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SMART CLUSTERING BRAZILIAN CITIES

:
AN EXPLORATORY MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso
Advisor: Vinicius Cardoso Garcia

April, 2016

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 1/51
Summary Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Smart Cities Definition
Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review
Background and Motivation

The Proposal Problem Statement
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

Research Questions and Goals

Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared Outline of Contributions

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 2/51
Summary Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review
Evaluating Smart Cities Models

The Proposal Review Method / Results
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

Discussion addressing research questions

Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 3/51
Summary Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review
Metrics for cities comparison

The Proposal Defining Metrics and Variables
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

Taxonomy for smart cities
Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared
Defining Areas, Domains and Indicators

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 4/51
Summary Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review Applying Level A (Metrics)

The Proposal Applying Level B(Taxonomy)
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

SmartCluster: Analyzing Clusters
Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 5/51
Summary Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Contributions
Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review

Works Published
The Proposal
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics
Next Steps

Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared Schedule

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 6/51
Summary Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Smart Cities Definition
Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review
Background and Motivation

The Proposal Problem Statement
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

Research Questions and Goals

Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared Outline of Contributions

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 7/51
Introduction – Smart Cities Definition Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Comparison ? Indicators ?
Domains ?

Definition ? Metrics ?

Areas ? Open data ?
Models ?

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 8/51
Introduction - Background and Motivation Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Water Tech

Maceió
Environment Finances (AL)

?
Birigui
(SP)
Recife
(PE)

Problem: The existing models are heterogeneous. Absence in the formalization of the proposed models.

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 9/51
Introduction - Problem Statement Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

How to
classify Smart Models Areas Domains
Cities ?

How to
measure Metrics Variables Indicators
Cities ?

How to obtain
and process Mining Formalization Visualization
Data ?

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 10/51
Introduction - Research Questions and Goals Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

[ RQ1] • How to evaluate how smart a city can be?

[ RQ2 ] • Which indicators are appropriate to Brazilian reality?

[ RQ3 ] • How to obtain and process data on smart cities?

[ RQ4 ] • How to provide an formal environment to data visualization?

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 11/51
Introduction - Outline of Contributions Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

[ OC1] • Literature review on Smart Cities

[ OC2 ] • Create a taxonomy of indicators (classify)

[ OC3 ] • Definition of metric and variables (compare)

[ OC4 ] • Clustering and comparison of indicators

[ OC5 ] • Case study with Brazilian cities

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 12/51
Introduction – Outline of Contributions Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 13/51
Related Work Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review
Evaluating Smart Cities Models

The Proposal Review Method / Results
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

Discussion addressing research questions

Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 14/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Evaluating Models of Smart Cities: A Five-Steps Process

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 15/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Evaluating Models of Smart Cities: A Five Steps Process

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 16/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Evaluating Models of Smart Cities: A Five Steps Process

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 17/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Evaluating Models of Smart Cities: A Five Steps Process

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 18/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Evaluating Models of Smart Cities: A Five Steps Process

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 19/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Evaluating Models of Smart Cities: A Five Steps Process

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 20/51
Related Work - Evaluating Smart Cities Models Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 21/51
Related Work – Review Results Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 22/51
Related Work – Discussion addressing research questions Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 23/51
The Proposal Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review
Metrics for cities comparison

The Proposal Defining Metrics and Variables
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

Taxonomy for smart cities
Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared
Defining Areas, Domains and Indicators

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 24/51
The Proposal – Metrics for cities comparison Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Why create metrics ?

Metrics

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 25/51
The Proposal – Defining Metrics and Variables Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Normalizing data Visualizing data

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 26/51
The Proposal – Defining Metrics and Variables Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Analyzing data = Information

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 27/51
The Proposal – Taxonomy for smart cities Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Why create taxonomy ?

Smart City
Smarter Cities Model Smart City Wheel
UST Global
IBM Dr. Cohen

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 28/51
The Proposal – Taxonomy for smart cities Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Q1 • How the indicators are described, modeled and implemented ?

Q2 • What is the origin of the data to feed these indicators?

Q3 • How a particular indicator is decomposed into other indicators ?

Q4 • What indicators can be used by Brazilian cities ?

Q5 • What is the relationship between indicators and public databases ?

Q6 • How to evaluate the quality and usability of an indicator ?

Q7 • How the indicators are divided into Domains and Areas ?

