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# EE360ControlSystems

TimeDomainAnalysisof2nd OrderSystems
Introduction
We have already discussed the affect of location of pole and zero on the
transient response of 1st order systems.

## Compared to the simplicity of a firstorder system, a secondorder system

exhibits a wide range of responses that must be analyzed and described.

## Varying a firstorder system's parameters (T, K) simply changes the speed

and offset of the response

## Whereas, changes in the parameters of a secondorder system can

change the form of the response.

## A secondorder system can display characteristics much like a firstorder

system or, depending on component values, display damped or pure
oscillations for its transient response.
Introduction
A general secondorder system (without zeros) is
characterized by the following transfer function.

2
G (s) n
OpenLoopTransferFunction
s ( s 2 n )

C( s ) n2
2 ClosedLoopTransferFunction
R( s ) s 2 n s n2
Introduction
C( s ) n2
2
R( s ) s 2 n s n2

## damping ratio of the second order system, which is a measure

of the degree of resistance to change in the system output.

## n undamped natural frequency of the second order system,

which is the frequency of oscillation of the system without
damping.
Example#1
Determine the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio
of the following second order system.

C( s ) 4
2
R( s ) s 2 s 4

## Compare the numerator and denominator of the given transfer

function with the general 2nd order transfer function.

C( s ) n2
2
R( s ) s 2 n s n2

n2 4 n 2 rad / sec
2 n s 2 s
n 1
s 2 2 n s n2 s 2 2 s 4
0.5
Introduction

C( s ) n2
2
R( s ) s 2 n s n2

## The closedloop poles of the system are

n n 2 1

n n 2 1
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
Depending upon the value of , a secondorder system can be set
into one of the four categories:
1. Overdamped when the system has two real distinct poles ( >1).

c b a
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
According the value of , a secondorder system can be set into
one of the four categories:

2. Underdamped when the system has two complex conjugate poles (0 < <1)

c b a
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
According the value of , a secondorder system can be set into
one of the four categories:

## 3. Undamped when the system has two imaginary poles ( = 0).

j

c b a
Introduction
n n 2 1

n n 2 1
According the value of , a secondorder system can be set into
one of the four categories:

4. Critically damped when the system has two real but equal poles ( = 1).
j

c b a
TimeDomainSpecification
For0< <1andn >0,the2nd ordersystemsresponseduetoa
unitstepinputlookslike

11
TimeDomainSpecification
The delay (td) time is the time required for the response to
reach half the final value the very first time.

12
TimeDomainSpecification
The rise time is the time required for the response to rise from 10%
to 90%, 5% to 95%, or 0% to 100% of its final value.
For underdamped second order systems, the 0% to 100% rise time is
normally used. For overdamped systems, the 10% to 90% rise time is
commonly used.
TimeDomainSpecification
Thepeaktimeisthetimerequiredfortheresponsetoreach
thefirstpeakoftheovershoot.

14
14
TimeDomainSpecification
The maximum overshoot is the maximum peak value of the
response curve measured from unity. If the final steadystate
value of the response differs from unity, then it is common to
use the maximum percent overshoot. It is defined by

## The amount of the maximum (percent) overshoot directly

indicates the relative stability of the system.

15
TimeDomainSpecification
The settling time is the time required for the response curve
to reach and stay within a range about the final value of size
specified by absolute percentage of the final value (usually 2%
or 5%).

16
SPlane
Natural Undamped Frequency.

j
Distance from the origin of s
plane to pole is natural
undamped frequency in n

SPlane
Let us draw a circle of radius 3 in splane.

## If a pole is located anywhere on the circumference of the circle the

natural undamped frequency would be 3 rad/sec.

3 3

3
SPlane
Therefore the splane is divided into Constant Natural
Undamped Frequency (n) Circles.

SPlane
Damping ratio.

## Cosine of the angle between j

vector connecting origin and
pole and ve real axis yields
damping ratio.

cos
SPlane
For Underdamped system 0 90 therefore, 0 1

SPlane
For Undamped system 90 therefore, 0

SPlane
0
Foroverdampedandcriticallydampedsystems
therefore, 1

SPlane
Drawavectorconnectingorigin ofsplaneandsomepointP.

j
P

45

cos 45 0.707
SPlane
Therefore,splaneisdividedintosectionsofconstantdamping
ratiolines.

