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CHAPTER 1

d1 125 kN B
d2 PROBLEM 1.1
C
A
Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are
60 kN welded together at B and loaded as shown.
Knowing that d1 30 mm and d 2 50 mm,
125 kN
find the average normal stress at the
0.9 m 1.2 m midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

SOLUTION

(a) Rod AB:

Force: P 60 103 N tension



Area: A d12 (30 103 ) 2 706.86 106 m 2
4 4
P 60 103
Normal stress: AB 84.882 106 Pa AB 84.9 MPa
A 706.86 106
(b) Rod BC:

Force: P 60 103 (2)(125 103 ) 190 103 N



Area: A d 22 (50 103 )2 1.96350 103 m 2
4 4
P 190 103
Normal stress: BC 96.766 106 Pa
A 1.96350 103
BC 96.8 MPa

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3
d1 125 kN B
d2 PROBLEM 1.2
C
A
Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are
60 kN
welded together at B and loaded as shown.
Knowing that the average normal stress must
125 kN not exceed 150 MPa in either rod, determine
the smallest allowable values of the diameters
0.9 m 1.2 m
d1 and d2.

SOLUTION

(a) Rod AB:

Force: P 60 103 N
Stress: AB 150 106 Pa
2
Area: A d1
4
P P
AB A
A AB
P
d12
4 AB
4P (4)(60 103 )
d12 509.30 106 m 2
AB (150 106 )
d1 22.568 103 m d1 22.6 mm
(b) Rod BC:

Force: P 60 103 (2)(125 103 ) 190 103 N


Stress: BC 150 106 Pa
2
Area: A d2
4
P 4P
BC
A d 22
4P (4)(190 103 )
d 22 1.61277 103 m 2
BC (150 106 )
d 2 40.159 103 m d 2 40.2 mm

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4
PROBLEM 1.3
A

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as
shown. Knowing that P = 10 kips, find the average normal stress at the
30 in. midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.
1.25 in.

12 kips

25 in.
0.75 in.

SOLUTION

(a) Rod AB:


P 12 10 22 kips

A d12 (1.25) 2 1.22718 in 2
4 4
P 22
AB 17.927 ksi AB 17.93 ksi
A 1.22718
(b) Rod BC:
P 10 kips

A d 22
(0.75)2 0.44179 in 2
4 4
P 10
AB 22.635 ksi AB 22.6 ksi
A 0.44179

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5
PROBLEM 1.4
A

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as
shown. Determine the magnitude of the force P for which the tensile stresses in
30 in. rods AB and BC are equal.
1.25 in.

12 kips

25 in.
0.75 in.

SOLUTION

(a) Rod AB:


P P 12 kips
d2
A (1.25 in.)2
4 4
A 1.22718 in 2
P 12 kips
AB
1.22718 in 2
(b) Rod BC:
P P

A d2 (0.75 in.)2
4 4
A 0.44179 in 2
P
BC
0.44179 in 2
AB BC
P 12 kips P
2

1.22718 in 0.44179 in 2
5.3015 0.78539 P P 6.75 kips

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6
1200 N PROBLEM 1.5

A strain gage located at C on the surface of bone AB indicates that the average normal stress
A in the bone is 3.80 MPa when the bone is subjected to two 1200-N forces as shown.
Assuming the cross section of the bone at C to be annular and knowing that its outer diameter
is 25 mm, determine the inner diameter of the bones cross section at C.

1200 N

SOLUTION

P P
A
A

Geometry: A (d12 d 22 )
4
4A 4P
d 22 d12 d12

(4)(1200)
d 22 (25 103 )2
(3.80 106 )
222.92 106 m 2
d 2 14.93 103 m d 2 14.93 mm

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7
A PROBLEM 1.6

a
Two brass rods AB and BC, each of uniform diameter, will be brazed together
15 mm at B to form a nonuniform rod of total length 100 m, which will be suspended
B from a support at A as shown. Knowing that the density of brass is 8470 kg/m3,
determine (a) the length of rod AB for which the maximum normal stress in
100 m ABC is minimum, (b) the corresponding value of the maximum normal stress.

b
10 mm

SOLUTION

Areas: AAB (15 mm) 2 176.715 mm 2 176.715 106 m 2
4

ABC (10 mm)2 78.54 mm 2 78.54 106 m 2
4
From geometry, b 100 a
Weights: WAB g AAB AB (8470)(9.81)(176.715 106 ) a 14.683 a
WBC g ABC BC (8470)(9.81)(78.54 106 )(100 a) 652.59 6.526 a
Normal stresses:
At A, PA WAB WBC 652.59 8.157a (1)
PA
A 3.6930 106 46.160 103a
AAB
At B, PB WBC 652.59 6.526a (2)
PB
B 8.3090 106 83.090 103a
ABC

(a) Length of rod AB. The maximum stress in ABC is minimum when A B or

4.6160 106 129.25 103a 0


a 35.71 m AB a 35.7 m

(b) Maximum normal stress.

A 3.6930 106 (46.160 103 )(35.71)


B 8.3090 106 (83.090 103 )(35.71)
A B 5.34 106 Pa 5.34 MPa

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8
PROBLEM 1.7
0.4 m
C Each of the four vertical links has an 8 36-mm uniform rectangular
0.25 m cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm diameter. Determine
0.2 m the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links connecting
B (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

20 kN E

D
A

SOLUTION

Use bar ABC as a free body.

M C 0 : (0.040) FBD (0.025 0.040)(20 103 ) 0


FBD 32.5 103 N Link BD is in tension.
3
M B 0 : (0.040) FCE (0.025)(20 10 ) 0
FCE 12.5 103 N Link CE is in compression.
Net area of one link for tension (0.008)(0.036 0.016) 160 106 m 2

For two parallel links, A net 320 106 m 2


FBD 32.5 103
(a) BD 6
101.563 106 BD 101.6 MPa
Anet 320 10
Area for one link in compression (0.008)(0.036) 288 106 m 2

For two parallel links, A 576 106 m 2


FCE 12.5 103
(b) CE 6
21.701 106 CE 21.7 MPa
A 576 10

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9
PROBLEM 1.8
B 2 in.
1
Link AC has a uniform rectangular cross section 8
in. thick and 1 in. wide.
12 in.
Determine the normal stress in the central portion of the link.
120 lb

4 in. 120 lb
A
30 C
10 in. 8 in.

SOLUTION

Use the plate together with two pulleys as a free body. Note that the cable tension causes at 1200 lb-in.
clockwise couple to act on the body.

M B 0: (12 4)( FAC cos 30) (10)( FAC sin 30) 1200 lb 0
1200 lb
FAC 135.500 lb
16 cos 30 10 sin 30

1
Area of link AC: in. 0.125 in 2
A 1 in.
8
F 135.50
Stress in link AC: AC AC 1084 psi 1.084 ksi
A 0.125

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10
0.100 m
PROBLEM 1.9
E
P P P Three forces, each of magnitude P 4 kN, are applied to the mechanism
shown. Determine the cross-sectional area of the uniform portion of rod
D BE for which the normal stress in that portion is 100 MPa.
A B C

0.150 m 0.300 m 0.250 m

SOLUTION

Draw free body diagrams of AC and CD.

Free Body CD: M D 0: 0.150P 0.250C 0


C 0.6 P
Free Body AC: M A 0: 0.150 FBE 0.350 P 0.450 P 0.450C 0
1.07
FBE P 7.1333 P (7.133)(4 kN) 28.533 kN
0.150
FBE
Required area of BE: BE
ABE
FBE 28.533 103
ABE 285.33 106 m 2
BE 100 106

ABE 285 mm 2

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11
4 kips PROBLEM 1.10
C
u
in.
6 Link BD consists of a single bar 1 in. wide and
1
2
in. thick. Knowing that each pin has a 83 -in.
B
diameter, determine the maximum value of the
.
12 in average normal stress in link BD if (a) = 0,
(b) = 90.

A 308
D

SOLUTION

Use bar ABC as a free body.

(a) 0.
M A 0: (18 sin 30)(4) (12 cos30) FBD 0
FBD 3.4641 kips (tension)
3 1
Area for tension loading: A (b d )t 1 0.31250 in 2
8 2
F 3.4641 kips
Stress: BD 11.09 ksi
A 0.31250 in 2

(b) 90.
M A 0: (18 cos30)(4) (12 cos 30) FBD 0
FBD 6 kips i.e. compression.
1
Area for compression loading: A bt (1) 0.5 in 2
2
F 6 kips
Stress: BD 12.00 ksi
A 0.5 in 2

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12
B D F PROBLEM 1.11

12 ft
For the Pratt bridge truss and loading shown, determine the
average normal stress in member BE, knowing that the cross-
A
H sectional area of that member is 5.87 in2.
C E G

9 ft 9 ft 9 ft 9 ft

80 kips 80 kips 80 kips

SOLUTION

Use entire truss as free body.


M H 0: (9)(80) (18)(80) (27)(80) 36 Ay 0
Ay 120 kips

Use portion of truss to the left of a section cutting members


BD, BE, and CE.
12
Fy 0: 120 80 FBE 0 FBE 50 kips
15
FBE 50 kips
BE
A 5.87 in 2

BE 8.52 ksi

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13
45 in. 30 in.
PROBLEM 1.12
A
B C
The frame shown consists of four wooden members, ABC,
480 lb
DEF, BE, and CF. Knowing that each member has a 2 4-in.
4 in. 4 in.
rectangular cross section and that each pin has a 12 -in.
40 in. diameter, determine the maximum value of the average
normal stress (a) in member BE, (b) in member CF.

E F
D 15 in. 30 in.

SOLUTION

Add support reactions to figure as shown.