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 29/51
The Proposal – Defining Areas, Domains and Indicators Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 30/51
The Proposal – Defining Areas, Domains and Indicators Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 31/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review Applying Level A (Metrics)

The Proposal Applying Level B(Taxonomy)
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics

SmartCluster: Analyzing Clusters
Applying SmartCluster:
Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 32/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

SmartCluster Flow Chart
Cities Data

Yes

Classification Com parison
Level (A + B) data mining Extend Ontology Exist Indicators ?
(level B ) (level A )

No

Clusters Clusters Clusters data Create / Certificate
Level A + B Level B Level A collected Indicator

Indicator
PCA PCA normalize data Created

Normalized
data

Smart Cities Dendrogram Taxonomy Dendrogram Metrics DataBase Updated Ontology Updated Indicator Certificated

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 33/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

SmartCluster Flow Chart
Cities Data

Yes

Classification Com parison
Level (A + B) data mining Extend Ontology Exist Indicators ?
(level B ) (level A )

No

Clusters Clusters Clusters data Create / Certificate
Level A + B Level B Level A collected Indicator

Indicator
PCA PCA normalize data Created

Normalized
data

Smart Cities Dendrogram Taxonomy Dendrogram Metrics DataBase Updated Ontology Updated Indicator Certificated

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 34/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 35/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

SmartCluster Flow Chart
Cities Data

Yes

Classification Com parison
Level (A + B) data mining Extend Ontology Exist Indicators ?
(level B ) (level A )

No

Clusters Clusters Clusters data Create / Certificate
Level A + B Level B Level A collected Indicator

Indicator
PCA PCA normalize data Created

Normalized
data

Smart Cities Dendrogram Taxonomy Dendrogram Metrics DataBase Updated Ontology Updated Indicator Certificated

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 36/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Standard deviation -> 0.043 0.017 0.042
Average -> 0.558 0.754 0.454
(C) Development
IDH-r IDH-l IDH-e
City
Data z-Score t-Score Data z-Score t-Score Data z-Score t-Score
Água Branca 0.527 -0.71 2.16 0.728 -1.50 1.93 0.432 -0.53 2.46
Anadia 0.546 -0.27 2.38 0.756 0.12 2.81 0.444 -0.24 2.62
Arapiraca 0.638 1.88 3.46 0.780 1.50 3.57 0.549 2.28 4.00
Atalaia 0.545 -0.29 2.37 0.752 -0.12 2.69 0.431 -0.55 2.45
Barra de Santo Antônio 0.552 -0.13 2.45 0.732 -1.27 2.05 0.428 -0.62 2.41
Barra de São Miguel 0.638 1.88 3.46 0.767 0.75 3.16 0.475 0.50 3.03
Batalha 0.563 0.13 2.58 0.752 -0.12 2.69 0.496 1.01 3.30
Belém 0.587 0.69 2.86 0.764 0.58 3.07 0.464 0.24 2.88

Level B Level A
Atualmente temos os dados Services and Governance Infrastructure Territory Population Development
Educ Heal Secu Gove Hous Wate Ener Envi Tech Mobi Area Dens P Urb P Rur IDH-r IDH-l IDH-e
de todas as cidades dos nove Maceio 4.807 4.673 1.276 4.894 2.844 4.010 3.476 2.977 3.509 2.280 3.539 5.000 4.996 2.343 5.002 3.708 4.789
Arapiraca 3.839 3.669 1.250 3.925 2.949 3.425 3.378 3.139 4.648 2.280 3.104 2.703 2.301 4.925 3.727 3.386 3.914
Estados do nordeste Satuba 4.458 4.261 1.593 3.936 2.580 3.792 3.408 3.150 3.992 2.920 2.132 2.237 1.696 2.439 3.487 3.624 4.281
Cluster #1 Sao Miguel dos Campos 3.703 3.850 1.332 3.814 1.763 3.587 3.282 3.091 4.379 4.200 3.980 1.764 1.838 2.455 3.399 3.216 3.559
Marechal Deodoro 3.394 3.584 1.437 3.648 2.241 3.271 3.117 2.597 3.580 3.560 3.091 1.808 1.805 2.502 3.765 3.607 3.620
Rio Largo 3.877 3.850 1.318 3.670 2.287 3.608 3.343 2.642 3.391 3.560 2.934 2.032 1.851 3.307 3.449 3.522 3.894
Palmeira dos indios 3.645 3.790 2.071 3.747 2.977 3.249 3.238 2.667 4.237 4.200 3.388 1.914 1.835 3.810 3.563 3.624 3.650
Delmiro Gouveia 3.694 3.536 2.728 3.637 3.003 3.323 3.249 2.806 3.786 3.560 3.827 1.746 1.775 3.364 3.235 3.284 3.355
Penedo 3.916 3.778 2.075 3.880 3.065 3.489 3.189 3.023 4.055 4.200 4.071 1.771 1.811 3.535 3.272 3.284 3.782
Coruripe 3.316 3.173 1.840 3.304 2.788 3.260 3.055 2.497 3.264 1.640 4.911 1.701 1.815 2.785 3.134 3.200 3.833
Santana do Ipanema 3.306 3.185 2.045 3.348 2.914 2.876 2.651 2.361 3.185 2.920 3.320 1.798 1.747 3.729 2.982 3.216 3.040
Uniao dos Palmares 2.726 2.992 2.148 3.282 2.598 3.402 3.007 2.876 3.043 2.280 3.290 1.891 1.821 3.483 3.121 3.115 3.030
Average -> 3.234 3.169 2.831 2.665 3.546
Standard Deviation -> 0.966 0.587 1.007 0.983 0.437
Variation -> 0.934 0.345 1.014 0.966 0.191