Example2
Determine the natural frequency and damping ratio of the poles from the
following pzmap.
1.5
0.91 0.84 0.74 0.6 0.42 0.22

0.96
1

0.99
0.5

0

-0.5
0.99

-1
0.96

## 0.91 0.84 0.74 0.6 0.42 0.22

-1.5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
Example3
3
0.7 0.56 0.42 0.28 0.14
2.5
Determine the natural
frequency and damping ratio of 2 0.82
2
the poles from the given pz 1.5
map. 0.91
1
1
0.975
Also determine the transfer 0.5

## function of the system and state

0
whether system is
underdamped, overdamped, 0.975 0.5
undamped or critically damped. -1
1
0.91
1.5
-2 0.82
2

2.5
0.7 0.56 0.42 0.28 0.14
-3
-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
Example4
The natural frequency of closed Pole Zero Map

## loop poles of 2nd order system is 2 3

0.5 0.38 0.28 0.17 0.08 2.5
0.64
rad/sec and damping ratio is 0.5. 2
2

1.5
0.8
1
Determine the location of closed 1
0.94 0.5
loop poles so that the damping 0
ratio remains same but the natural 0.94 0.5
undamped frequency is doubled. -1
1
0.8
1.5
-2
2
0.64

## C( s ) n2 4 0.5 0.38 0.28 0.17 0.08 2.5

2 2 -3
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
R( s ) s 2 n s n
2
s 2s 4
Example4
Determine the location of closed loop poles so that the damping ratio remains same
but the natural undamped frequency is doubled.
5

4
0.5
3

1
4 2
0

-1

-2

-3
0.5
-4

-5
-8 -6 -4 -2 0
SPlane
n n 2 1

n n 2 1

1st and 2nd 2nd order systems

## Second-order systems response

types of 2nd-order systems
overdamped
underdamped
undamped
critically damped
transient behavior of overdamped 2nd-order systems
transient behavior of underdamped 2nd-order systems
DC motor with non-negligible impedance

## examples of modeling & transient calculations for

electro-mechanical 2nd order systems
DC motor system with non-negligible inductance
Recall combined equations of motion
)
LsI(s) + RI(s) + Kv (s) = Vs (s)

Js(s) + b(s) = Km I(s)

LJ Lb K m K v Km
s2 + +J s+ b+ (s) = Vs (s)
R R R R

(Js + b) (s) = K I(s)
m

(s) Km 1

Vs (s) LJ

## b R bR + K m K v Quadratic polynomial denominator

s2 + + s+

J L LJ Secondorder system

s+

I(s) 1 J

Vs (s) R

b R bR + K m K v

s2 + + s+
J L LJ
Step response of 2nd order system large R/L
L = 0.1H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J = 2kg m2 ,
Overdamped R = 6, b = 4kg m2 Hz; vs (t) = 30u(t) V.
response

dissipation >
energy storage
Step response of 2nd order system large R/L
L = 0.1H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J = 2kg m2 ,
Overdamped R = 6, b = 4kg m2 Hz; vs (t) = 30u(t) V.
response
Step response of 2nd order system large R/L
L = 0.1H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J = 2kg m2 ,
Overdamped R = 6, b = 4kg m2 Hz; vs (t) = 30u(t) V.
response
Comparison of 1st order and 2nd order overdamped
1st order 2nd order
(L0) (L=0.1H)
Step response of 2nd order system small R/L
L = 1.0H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J = 2kg m2 ,
Underdamped R = 6, b = 4kg m2 Hz; vs (t) = 30u(t) V.
response

dissipation <
energy storage overshoot
Comparison of 1st order and 2nd order underdamped
NO overshoot overshoot
1st order 2nd order
(L0) (L=1.0H)
Overdamped DC motor: derivation of the step response
Using the numerical values L = 0.1H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J =
2kg m2 , R = 6, b = 4kg m2 Hz we find
Km rad b R bR + Km Kv 2
LJ sec V J L LJ
Therefore, the transfer function for the angular velocity is

## (s) 30 A 2nd order system is overdamped

= 2 . if the transfer function denominator
Vs (s) s + 62s + 300
has two real roots.
We find that the denominator has two real roots,

(s) 30
s1 = 5.290Hz, s2 = 56.71Hz = .
Vs (s) (s + 5.290)(s + 56.71)