Using entire frame as free body,

M A 0: 40Dx (45 30)(480) 0
Dx 900 lb
Use member DEF as free body.

Reaction at D must be parallel to FBE and FCF .
4
Dy Dx 1200 lb
3
4
M F 0: (30) FBE (30 15) DY 0
5
FBE 2250 lb
4
M E 0: (30) FCE (15) DY 0
5
FCE 750 lb
Stress in compression member BE:
Area: A 2 in. 4 in. 8 in 2
FBE 2250
(a) BE BE 281 psi
A 8
Minimum section area occurs at pin.

Amin (2)(4.0 0.5) 7.0 in 2

FCF 750
Stress in tension member CF: (b) CF CF 107.1 psi
Amin 7.0

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14
Dimensions in mm PROBLEM 1.13
1150 D
100 An aircraft tow bar is positioned by means of a single
G C 450 hydraulic cylinder connected by a 25-mm-diameter steel
A B rod to two identical arm-and-wheel units DEF. The mass
F
E 250 of the entire tow bar is 200 kg, and its center of gravity
is located at G. For the position shown, determine the
850 500 675 825 normal stress in the rod.

SOLUTION

FREE BODY ENTIRE TOW BAR:

W (200 kg)(9.81 m/s 2 ) 1962.00 N


M A 0: 850R 1150(1962.00 N) 0
R 2654.5 N


FREE BODY BOTH ARM & WHEEL UNITS:

100
tan 8.4270
675
M E 0: ( FCD cos )(550) R(500) 0
500
FCD (2654.5 N)
550 cos 8.4270
2439.5 N (comp.)
FCD 2439.5 N
CD
ACD (0.0125 m)2
4.9697 106 Pa CD 4.97 MPa

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15
150 mm PROBLEM 1.14
800 N
300 mm 600 mm
A C Two hydraulic cylinders are used to control the position
B
of the robotic arm ABC. Knowing that the control rods
attached at A and D each have a 20-mm diameter and
400 mm D happen to be parallel in the position shown, determine the
average normal stress in (a) member AE, (b) member DG.
E F G

150 mm 200 mm

SOLUTION

Use member ABC as free body.

4
M B 0: (0.150) FAE (0.600)(800) 0
5
FAE 4 103 N

Area of rod in member AE is A d2 (20 103 ) 2 314.16 106 m 2
4 4
FAE 4 103
Stress in rod AE: AE 6
12.7324 106 Pa
A 314.16 10
(a) AE 12.73 MPa
Use combined members ABC and BFD as free body.

4 4
M F 0: (0.150) FAE (0.200) FDG (1.050 0.350)(800) 0
5 5
FDG 1500 N


Area of rod DG: A d2 (20 103 ) 2 314.16 106 m 2
4 4
FDG 1500
Stress in rod DG: DG 4.7746 106 Pa
A 3.1416 106
(b) DG 4.77 MPa

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16
PROBLEM 1.15

Determine the diameter of the largest circular hole that can be punched into a sheet of polystyrene 6 mm
thick, knowing that the force exerted by the punch is 45 kN and that a 55-MPa average shearing stress is
required to cause the material to fail.

SOLUTION

For cylindrical failure surface: A dt


P P
Shearing stress: or A
A
P
Therefore, dt

P
Finally, d
t
45 103 N

(0.006 m)(55 106 Pa)
43.406 103 m
d 43.4 mm

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17
5
8
in. PROBLEM 1.16
5
8
in.
Two wooden planks, each 12 in. thick and 9 in.
wide, are joined by the dry mortise joint shown.
1 in. 2 in. Knowing that the wood used shears off along its
P' P
2 in. 1 in. 9 in. grain when the average shearing stress reaches
1.20 ksi, determine the magnitude P of the axial
load that will cause the joint to fail.

SOLUTION

Six areas must be sheared off when the joint fails. Each of these areas has dimensions 5
8
in. 1
2
in., its area
being
5 1 5 2
A in 0.3125 in 2
8 2 16
At failure, the force carried by each area is

F A (1.20 ksi)(0.3125 in 2 ) 0.375 kips


Since there are six failure areas,
P 6 F (6)(0.375) P 2.25 kips

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18
0.6 in. PROBLEM 1.17

P' P When the force P reached 1600 lb, the wooden specimen shown failed
in shear along the surface indicated by the dashed line. Determine the
average shearing stress along that surface at the time of failure.
Steel 3 in. Wood

SOLUTION

Area being sheared: A 3 in. 0.6 in. 1.8 in 2


Force: P 1600 lb
P 1600 lb
Shearing stress: 2
8.8889 102 psi 889 psi
A 1.8 in

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19
40 mm PROBLEM 1.18
10 mm
A load P is applied to a steel rod supported as shown by an aluminum
8 mm
plate into which a 12-mm-diameter hole has been drilled. Knowing that
12 mm the shearing stress must not exceed 180 MPa in the steel rod and 70 MPa
in the aluminum plate, determine the largest load P that can be applied to
the rod.
P

SOLUTION

For steel: A1 dt (0.012 m)(0.010 m)


376.99 106 m 2
P
1 P A11 (376.99 106 m 2 )(180 106 Pa)
A
67.858 103 N
For aluminum: A2 dt (0.040 m)(0.008 m) 1.00531 103 m 2
P
2 P A2 2 (1.00531 103 m 2 )(70 106 Pa) 70.372 103 N
A2
Limiting value of P is the smaller value, so P 67.9 kN

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20
PROBLEM 1.19
L The axial force in the column supporting the timber beam shown is
P 20 kips. Determine the smallest allowable length L of the bearing
plate if the bearing stress in the timber is not to exceed 400 psi.

6 in.

SOLUTION

Bearing area: Ab Lw
P P
b
Ab Lw
P 20 103 lb
L 8.33 in. L 8.33 in.
b w (400 psi)(6 in.)

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21
PROBLEM 1.20
12 mm Three wooden planks are fastened together by a series of bolts to form
d

a column. The diameter of each bolt is 12 mm and the inner diameter


of each washer is 16 mm, which is slightly larger than the diameter of
the holes in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer
diameter d of the washers, knowing that the average normal stress in
the bolts is 36 MPa and that the bearing stress between the washers
and the planks must not exceed 8.5 MPa.

SOLUTION

d2 (0.012 m)2
Bolt: ABolt 1.13097 104 m 2
4 4
P
Tensile force in bolt: P A
A
(36 106 Pa)(1.13097 104 m 2 )
4.0715 103 N

Bearing area for washer: Aw
4
d 2
o di2
P
and Aw
BRG
Therefore, equating the two expressions for Aw gives

4
d 2
o
di2
P
BRG
4P
d o2 di2
BRG
4 (4.0715 103 N)
d o2 (0.016 m) 2
(8.5 106 Pa)
d o2 8.6588 104 m 2
d o 29.426 103 m
d o 29.4 mm

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22
P 5 40 kN PROBLEM 1.21

120 mm 100 mm
A 40-kN axial load is applied to a short wooden post that is
supported by a concrete footing resting on undisturbed soil.
Determine (a) the maximum bearing stress on the concrete
footing, (b) the size of the footing for which the average bearing
stress in the soil is 145 kPa.
b b

SOLUTION

(a) Bearing stress on concrete footing.


P 40 kN 40 103 N
A (100)(120) 12 103 mm 2 12 103 m 2
P 40 103
3.3333 106 Pa 3.33 MPa
A 12 103
(b) Footing area. P 40 103 N 145 kPa 45 103 Pa
P P 40 103
A 0.27586 m 2
A 145 10 3

Since the area is square, A b 2

b A 0.27586 0.525 m b 525 mm

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23
PROBLEM 1.22
a P a
An axial load P is supported by a short W8 40 column of cross-
sectional area A 11.7 in 2 and is distributed to a concrete foundation
by a square plate as shown. Knowing that the average normal stress in
the column must not exceed 30 ksi and that the bearing stress on the
concrete foundation must not exceed 3.0 ksi, determine the side a of
the plate that will provide the most economical and safe design.

SOLUTION

P
For the column, or
A
P A (30)(11.7) 351 kips

For the a a plate, 3.0 ksi

P 351
A 117 in 2
3.0

Since the plate is square, A a 2

a A 117 a 10.82 in.

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24
PROBLEM 1.23

Link AB, of width b = 2 in. and thickness t = 14 in., is used to support the end of a
A
horizontal beam. Knowing that the average normal stress in the link is 20 ksi and
that the average shearing stress in each of the two pins is 12 ksi, determine (a) the
d diameter d of the pins, (b) the average bearing stress in the link.
b t

B
d

SOLUTION

Rod AB is in compression.
1
A bt where b 2 in. and t in.
4
1
P A (20)(2) 10 kips
4
P
Pin: P
AP

and AP d2
4
4 AP 4P (4)(10)
(a) d 1.03006 in.
P (12)
d 1.030 in.
P 10
(b) b 38.833 ksi
dt (1.03006)(0.25)
b 38.8 ksi

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25
P PROBLEM 1.24

16 mm A Determine the largest load P which may be applied at A when


750 mm
60, knowing that the average shearing stress in the 10-mm-
diameter pin at B must not exceed 120 MPa and that the average
750 mm bearing stress in member AB and in the bracket at B must not
50 mm
exceed 90 MPa.
B
C

12 mm

SOLUTION

Geometry: Triangle ABC is an isoseles triangle with angles shown here.

Use joint A as a free body.

