for a shunt bank with the same
voltage effect.
The current rating of the capacitor bank equals that of the circuit since they must carry
rated circuit current continuously. In addition, they must be able to carry temporarily, the
starting current of the largest motor plus other loads. The total steady state current plus
transient current should not exceed 1.5 times rating.
The rating of the series capacitor (kilovars, voltage, and current) for a radial feeder
depends on the desired voltage regulation, the load power factor, and the amount of
resistance and reactance in the feeder relative to each other and the circuit rating.
Standard capacitor units can withstand about 200 percent of their rated working voltage
for brief periods without damage to the dielectric; therefore it is necessary to use
capacitors with continuous current ratings equal to 50 per cent of the maximum current
that may flow during a fault. It is usually more cost efficient to use protective devices
across the bank.
Operating problems with series capacitors include:
o Subsynchronous resonance of a motor during starting can usually be avoided
with a resistor in parallel with the capacitor. Sometimes just shorting the
capacitor during starting works (gap may go over anyway due to the half
frequency impedance of the capacitor).
o Ferroresonance of a transformer - High magnetizing inrush of transformer may
create a resonant condition. This is generally automatically cured by the parallel
gap. The gap is usually set at twice the rating of the capacitor. A resistor
shunting also works.
o Hunting of motors

Pros and Cons of Good Grounding

Distribution neutral grounding is probably one of the most confusing subjects faced by
the utility distribution engineer. In an industry where utilities are combining practices,
complicated by the fact that European utilities are purchasing U.S. systems and vice
versa, the confusion has been compounded. Questions being asked are:
Is good grounding really necessary?
Does poor grounding have advantages?
What is the best grounding?
When is grounding important? And when is it not?
The purpose of this section is to attempt to answer some of these questions. It will be
shown that while good grounding is usually preferred, there are times when good
grounds are not important and may even be detrimental. Some of the grounding areas
covered are:
Classes of distribution system grounding
Arrester application
Effect on swells
Stray voltage
Line protection
Capacitor grounding
Overcurrent protection
Number of grounds per mile

Fig. 1. Typical 4-Wire Multigrounded System


There are many ways to ground a distribution system primary. This paper will deal
primarily with the effects of grounding on a 4-wire multigrounded system since it
predominates in this country. The following section, however, gives a brief overview of
some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various system grounding practices in
use today.
Distribution systems are classified as either grounded or ungrounded. While there are
advantages and disadvantages of each type of grounding, it is impossible to say which is
the best. The following is a general description of the major types:

A. Ungrounded Systems
Ungrounded system have the secondary windings of the distribution substation
transformer connected either ungrounded delta or ungrounded wye, with the former
connection being more common. The distribution feeders are three-wire, three-phase
and two-wire single-phase circuits. The major advantage of an ungrounded system, like
a delta system, is that a single line to ground fault will not result in high levels of fault
current sufficient to disrupt service beyond the fault itself. This is also a disadvantage in
that overcurrent protection for this type of fault is difficult if not impossible to detect. The
delta system also gives better phase balancing, lower energy into a fault, and produces
less EMF.

B. Grounded Systems
Grounded systems are usually derived from a distribution substation transformer with
wye-connected secondary windings with a neutral point of the windings solidly grounded
or connected to ground through a non-interrupting, current-limiting device such as a
resistor or reactor. A grounding transformer may be used to establish a grounded
system, as is common in Europe. The circuits associated with grounded distribution
systems generally have a neutral conductor connected to the supply grounding point.
The neutral conductor of the distribution circuits may be connected to earth at frequent
intervals (multigrounded), or it may be fully insulated and have no other earth connection
except at the source (unigrounded). In three-wire unigrounded systems, a neutral
conductor is not run with each circuit, but the system is grounded through the
connections of the substation transformer or grounding transformer. The neutral
conductor associated with the primary feeders of multi-grounded neutral distribution
systems is connected to earth at intervals specified by national or local codes. It is also
common practice to bond this neutral conductor to surge-arrester ground leads and to all
noncurrent-carrying parts, such as equipment tanks and guy wires, and to interconnect it
with a secondary neutral conductor or grounded conductor. In some situations, the same
neutral conductor is used for both the primary and secondary systems. Several types of
grounded systems are as follows:
Four-Wire Multigrounded Systems: This system is by far the most popular in the U.S.
and has the advantage of being easy to protect for most overcurrent fault conditions. It is
also preferred since a large portion of the loads in the U.S. are single phase and can be
connected between the phase wire and the neutral conductor. It is much cheaper for
single phase service, especially for underground, since only one cable, bushing, switch,

fuse, etc., needs to be used as compared to a delta system which needs almost twice as
much equipment. It also can use lower rated arresters and BIL.
Four-Wire Unigrounded Systems: This system uses 4 wires, but is only grounded at
the source. It is used sparingly in the U.S. The primary advantage of this system is that
greater ground relaying sensitivity can be obtained in comparision to the multi-grounded
system. It also produces less EMF. A disadvantage of this system is that it creates
higher voltage swells than the multigrounded system.
Three-Wire Unigrounded Systems: These systems are popular in Europe. Because
line-to-ground current levels are generally low using this system, it is difficult to
coordinate series overcurrent devices (similar to problems with a delta system). With the
predominance of 3 phase loading in Europe, the system tends to be much more
balanced than a system found in the U.S. allowing for much greater sensitivity to ground
fault detection.
Five-Wire Distribution System: This is a new system which utilizes three phase wires,
a multigrounded wire and an isolated neutral. It has several advantages over the four-
wire multigrounded system in that it has the ability to detect high impedance faults,
reduce EMF, see faults farther out of the substation, and reduce stray voltages.