To compute the step response we substitute the Laplace transform of the voltage
source Vs (s) = 30/s and carry out the partial fraction expansion:

## 900 3 3.3 0.3

(s) = = +
s(s + 5.290)(s + 56.71) s s + 5.290 s + 56.71

(t) = 3 3.3e5.29t + 0.3e56.71t u(t).
This is the function whose plot we analyzed in slides #58.
Overdamped DC motor in the s-domain

j
system poles
(2nd order overdamped)

input
pole

56.71 5.29 5 0

1st order
system pole

2.004 Fall 07
Undamped DC motor: no dissipation
Consider the opposite extreme where the dissipation due to both the resistor and
bearings friction is negligible, i.e. R = 0 and b = 0. Using the same remaining
numerical values L = 0.1H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J = 2kg m2 , we
find
Km rad b R bR + Km Kv 2
= 30 ; + = 0; = 180 (rad/sec) .
LJ sec V J L LJ
Therefore, the transfer function for the angular velocity is
A 2nd order system is undamped
(s) 30
= 2 . if the transfer function denominator has a
Vs (s) s + 180 conjugate pair of two imaginary roots.

## The denominator has a conjugate pair of two imaginary roots,

(s) 30
s1,2 = j13.42Hz = .
Vs (s) (s + j13.42)(s j13.42)

## Again, the step response is found by partial fraction expansion:

900 5 5s
(s) = =
s(s + j13.42)(s j13.42) s s2 + (13.42)2

## (t) = [5 5 cos (13.42t)] u(t).

Undamped DC motor in the s-domain
Period T = 2/n = 4.24sec.

system poles
(2nd order undamped)
j

j13.42
input
pole

5 0

## 1st order j13.42

system pole
Underdamped DC motor: small dissipation
Finally, let us return to what we previously labelled as underdamped case,
i.e. L = 1.0H, Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A, J = 2kg m2 , R = 6,
b = 4kg m2 Hz. The values of L, R are such that the dissipation in the system
is negligible compared to the energy storage capacity. We then find
Km rad b R bR + Km Kv
LJ sec V J L LJ
Therefore, the transfer function for the angular velocity is

## (s) 30 A 2nd order system is underdamped

= 2 .
Vs (s) s + 8s + 30 if the transfer function denominator has a
conjugate pair of two complex roots.
This denominator has a conjugate pair of two complex roots,

(s) 30
s1,2 = 4 j3.74 rad/sec = .
Vs (s) (s + 4 + j3.74)(s + 4 j3.74)

We will now develop the partial fraction expansion method for this case, aiming
to find the step response:

90 90 K1 K 2 s + K3
(s) = = = 90 + 2 .
s(s + 4 + j3.74)(s + 4 j3.74) s(s2 + 8s + 30) s s + 8s + 30
Underdamped DC motor: small dissipation
Using the familiar partial fraction method, we can find K1 = 1/30, K2 = 1/30,
K3 = 8/30, therefore

1 s+8
(s) = 3 .
s s2 + 8s + 30

## To find the inverse Laplace transform, we rewrite the denominator as a complete

square plus a constant, and break down the numerator into the sum of the
same factor that appeared in the denominators complete square plus another
constant: !
1 (s + 4) + 4
(s) = 3 .
s (s + 4)2 + 14

If the complete square instead of (s+4)2 were of the form s2 , the inverse Laplace
transform would have followed easily from Nise Table 2.1:
" #
s+4 s+4
L1 2 = L1 2 = cos (3.74t) + 4 sin (3.74t) .
s + 14 s2 + (3.74)

To take the extra factor of 4 into account, we must use yet another property of
Laplace transforms, which we have not seen until now:

L eat f (t) = F (s + a). (Nise Table 2.2, #4).
Underdamped DC motor: small dissipation
We apply this frequency shift property as follows:
" #
s+4
L1 2 = cos (3.74t) + 4 sin (3.74t)
s2 + (3.74)
" #
(s + 4) + 4
L1 2 2 = e4t [cos (3.74t) + 4 sin (3.74t)] .
(s + 4) + (3.74)
Combining all of the above results, we can finally compute the step response for
the angular velocity of the DC motor as

(t) = 3 3 e4t [cos (3.74t) + 4 sin (3.74t)] u(t).

## With a little bit of trigonometry, which we leave to you to do as exercise, we

can rewrite the step response as

(t) = 3 4.39e4t cos (3.74t 0.82) u(t).