Law of sines applied to force triangle:


P FAB FAC

sin 30 sin 120 sin 30
FAB sin 30
P 0.57735FAB
sin 120
FAC sin 30
P FAC
sin 30

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26
PROBLEM 1.24 (Continued)

If shearing stress in pin at B is critical,



A d2 (0.010) 2 78.54 106 m 2
4 4
FAB 2 A (2)(78.54 106 )(120 106 ) 18.850 103 N
If bearing stress in member AB at bracket at A is critical,
Ab td (0.016)(0.010) 160 106 m 2
FAB Ab b (160 106 )(90 106 ) 14.40 103 N
If bearing stress in the bracket at B is critical,
Ab 2td (2)(0.012)(0.010) 240 106 m 2
FAB Ab b (240 106 )(90 106 ) 21.6 103 N
Allowable FAB is the smallest, i.e., 14.40 103 N

Then from statics, Pallow (0.57735)(14.40 103 )


8.31 103 N 8.31 kN

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27
P PROBLEM 1.25

16 mm A Knowing that 40 and P 9 kN, determine (a) the smallest


750 mm
allowable diameter of the pin at B if the average shearing stress in
the pin is not to exceed 120 MPa, (b) the corresponding average
750 mm bearing stress in member AB at B, (c) the corresponding average
50 mm
bearing stress in each of the support brackets at B.
B
C

12 mm

SOLUTION

Geometry: Triangle ABC is an isoseles triangle with angles shown here.

Use joint A as a free body.

Law of sines applied to force triangle:


P FAB FAC

sin 20 sin110 sin 50
P sin110
FAB
sin 20
(9)sin110
24.727 kN
sin 20

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28
PROBLEM 1.25 (Continued)

(a) Allowable pin diameter.


FAB F 2FAB
AB 2 2
where FAB 24.727 103 N
2 AP 24d d

2 FAB (2)(24.727 103 )


d2 131.181 106 m 2
(120 106 )
d 11.4534 103 m 11.45 mm
(b) Bearing stress in AB at A.
Ab td (0.016)(11.4534 103 ) 183.254 106 m 2
FAB 24.727 103
b 134.933 106 Pa 134.9 MPa
Ab 183.254 106
(c) Bearing stress in support brackets at B.
A td (0.012)(11.4534 103 ) 137.441 106 m 2
1 FAB (0.5)(24.727 103 )
b 2
89.955 106 Pa 90.0 MPa
A 137.441 106

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29
100 mm 175 mm PROBLEM 1.26
D
The hydraulic cylinder CF, which partially controls the position of rod
u
B 208
DE, has been locked in the position shown. Member BD is 15 mm
C
E thick and is connected at C to the vertical rod by a 9-mm-diameter
bolt. Knowing that P 2 kN and 75, determine (a) the average
200 mm shearing stress in the bolt, (b) the bearing stress at C in member BD.
P

A
F

45 mm

SOLUTION

Free Body: Member BD.

40 9
M c 0: FAB (100 cos 20) FAB (100 sin 20)
41 4
(2 kN) cos 75(175sin 20) (2 kN)sin 75(175cos 20) 0
100
FAB (40 cos 20 9sin 20) (2 kN)(175)sin(75 20)
41
FAB 4.1424 kN
9
Fx 0: C x (4.1424 kN) (2 kN) cos 75 0
41
C x 0.39167 kN
40
Fy 0: C y (4.1424 kN) (2 kN)sin 75 0
41
C y 5.9732 kN
C 5.9860 kN 86.2
C 5.9860 103 N
(a) ave 94.1 106 Pa 94.1 MPa
A (0.0045 m) 2

C 5.9860 103 N
(b) b 44.3 106 Pa 44.3 MPa
td (0.015 m)(0.009 m)

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30
PROBLEM 1.27
0.4 m
C For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.7, determine (a) the average
0.25 m shearing stress in the pin at B, (b) the average bearing stress at B in
0.2 m member BD, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member ABC,
B knowing that this member has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross
section.
20 kN E

D
PROBLEM 1.7 Each of the four vertical links has an 8 36-mm
A
uniform rectangular cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm
diameter. Determine the maximum value of the average normal stress in
the links connecting (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

SOLUTION

Use bar ABC as a free body.

M C 0 : (0.040) FBD (0.025 0.040)(20 103 ) 0


FBD 32.5 103 N

FBD
(a) Shear pin at B. for double shear
2A

where A d2 (0.016) 2 201.06 10 6 m 2
4 4
32.5 103
80.822 106 Pa 80.8 MPa
(2)(201.06 106 )

(b) Bearing: link BD. A dt (0.016)(0.008) 128 106 m 2


1 FBD (0.5)(32.5 103 )
b 2
6
126.95 106 Pa b 127.0 MPa
A 128 10
(c) Bearing in ABC at B. A dt (0.016)(0.010) 160 106 m 2

FBD 32.5 103


b 6
203.12 106 Pa b 203 MPa
A 160 10

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31
PROBLEM 1.28

A B Two identical linkage-and-hydraulic-cylinder systems control the


position of the forks of a fork-lift truck. The load supported by the one
12 in.
system shown is 1500 lb. Knowing that the thickness of member BD is
5
C
12 in. 8
in., determine (a) the average shearing stress in the 12 -in.-diameter
pin at B, (b) the bearing stress at B in member BD.
D E 1500 lb
15 in.

16 in. 16 in. 20 in.

SOLUTION

Use one fork as a free body.


M B 0: 24 E (20)(1500) 0

E 1250 lb
Fx 0: E Bx 0
Bx E
Bx 1250 lb
Fy 0: By 1500 0 By 1500 lb

B Bx2 By2 12502 15002 1952.56 lb

(a) Shearing stress in pin at B.


2
2 1 2
Apin d pin 0.196350 in
4 4 2
B 1952.56
9.94 103 psi 9.94 ksi
Apin 0.196350
(b) Bearing stress at B.
B 1952.56
6.25 103 psi 6.25 ksi
dt 12 85

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32
P' PROBLEM 1.29
150 mm
Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section are joined
by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that P 11 kN,
45
45 determine the normal and shearing stresses in the glued splice.
P
75 mm

SOLUTION
90 45 45
P 11 kN 11 103 N
A0 (150)(75) 11.25 103 mm 2 11.25 103 m 2
P cos 2 (11 103 ) cos 2 45
489 103 Pa 489 kPa
A0 11.25 103
P sin 2 (11 103 )(sin 90)
489 103 Pa 489 kPa
2 A0 (2)(11.25 103 )

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33
P' PROBLEM 1.30
150 mm
Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section are joined
by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that the maximum
45
45 allowable shearing stress in the glued splice is 620 kPa, determine
P
(a) the largest load P that can be safely applied, (b) the corresponding
75 mm
tensile stress in the splice.

SOLUTION

90 45 45
A0 (150)(75) 11.25 103 mm 2 11.25 103 m 2
620 kPa 620 103 Pa
P sin 2

2 A0

2 A0 (2)(11.25 103 )(620 103 )


(a) P
sin2 sin 90
13.95 103 N P 13.95 kN

P cos 2 (13.95 103 )(cos 45) 2


(b)
A0 11.25 103
620 103 Pa 620 kPa

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34
P PROBLEM 1.31
5.0 in.
3.0 in. The 1.4-kip load P is supported by two wooden members of uniform cross section
that are joined by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Determine the normal and
shearing stresses in the glued splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION

P 1400 lb 90 60 30
A0 (5.0)(3.0) 15 in 2
P cos 2 (1400)(cos30) 2
70.0 psi
A0 15

P sin 2 (1400)sin 60
40.4 psi
2 A0 (2)(15)

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35
P PROBLEM 1.32
5.0
3.0 in. Two wooden members of uniform cross section are joined by the simple scarf splice
shown. Knowing that the maximum allowable tensile stress in the glued splice is 75 psi,
determine (a) the largest load P that can be safely supported, (b) the corresponding
shearing stress in the splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION

A0 (5.0)(3.0) 15 in 2
90 60 30
P cos 2

A0

A0 (75)(15)
(a) P 1500 lb P 1.500 kips
cos
2
cos 2 30
P sin 2 (1500)sin 60
(b) 43.3 psi
2 A0 (2)(15)

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36
P PROBLEM 1.33

A centric load P is applied to the granite block shown. Knowing that the
resulting maximum value of the shearing stress in the block is 2.5 ksi, determine
(a) the magnitude of P, (b) the orientation of the surface on which the maximum
shearing stress occurs, (c) the normal stress exerted on that surface, (d ) the
maximum value of the normal stress in the block.

6 in.
6 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (6)(6) 36 in 2
max 2.5 ksi
45 for plane of max
| P|
(a) max | P | 2 A0 max (2)(36)(2.5) P 180.0 kips
2 A0
(b) sin 2 1 2 90 45.0
P P 180
(c) 45 cos 2 45 45 2.50 ksi
A0 2 A0 (2)(36)
P 180
(d ) max max 5.00 ksi
A0 36

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37
P PROBLEM 1.34

A 240-kip load P is applied to the granite block shown. Determine the resulting
maximum value of (a) the normal stress, (b) the shearing stress. Specify the
orientation of the plane on which each of these maximum values occurs.

6 in.
6 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (6)(6) 36 in 2
P 240
cos 2 cos 2 6.67 cos 2
A0 36
(a) max tensile stress 0 at 90.0
max. compressive stress 6.67 ksi at 0
P 240
(b) max
2 A0 (2)(36)
max 3.33 ksi
at 45

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38
P PROBLEM 1.35

A steel pipe of 400-mm outer diameter is fabricated from 10-mm thick


10 mm
plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 300-kN axial
force P is applied to the pipe, determine the normal and shearing
stresses in directions respectively normal and tangential to the weld.
Weld

208

SOLUTION
d o 0.400 m
1
ro d o 0.200 m
2
ri ro t 0.200 0.010 0.190 m
Ao (ro2 ri2 ) (0.2002 0.1902 )
12.2522 103 m 2
20
P 300 103 cos 2 20
cos 2 21.621 106 Pa 21.6 MPa
Ao 12.2522 103
P 300 103 sin 40
sin 2 7.8695 106 Pa 7.87 MPa
2 A0 (2)(12.2522 103 )

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39
P PROBLEM 1.36

A steel pipe of 400-mm outer diameter is fabricated from 10-mm


10 mm
thick plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a
plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that the
maximum allowable normal and shearing stresses in the directions
respectively normal and tangential to the weld are 60 MPa and
Weld 36 MPa, determine the magnitude P of the largest axial force that
208 can be applied to the pipe.