A. Capacitor Banks
There are a number of ways to ground capacitor banks. While grounded wye banks are
normally used, there are sometimes reasons why this connection may not be optimum.
A summary of considerations in this area is as follows:
A three phase capacitor may be connected in delta, wye-ungrounded or wye-grounded.
Delta or ungrounded wye offer the greatest possibility of neutral inversion or a resonant
condition when one or two conductors on the source side of the bank are open. It can
consequently be a problem to locate these banks on the load side of a switch or fuse.
Grounded wye banks are usually used on 4 wire multi-grounded systems only. A
grounded wye bank on an ungrounded system creates a ground source that may
interfere with sensitive relaying as well as contribute to overvoltages during ground faults
on these ungrounded systems.
Grounded wye banks are generally easy to clear since there is adequate ground current.
On the other hand, ungrounded banks have the currents limited to 300 percent of normal
phase current by the impedance of the other two legs. The fuse must have a continuous
current rating of 135% of rated current of the bank and clear in 5 minutes for reasonable
coordination. It is sometimes difficult to satisfy both conditions.
To summarize:
For delta or ungrounded systems, delta connected banks are usually used except at
system locations where fault current is excessive, ungrounded banks are most
For grounded, 4-wire systems, grounded banks are used in most locations. Where
fault current is excessive ungrounded banks are used. Ungrounded banks should be
used on the load side of switches.
In substations the banks are almost always wye-connected. On delta systems they
are always ungrounded and on 4-wire systems they are either grounded or

B. Overvoltages (Swells)

Swells are steady state overvoltages caused by faults on adjacent phases. The duration
of these overvoltages is dependent on the protection practices used by the utility. Swells
can result in power quality problems as well as failure of arresters. Some grounding
considerations regarding the magnitude of swells are as follows:

1 .4 5
Maximum L-N Voltage (p.u.)

1 .4

1 .3 5

1 .3 4 g p m
1 .2 5 8 g p m

1 .2

1 .1 5

1 .1
1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
G r o u n d F o o tin g R e s is ta n c e (o h m s )

Fig. 2. Effect of Footing Resistance and Ground Rod Spacing

Effect of Footing Resistance, Soil Resistivity and Ground Rod Spacing: Studies run
by the authors show that if an arbitrary swell limit of 20% is desired (this is the value used
for arrester application by many utilities), it is necessary to have a ground footing
resistance of less than 1 ohm for a typical 4-wire system. A footing resistance of 25
ohms produces overvoltages (near the end of the line) of about 1.31 per unit for the same
system. Using a ground footing resistance of 25 ohms does reduce overvoltages for
faults within about 5 miles of the substation as compared to 100 ohms. Faults beyond 5
miles produce swells that are virtually identical. The results of this study also showed
that the use of the standard 4 grounds per mile is not sufficient to keep these
overvoltages (swells) down to the desired level (see figure 2). If the number of grounds
is increased to 8 per mile, there will be a reduction of about 2% with a footing resistance
of 25 ohms. Augmenting the number of grounds per mile does not have a significant
effect on reducing swells. This is especially true since there are many equipment
grounds on the system. When soil resistivity was changed from 100 ohm-m to 1000
ohm-m, virtually no change occurred in the magnitude of the swells.
Broken Neutrals: Neutrals play a major role in the effectiveness of the grounding
system. Studies show that fault 10 miles from the substation can cause swells of 1.33
per unit for a broken neutral on any part of the system. Even faults at only 1.5 miles from
the substation can cause swell of up to 1.5 per unit if a broken neutral exists. The size of
the neutral conductor appreciably reduces swells, whereas good grounds do not affect
the voltage much. This indicates that the neutral is more important than the grounding.
Substation Grounding: Substation grounding has little effect on swells. Substation
grounding impedance of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 showed little difference in their effect on
swells caused by faults out on the feeder.

Unbalanced load current flows in the ground and the neutral wire. The current flowing in
the ground creates most of the magnetic field associated with EMF. Current in the
neutral tends to reduce this field. Studies show that for typical conditions approximately
50% of the return current flows in the earth and the other 50% in the neutral. A case can
be made, that poor grounding forces more current in the neutral and thereby reduces the
EMF. Measurements taken by one of the authors on actual systems shows ground
impedance to be far less of a factor than what many studies show. You be the judge.

D. Fault Levels
Studies show that ground rod footing resistance does slightly affect fault current levels for
close in faults but has little effect for faults more than 4 or 5 miles from the substation.
Figure #3, shown below, is a plot of actual measure faults, faults calculated with 25
ohms neutral ground rod impedance and faults with no ground rod impedance
(symmetrical components). As can be seen, there is very little difference. Since close in
fault magnitudes are almost always sufficient to operate protection properly, footing
resistance in this area is not an issue. Fault magnitudes farther from the substation are
not seriously affected by footing impedance. It can hence
be argued that footing resistance is not important in the area of overcurrent protection.

Fig. 3 Comparison of Fault Calculations

E. Stray Voltage
While most cases of stray voltage are the result of on-site generated problems, it can
also be the result of a poor utility return path (earth and neutral wire). Utility caused stray
voltage is the result of the return current (or unbalanced 3-phase current) returning via
the neutral wire and the ground and producing a voltage which is passed to the customer
premises via the distribution transformer connection. The flow of current in these paths is
complex and depends on many factors (distance from substation, number for grounds,
value of footing resistance, size of the neutral, etc.). While good ground footing
resistances near the affected customer are important, the problem is more affected by
the magnitude of the return current and the size of the neutral conductor. Reducing the
ground footing resistance near the customer many times proves ineffective for this

F. Arrester Grounding
Arrester grounding is not as critical as most engineers believe. It depends. Studies
show that where arresters are put on every phase and every tower or pole, ground
resistance between 0 and 250 ohms had little effect on flashover rates. As spacing of
arresters is increased, grounding does have a relatively minor influence. The problem
with arresters used for direct stroke protection is that they will most likely fail anyway due
to energy of the stroke. For a direct strike to a distribution line, even with several
arresters sharing the energy in a lightning flash, an arrester will be subject to energies in
excess of 5 kJ/kV of MCOV more than 50% of the time. Ten percent of first strokes are
likely to subject an arrester to greater than 12 kJ/kV of MCOV. Most heavy duty
distribution class arresters can only absorb about 2.2 kJ/kV of MCOV. This along with
the added energy in multiple strokes and continuing current suggest that direct hits will
cause MOV failures most of the time. On a distribution line, a shield wire used in
conjunction with the arrester is recommended if more complete protection is desired,
since the shield wire intercepts most of the energy (At transmission voltage level, the

problem is less serious due to the much higher BIL levels of the structures and large
energy capability of the arresters). It can be argued that poor arrester grounding may
help the arrester survive since the arrester closest to the lightning hit does not absorb all
the energy and shares it with adjacent arresters.