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 37/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

SmartCluster Flow Chart
Cities Data

Yes

Classification Com parison
Level (A + B) data mining Extend Ontology Exist Indicators ?
(level B ) (level A )

No

Clusters Clusters Clusters data Create / Certificate
Level A + B Level B Level A collected Indicator

Indicator
PCA PCA normalize data Created

Normalized
data

Smart Cities Dendrogram Taxonomy Dendrogram Metrics DataBase Updated Ontology Updated Indicator Certificated

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 38/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Cluster #1 Cluster #2 Cluster #3 Cluster #4 Cluster #5
Variables A S A S A S A S A S
Level A

Cluster #1 Services 3,234 0,966 2,440 0,424 2,860 0,268 2,555 0,357 2,711 0,410
Infra 3,196 0,609 2,479 0,616 2,870 0,594 2,655 0,537 2,468 0,634
Level B
Territory 2,831 1,007 2,289 0,674 2,349 0,672 2,352 0,809 2,196 0,525
Population 2,665 0,983 2,519 0,685 2,532 0,962 2,481 0,909 2,188 0,534
Development 3,546 0,437 2,510 0,412 2,857 0,349 2,385 0,384 2,647 0,448

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 39/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

X ( SmartCluster _ Matrix)  TLT  E

C (orR )  E 0 E 0
T

(n  1)

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 40/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

SmartCluster Flow Chart
Cities Data

Yes

Classification Com parison
Level (A + B) data mining Extend Ontology Exist Indicators ?
(level B ) (level A )

No

Clusters Clusters Clusters data Create / Certificate
Level A + B Level B Level A collected Indicator

Indicator
PCA PCA normalize data Created

Normalized
data

Smart Cities Dendrogram Taxonomy Dendrogram Metrics DataBase Updated Ontology Updated Indicator Certificated

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 41/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Cluster (t)
Territory

Alagoas cities clustered
Cluster (p) by Metrics (Level A)
Population

Cluster (d)
Development

Ed (City a Cityb )  t (City a  Cityb ) 2  p(City a  Cityb ) 2  d (City a  Cityb ) 2

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 42/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Cluster (i)
Infrastructure

Alagoas cities clustered
by Taxonomy (Level B)

Cluster (s)
Services and
Management

d (City aCity b )
S (Citya Cityb )  1,0 
d (max)

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 43/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

SmartCluster Flow Chart
Cities Data

Yes

Classification Com parison
Level (A + B) data mining Extend Ontology Exist Indicators ?
(level B ) (level A )

No

Clusters Clusters Clusters data Create / Certificate
Level A + B Level B Level A collected Indicator

Indicator
PCA PCA normalize data Created

Normalized
data

Smart Cities Dendrogram Taxonomy Dendrogram Metrics DataBase Updated Ontology Updated Indicator Certificated

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 44/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 45/51
SmartCluster Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 46/51
Summary and Outlook Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Introduction

Contributions
Related Work
On Evaluating Smart Cities Models: A Systematic Literature Review

Works Published
The Proposal
Unifying a Taxonomy of Indicators and a catalog of metrics
Next Steps

Applying
SmartCluster: Brazilian Northeastern cities measured and compared Schedule

Summary and Outlook

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 47/51
Summary and Outlook - Contributions Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

[ (RQ1) How to evaluate how smart a city can be? ]
• The best way found in this thesis was to compare the current models of smart cities (Chapter 2) and propose
a model that used variables (Chapter 3) and indicators (Chapter 4) compatible with the Brazilian reality.