SOLUTION
d o 0.400 m
1
ro d o 0.200 m
2
ri ro t 0.200 0.010 0.190 m
Ao (ro2 ri2 ) (0.2002 0.1902 )
12.2522 103 m 2
20
P
Based on | | 60 MPa: cos 2
A0

Ao (12.2522 103 )(60 106 )


P 832.52 103 N
cos 2 cos 2 20
P
Based on | | 30 MPa: sin 2
2 Ao
2 Ao (2)(12.2522 103 )(36 106 )
P 1372.39 103 N
sin 2 sin 40
Smaller value is the allowable value of P. P 833 kN

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40
Q PROBLEM 1.37
12 in. 12 in.
E A steel loop ABCD of length 5 ft and of 83 -in. diameter is placed as
B shown around a 1-in.-diameter aluminum rod AC. Cables BE and DF,
each of 12 -in. diameter, are used to apply the load Q. Knowing that the
9 in. ultimate strength of the steel used for the loop and the cables is 70 ksi,
1 in.
and that the ultimate strength of the aluminum used for the rod is 38 ksi,
A
C determine the largest load Q that can be applied if an overall factor of
safety of 3 is desired.
9 in.
3
8
in.
D
1
2
in.
F

Q'

SOLUTION

Using joint B as a free body and considering symmetry,


3 6
2 FAB Q 0 Q FAB
5 5
Using joint A as a free body and considering symmetry,
4
2 FAB FAC 0
5
8 5 3
Q FAC 0 Q FAC
5 6 4
Based on strength of cable BE,
2
1
QU U A U d 2 (70) 13.7445 kips
4 4 2
Based on strength of steel loop,
6 6 6
QU FAB, U U A U d 2
5 5 5 4
2
6 3
(70) 9.2775 kips
5 4 8
Based on strength of rod AC,
3 3 3 3
QU FAC , U U A U d 2 (38) (1.0)2 22.384 kips
4 4 4 4 4 4
Actual ultimate load QU is the smallest, QU 9.2775 kips
QU 9.2775
Allowable load: Q 3.0925 kips Q 3.09 kips
F.S . 3

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41
PROBLEM 1.38
A B
w
908 Link BC is 6 mm thick, has a width w 25 mm, and is made of a steel with
480 mm a 480-MPa ultimate strength in tension. What was the safety factor used if the
structure shown was designed to support a 16-kN load P?
C
D

SOLUTION

Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

M A 0:
(480) FBC (600) P 0
600 (600)(16 103 )
FBC P 20 103 N
480 480
Ultimate load for member BC: FU U A

FU (480 106 )(0.006)(0.025) 72 103 N

FU 72 103
Factor of safety: F.S. F.S. 3.60
FBC 20 103

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42
PROBLEM 1.39
A B
w
908 Link BC is 6 mm thick and is made of a steel with a 450-MPa ultimate strength in
480 mm tension. What should be its width w if the structure shown is being designed to
support a 20-kN load P with a factor of safety of 3?
C
D

SOLUTION

Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

M A 0:
(480) FBC 600P 0
600P (600)(20 103 )
FBC 25 103 N
480 480
For a factor of safety F.S. 3, the ultimate load of member BC is
FU (F.S.)( FBC ) (3)(25 103 ) 75 103 N
FU 75 103
But FU U A A 166.667 106 m 2
U 450 10 6

A 166.667 106
For a rectangular section, A wt or w 27.778 103 m
t 0.006
w 27.8 mm

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43
0.75 m PROBLEM 1.40
A

0.4 m Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known
that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an
B ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If a factor of safety of 3.2 is to be
1.4 m achieved for both bars, determine the required cross-sectional area of (a) bar
AB, (b) bar AC.

SOLUTION

Length of member AB:

AB 0.752 0.42 0.85 m

Use entire truss as a free body.


M c 0: 1.4 Ax (0.75)(28) 0
Ax 15 kN

Fy 0: Ay 28 0
Ay 28 kN

Use Joint A as free body.


0.75
Fx 0: FAB Ax 0
0.85
(0.85)(15)
FAB 17 kN
0.75
0.4
Fy 0: Ay FAC FAB 0
0.85
(0.4)(17)
FAC 28 20 kN
0.85

For the test bar, A (0.020)2 400 106 m 2 PU 120 103 N

PU 120 103
For the material, U 300 106 Pa
A 400 106

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44
PROBLEM 1.40 (Continued)

PU A
(a) For member AB: F.S. U AB
FAB FAB
(F.S.) FAB (3.2)(17 103 )
AAB 181.333 106 m 2 AAB 181.3 mm 2
U 300 106
PU A
(b) For member AC: F.S. U AC
FAC FAC
(F.S.) FAC (3.2)(20 103 )
AAC 213.33 106 m 2 AAC 213 mm 2
U 300 106

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45
0.75 m PROBLEM 1.41
A

0.4 m Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known
that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an
B ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If bar AB has a cross-sectional area of
1.4 m 225 mm2, determine (a) the factor of safety for bar AB and (b) the cross-
sectional area of bar AC if it is to have the same factor of safety as bar AB.

SOLUTION

Length of member AB:

AB 0.752 0.42 0.85 m

Use entire truss as a free body.


M c 0: 1.4 Ax (0.75)(28) 0
Ax 15 kN

Fy 0: Ay 28 0
Ay 28 kN

Use Joint A as free body.


0.75
Fx 0: FAB Ax 0
0.85
(0.85)(15)
FAB 17 kN
0.75
0.4
Fy 0: Ay FAC FAB 0
0.85
(0.4)(17)
FAC 28 20 kN
0.85

For the test bar, A (0.020)2 400 106 m 2 PU 120 103 N

PU 120 103
For the material, U 300 106 Pa
A 400 106

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46
PROBLEM 1.41 (Continued)

FU A (300 106 )(225 106 )


(a) For bar AB: F.S. U AB
FAB FAB 17 103
F.S. 3.97
FU A
(b) For bar AC: F.S. U AC
FAC FAC
(F.S.) FAC (3.97)(20 103 )
AAC 264.67 106 m 2 AAC 265 mm 2
U 300 106

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47
A
PROBLEM 1.42
600 lb/ft
35 Link AB is to be made of a steel for which the ultimate normal stress is
E
B C D 65 ksi. Determine the cross-sectional area of AB for which the factor
of safety will be 3.20. Assume that the link will be adequately
5 kips reinforced around the pins at A and B.
1.4 ft 1.4 ft 1.4 ft

SOLUTION

P (4.2)(0.6) 2.52 kips


M D 0 : (2.8)( FAB sin 35)
(0.7)(2.52) (1.4)(5) 0

FAB 5.4570 kips


FAB
AB ult
AAB F. S .
( F. S .) FAB (3.20)(5.4570 kips)
AAB
ult 65 ksi
0.26854 in 2 AAB 0.268 in 2

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48
16 kN PROBLEM 1.43

Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that are fully glued on
the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the ends of the members
is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued joint is 2.5 MPa,
determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for the loading shown.
L
6 mm

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION
2.5 MPa
all 0.90909 MPa
2.75
On one face of the upper contact surface,
L 0.006 m
A (0.125 m)
2
Since there are 2 contact surfaces,
P
all
2A
16 103
0.90909 106
( L 0.006)(0.125)
L 0.14680 m 146.8 mm

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49
16 kN PROBLEM 1.44

For the joint and loading of Prob. 1.43, determine the factor of safety when
L = 180 mm.

PROBLEM 1.43 Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that
L
6 mm are fully glued on the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the
ends of the members is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued
joint is 2.5 MPa, determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for
the loading shown.
125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION

Area of one face of upper contact surface:


0.180 m 0.006 m
A (0.125 m)
2
A 10.8750 103 m 2
Since there are two surfaces,
P 16 103 N
all
2 A 2(10.8750 103 m 2 )
all 0.73563 MPa
u 2.5 MPa
F.S. 3.40
all 0.73563 MPa

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on a website, in whole or part.

50
PROBLEM 1.45

Three 34 -in.-diameter steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to
a wooden beam. Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 24 kips and that
the ultimate shearing stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, determine the factor of
safety for this design.

SOLUTION
2
3
For each bolt, A d2 0.44179 in
2
4 44
PU A U (0.44179)(52)
22.973 kips

For the three bolts, PU (3)(22.973) 68.919 kips

Factor of safety:
PU 68.919
F. S . F. S . 2.87
P 24

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51
PROBLEM 1.46

Three steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to a wooden beam.
Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 28 kips, that the ultimate shearing
stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, and that a factor of safety of 3.25 is desired,
determine the required diameter of the bolts.