% F lashover for A rresters

per Strike

0 25 100 250 500 1000 2000
G ro u n d R esistan ce

Fig. 4 Effect of Resistance on Arresters

G. Shield Wires
Ground resistance is very important when using a shield wire as is the spacing of the
grounds. A shield wire can be very beneficial if very low ground resistances can be
achieved. For example, simulations on a standard distribution system design indicated
that with a ground resistance of 0 ohms, essentially no flashovers could be expected. If
the ground impedance was increase to 25 ohms, about 22% of the hits would cause a
flashover and with a ground footing impedance of 100 ohms, over 82% of the direct hits
would cause the line to flashover. Using a shield wire, it is essential to put grounds on
every span to achieve good protection. Field tests by one of the authors have proven
this to be true. A sampling of about 50 feeders with static wire protection and a
significant percentage of poles without static grounds (>15%) revealed a dramatic
difference in performance (>50% reduction in lightning related flashovers) when grounds
were added to these poles.

% Flashover for Shield Wire

Flahovers per



0 25 100 250 500 1000
Ground Resistance

Fig. 5 Effect of Resistance on Shield Wires

The Man In the Arena

Its not the critic who counts, not the man who points out how the strong man stumbled, or where the doer of deeds could have
done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood;
who strives valiantly; who errs and comes short again and again; who know the great enthusiasms, and spends himself in a worthy
cause; who, at best, knows in the end the triumph of high achievement; and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least fails which daring
greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat.
Theodore Roosevelt

a. Fuse Save vs. Fuse Blow Survey Results
Historically, one of the primary purposes of reclosing, was to save the fuse during
temporary fault conditions. It has been well known that in high fault current areas (above
approximately 4kA depending on fuse size and type), it was impossible to save the fuse since the
fuse was simply too fast (.5 cycles) and hence could not be saved even by the fastest breaker or
recloser (after you get about a mile or 2 from the substation, it is usually possible to save the
We have seen the industry reassess their overcurrent coordination practices, on
overhead systems, in an effort to address power quality issues (momentaries). There are now
essentially 3 approaches that utilities use:
1. Fuse Save This approach makes the attempt to minimize customer interruption
time (reduce SAIDI) by attempting to open the breaker or recloser faster than it takes
to melt the fuse. This saves the fuse and allows a simple momentary interruptiona
blink. For most systems, this works pretty well. In high short circuit areas, it may not
be possible to make this approach work.
2. Fuse Blow The approach here is eliminate the fast trip of the breaker or recloser
and have the fuse operate for all permanent and temporary faults. The purpose of
this scheme is solely and entirely to minimize momentary interruptions. This scheme
is very successful in high short circuit areas where a fuse save approach didnt
work anyway. The downside of the Fuse Blow concept is that it increases SAIDI,
i.e. in an effort to increase power quality (momentaries), we decrease reliability.
3. Both Many utilities use both schemes for a variety of reasons:
Fuse Blow for high short circuit current areas and Fuse Save
where it will work.
Fuse Save on overhead and Fuse Blow on underground taps


Fuse Save on rural and Fuse Blow on urban

Fuse Save on stormy days and Fuse Blow on nice days.

Fuse Save on some circuits and Fuse Blow on others depending
on customer desires
Although there has been a lot of discussion on this in the industry, it was unclear as to
what utilities were actually doing these days. The following informal survey addressed the status
of the industry to date:
Number of Utilities Reporting

60 54 Fuse Save
50 Fuse Blow
40 Both
30 24
17 Total Save
Fusing Philosophy

* Total Save - This category is the number of utilities that are presently using a fuse save philosophy at least on some
portion of their system

Survey Observations:
Most of the utilities adopting the Fuse Blow philosophy are from the northeast area of
the United States, and have relatively high short circuit levels. These utilities indicate
that momentary operations are their primary concern. Most seemed to recognize that
this approach will reduce system reliability (SAIDI).
A surprising number of utilities reported that they do the best they can to tailor their
philosophy to the conditions (short circuit levels, type of customer, etc.) and choose the
philosophy thats best for the individual situation.
The vast majority of utilities use a Fuse Save philosophy, when it works, and do not
consider momentary operations more important than interruptions.
Most of the utilities, indicating the Both category, try to save the fuse on overhead lines,
if they can. They indicated both because they either had very high short circuit areas
(fuse operates anyway) or a large portion of underground taps (no temporary faults).
A large number of utilities block their instantaneous trip in high fault current areas and
install a recloser out on the feeder where fuse saving can be successful.
Utilities going to a Fuse Blow approach appeared to be cognizant of the fact that they
were converting temporary faults into permanent interruptions and thereby greatly
increasing the frequency of interruptions (by a factor of 4) for faults on overhead lateral
Some of the utilities listed in the Fuse Blow category do not actually have their entire
systems implemented with this scheme although it is their chosen philosophy.
There are a number of instances where results were received from more than one
recipient from the same company. Since so many companies today operate with totally
different practices, due to mergers, etc., there was no attempt to consolidate those
This is an informal, unfunded survey.

b. Slant Rated Cutouts

Ever been confused about slant ratings? Join the crowd! Slant rated cutouts are
referenced by ANSI C37.42 as being 7.8/15 kV, 15/27kV or 27/38kV. Slant rating 7.8/15kV for
example, can be used on grounded wye, wye or delta systems as long as the line-to-neutral
voltage of the system is lower than the smaller number, 7.8kV, and the line-to-line voltage is
lower that the higher number, 15kV.
The rating implies that one cutout will interrupt the full rating when the lower number
7.8kV, is applied during a line to ground fault. Two cutouts in series, such as with a line-to-line
fault, will share the applied voltage and, thus, interrupt the higher voltage rating,15kV. If there is
a line-to-line fault of a low current magnitude, two cutouts in series may not share in the
interruption and, thus, the applied voltage. One cutout may be required to perform the interruption
by itself. A slant rated cutout can withstand the full line-to-line voltage whereas a cutout with a
single voltage rating could not withstand the higher line-to-line voltage.

c. Energy Outlook
Leading technology in terms of growth
Approximately 2,000 MW per year being installed
Tax incentives remain main drivers

Still twice as expensive as normal grid power
Growth is dependent on government support
Niche opportunity
Market uncertain
Low-Impact Hydro
Significant untapped potential, but U.S. market is small absent major changes to
the permitting and licensing process

Dependent on government subsidy
When I started in the business (1965), it looked like the industry would go totally nuclear
since it was cleaner and less expense (pre-lawyers.I guess). Much of the world depends on
nuclear. Canada, the only country, shown below, using less nuclear then us, has a lot of hydro.
The chart below makes you wonder whether were smarter than the rest of the world or quite the
opposite when it comes to generation. I would suggest that much of the push to DG is a step
backward. Are renewables real or just a hobby? You decide!

