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Cornell Notes Topic/Objective: Genetics Name: Jocelyn Hernandez Class/Period: 5 Date: 2/26/17 Essential Question: How does DNA
Cornell Notes
Topic/Objective: Genetics
Name: Jocelyn Hernandez
Class/Period: 5
Date: 2/26/17
Essential Question: How does DNA relate to chromosomes and replication of cells?
Questions:
Notes:
What is the importance of
Mitosis and Meiosis?
Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis are ways that the body makes a copy of its
own cells.
`
when 1 cell becomes 2 identical cells
Function: Body growth and repair
What: Body cells
: when 1 cell becomes 4 unique cells
Functions: reproduction (babies)
What: sex cells (Gametes: sperm or egg)
Beginning
Mitosis
-1 cell
-Diploid
-46 chromosomes
Meiosis
-1 cell
-Diploid
-46 chromosomes
What’s the
difference between
Mitosis and
Meiosis?
Middle End
-1 cell division
-2 identical
-body cells diploid
-46 chromosomes
-2 cell division
-4 unique sex cells
-haploid (Gametes)
-23 chromosomes
Diploid = full set of chromosomes (46)
Haploid = half set of chromosomes (23)
During Meiosis, the chromosomes CROSS OVER, which mixes up
the genetic information
How are mitosis
and meiosis steps
different?
Mitosis steps:
Step #1: Interphase – chromosomes are so dispersed in the nuclei
that they cannot be distinguishable but before interphase ends,
their DNA has been duplicated.
Step #2: Prophase – chromosomes have consented and become
distinguishable each chromosome consist of two chromatids joined
at their centromes
Step #3: Metaphase – chromosomes line up on the spiritual
equator; homologous are not paired
Step #4: Anaphase – sister chromatids separate
Step #5: Nude – are reformed; each nucleus has two chromosomes
of each type
Meiosis steps: Meiosis 1 Step #1: prophase 1 – 2 pairs of chromosomes Step #2: Metaphase
Meiosis steps:
Meiosis 1
Step #1: prophase 1 – 2 pairs of chromosomes
Step #2: Metaphase 1 – chromosomes line up on the spinal
equator; homologous are paired
Step #3: anaphase 1 – sister chromatids stay together, but
homologous separate
Step #4: telophase 1 – nuclei are not re-formed
Meiosis 2
Step #1: prophase 2
Step #2: Metaphase 2 – chromosomes line up on the spinal
equator; homologous are now in separate cells
Step #3: Anaphase 2 – sister chromatids separate
Step #4: Telophase 2 – nuclei are re-formed; each nucleus has only
one chromosome of each type
Summary: DNA relates to chromosomes and relates to replication of cells because of Mitosis and Meiosis. Mitosis
is when one cell becomes identical to two cells. It’s function is body growth and repair. Meiosis is when one cell
becomes unique of four cells. It’s function is the reproduction. This helps the DNA to make chromosmes.
Questions:
Notes:
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
Components of DNA:
How are DNA and
RNA different?
Nucleotides <<- monomer of nucleic acids
-a single nucleotide has 3 parts:
1) sugar
2) phosphate group
3) nitrogen base
DNA is found in the nuclei of cells in the body.
DNA is organized in chromosomes.
-Double Helix (stranded)
-Ladder like nucleic acid
A single strand of DNA is a polymer (complex molecule – nucleic acid) composed of many
monomers (simple units) called nucleotides.
N + N … -> Na + Na … -> DNA
2 groups: Pyrimidines Purines
What is most
important between
the two, DNA and
RNA?
4 nitrogen base: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
Purine will ALWAYS pair with a PYRIMIDINE:
Rules for pairing nitrogen bases:
1)ADENINE always pairs with THYMINE
2) Guanine always pairs with CYTOSINE
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for

How are they both similar?

How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
How are they both similar? Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for
Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for specific things. Genes make up

Genes and Chromosomes

are sections of DNA that

Genes

code for specific things.

Genes and Chromosomes are sections of DNA that Genes code for specific things. Genes make up

Genes make up DNA

organized

are proteins that DNA wraps around in order to keep it

Histones
Histones

Histones group together to make coils (one loop) and supercoils

(many loops) to stay organized.

Chromosomes are the super organized way that you rDNA is

stored.
stored.

Every human has 23 sets of chromosomes

Genes make up DNA organized are proteins that DNA wraps around in order to keep it

In case there is damage it can be repaired

deoxyribose

-RNA is single stranded -RNA is a shorter life span -RNA strands for ribonucleic acid -Each nucleotides contains a different sugar: ribose instead of

-nucleotides are connected together to make a new strand that is complimentary to the old strand -the new double strand is identical to the old double strand -the is called DNA replication

-after the DNA molecule comes apart, bases of free nucleotides in the nucleus join their complimentary bases

-before DNA strand can be replicated it copied it must be “unzipped” -DNA polymerase (enzymes that unzips) -starts at many different points

-must occur before cells divide -each new cell needs a copy of the information in order to grow

The same chromosomes are in all of your cells Nucleotides build up multiple nucleic acids Nucleic acids make genes Genes make DNA DNA makes Chromosomes Chromosomes make Genome Genome make organisms

With DNA is important it is correct. There are many genes that each hold different information woven into the chromosomes which holds them all.

DNA Replication and RNA

 

-Bases are A, U, C, G, (Uracil, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine)

-A pairs with U, C pairs with G

Summary: DNA relates to chromosomes and the replication of cells because before a DNA strand can be replicated or copied it must be unzipped. Also, DNA makes chromosomes. When DNA makes chromosomes chromosomes make genomes and genomes make organisms. When nucleotides are connected together to make a new strand that is complimentary to the old strand, the new strand is identical to the old double strand. That is called DNA replication,