SOLUTION
24
For each bolt, P 8 kips
3

Required: PU ( F. S.) P (3.25)(8.0) 26.0 kips

PU P 4P
U U 2 U2
A 4
d d
4 PU (4)(26.0)
d 0.79789 in. d 0.798 in.
U (52)

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52
PROBLEM 1.47

A load P is supported as shown by a steel pin that has been inserted in a


short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The ultimate strength of
the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in shear, while the
ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear. Knowing that
b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the load P if an
d
overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.
1
2 P

1
2 P
c

b
40 mm

SOLUTION

Based on double shear in pin,



PU 2 A U 2 d 2 U
4

(2)(0.012) 2 (145 106 ) 32.80 103 N
4
Based on tension in wood,
PU A U w (b d ) U
(0.040)(0.040 0.012)(60 106 )
67.2 103 N
Based on double shear in the wood,
PU 2 AU 2wc U (2)(0.040)(0.055)(7.5 106 )
33.0 103 N
Use smallest PU 32.8 103 N
PU 32.8 103
Allowable: P 10.25 103 N 10.25 kN
F .S. 3.2

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53
PROBLEM 1.48

For the support of Prob. 1.47, knowing that the diameter of the pin is
d 16 mm and that the magnitude of the load is P 20 kN, determine
(a) the factor of safety for the pin, (b) the required values of b and c if the
factor of safety for the wooden members is the same as that found in part a
for the pin.
d
1
2 P PROBLEM 1.47 A load P is supported as shown by a steel pin that has
been inserted in a short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The
1 ultimate strength of the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in
P
c 2
shear, while the ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear.
Knowing that b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the
b load P if an overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.
40 mm

SOLUTION

P 20 kN 20 103 N

(a) Pin: A d2 (0.016) 2 2.01.06 106 m 2
4 4
P P
Double shear: U U
2A 2A
PU 2 A U (2)(201.16 106 )(145 106 ) 58.336 103 N

PU 58.336 103
F .S. F .S. 2.92
P 20 103
(b) Tension in wood: PU 58.336 103 N for same F.S.
PU PU
U where w 40 mm 0.040 m
A w(b d )

PU 58.336 103
bd 0.016 40.3 103 m b 40.3 mm
w U (0.040)(60 106 )
Shear in wood: PU 58.336 103 N for same F.S.
PU P
Double shear: each area is A wc U U
2 A 2wc
PU 58.336 103
c 97.2 103 m c 97.2 mm
2w U (2)(0.040)(7.5 106 )

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54
PROBLEM 1.49

A steel plate 14 in. thick is embedded in a


concrete wall to anchor a high-strength cable
as shown. The diameter of the hole in the plate
is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the steel used is
a
36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding stress between
3
4
in. plate and concrete is 300 psi. Knowing that a
1 in. factor of safety of 3.60 is desired when
4
P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required width a
b
of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to which a
P
plate of that width should be embedded in the
concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses
between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

SOLUTION

Based on tension in plate,

A (a d )t
PU U A
PU (a d )t
F .S. U
P P

Solving for a,
( F .S .) P 3 (3.60)(2.5)
ad
U t 4 (36) 14

(a) a 1.750 in.


Based on shear between plate and concrete slab,
A perimeter depth 2(a t )b U 0.300 ksi
PU
PU U A 2 U (a t )b F .S.
P
( F .S .) P (3.6)(2.5)
Solving for b, b
2(a t ) U (2) 1.75 14 (0.300)

(b) b 7.50 in.

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55
PROBLEM 1.50

Determine the factor of safety for the cable


anchor in Prob. 1.49 when P 2.5 kips, knowing
that a 2 in. and b 6 in.

PROBLEM 1.49 A steel plate 14 in. thick is


a embedded in a concrete wall to anchor a high-
3
strength cable as shown. The diameter of the hole
in.
4
1
in the plate is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the
in.
4 steel used is 36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding
stress between plate and concrete is 300 psi.
b
Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.60 is desired
P
when P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required
width a of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to
which a plate of that width should be embedded
in the concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses
between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

SOLUTION

Based on tension in plate,

A (a d )t
3 1
2 0.31250 in 2
4 4
PU U A
(36)(0.31250) 11.2500 kips
PU 11.2500
F .S . 4.50
P 3.5

Based on shear between plate and concrete slab,


1
A perimeter depth 2(a t )b 2 2 (6.0)
4
A 27.0 in 2 U 0.300 ksi
PU U A (0.300)(27.0) 8.10 kips
PU 8.10
F .S . 3.240
P 2.5
Actual factor of safety is the smaller value. F .S . 3.24

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56
A PROBLEM 1.51
1
2
in. Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate normal stress and has
a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is connected to a
8 in.
support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter pins, while
member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.-diameter pin.
B C D All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate shearing stress
and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.25 is
6 in. 4 in. desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D. Note that
P link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

SOLUTION

Use free body BCD.


8
M B 0 : (6) FAC 10 P 0
10
P 0.48 FAC (1)
6
Fx 0 : Bx FAC 0
10
6
Bx FAC 1.25P
10
M C 0 : 6By 4P 0
2 2
By P i.e. By P
3 3
2
2
B Bx2 By2 1.252 P 1.41667 P P 0.70588B (2)
3
Shear in pins at A and C.
2
U 25 3
FAC Apin d2 0.84959 kips
F. S . 4 3.25 4 8
Tension on net section of A and C.
U 65 1 1 3
FAC Anet Anet 0.625 kips
F. S . 3.25 4 2 8
Smaller value of FAC is 0.625 kips.
From (1), P (0.48)(0.625) 0.300 kips
2
U 25 5
Shear in pin at B. B Apin d2 0.58999 kips
F. S. 4 3.25 4 16
From (2), P (0.70588)(0.58999) 0.416 kips
Allowable value of P is the smaller value. P 0.300 kips or P 300 lb

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57
PROBLEM 1.52
A Solve Prob. 1.51, assuming that the structure has been redesigned to use
5
16
-in-diameter pins at A and C as well as at B and that no other changes
1
2
in. have been made.
8 in.
PROBLEM 1.51 Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate
normal stress and has a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is
B C D connected to a support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter
pins, while member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.-
6 in. 4 in. diameter pin. All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate
P shearing stress and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of
3.25 is desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D.
Note that link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

SOLUTION

Use free body BCD.


8
M B 0 : (6) FAC 10 P 0
10
P 0.48 FAC (1)
6
Fy 0 : Bx FAC 0
10
6
Bx FAC 1.25P
10
M C 0 : 6By 4 P 0
2 2
By P i.e. By P
3 3
2
2
B Bx2 By2 2
1.25 P 1.41667 P P 0.70583 B (2)
3
Shear in pins at A and C.
2
U 25 5
FAC Apin d2 0.58999 kips
F. S . 4 3.25 4 16
Tension on net section of A and C.
U 65 1 1 5
FAC Anet Anet 0.9375 kips
F. S . 3.25 4 2 16
Smaller value of FAC is 0.58999 kips.
From (1), P (0.48)(0.58999) 0.283 kips
2
U 25 5
Shear in pin at B. B Apin d2 0.58999 kips
F. S. 4 3.25 4 16
From (2), P (0.70588)(0.58999) 0.416 kips
Allowable value of P is the smaller value. P 0.283 kips or P 283 lb

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58
250 mm PROBLEM 1.53
400 mm
Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two horizontal
A
B
250 mm members AD and EG has a 10 40-mm uniform rectangular cross
section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of
C 400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and
D are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.
E
Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins
F G
connecting them to the horizontal members.

24 kN

SOLUTION

M E 0 : 0.40 FCF (0.65)(24 103 ) 0


FCF 39 103 N

Based on tension in links CF,


A (b d ) t (0.040 0.02)(0.010) 200 106 m 2 (one link)
6
FU 2 U A (2)(400 10 )(200 10 ) 160.0 10 N
6 3

Based on double shear in pins,


A d2 (0.020) 2 314.16 106 m 2
4 4
FU 2 U A (2)(150 106 )(314.16 106 ) 94.248 103 N

Actual FU is smaller value, i.e. FU 94.248 103 N


FU 94.248 103
Factor of safety: F. S . F. S . 2.42
FCF 39 103

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59
250 mm PROBLEM 1.54
400 mm
Solve Prob. 1.53, assuming that the pins at C and F have been replaced
A
B
250 mm by pins with a 30-mm diameter.

C PROBLEM 1.53 Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two
D horizontal members AD and EG has a 10 40-mm uniform rectangular
E cross section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of
F 400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and
G
are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.
Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins
24 kN connecting them to the horizontal members.

SOLUTION

Use member EFG as free body.

M E 0 : 0.40FCF (0.65)(24 103 ) 0


FCF 39 103 N
Based on tension in links CF,

A (b d ) t (0.040 0.030)(0.010) 100 106 m 2 (one link)


6
6
FU 2 U A (2)(400 10 )(100 10 ) 80.0 10 N 3

Based on double shear in pins,


A d2 (0.030) 2 706.86 106 m 2
4 4
FU 2 U A (2)(150 106 )(706.86 106 ) 212.06 103 N

Actual FU is smaller value, i.e. FU 80.0 103 N


FU 80.0 103
Factor of safety: F. S . F. S . 2.05
FCF 39 103

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60
Top view PROBLEM 1.55
200 mm 180 mm
12 mm
In the structure shown, an 8-mm-diameter pin
8 mm is used at A, and 12-mm-diameter pins are
A B C used at B and D. Knowing that the ultimate
shearing stress is 100 MPa at all connections
and that the ultimate normal stress is 250 MPa
A
B
C in each of the two links joining B and D,
B determine the allowable load P if an overall
factor of safety of 3.0 is desired.
20 mm P 8 mm
8 mm

D D

Front view 12 mm
Side view

SOLUTION

Statics: Use ABC as free body.