Nuclear Generation

% Nuclear

Fr a

itz en

St a
Sw n e

Un h K n

Ca s
Be ce

Uk m

ite o re
ut pa


Sw ed



So J a



c. Critical Flashover The critical flashover voltage (CFO) of self-restoring insulation (meaning
no damage after the flashover) is the voltage where the insulation has a 50% probability of
flashing over from a standard 1.2X50 microsecond voltage wave. A statistical BIL is the 10%
probability value for the standard test wave. Normally the CFO and BIL are within a few percent
of each other. CFO for some components is:
Air 180
Wood 100
Fiberglass 150

d. Cost of Poor Power Quality Here are some neat numbers (large Industrial Loads) for you
PQ types:

Disturbance Cost per Event

Voltage Sags $7,694
Momentary Outage $11,027
1 Hour Outage with Notice $22,973
1 Hour Outage without $39,459
4 Hour Outage $74,835

e. Electric Cars - The power of the 16.6 million cars and light trucks sold in the United States
in 2003 adds up to 2.5 times the total U.S. generating capacity. So much for electric cars!

f. Lightning A direct hit to a distribution line is difficult to protect for whether you use a shield
wire, lightning arresters or both. The success of lightning arresters and higher insulation levels is
probably due to their ability to mitigate induce hits (strokes to surrounding trees, buildings, etc.
Induced voltages have been measured up to 300 kV. Strokes hitting 60 feet away induce about
5.25 kV per kA and those 400 feet away about 2.23 kV/kA. Lightning strokes can be as high as
100 kA or even more. More typical is about 30 kA. Shield wires do not work well if the ground
rod resistance is high (about 10 ohms or more).

g. Surge (Characteristic) Impedance - A transmission line can be represented by a whole

series of small series inductors and shunt capacitors connected in an infinitely long line. The
inductance and capacitance values per unit of line, depend on the size of the conductors and the
spacing between them. The smaller the spacing between the two conductors, and the greater
the diameter, the higher the capacitance and the greater lower the inductance. Each series
inductor acts to limit the rate at which current can charge the following shunt capacitor, and in
doing so establishes a very important property of a transmission line, its surge impedance.
When the voltage is applied to the sending end of a line, the voltage at any point on the
line actually consists of two voltages, one voltage traveling from the sending end of the line
toward the receiving end, the other traveling from the receiving end back to the sending end. The
former will be designated as E+, the latter E-. Each of these voltages is accompanied by the
corresponding current, I+ and I-, respectively. The ratio of either voltage to its corresponding
current at any point in the line is a constant Z0, which is independent of the line length but is a
function of the series resistance, the series inductance, the shunt conductance, and the shunt
capacitance of the line per unit length. This constant is the characteristic impedance of the line
and can be expressed as;

+ + R + j L
E I = E I = Z0 =
G + j C

Where; R = resistance in ohms per unit length

L = inductance in henrys per unit length
G = shunt conductance in mhos per unit length
C = shunt capacitance in farads per unit length
And = 2 f, where f is the frequency in cycles per second

In actual practice at high frequencies, such as lightning, the quantities jwL and jwC are
so large in comparison with R and G that the latter can be neglected and the characteristic
impedance expressed simply as

Z0 =

Typically the surge impedance of lines up to 230 kV is relatively constant (regardless of

wire diameter) at about 400 ohms.

h. Ungrounded Systems
One of the problems with ungrounded systems was that as systems grew, faults
were no longer self clearing due to large capacitive currents
Ungrounded systems recorded higher transient overvoltages
An ungrounded system in a sense is capacitive grounded
On an ungrounded system, a line-to-ground fault causes 3 times the capacitive

A resonant grounded system is one in which the capacitive current is tuned or
neutralized by a reactor (ground fault neutralizer or Peterson coil)
Ground Fault Neutralizer Current/mi. of Single Phase
kV Amps
23 .145
34.5 .200
46 .260
69 .390

Top 10 Funny Store Signs

1. Outside a muffler shop: "No appointment necessary, we hear you coming."
2. Outside a hotel: "Help! We need inn-experienced people."
3. On a desk in a reception room: "We shoot every 3rd salesman , and the 2nd one just
4. In a veterinarians waiting room: "Be back in 5 minutes, Sit ! Stay!"
5. At the electric company: "We would be de-lighted if you send in your bill. However, if
you don''t you will be."
6. On the door of a computer store: "Out for a quick byte."
7. In a restaurant window: "Don''t stand there and be hungry, come on in and get fed up."
8. Inside a bowling alley: "Please be quiet, we need to hear a pin drop."
9. In the front yard of a funeral home: "Drive carefully, we''ll wait."
10. In a counselors office: "Growing old is mandatory, growing wise is optional.

i. Broadband over Power Lines (BPL)

BPL is the delivery of broadband Internet signals using the power lines already
connected to homes and businesses. The frequency range of the signal is normally between 1.7
and 80 megahertz. BPL has gone by other names including power line carrier (PLC) and ripple
control. PLC proved to be a problem because the high frequency signal was severely attenuated
or even blocked by voltage regulators, circuit reclosers, transformers and shunt capacitors. The
ripple control applications proved to be limited by low data rates and was used primarily for one-
way applications such as meter reading. The advent of spread spectrum technology, developed
first by the military, made BPL technologically feasible.

BPL uses a form of spread spectrum called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM), which has the benefits of high spectral efficiency, resiliency to RF interference, and low
multi-path distortion. The BPL OFDM typically uses and unlicensed spectrum between 1
megahertz and 100 megahertz. The FCC requires that these signals not cause interference with
other users and accept any and all interference from other users.