[ (RQ2) Which domains and indicators are appropriate to the Brazilian reality? ]
• This paper presented a way to filter and sort the cities using two levels: the first (Level A) by similarity
variables (Chapter 3), and then (Level B) by indicators based on public data (Chapter 4). The use of these two
levels is configured as a differential in relation to other models of smart cities and allows for more accurate
comparisons between the three cities.

[ (RQ3) How to obtain and process data on smart cities? ]
• The data on smart cities were obtained from open public data sources. The processing of these data was the
normalization of indicators and variables, and then we used the Hierarchical Cluster method (HCA) to create
clusters of cities by similarity. Finally, we used the Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) to identify a
possible level of pattern recognition (Chapter 5).

[ (RQ4) How to provide an environment to extraction and data visualization? ]
• Data visualization can influence strategic decisions about investments in different areas of Smart Cities. After
mining, cataloging and processing of data of similar cities, this information was disposed in dendrograms of
smart cities clusters. The grouping of smart cities identified patterns in indicators of cities, and thus allow
managers to choose which ways will be adopted to improve processes and resource optimization.

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 48/51
Summary and Outlook - Works Published Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

[ Books (1) ]

• Smart Cities: A Comprehensive Systematic Literature Review. 1. ed. Amazon,
2015. v. 1. 96p

[ Journals (1) ]

• (Br-SCMM) Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health
Domain. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2015. (quails b2)

[ Conferences (8) ]

• Brazilian smart cities: comparing inequality. In: the 16th Annual International
Conference on Digital Government Research - dg.o ‘2015 (quails b1)
• Br-SCMM - Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health
Domain. In: 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics
(MEDINFO), 2015. (quails b1)
• Smart Cities Maturity Model: Categorizing and Measuring Brazilian Smart Cities.
In: COMPSAC 2013. (quails a2)
• Br-SCMM: Modelo Brasileiro de Maturidade para Cidades Inteligentes. In: IX
Simpósio Brasileiro de Sistemas de Informação (SBSI), 2013. (best paper)

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 49/51
Summary and Outlook – Next Steps Smart Clustering Brazilian Cities: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis

Qualis
[ A ] (May - Jul) ISSN Journal
0740-624X Government Information Quarterly A2
• Expand the smart cities of indicators and review the data sources; 0169-023X Data & Knowledge Engineering A2
0516-5173 Information Processing & Management A2
A2
[ B ] (Jul – Sep) 0377-0427
0950-7051
Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics
Knowledge-Based Systems A2
• Review and extend the concepts in the thesis proposal including
mathematical formalization of PCA and Ontology;
[ C ] (May – Nov) 1556-4681 ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data B1
1088-467X Intelligent Data Analysis (Print) B1
• Publish the partial results in indexed journals 0219-1377 Knowledge and Information Systems (Print) B1
0269-8889 Knowledge Engineering Review (Print) B1
[ D ] (Nov – Dec) 1551-5627 Telemedicine Journal and e-Health B1
1942-4787 Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery B1
• Defending the doctoral thesis
1807-0512 Computational & Applied Mathematics B2
1381-298X Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory B2
0968-5227 Information Management & Computer Security B2
1353-5105 International Journal for Quality in Health Care B2
1062-7375 Journal of Global Information Management B2
0926-9651 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics B2
1615-5297 Universal Access in the Information Society (Internet) B2
1548-3886 International Journal of Electronic Government Research B4

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 50/51
SMART CLUSTERING BRAZILIAN CITIES:
AN EXPLORATORY MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso
Advisor: Vinicius Cardoso Garcia

April, 2016

Ricardo Alexandre Afonso – April 28, 2016 (UFPE) Federal University of Pernambuco – (CIn) Informatics Center 51/51