10
M B 0 : 0.20 FA 0.18P 0 P FA
9
10
M A 0 : 0.20FBD 0.38P 0 P FBD
19

Based on double shear in pin A, A d2 (0.008)2 50.266 106 m 2
4 4
2 U A (2)(100 106 )(50.266 106 )
FA 3.351 103 N
F .S . 3.0
10
P FA 3.72 103 N
9

Based on double shear in pins at B and D, A d2 (0.012) 2 113.10 106 m 2
4 4
2 U A (2)(100 106 )(113.10 106 )
FBD 7.54 103 N
F .S. 3.0
10
P FBD 3.97 103 N
19
Based on compression in links BD, for one link, A (0.020)(0.008) 160 106 m 2
2 U A (2)(250 106 )(160 106 )
FBD 26.7 103 N
F .S . 3.0
10
P FBD 14.04 103 N
19
Allowable value of P is smallest, P 3.72 103 N P 3.72 kN

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61
PROBLEM 1.56
Top view
200 mm 180 mm
12 mm In an alternative design for the structure of
Prob. 1.55, a pin of 10-mm-diameter is to be
8 mm used at A. Assuming that all other
A B C specifications remain unchanged, determine
the allowable load P if an overall factor of
safety of 3.0 is desired.
B
A C
B PROBLEM 1.55 In the structure shown, an 8-
mm-diameter pin is used at A, and 12-mm-
20 mm P diameter pins are used at B and D. Knowing
8 mm
8 mm that the ultimate shearing stress is 100 MPa at
D D all connections and that the ultimate normal
stress is 250 MPa in each of the two links
Front view 12 mm joining B and D, determine the allowable load
Side view P if an overall factor of safety of 3.0 is
desired.

SOLUTION

Statics: Use ABC as free body.


10
M B 0: 0.20 FA 0.18P 0 P FA
9
10
M A 0: 0.20 FBD 0.38P 0 P FBD
19

Based on double shear in pin A, A d2 (0.010) 2 78.54 106 m 2
4 4
2 U A (2)(100 106 )(78.54 106 )
FA 5.236 103 N
F .S . 3.0
10
P FA 5.82 103 N
9

Based on double shear in pins at B and D, A d2 (0.012) 2 113.10 106 m 2
4 4
2 U A (2)(100 106 )(113.10 106 )
FBD 7.54 103 N
F .S . 3.0
10
P FBD 3.97 103 N
19
Based on compression in links BD, for one link, A (0.020)(0.008) 160 106 m 2
2 U A (2)(250 106 )(160 106 )
FBD 26.7 103 N
F .S. 3.0
10
P FBD 14.04 103 N
19
Allowable value of P is smallest, P 3.97 103 N P 3.97 kN

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62
C PROBLEM 1.57

A 40-kg platform is attached to the end B of a 50-kg wooden beam AB,


1.8 m which is supported as shown by a pin at A and by a slender steel rod BC
A B
with a 12-kN ultimate load. (a) Using the Load and Resistance Factor
Design method with a resistance factor 0.90 and load factors
D 1.25 and L 1.6, determine the largest load that can be safely
2.4 m
placed on the platform. (b) What is the corresponding conventional
factor of safety for rod BC?

SOLUTION

3
M A 0 : (2.4) P 2.4W1 1.2W2
5
5 5
P W1 W2
3 6

For dead loading, W1 (40)(9.81) 392.4 N, W2 (50)(9.81) 490.5 N


5 5
PD (392.4) (490.5) 1.0628 103 N
3 6
5
For live loading, W1 mg W2 0 PL mg
3
3 PL
From which m
5 g

Design criterion: D PD L PL PU
PU D PD (0.90)(12 103 ) (1.25)(1.0628 103 )
PL
L 1.6
5.920 103 N
3 5.92 103
(a) Allowable load. m m 362 kg
5 9.81
Conventional factor of safety:
P PD PL 1.0628 103 5.920 103 6.983 103 N

PU 12 103
(b) F. S. F. S. 1.718
P 6.983 103

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63
P P PROBLEM 1.58

The Load and Resistance Factor Design method is to be used to select


the two cables that will raise and lower a platform supporting two
window washers. The platform weighs 160 lb and each of the window
washers is assumed to weigh 195 lb with equipment. Since these
workers are free to move on the platform, 75% of their total weight and
the weight of their equipment will be used as the design live load of each
cable. (a) Assuming a resistance factor 0.85 and load factors
D 1.2 and L 1.5, determine the required minimum ultimate load of
one cable. (b) What is the corresponding conventional factor of safety
for the selected cables?

SOLUTION

D PD L PL PU
D PD L PL
(a) PU

1 3
(1.2) 160 (1.5) 2 195
2 4 PU 629 lb
0.85
Conventional factor of safety:
1
P PD PL 160 0.75 2 195 372.5 lb
2
PU 629
(b) F. S. F. S. 1.689
P 372.5

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64
15 m 25 m 3m PROBLEM 1.59
B
In the marine crane shown, link CD is known to have a
uniform cross section of 50 150 mm. For the loading
shown, determine`` the normal stress in the central portion
35 m of that link.

C 80 Mg

15 m
D
A

SOLUTION

Weight of loading: W (80 Mg)(9.81 m/s 2 ) 784.8 kN


Free Body: Portion ABC.

M A 0: FCD (15 m) W (28 m) 0


28 28
FCD W (784.8 kN)
15 15
FCD 1465 kN

FCD 1465 103 N


CD 195.3 106 Pa CD 195.3 MPa
A (0.050 m)(0.150 m)

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65
0.5 in. PROBLEM 1.60

Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the assembly shown.
B Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each connection,
1.8 in. determine the maximum value of the average normal stress (a) in link
5 kips
5 kips
AB, (b) in link BC.
0.5 in.
A 60
45 1.8 in.

SOLUTION

Use joint B as free body.

Law of Sines:
FAB FBC 10

sin 45 sin 60 sin 95
FAB 7.3205 kips

FBC 8.9658 kips


Link AB is a tension member.

Minimum section at pin: Anet (1.8 0.8)(0.5) 0.5 in 2

FAB 7.3205
(a) Stress in AB : AB AB 14.64 ksi
Anet 0.5

Link BC is a compression member.

Cross sectional area is A (1.8)(0.5) 0.9 in 2

FBC 8.9658
(b) Stress in BC: BC BC 9.96 ksi
A 0.9

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66
0.5 in. PROBLEM 1.61

For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.60, determine (a) the average
B shearing stress in the pin at C, (b) the average bearing stress at C in
1.8 in.
member BC, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.
5 kips
5 kips
PROBLEM 1.60 Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the
0.5 in.
60 assembly shown. Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each
A
45 1.8 in. connection, determine the maximum value of the average normal stress
(a) in link AB, (b) in link BC.

SOLUTION

Use joint B as free body.

Law of Sines:
FAB FBC 10
FBC 8.9658 kips
sin 45 sin 60 sin 95

FBC
(a) Shearing stress in pin at C.
2 AP


AP d2
(0.8)2 0.5026 in 2
4 4
8.9658
8.92 8.92 ksi
(2)(0.5026)

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67
PROBLEM 1.61 (Continued)

FBC
(b) Bearing stress at C in member BC. b
A

A td (0.5)(0.8) 0.4 in 2
8.9658
b 22.4 b 22.4 ksi
0.4

FBC
(c) Bearing stress at B in member BC. b
A

A 2td 2(0.5)(0.8) 0.8 in 2


8.9658
b 11.21 b 11.21 ksi
0.8

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68
PROBLEM 1.62

Two steel plates are to be held together by means of 16-mm-


diameter high-strength steel bolts fitting snugly inside cylindrical
brass spacers. Knowing that the average normal stress must not
exceed 200 MPa in the bolts and 130 MPa in the spacers,
determine the outer diameter of the spacers that yields the most
economical and safe design.

SOLUTION

At each bolt location the upper plate is pulled down by the tensile force Pb of the bolt. At the same time, the
spacer pushes that plate upward with a compressive force Ps in order to maintain equilibrium.

Pb Ps

Fb 4 Pb
For the bolt, b or Pb b db2
Ab db2 4

Ps 4 Ps
For the spacer, s or Ps s (d s2 db2 )
As (d s db2 )
2
4

Equating Pb and Ps ,


b db2 s (d s2 db2 )
4 4
b 200
ds 1 d 1 (16) d s 25.2 mm
s b 130

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69
P PROBLEM 1.63

A couple M of magnitude 1500 N m is applied to the crank of an engine. For the


position shown, determine (a) the force P required to hold the engine system in
C equilibrium, (b) the average normal stress in the connecting rod BC, which has a
450-mm2 uniform cross section.
200 mm

B
80 mm
M
A

60 mm

SOLUTION

Use piston, rod, and crank together as free body. Add wall reaction H
and bearing reactions Ax and Ay.
M A 0 : (0.280 m) H 1500 N m 0
H 5.3571 103 N
Use piston alone as free body. Note that rod is a two-force member;
hence the direction of force FBC is known. Draw the force triangle
and solve for P and FBE by proportions.

l 2002 602 208.81 mm


P 200
P 17.86 103 N
H 60

(a) P 17.86 kN
FBC 208.81
FBC 18.6436 103 N
H 60
Rod BC is a compression member. Its area is

450 mm 2 450 106 m 2


Stress:
FBC 18.6436 103
BC 41.430 106 Pa
A 450 106


(b) BC 41.4 MPa

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70
4 in.
12 in.
4 in. PROBLEM 1.64
E
2 in. B D Knowing that the link DE is 18 in. thick and 1 in. wide, determine
C J D
the normal stress in the central portion of that link when
6 in. (a) 0, (b) 90.
8 in.

A
F

60 lb

SOLUTION

Use member CEF as a free body.