It is estimated that over 75 utilities have pilot projects in the area of BPL. Some of the
pros and cons of BPL are:
Uses existing power lines where cable might not be present
It works
Can interface with many types of electrical equipment
Interference concerns with amateur radio operators, short wave emergency
communication, fire departments and police, etc.
Problems are sometimes difficult to track down and solve
Possibility of multiple lawsuits due to interference concerns
Cost (requires economics of scale to be attractive)
Competing technologies
Rural areas may not be economically feasible
Alternatives to BPL include:

Cable TV
WiFi and Wimax
Mesh Networks
Wireless Internet Service Providers
Technology Improvements

Jim Burke
109 Dorchester Pines Court
Cary, NC 27511


Arc impedance19
Arrester grounding..107
Broadband.. 114
Cable facts29
Cable impedance..30
Capacitance Line Charging..72
Capacitor Application..97-102
Capacitor application.. 97-102
Capacitor formulas..33
Capacitor grounding.105
Characteristic Impedance..113
Charging current.72
Cold load pickup.10
Computer Jargon..63
Conductor burndown..14
Conductor current rating.29
Coordination rules..17, 73
Cost of Poor PQ..82
Cost of interruptions.68
Cost of poor power..82, 112
Cost of Power Interruptions..68
Cost of sectionalizing equipment..69
Costs of equipment..42
Critical Flashover..112
Current transformers..24
Current-dangerous levels..32
Custom power.67
Device numbers ..15
Distributed Generation..31, 51, 111
DSG Info..51
DSG Requirements..31
Electricity Rates..40
European Practices.35
Fault calculations.11
Fault Currents..66
Fault data..66
Fault Impedance.83

Fault levels..7
Fuse save vs. blow..109
Fuse application.12
Fuse Blow Survey..109
Fuse Save Survey..109
Fusing Capacitors.. 13
Fusing Rules..12
Grounding information.76, 103-109
Grounding, Pros and Cons 103-109
High Impedance Faults - 8,9,83-86
Humor..81, 90, 114
Impedance of Faults..83
Impedances of Cables..74
Impedances of Lines..74
Industrial Data..45
Inrush currents..9, 66
Instrument transformers..23
Interruption Cost..68
Jokes.81, 90, 114
Lightning characteristics..18
Lightning damage survey..79
Line Charging..72
Load Survey..78
Loading 57-62
Loading of Equipment21, 57-60
Loading survey..78
Low impedance faults..8
Major Event..71
Maxwells Equations..49
Modern Physics..56
Overcurrent Protection Rules..73-75
Potential transformers..23
Power Quality..38, 92
Power Quality Costs..82, 112
Power Quality Data38-40
Protective device abbreviations.16
Rates for Electricity..40
Ratings, Voltage 86
Reliability major events..71
Reliability Data..44, 53-55, 77
Rules of Thumb..28
Saturation curves20
Sectionalizing Equipment Costs..69
Shield wires..108
Slant Ratings..110
Stray Voltage..88-90
Substation Voltage Regulation..80
Surface current levels..9

Surge Impedance..113
Survey Load..78
Survey on Fuses..109
Survey, Lightning Damage..79
Survey, Voltage Regulation..80
Symmetrical Component Values..74
Transducer terms.26
Transformer Loading..21, 57-62
Transformer Saturation..20
Uniformly Distributed Loads..28
Voltage ratings.86
Voltage Regulation..80
Voltage regulation survey..80
Voltage Standards..86
Wind..82, 111

Jim Burke
Mr. Burke joined InfraSource in 2006 as an He has authored and co-authored over 130
Executive Advisor after 45 years in the industry. He is
recognized throughout the world as an expert in technical papers (7 prize papers) addressing all these
distribution protection, design, power quality and areas. He has taught numerous courses, all over the
reliability. world, for thousands of engineers in virtually all areas of
Mr. Burke began his career in the utility
distribution engineering. He is the author of the book
business with the General Electric Company in 1965
training and taking courses in generation, transmission Power Distribution Engineering: Fundamentals &
and distribution as part of GE's Advanced Utility Applications, now in its 16th printing. He is author of
Engineering Program. In 1969, he accepted a position
two revisions to the chapter on Distribution Engineering
as a field application engineer in Los Angeles
responsible for transmission and distribution system in the "Standard Handbook for Electrical
analyses, as well as generation planning studies for Engineering."
General Electric's customer utilities in the Southwestern
states. In 1971 he joined GE's Power Distribution
Engineering Operation in New York where he was EDUCATION
responsible for distribution substations, overcurrent and BSEE - Univ. of Notre Dame - 1965
overvoltage protection, and railroad electrification for MSIA Union College 1969 - Thesis:
customers all over the world. During this period he was
involved with the development of the MOV "riser pole" Reliability and Availability Analysis of Direct
arrester, the Power Vac Switchgear, the static Buried Distribution Systems
overcurrent relay and distribution substation PSEC GE (Schenectady) - 1969
In 1978 Mr. Burke accepted a position at
Power Technologies Inc. (PTI) where he continued to
be involved with virtually all distribution engineering
Past Chair:
issues. During this period he was responsible for the Distribution Subcommittee
EPRI distribution fault study, the development of the Distribution Neutral Grounding
first digital fault recorder, state-of-the-art grounding Overvoltage Protection of DGs
studies, and numerous lightning and power quality Switching and Overcurrent
monitoring studies. In the area of railroad electrification Voltage Quality
he was the project manager of the EPRI manual on Test Code for Faulted Circuit
"Railroad Electrification on Utility Systems" as well as Indicators,
project manager of system studies for the 25 to 60 Hz Testing of Distribution 3 Phase
Submersible Switches
conversion of the Northeast Corridor. Until his
Presently, he is Chair of the Distribution
departure in 1997, he was manager of distribution
Awards Group and member of many
engineering. He was project manager for the industries
other IEEE groups.
50,000 Volt Electrified Railroad
Microprocessor based Fault
IEEE Awards
Fellow (1992)
Riser Pole Arrester using Metal
Standards Medallion (1992)
7 Prize Papers
Five Wire Distribution System
The 1996 Award for Excellence in Power
Digital Simulation of MOVs for
Distribution Engineering
Distribution Systems
Distinguished Lecturer in PQ & Reliability
He also managed numerous projects
2005 Recipient of Herman Halperin
including the EPRI Distribution Fault Study, the
Transmission and Distribution Award
successful use of MOV line protection for the 115kV
line and many others in the areas of power quality,
reliability, overcurrent protection, overvoltage
protection, grounding, capacitor application, planning,
etc. In 1997, he joined ABB, consulting in all areas of
distribution as well as software engineering.