## So the step response of the 2nd order underdamped system is characterized by

a phaseshifted sinusoid enveloped by an exponential decay.

## This step response was analyzed in slides #910 of todays notes.

What the real and imaginary parts of the poles do
c(t)

## Exponential decay generated by real

part of complex pole pair

## Sinusoidal oscillation generated by

imaginary part of complex pole pair

t Damping ratio
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.
1 Undamped (natural) period
.
2 Time constant of exponential decay

## Note: the underdamped oscillation frequency is not the same as

Figure 4.8 the natural frequency!
Underdamped DC motor in the s-domain

system poles
overshoot (2nd order undamped)
j

4 + j3.74
j3.74

4 0

input
pole
j3.74
4 j3.74
The general 2nd order system

We can write the transfer function of the general 2nd order system with unit

n2
, where
s2 + 2n s + n2

## The natural frequency indicates the oscillation frequency of the undamped

(natural) system, i.e. the system with energy storage elements only and
without any dissipative elements. The damping ratio denotes the relative con-
tribution to the system dynamics by energy storage elements and dissipative
elements. Recall,

## 1 Undamped (natural) period

.
2 Time constant of exponential decay
Depending on the damping ratio , the system response is

undamped if = 0;
underdamped if 0 < < 1;

critically damped if = 1;
overdamped if > 1.
The general 2nd order system

c (t)

Undamped
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
Underdamped
1.2
Critically
1.0 damped
0.8
0.6
Overdamped
0.4
0.2
t
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

## Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

The underdamped 2nd order system
n2
2 2
, 0<<1
(s + 2n s + n )
The step responses Laplace transform is
1 n K1 K2 s + K3
2 = + .
s s + 2n s + n2 s s2 + 2n s + n2

We find
1 1 2
K1 = , K2 = , K3 =
n2 n2 n
Substituting and applying the same method of completing squares that we did
in the numerical example of the DC motors angular velocity response, we can
rewrite the laplace transform of the step response as
p
(s + n ) + p n 1 2
1 1 2
2 .
s (s + n ) + n2 1 2

## Using the frequency shifting property of Laplace transforms we finally obtain

the step response in the time domain as
" #
p p
1 en t cos n 1 2 t + p sin n 1 2 t .
1 2
The underdamped 2nd order system
n2
2 2
, 0<<1
(s + 2n s + n )
Finally, using some additional trigonometry and the definitions
p
d = n , d = n 1 2 , tan = p
1 2

## we can rewrite the step response as

1
1 p ed t cos (d t )
1 2
j

2
The definitions above can be rewritten X + jn 1 = jd

d n s-plane
= ,
n

p n = d
d
1 2 =,
n
p X jn 1 2 = jd
d 1 2
tan = = .
d
Figure 4.10
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.
The underdamped 2nd order system
n2
2 2
, 0<<1
(s + 2n s + n )
Finally, using some additional trigonometry and the definitions
p
d = n , d = n 1 2 , tan = p
1 2

## we can rewrite the step response as

1
1 p ed t cos (d t )
1 2
c (t)

## forced response, Exponential decay generated by real

part of complex pole pair

## Sinusoidal oscillation generated by

imaginary part of complex pole pair

Figure 4.10
t
Transients in the underdamped 2nd order system
Peak time

Tp = p .
n 1 2
c(t)
Percent overshoot (%OS)
cmax !
1.02cfinal
c final
%OS = exp p 100
1 2
0.98cfinal

0.9cfinal
ln (%OS/100)
= q
2 + ln2 (%OS/100)
Settling time
(to within 2% of steady state)
0.1cfinal
p
t
Tr Tp Ts ln 0.02 1 2
4
Ts = .
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. n n

## (approximation valid for

0 < < 0.9.)
Figure 4.14
Undamped DC motor system: complete response
V0
(t) = 1 cos (n t) . ve (t) = Kv (t).
Kv

Electro-mechanical
equations of motion
(time domain)

di
L + Ri + Kv = vs
dt J d(t) di(t)
i(t) = . vL (t) = L = vs (t) ve (t).
Km dt dt
d
J + b = Km i
dt
Stepfunction source

vs (t) = V0 u(t).

L = 0.1H, J = 2kg m2 ,
Kv = 6V sec, Km = 6N m/A,
V0 = 30V.