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MATERIAIS AEROESPACIAIS

02 - Introduo a materiais aeroespaciais


2.1 A IMPORTNCIA DOS MATERIAIS AEROESPACIAIS

Projeto
Os materiais tm um impacto
atravs de todo o ciclo de vida
das aeronaves, desde a fase
de concepo inicial at a Manuteno Fabricao
fabricao e certifico,
operaes de vo e
manuteno , finalmente,
descarte /reciclagem no fim
do ciclo de vida.
Operaes de Certificao
voo
2.1 A IMPORTNCIA DOS MATERIAIS AEROESPACIAIS

Materiais aeroespaciais so definidos como materiais estruturais que


suportam as cargas exercidas sobre estrutura de aeronaves durante as
operaes voo (incluindo o taxiamento, a decolagem, cruzeiro e pouso).
2.1 A IMPORTNCIA DOS MATERIAIS AEROESPACIAIS

Materiais estruturais so utilizados em componentes crticos de


segurana de estruturas:

de aeronaves - tais como asas, fuselagem, empenagem e trem de


pouso;

de helicpteros - fuselagem, cauda e lminas de rotor;

de veculos espaciais - peles e telhas de isolamento trmico


2.1 A IMPORTNCIA DOS MATERIAIS AEROESPACIAIS

Aerospace materials are also defied as jet engine


structural materials that carry forces in order to generate thrust to
propel the aircraft.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

It is estimated that there are more than 120 000 materials from
which an aerospace engineer can choose the materials for the
airframe and engine.

Metals Plastics Ceramics Composites natural substances


(over 65 000) (over 15 000) (over 10 000) such as Wood

The number is growing at a fast pace as new materials are developed with
unique or improved properties.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

The great majority of materials, however, lack one or more of


the essential properties required for aerospace structural or
engine applications.
Most materials are:
too expensive,
heavy or soft
insufficient corrosion resistance,
fracture toughness (resistncia fractura)
or some other important property
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

It is estimated that less than about one hundred types of metal


alloys, composites, polymers and ceramics have the combination
of essential properties needed for aerospace applications.
The demand on materials to be:
lightweight;.
damage tolerant;
durable;
cost-effective (econmico);
easy to manufacture;
rules out the great majority for aerospace applications.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

These demands include the use of renewable materials


produced with environmentally friendly processes and materials
that can be:
Fully recycled at the end of the aircraft
life;
Sustainable materials that have little or no
impact on the environment when produced;
Reduce the environmental impact of the
aircraft by lowering fuel burn (usually
through reduced weight);
will become more important in the future.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

Boeing 747-200
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

Solar impulse 2
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

The main groups of materials used in aerospace structures are:

aluminium alloys;
titanium alloys;
steels;
nickel-based alloys
and composites.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

Other materials have specific applications for certain types of aircraft,


but are not conventional materials used in large quantities. Examples
include:

magnesium alloys ;
fibremetal laminates;
metal matrix composites;
woods;
ceramics for heat insulation (isolamento trmico) for rockets and spacecraft;
and radar absorbing materials for military aircraft.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS

Many other materials are also used in aircraft:

copper for electrical wiring;


semiconductors for electronic devices;
synthetic fabrics for seating and other furnishing.

However, none of these materials are required to carry structural loads.

Our focus is on the materials used in aircraft structures and jet engines,
and not the nonstructural materials which, although important to
aircraft operations, are not required to support loads.
2.3 INTRODUO AOS PRINCIPAIS MATERIAIS
AEROESPACIAIS
Figure 1.3 shows the types and amounts of
structural materials in various types of
modern civil and military aircraft.
Figure 1.3 shows the types and amounts of
structural materials in various types of
modern civil and military aircraft.
2.3.1 ALUMINIUM

Aluminium is the material of choice for most aircraft structures, and has been since it replaced
wood as the common airframe material in the 1920s/1930s.

Commercial Aviation Military aviation

Other Aluminum
materials 50%
30% Other
materials
Aluminium 50%
70%
2.3.1 ALUMINIUM

Aluminium is used extensively for several reasons, including its:


moderately low cost;
ease of fabrication which allows it to be shaped and machined into structural components with
complex shapes;
light weight;
good stiffness rigidez Mdulo de elasticidade;
strength resistncia;
fracture;
Toughness (tenacidade).