1. "An Availability and Reliability Analysis of Direct Buried 18. Study Defines Surges in Greater Detail, Electrical
and Submersible Underground Distribution Systems, World, June 1, 1980.
IEEE Transactions Conference paper, Underground
Conference Detroit, Mich., June 1970 (co-author: R. H. 19. A Study of Distribution Feeder Faults Using a Unique
Mann) New Recording Device, Western Underground Meeting,
Portland, September 1980.
2. How Do You Serve 3 Phase Loads Underground,
Electrical World, June 1970 (co-authors: R. H. Mann, and 20. 25 to 60 Hz Conversion of the New Haven Railroad,
F. Tabores). IEEE Transactions Paper presented at IEEE/ASME Joint
Conference, Baltimore, May 1983 (co-authors: D.A.
3. Railroad Electricification Electric Forum Magazine, Douglass and P. Kartluke).
June 1976 (co-author: J. H. Easley).
21. Characteristics of Faults, Inrush and Cold Load Pickup
4. Surge Protection of Underground Transformers, Currents in Distribution Systems, presented to the
Electric Forum Magazine, August 1976. Pennsylvania Electric Association, May, 1983.

5. An Analysis of Distribution Feeder Faults, Electric 22. Characteristics of Fault Currents on Distribution
Forum Magazine, December 1976 (co-author: D. J. Systems, presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting
Ward) in July, 1983 IEEE Transactions Paper No. 83 SM 441-3
(co-author: D.J. Lawrence).
6. Doubling the Capacity of the Black Mesa and Lake
Powell Railroad, Electric Forum Magazine, November 23. Optimizing Performance of Commercial Frequency
1978 (co-author: S. Gilligan). Electrified Railroads, presented in New York City in
May, 1985 at the IEEE Transportation Division Meeting.
7. Protecting Underground Systems with Zinc Oxide
Arresters, Electric Forum Magazine, November 1979 24. Compensation Techniques to Increase Electrified
(co author: S. Smith) Railroad Performance, IEEE Transactions, presented at
the IEEE/ASME Joint Conference, Norfolk, VA, April,
8. A Comparison of Static and Electromechanical Time 1986.
Overcurrent Relay Characteristics, Application and
Testing, Philadelphia Electric Association, June 1975 25. Factors Affecting the Quality of Utility Power, APPA
(co-authors: R. F. Koch and L. J. Powell). Conference, May 28, 1986, Colorado Springs, CO.

9. Distribution Substation Practices, (two volumes), 26. Fault Impedance Considerations for System Protection,
presented at Quito, Ecuador, June 1975. presented at the T&D Conference, Anaheim, CA,
September 1986
10. Distribution System Feeder Overcurrent Protection,
GET-6450, June 1977. Also presented as a seminar in the 27. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Distribution Automation,
US and Latin America. presented at the American Power Conference, Chicago,
IL, April 1987
11. Surge Protection of Underground Systems up to 34.5
kV, presented at Underground Conference in Atlantic 28. The Effect of Higher Distribution Voltages on System
City, NJ. September 1976 (co-authors: N.R. Schultz, E.G. Reliability, Panel Session, IEEE Summer Power
Sakshaug and N. M. Neagle). Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 1987.

12. Railroad Electricification from a Utility Viewpoint. 29. Are Distribution Overvoltage Margins Inadequate?,
Philadelphia Electric Association, May 1977. Western Underground Meeting, January 1988.

13. Increasing the Power System Capacity of the 50 kV 30. Utility Operation and Its Effect on Power Quality,
Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad Through IEEE Winter Power Meeting Panel Session, February
Harmonic Filtering and Series Compensation, IEEE 1988.
Transactions paper presented at 1978 IEEE Summer
Power Meeting, Paper No. F79 284-1 (co-authors: A.P. 31. Higher Distribution Voltages Not Always a Panacea,
Engel, S.R. Gilligan and N.A. Mincer). Electrical World, April 1988.

14. An Analysis of VEPCOs 34.5 kV Distribution Feeder 32. Distribution Systems, Reliability, Availability and
Faults, IEEE Transactions paper F78 217-2, presented at Maintainability, IMEA Summer Conference for Utilities,
PES Meeting, New York, January 1978, also Electrical June 1988, (co-author: R.J. Ringlee).
World Publication, Pennsylvania Electric Association,
33. Why Underground Equipment is Failing on
University of Texas, and Georgia Tech Relay Conference
Overvoltage, Electrical World, July 1988.
(co-authors: L. Johnston, D. J. Ward and N. B. Tweed).
34. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Distribution Automation:
15. Type NLR & NSR Reclosing Relays An Analysis of
Evaluation and Methodology, T&D Automation
VEPCOs 34.5 kV Distribution Feeder Faults as Related
Conference Exposition, St. Louis, MO, September 1988
to Through Fault Failures of Substation Transformers,
(Part II).
General Electric Publication GER-3063, March, 1978 (co-
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16. The Application of Gapless Arresters on Underground
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Sakshaug). NY, February 1989, (Co-authors: E.G. Sakshaug and J.
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17. Guide for Surge Protection of Cable-Connected
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(SPD Working Group, IEEE Transactions paper and Equipment, IEEE Transactions, presented at the
presented at the 1979 T&D Conference and Exposition. IEEE/PES T&D Conference and Exposition, New
Orleans, LA, April 1989, (Co-authors: J. W. Feltes and
L.A. Shankland).