M C 0 : 12 FDE (8)(60 sin ) (16)(60 cos ) 0


FDE 40 sin 80 cos lb
1
ADE (1) 0.125 in 2
8
F
DE DE
ADE

(a) 0: FDE 80 lb
80
DE DE 640 psi
0.125

(b) 90: FDE 40 lb


40
DE DE 320 psi
0.125

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71
1 in. 1500 lb PROBLEM 1.65
750 lb
A 85 -in.-diameter steel rod AB is fitted to a round hole near end C of
A 4 in.
D the wooden member CD. For the loading shown, determine (a) the
750 lb maximum average normal stress in the wood, (b) the distance b for
B which the average shearing stress is 100 psi on the surfaces indicated
C by the dashed lines, (c) the average bearing stress on the wood.
b

SOLUTION

(a) Maximum normal stress in the wood.


5 2
Anet (1) 4 3.375 in
8
P 1500
444 psi 444 psi
Anet 3.375

(b) Distance b for = 100 psi.


For sheared area see dotted lines.
P P

A 2bt
P 1500
b 7.50 in. b 7.50 in.
2t (2)(1)(100)
(c) Average bearing stress on the wood.
P P 1500
b 2400 psi b 2400 psi
Ab dt 5
(1)
8

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72
PROBLEM 1.66
D D
Front view In the steel structure shown, a 6-mm-
diameter pin is used at C and 10-mm-
18 mm 6 mm diameter pins are used at B and D. The
ultimate shearing stress is 150 MPa at all
connections, and the ultimate normal
A B stress is 400 MPa in link BD. Knowing
B C
that a factor of safety of 3.0 is desired,
Side view
160 mm 120 mm determine the largest load P that can be
P applied at A. Note that link BD is not
reinforced around the pin holes.
A
B
Top view C

SOLUTION

Use free body ABC.

M C 0 : 0.280 P 0.120 FBD 0


3
P FBD (1)
7
M B 0 : 0.160 P 0.120 C 0
3
P C (2)
4
Tension on net section of link BD:
U 400 106 3 3
FBD Anet Anet 3
(6 10 )(18 10)(10 ) 6.40 10 N
F. S. 3
Shear in pins at B and D:
U 150 106 3 2
FBD Apin d 2 3
(10 10 ) 3.9270 10 N
F. S. 4 3 4

Smaller value of FBD is 3.9270 103 N.
3
From (1), P (3.9270 103 ) 1.683 103 N
7
U 150 106 3 2
Shear in pin at C: C 2 Apin 2 d 2 (2) 3
(6 10 ) 2.8274 10 N
F. S . 4 3 4
3
From (2), P (2.8274 103 ) 2.12 103 N
4
Smaller value of P is allowable value. P 1.683 103 N P 1.683 kN

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73
D
PROBLEM 1.67
40 P
A 30 Member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C and a cable
BD, was designed to support the 16-kN load P as shown. Knowing that
B
the ultimate load for cable BD is 100 kN, determine the factor of safety
0.6 m with respect to cable failure.
C

0.8 m 0.4 m

SOLUTION

Use member ABC as a free body, and note that member BD is a two-force member.
M c 0 : ( P cos 40)(1.2) ( P sin 40)(0.6)
( FBD cos 30)(0.6)
( FBD sin 30)(0.4) 0
1.30493P 0.71962FBD 0

FBD 1.81335P (1.81335)(16 103 ) 29.014 103 N


FU 100 103 N
FU 100 103
F. S . F. S. 3.45
FBD 29.014 103

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74
PROBLEM 1.68

A force P is applied as shown to a steel reinforcing bar that has


been embedded in a block of concrete. Determine the smallest
length L for which the full allowable normal stress in the bar can be
developed. Express the result in terms of the diameter d of the bar,
L d the allowable normal stress all in the steel, and the average
P allowable bond stress all between the concrete and the cylindrical
surface of the bar. (Neglect the normal stresses between the
concrete and the end of the bar.)

SOLUTION

For shear, A dL
P all A all dL


For tension, A d2
4

P all A all d 2
4

Equating, all dL all d2
4
Solving for L, Lmin alld/4 all

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75
2.4 kips PROBLEM 1.69

The two portions of member AB are glued together along a plane


A forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress
for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine
(a) the value of for which the factor of safety of the member is
maximum, (b) the corresponding value of the factor of safety. (Hint:
B
Equate the expressions obtained for the factors of safety with respect to the
normal and shearing stresses.)

1.25 in.
2.0 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (2.0)(1.25) 2.50 in 2

At the optimum angle, ( F. S.) ( F. S.)

P U A0
Normal stress: cos 2 PU ,
A0 cos 2

PU , U A0
( F. S .)
P P cos 2
P U A0
Shearing stress: sin cos PU ,
A0 sin cos
PU , U A0
( F. S.)
P P sin cos

U A0 U A0
Equating,
P cos 2
P sin cos

sin 1.3
Solving, tan U 0.520 (a) opt 27.5
cos U 2.5

U A0 (12.5)(2.50)
(b) PU 7.94 kips
cos
2
cos 2 27.5
PU 7.94
F. S. F. S. 3.31
P 2.4

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76
2.4 kips PROBLEM 1.70

The two portions of member AB are glued together along a plane


A forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress
for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine
the range of values of for which the factor of safety of the members is
at least 3.0.
B

1.25 in.
2.0 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (2.0)(1.25) 2.50 in.2


P 2.4 kips
PU ( F. S.) P 7.2 kips

Based on tensile stress,


PU
U cos 2
A0
U A0 (2.5)(2.50)
cos 2 0.86806
PU 7.2
cos 0.93169 21.3 21.3
PU P
Based on shearing stress, U sin cos U sin 2
A0 2 A0

2 A0U (2)(2.50)(1.3)
sin 2 0.90278
PU 7.2

2 64.52 32.3 32.3


Hence, 21.3 32.3

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77
PROBLEM 1.C1
Element n A solid steel rod consisting of n cylindrical elements welded together is subjected to the
Pn
loading shown. The diameter of element i is denoted by di and the load applied to its
lower end by Pi with the magnitude Pi of this load being assumed positive if Pi is
directed downward as shown and negative otherwise. (a) Write a computer program
that can be used with either SI or U.S. customary units to determine the average stress
in each element of the rod. (b) Use this program to solve Problems 1.1 and 1.3.

Element 1

P1

SOLUTION

Force in element i:
It is the sum of the forces applied to that element and all lower ones:
i
Fi P
k 1
k

Average stress in element i:


1
Area Ai di2
4
Fi
Ave. stress
Ai
Program outputs:

Problem 1.1 Problem 1.3


Element Stress (MPa) Element Stress (ksi)
1 84.883 1 22.635
2 96.766 2 17.927

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78
PROBLEM 1.C2

A 20-kN load is applied as shown to the horizontal member ABC.


Member ABC has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross section
0.4 m and is supported by four vertical links, each of 8 36-mm uniform
C
rectangular cross section. Each of the four pins at A, B, C, and D has the
same diameter d and is in double shear. (a) Write a computer program
0.25 m
0.2 m to calculate for values of d from 10 to 30 mm, using 1-mm increments,
B
(i) the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links
connecting pins B and D, (ii) the average normal stress in the links
20 kN E connecting pins C and E, (iii) the average shearing stress in pin B,
(iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average bearing stress
D
at B in member ABC, and (vi) the average bearing stress at C in member
A
ABC. (b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for
d 16 mm with the answers given for Probs. 1.7 and 1.27. (c) Use this
program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the pins,
knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and bearing
stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 150 MPa, 90 MPa, and
230 MPa. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that the thickness of member ABC
has been reduced from 10 to 8 mm.

SOLUTION
P = 20 kN
Forces in links.
F.B. diagram of ABC:
M C 0: 2FBD ( BC ) P( AC ) 0
FBD P( AC )/2( BC ) (tension)
M B 0: 2FCE ( BC ) P( AB) 0
FCE P( AB)/2( BC ) (comp.)
(i) Link BD. (ii) Link CE.
Thickness t L Thickness t L
ABD t L ( wL d ) ACE tL wL
BD FBD / ABD CE FCE / ACE
(iii) Pin B. (iv) Pin C.
B FBD /( d 2 /4) C FCE /( d 2 /4)
(v) Bearing stress at B. Shearing stress in ABC under Pin B.
Thickness of member AC t AC FB AC t AC ( wAC /2)
Fy 0: 2FB 2 FBD
Sig Bear B FBD /(dt AC )
(vi) Bearing stress at C. 2 FBD
AC
Sig Bear C FCE /( dt AC ) AC wAC

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79
PROBLEM 1.C2 (Continued)

Program Outputs
Input data for Parts (a), (b), (c):
P 20 kN, AB 0.25 m, BC 0.40 m, AC 0.65 m,
TL 8 mm, WL 36 mm, TAC 10 mm, WAC 50 mm

(c) Answer: 16 mm d 22 mm (c)

Check: For d 22 mm, Tau AC = 65 MPa < 90 MPa O.K.

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80
PROBLEM 1.C2 (Continued)

Input data for Part (d): P 20 kN,


AB = 0.25 m, BC = 0.40 m,
AC = 0.65 m, TL = 8 mm, WL = 36 mm,
TAC 8 mm, WAC 50 mm

(d) Answer: 18 mm d 22 mm (d)

Check: For d = 22 mm, Tau AC = 81.25 MPa < 90 MPa O.K.