Aluminium alloys have several problems with:


corrosion;
and fatigue
2.3.1 ALUMINIUM

The properties of aluminium are tailored for specific structural applications; for example:
2.3.2 TITANIUM

Titanium alloys are used in both airframe structures


(fuselagem) and jet engine components because of their:

moderate weight,
high structural properties (e.g. stiffness, strength,
toughness, fatigue),
excellent corrosion resistance,
and the ability to retain their mechanical properties at high
temperature.
2.3.2 TITANIUM

Commercial Aviation F-15 Eagle F-35 Lightning II

Ti
10% Ti
25%
Ti
35%

Other
Other
Other 65%
75%
90%
2.3.2 TITANIUM

The structural properties of titanium are better than aluminium


Titanium alloy are more expensive and heavier than aluminium alloys.

Titanium is generally used in the most heavily-loaded structures that


must occupy minimum space, such as the landing gear and wingfuselage
connections.
2.3.2 TITANIUM

Titanium alloys account for 2530% of the weight of modern jet engines,
and are used in components required to operate to 400500 C.
Engine components made of titanium include fan blades, low-pressure
compressor parts, and plug and nozzle assemblies in the exhaust section.
2.3.3 MAGNESIUM

Magnesium is one of the lightest metals, and for this reason was a
popular material for lightweight aircraft structures.

The usage has declined as it has been replaced by


aluminium alloys and composites.

The use of magnesium in modern aircraft and helicopters is typically less


than 2% of the total structural weight.
2.3.3 MAGNESIUM

The demise of by several factors, most notably:


higher cost;
lower stiffness rigidez Mdulo de elasticidade;
low strength resistncia;
compared with aluminium alloys.

Magnesium is highly susceptible to corrosion


2.3.4 STEEL

Steel is the most commonly used metal in structural engineering,


however its use as a structural material in aircraft is small (under 510%
by weight).

The steels used in aircraft are:

about three times stronger than aluminium


twice as strong as titanium.
high elastic modulus (three times stiffer than aluminium)
good fatigue resistance
good fracture toughness;
2.3.4 STEEL

This combination of properties makes steel a material of choice for safety-


critical structural components that require very high strength and where
space is limited, such as the landing gear and wing box components.

However, steel is not used in large quantities for several reasons, with
the most important being its high density, nearly three times as dense as
aluminium and over 50% denser than titanium.
Other problems include the susceptibility of some corrosion and
embrittlement.
2.3.5 SUPERALLOYS
Superalloys are a group of nickel, ironnickel and cobalt alloys used in jet
engines.
These metals have excellent heat resistant properties and retain their:
stiffness,
strength,
toughness
corrosion resistance
oxidation resistance
and dimensional stability
at temperatures much higher than the other aerospace structural
materials.

The most important type of superalloy is the nickel-based material that


contains a high concentration of chromium, iron, titanium, cobalt and
other alloying elements.
2.3.5 SUPERALLOYS

Nickel superalloys can operate for long periods of time at temperatures of


8001000 C, which makes them suitable for the hottest sections of gas
turbine engines.

Superalloys are used in engine components


such as the high-pressure turbine blades,
discs, combustion chamber, afterburners and
thrust reversers.
2.3.5 FIBREPOLYMER COMPOSITES

Composites are:
lightweight
high stiffness,
high strength
high fatigue performance
are made of continuous fires (usually carbon) in a polymer matrix
(usually epoxy).
2.3.5 FIBREPOLYMER COMPOSITES

Along with aluminium, carbon fiber composite is the most commonly used
structural material for the airframe of aircraft and helicopters.
Composites are lighter and stronger than aluminium alloys,
but they are expensive;
2.3.6 FIBREMETAL LAMINATES

Fibermetal laminates (FML) are lightweight structural materials


consisting of thin bonded sheets of metal and firepolymer composite.
2.4 WHAT MAKES FOR A GOOD AEROSPACE
MATERIAL?
2.4 WHAT MAKES FOR A GOOD AEROSPACE
MATERIAL?