38. The Application of Surge Arresters on Distribution 56. Power Quality Monitoring of a Distribution System,
Systems, Power Distribution Conference, Austin, TX, presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting,
October 1989. Vancouver, British Columbia, July 19-23, 1993, (co-
authors: P.O. Barker, R. T. Mancao, T. A. Short, C. A.
39. Application of MOV and Gapped Arresters on Non Warren, C.A. Burns, and J.J. Siewierski).
Effectively Grounded Distribution Systems, IEEE
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at the IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Atlanta, A, February August 20, 1993, (co-authors: P.B. Steciuk, D.V. Weiler,
4-8, 1990, (Co-authors: V. Varneckas, E. Chebli, and G. and W.S. Sears).
58. Characteristics of Distribution Systems That May Affect
40. Power Quality Two Different Perspectives, IEEE Faulted Circuited Indicators, Panel Session, 1994 IEEE
Transactions, Paper No. 90 WM 053-9 PWRD, presented T&D Conference and Exposition, Chicago, IL, April 10-
at the IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Atlanta, A, February 4- 15, 1994.
8, 1990, (Co-authors: D.J. Ward and D.C. Griffith). This
paper received the IEEE 1991 Working Group Prize 59. Constraints on Managing Magnetic Fields on
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Conference and Exposition, Chicago, IL, April 10-15,
41. Power Quality Measurements on the Niagara Mohawk 1994, (co-author: P.B. Steciuk).
Power System, presented at the 1990 Chattanooga IEEE
Sections Power Quality Seminar, April 18, 1990, (Co- 60. The Impact of Railroad Electrification on Utility System
authors: P.P. Barker, R.T. Mancao, and C. Burns). Power Quality, presented at the Mass Transit System 94
Conference, Dallas, TX, September 1994, (co-author: P.B.
42. Constraints on Mitigating Magnetic fields on Steciuk).
Distribution Systems, Panel Session, IEEE PES Summer
Power Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, July 16-20, 1990. 61. Power Distribution Engineering: Fundamentals and
Applications, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1994.
43. The Effect of Lightning on the Utility Distribution
System, presented at the 12th Annual Electrical 62. Distribution Modeling for Lightning Protection for
Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium, Orlando, Overhead Lines, presented at the EEI, T&D Committee
FL September 11, 1990. Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, October 20, 1994 (co-
authors: T.A. Short and P. Garcia).
44. Power Quality Measurements on the Niagara Mohawk
Power System Revisited, presented at the 63. Hard to Find Information About Distribution Systems,
PCIM/Power Quality 90 Seminar, Philadelphia, PA, presented at PTIs Power Distribution Course,
October 21-26, 1990, (co-authors: P.P. Barker, R. T. Sacramento, CA, March 1995.
Mancao, C. W. Burns, and J.J. Siewierski).
64. Sensitivity and Selectivity of Overcurrent Protective
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Power, April 1991, (co-author: P.P. Barker). ItNow You Dont), Panel Session, 1995 IEEE Summer
Power Meeting, Portland, OR July 23-28, 1995.
46. Utility Distribution System Design and Fault
Characteristics, Panel Session, 1991 IEEE T&D 65. Tutorial on Lightning and Overvoltage Protection,
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Austin, TX October 24, 1995.
47. Distribution Surge Arrester Application Guide, Panel
Session, 1991 IEEE T&D Conference and Exposition, 66. Analysis of Voltage Sag Assessment of Frequency of
Dallas, TX, Sept. 23-27, 1991. Occurrence and Impacts of Mitigations, presented at
Conference on Electrical Distribution, January 9-10,
48. Controlling Magnetic Fields in the Distribution System, 1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (co-authors: S. Yusof,
Transmission and Distribution, December 1991, pp. 24-27. J.R. Willis, P.B. Steciuk, T.M. Ariff and M. Taib).

49. The Effect of Distribution System Grounding on MOV 67. Lightning Effects Studied The FPL Program,
Selection, IEEE Transactions, presented at the IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution World, May 1996, Vol. 48,
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1992, (co-authors: R. T. Mancao and A. Myers).
68. Application of Surge Arresters to a 115-kV Circuit,
50. Why Higher MOV Ratings May Be Necessary, presented at the 1996 Transmission and Distribution
Electrical World, February 1992, (co-authors: R. T. Conference & Exposition, Los Angeles, CA, September
Mancao and A. Myers). 16-20, 1996, (co-authors: C.A. Warren, T. A. Short, C. W.
Burns, J.R. Godlewski, F. Graydon, H. Morosini).
51. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Chapter
18, 13th Edition, Fink & Beaty, 1992. 69. Fault Currents on Distribution Systems, panel session
paper presented at 1996 Transmission and Distribution
52. Philosophies of Overcurrent Protection, Panel Session, Conference and Exposition, Los Angeles, CA, September
1992 Summer Power Meeting, Seattle WA, July 13-17, 16-20, 1996.
70. Philosophies of Distribution System Overcurrent
53. The Effect of TOV on Gapped and Gapless MOVs, Protection, Training Session on Distribution
presented to SPD Committee meeting, September 21-25, Overcurrent Protection and Policies, 1996 Transmission
1992, Kansas City, MO. and Distribution Conference & Exposition, Los Angeles,
CA, September 16-20, 1996.
54. IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in
Electric Utility Systems, Part IV Distribution, 71. A Summary of the Panel Session: Application of High
published by IEEE, 1992, (prepared by the Working Impedance Fault Detectors: Held at the 1995 IEEE PES
Group on the Neutral Grounding of Distribution Systems Summer Meeting, presented at 1996 Summer Power
of the IEEE Surge-Protective Devices Committee, J.J. Meeting, Denver, Colorado, July 28-August 2, 1996, (co-
Burke, Chairman). authors G.E. Baker, J.T. Tengdin, B. D. Russell, R. H.
Jones, T. E. Wiedman).
55. Application of MOVs in the Distribution Environment,
presented at the IEEE Transactions Power Delivery, Vol. 72. Philosophies of Overcurrent Protection for a Five-Wire
9, No. 1, Pages 293-305 Jan. 94 . Distribution System, panel session paper presented at

1996 Transmission and Distribution Conference and 95. Distribution Impacts of Distributed Generation
Exposition, Los Angeles, CA, September 16-20, 1996 (co- Revisited, panel session at DistribuTECH 2000, Miami,
author P.B. Steciuk). Florida.

73. Utility Characteristics Affecting Sensitive Industrial 96. Maintaining Reliability In a De-regulated
Loads, Power Quality Assurance Magazine, Nov./Dec. Environment, T&D World 2000, April 26-28, Cincinnati,
1996. Ohio.

74. Fundamentals of Economics of Distribution Systems, 97. Using Outage Data to Improve Reliability IEEE
IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting, New York City, Computer Applications in Power magazine, April 2000,
February 1997. (Volume 13, Number 2)

ABB 98. Utilities Take on Challenges or Improved Reliability and

Power Quality Electric Light and Power Magazine,
75. Techniques and Costs to Improve Power Quality, the Vol.78, Issue6, June 2000
EEI Power Quality Working Group, New Orleans,
March, 1997. 99. Determining the Optimum Level of Reliability Infocast
Reliability Seminar, September 27, 2000, Chicago
76. Trends in Distribution Reliability, University of Texas
Power Distribution Conference, October 1997. 100. Hard-to-Find information on Distribution Systems, Part
II - The New Millennium, November 2000.
77. System and Application Considerations for Power
Quality Equipment in Distribution, EEI Distribution 101. Determining the Optimum Level of Reliability
Committee Meeting, Baltimore, MD, October 1997. Revisited IEEE T&D Conference 2001, Atlanta, Ga.

