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What is AWWA?

Ans. American Water Works Association

AWS D1.1 structural, dont need to qualify for WPS? (True or false)
Ans. False

Lack of fusion can detect by which NDT technique?

Ans. Ultrasonic test (UT)

Which one will be a shielding in welding process?

Ans. Flux

What is the purpose of shielding?

Ans. To prevent atmospheric contamination during welding

What is thermal expansion?

Ans. The increase of material due to increase of temperature

What type of grooves used for SAW process? When to use this preparation(groove)?
Ans. U, V & Square grooves

What is GMAW mode of material transfer?

Ans. Globular, spray, pulse, short circuiting

Type of RTR joints?

Ans. Bell & spigot, socket, flange joint

Abreviation of RTR

Ans reinforced thermosetting Resin

Basic instrument use to measure preheat temperature?

Ans. Tempil stick, contact pyrometer

What American standard for structural welding?

Ans. AWS D1.1

What is the API standard for Line pipe

Ans API 5L

Where to apply preheat?

Ans. On weld joint plus 50mm both side of the joint

Radiographic test is the most effective to detect lack of sidewall fusion? (True or false)
Ans. False, UT is the most
Why preheat is needed for materials in welding process?
Ans. To avoid cracking

Lamination defect can detect by?

Ans. Ultrasonic test (UT)

Give at least 3 essential variables of WPS?

Ans. Electrode, preheat, volt/amp, position, base metal

. What is WPS?
Ans. Welding Procedure Specification- a prepared welding procedure which serve as
guidance of the welders

59. What is WPQ?

Ans. Welders Performance Qualification- is the performance testing of the welder capability
to do the weld in accordance with approved WPS

60. What is PQR?

Ans. Procedure Qualification Record- a record of welding data used to weld a test coupon

61. What is PMI?

Ans. Positive material Identification- a process use to determine the constituents of a

62. What is HAZ?

Ans. Heat affected zone- a portion of base metal that was not melted during welding process
but whose microstructure & properties were altered by heat

63. What is PWHT, its purpose?

Ans. Post weld heat treatment- to relieve internal stress that has trapped inside the weld
during welding process

64. What is purpose of preheat?

Ans. To slow down the cooling rate, to reduce hardness of the weld, to avoid cracking &

65. What is interpass temperature?

Ans. A highest temperature in the weld were immediately perform prior to welding or in the
case of multiple pass weld

Type of toughness test?

Ans. Charpy V-notch, IZOD, CTOD (crack tip opening displacement)

70. Type of hardness test?

Ans. Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell
What is the minimum mechanical test required to qualify a welder?
Ans. Bend Test

What is the reason for crack in the welding process

Residual stress & thermal shock

Explain Gas pore & give the reason for that defect
Entrapment of external gas in the weld

How to avoid slag inclusion in welding

Cleaning of previous run slags

What is lack of side wall fusion

Insufficient fusion of side wall with weld metal due to rapid movement of electrode and
unskilled welder