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81
PROBLEM 1.C3
0.5 in.
Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to Pin B of the assembly
shown. Each of the three pins at A, B, and C has the same diameter d
and is double shear. (a) Write a computer program to calculate for
B values of d from 0.50 to 1.50 in., using 0.05-in. increments, (i) the
1.8 in.
5 kips maximum value of the average normal stress in member AB, (ii) the
5 kips average normal stress in member BC, (iii) the average shearing stress
0.5 in. in pin A, (iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average
60
A bearing stress at A in member AB, (vi) the average bearing stress at C
1.8 in.
45 in member BC, and (vii) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.
(b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for
d 0.8 in. with the answers given for Problems 1.60 and 1.61. (c) Use
C
this program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the
pins, knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and
bearing stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 22 ksi, 13 ksi, and
36 ksi. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that a new design is being
investigated in which the thickness and width of the two members are
changed, respectively, from 0.5 to 0.3 in. and from 1.8 to 2.4 in.

SOLUTION

Forces in members AB and BC.


Free body: Pin B.
From force triangle:
FAB F 2P
BC
sin 45 sin 60 sin 75
FAB 2 P (sin 45/sin 75)
FBC 2 P (sin 60/sin 75)
(i) Max. ave. stress in AB. (ii) Ave. stress in BC.
Width w ABC wt
Thickness t BC FBC / ABC
AAB ( w d ) t
AB FAB / AAB
(iii) Pin A. (iv) Pin C.

A ( FAB /2)/( d 2 /4) C ( FBC /2) /( d 2 /4)


(v) Bearing stress at A. (vi) Bearing stress at C.
Sig Bear A FAB /dt Sig Bear C FBC /dt
(vii) Bearing stress at B in member BC.
Sig Bear B FBC /2dt

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82
PROBLEM 1.C3 (Continued)

Program Outputs

Input data for Parts (a), (b), (c):


P = 5 kips, w = 1.8 in., t = 0.5 in.

(c) Answer: 0.70 in. d 1.10 in. (c)

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83
PROBLEM 1.C3 (Continued)

Input data for Part (d),


P = 5 kips, w 2.4 in., t 0.3 in.

(d) Answer: 0.85 in. d 1.25 in. (d)

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84
PROBLEM 1.C4

a P D A 4-kip force P forming an angle with the vertical is applied as


b shown to member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C
A
and by a cable BD forming an angle with the horizontal. (a) Knowing
B that the ultimate load of the cable is 25 kips, write a computer program
15 in. to construct a table of the values of the factor of safety of the cable for
values of and from 0 to 45, using increments in and
C corresponding to 0.1 increments in tan and tan . (b) Check that
for any given value of , the maximum value of the factor of safety is
obtained for 38.66 and explain why. (c) Determine the smallest
18 in. 12 in. possible value of the factor of safety for 38.66, as well as the
corresponding value of , and explain the result obtained.

SOLUTION

(a) Draw F.B. diagram of ABC:


M C 0 : (P sin )(1.5 in.) ( P cos )(30 in.)
( F cos )(15 in.) ( F sin )(12 in.) 0
15 sin 30 cos
FP
15 cos 12 sin
F .S . Fult /F
Output for P 4 kips and Fult 20 kips:

(b) When 38.66, tan 0.8 and cable BD is perpendicular to the lever arm BC.
(c) F .S . 3.579 for 26.6; P is perpendicular to the lever arm AC.
Note: The value F . S . 3.579 is the smallest of the values of F.S. corresponding to 38.66 and the
largest of those corresponding to 26.6. The point 26.6, 38.66 is a saddle point, or
minimax of the function F .S . ( , ).

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85
P
a PROBLEM 1.C5
b
A load P is supported as shown by two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross
section that are joined by a simple glued scarf splice. (a) Denoting by U and U ,
respectively, the ultimate strength of the joint in tension and in shear, write a
computer program which, for given values of a, b, P, U and U , expressed in either
SI or U.S. customary units, and for values of from 5 to 85 at 5 intervals, can be
used to calculate (i) the normal stress in the joint, (ii) the shearing stress in the joint,
a
(iii) the factor of safety relative to failure in tension, (iv) the factor of safety relative
to failure in shear, and (v) the overall factor of safety for the glued joint. (b) Apply
this program, using the dimensions and loading of the members of Probs. 1.29 and
1.31, knowing that U 150 psi and U 214 psi for the glue used in Prob. 1.29, and
that U 1.26 MPa and U 1.50 MPa for the glue used in Prob. 1.31. (c) Verify in
each of these two cases that the shearing stress is maximum for a 45.

P'

SOLUTION

(i) and (ii) Draw the F.B. diagram of lower member:

Fx 0: V P cos 0 V P cos

Fy 0: F P sin 0 F P sin
Area ab/sin

F
Normal stress: ( P/ab) sin 2
Area
V
Shearing stress: ( P/ab) sin cos
Area
(iii) F.S. for tension (normal stresses):
FSN U /

(iv) F.S. for shear:


FSS U /

(v) Overall F.S.:


F.S. The smaller of FSN and FSS.

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86
PROBLEM 1.C5 (Continued)

Program Outputs
Problem 1.29
a 150 mm
b 75 mm
P 11 kN
U 1.26 MPa
U 1.50 MPa

ALPHA SIG (MPa) TAU (MPa) FSN FSS FS


5 0.007 0.085 169.644 17.669 17.669
10 0.029 0.167 42.736 8.971 8.971
15 0.065 0.244 19.237 6.136 6.136
20 0.114 0.314 11.016 4.773 4.773
25 0.175 0.375 7.215 4.005 4.005
30 0.244 0.423 5.155 3.543 3.543
35 0.322 0.459 3.917 3.265 3.265
40 0.404 0.481 3.119 3.116 3.116
45 0.489 0.489 2.577 3.068 2.577 (b), (c)
50 0.574 0.481 2.196 3.116 2.196
55 0.656 0.459 1.920 3.265 1.920
60 0.733 0.423 1.718 3.543 1.718
65 0.803 0.375 1.569 4.005 1.569
70 0.863 0.314 1.459 4.773 1.459
75 0.912 0.244 1.381 6.136 1.381
80 0.948 0.167 1.329 8.971 1.329
85 0.970 0.085 1.298 17.669 1.298

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87
PROBLEM 1.C5 (Continued)

Problem 1.31
a 5 in.
b 3 in.
P 1400 lb
U 150 psi
U 214 psi

ALPHA SIG (psi) TAU (psi) FSN FSS FS


5 0.709 8.104 211.574 26.408 26.408
10 2.814 15.961 53.298 13.408 13.408
15 6.252 23.333 23.992 9.171 9.171
20 10.918 29.997 13.739 7.134 7.134
25 16.670 35.749 8.998 5.986 5.986
30 23.333 40.415 6.429 5.295 5.295
35 30.706 43.852 4.885 4.880 4.880
40 38.563 45.958 3.890 4.656 3.890
45 46.667 46.667 3.214 4.586 3.214 (c)
50 54.770 45.958 2.739 4.656 2.739
55 62.628 43.852 2.395 4.880 2.395
60 70.000 40.415 2.143 5.295 2.143 (b)
65 76.663 35.749 1.957 5.986 1.957
70 82.415 29.997 1.820 7.134 1.820
75 87.081 23.333 1.723 9.171 1.723
80 90.519 15.961 1.657 13.408 1.657
85 92.624 8.104 1.619 26.408 1.619

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88
PROBLEM 1.C6

Member ABC is supported by a pin and


bracket at A and by two links, which are pin-
Top view
connected to the member at B and to a fixed
support at D. (a) Write a computer program to
200 mm 180 mm calculate the allowable load Pall for any given
12 mm
values of (i) the diameter d1 of the pin at A,
8 mm
(ii) the common diameter d2 of the pins at B
A B C and D, (iii) the ultimate normal stress U in
each of the two links, (iv) the ultimate shearing
B
stress U in each of the three pins, and (v) the
A C desired overall factor of safety F.S. (b) Your
B
program should also indicate which of the
following three stresses is critical: the normal
20 mm P 8 mm stress in the links, the shearing stress in the pin
8 mm at A, or the shearing stress in the pins at B and
D D D. (c) Check your program by using the data
of Probs. 1.55 and 1.56, respectively, and
Front view 12 mm comparing the answers obtained for Pall with
Side view
those given in the text. (d) Use your program to
determine the allowable load Pall, as well as
which of the stresses is critical, when d1
d 2 15 mm, U 110 MPa for aluminum links,
U 100 MPa for steel pins, and F.S. 3.2.

SOLUTION

(a) F.B. diagram of ABC:


200
M A 0: P FBD
380
200
M B 0: P FA
180
200
(i) For given d1 of Pin A: FA 2( U /FS )( d12 /4), P1 FA
180
200
(ii) For given d 2 of Pins B and D : FBD 2( U /FS )( d 22 /4), P2 FBD
380
200
(iii) For ultimate stress in links BD: FBD 2 ( U /FS )(0.02)(0.008), P3 FBD
380
(iv) For ultimate shearing stress in pins: P4 is the smaller of P1 andP2 .

(v) For desired overall F.S.: P5 is the smaller of P3 and P4 .

If P3 < P4 , stress is critical in links.


If P4 < P3 and P1 < P2 , stress is critical in Pin A.
If P4 P3 and P2 P1 , stress is critical in Pins B and D.

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89
PROBLEM 1.C6 (Continued)

Program Outputs
(b) Problem 1.55. Data: d1 8 mm, d 2 12 mm, U , 250 MPa, U 100 MPa, F .S . 3.0
Pall 3.72 kN. Stress in Pin A is critical.
(c) Problem 1.56. Data: d1 10 mm, d 2 12 mm, U 250 MPa, U 100 MPa, F .S . 3.0
Pall 3.97 kN. Stress in Pins B and D is critical.

(d) Data: d1 d 2 15 mm, U 110 MPa, U 100 MPa, F .S . 3.2

Pall 5.79 kN. Stress in links is critical.

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90