78. Hard to Find Information about Distribution Systems 102. Trends Creating Reliability Concerns or 10 Steps to
Revisited June 1998, ABB. Becoming a Less Reliable Utility IEEE T&D Conference
2001, Atlanta, Ga.
79. "Power Quality at Champion Paper - The Myth and the
Reality", IEEE Transaction, Paper #PE-340-PWRD-0 103. Distribution Systems Neutral Grounding (co-author M.
-06-1998, (Co-Authors: C.A. Warren, T.A. Short, H. Marshall) IEEE T&D Conference 2001, Atlanta, Ga.
Morosini, C.W. Burns, J. Storms) 104. Distribution Automation A compilation prepared for
80. "Delivering Different Levels of Service Reliability Over a the Intensive Distribution Planning and Engineering
Common Distribution System" T + D World Conference, Workshop, September 24-28, 2001 Raleigh, NC.
Arlington VA, September 29 1998. 105. How Important is Good Grounding on Utility
81. "European vs. U.S. Distribution System Design," 1999 Distribution Systems? PQ Magazine - April 02, 2002
WPM, N.Y.C. (co-author S. Benchluch) (co-author M. Marshall)

82. Managing the Risk of Performance Based Rates, 1999, 106. Status of Distribution Reliability and Power Quality in
(co-author R. Brown). IEEE Transactions, May 2000, the United States (co-author E. Neumann), presented at
volume 15, pages 893-898. the ENSC 2002 in San Antonio.

83. Application of Reclosers on Future Distribution 107. Nashville Electric Service Uses an Integrated Approach
Systems, (co-author R. Smith) BSS Meeting in to System Planning, T&D World Magazine, Dec 2002
Greensboro N.C., Jan. 1999. (co-authors Leech, Neumann, et al).

84. Serving Rural Loads from Three Phase and Single Phase 108. A Standardized Approach to the Application of Line
Systems, (co- authors S. Benchluch, A. Hanson, H. L. Reclosers Distributec 2003 (co authors: C Williams, T.
Willis, H. Nguyen, P. Jensen). Fahey, R. Goodin, K Josupait).

85. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, 14th edition, Synergetic Design
McGraw Hill, 1999.
109. Considerations When Applying Capacitors on
86. Hard to Find Information About Distribution Systems, Distribution Systems T&D Conference 2003, Dallas,
Third Revision, June 1999. Texas.

87. Trends in Distribution Reliability in the United States, 110. The Application of Capacitors on Rural Distribution
CIRED, Nice, France, June 1999. Systems Rural Electric Power Conf. May 2004
Scottsdale, Arizona.
88. Reclosers Improve Power Quality on Future Distribution
Systems, T & D Conference, New Orleans, 1999 111. Using OMS Data to Improve Equipment Reliability
Modeling Panel Session IEEE/PES Denver 2004
89. Distribution Impacts of Distributed Resources, SPM
1999, Alberta, Canada. 112. Sectionalizing Distribution Systems in the 21st Century,
NRECA/CRN publication August 2004
90. Requirements for Reclosers on Future Distribution
Systems, Power Quality Assurance Magazine, July 1999 113. Hard-to- Find Information on Distribution Systems III,
May 2005
91. Fault ImpedanceHow Much? T & D World
Magazine. 114. Stray Voltage Issues (co-author K. Dosier) presented at
T&D Conference and Expo New Orleans, October 2005
92. A Systematic and Cost Effective Method to Improve
Distribution System Reliability, (co-authors H. Nguyen, 115. Hard-to-Find Information on Distribtuion Systems IV,
R. Brown) IEEE SPM - 1999, Edmonton, Alberta. July 2005

93. Rural Distribution System Design Comparison, (co- 116. Sectionalizing Distribution Systems in the 21st Century:
authors: H. Nguyen, S. Benchluch)- IEEE, WPM 2000, One Engineers Opinion, CRN project 03-17
117. Fault Impedance (40 ohms is a fallacy), REPC meeting,
94. Improving Distribution Reliability Using Outage Albuquerque, April 2006
Management Data, (co-author: J. Meyers) presented at
DistribuTECH 2000, Miami, Florida.

118. Hard to Find Information About Distribution Systems V
January 2006

119. Point of View40 ohms T&D World Magazine


120. Stray Voltage Issues are Back (co-author K. Dosier)

T&D World Magazine, 2006

InfraSource Inc.
121. The Confusion Surrounding Stray Voltage 2007
REPC Meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota

122. Does Good Grounding Improve Distribution System

Performance? T&D World Magazine July 2007

123. Hard to Find Information About Distribution Systems

Volumes 1 and 2 - Updated, August 2007

Quanta Technology
124. Stray Voltage: Two Different Perspectives (co-author
C. Untiedt) IEEE REPC 2008, April 2008, Charleston,

125. The Confusion Surrounding Stray Voltage IAS

Magazine May/June 2008

126. 10 More Ways to Become a Third World Utility

Independent publication April 2008

127. Summary of Distributed Resources Impact on Power

Delivery Systems IEEE transactions TPWRD-00342-
2007, published in Power Delivery, Vol.23, No.3, July
2008. (co-authors R. Walling, R. Saint, R. Dugan, L.

128. Impact of Transmission Lines on Stray Voltage (co-

authors N. Abed, S. Saleem) IEEE SPM 2010

129. The Impact of a Fuse Blow Scheme on Distribution

System Reliability and Power Quality (co-author C
OMeally) IEEE REPC 2009, April 2009. Fort Collins,

130. Stray Voltage: Two Different Perspectives (co-author

C. Untiedt) IAS Magazine publication MayJune 2009

131. Calculating Line Losses for Feeders with Varying

Conductor Sizes (co-author T. Hong) 2010 IEEE
T&D Conference

132. Hard to Find Information on Distribution Systems

Volume 2 Update April 21, 2009

133. Improving the Reliability of Power Distribution Systems

Through Single-Phase Tripping (co-authors J. Romero
Aguero, J. Wang) 2010 IEEE T&D Conference

134. The Impact of a Fuse Blow Scheme on Distribution

System Reliability and Power Quality (co-author C
OMeally) IAS Magazine 2010