4G Truput Calculate

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4G Truput Calculate

4G Truput Calculate

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Throughput Calculation

for LTE TDD and FDD

Systems

1. Introduction Contents

Many of us might have heard about LTEs peak throughput i.e. 1. Introduction

2. Overview of LTE

300Mbps, but how many of us know how we calculate that? This

Physical Layer

paper provides the information, how this number is calculated? And

3. Basic Terminology

assumptions behind? 4. Maximum Throughput

with Maximum

In this paper, authors have explained the calculations of theoretical Bandwidth

throughput for both the LTE FDD and TDD systems. 5. Use of 3GPP

specification 36.213 for

throughput calculation

2. Overview of LTE Physical Layer 6. DL and UL throughput

calculation for LTE

LTE Physical layer deals with parameters like frequency, bandwidth, FDD

Modulation, cyclic prefix, coding rate which plays importance in 7. LTE TDD and its frame

structure

calculation of the throughput. 8. DL and UL throughput

calculation for LTE

LTE system uses OFDMA as access technology in downlink to TDD

increase the spectral efficiency and SC-FDMA in uplink due to low 9. Conclusion

Peak to Average Power ratio (PAPR) advantage. 10. References

i.e.1.4, 3, 5,10,15,20 MHz and modulation schemes QPSK, 16 QAM,

64 QAM.

Later we will discuss the significance of each parameter.

1

3. LTE Basic Terminology

There are some basic terminologies of LTE system that should be

known to better understand the throughput calculation. These are

explained below:

resource in LTE, in both uplink and downlink. An RE consists of 1

subcarrier in the frequency domain for duration of 1, Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) or Single Carrier-

Frequency Division Multiplexing (SC-FDM), symbol in the time

domain

carriers, in LTE it is 15 KHz. There is no frequency guard band

between these subcarrier frequencies, rather a guard Period called a

Cyclic Prefix (CP) is used in the time domain to help prevent Multipath

Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) between subcarriers.

LTE Basic Terminology Cyclic Prefix - A set of samples which are duplicated from the end of a

transmitted symbol and appended cyclically to the beginning of the

Resource Element (RE) symbol. This can form a type of guard interval to absorb Inter-Symbol

is the basic unit in LTE Interference (ISI). The cyclic construction preserves orthogonality of

which corresponds to a the subcarriers in an OFDM transmission.

subcarrier in frequency

.

and a symbol in time

Resource Block is the

Time slot - 0.5 ms time period of LTE frame corresponding to 7

combination of 12 OFDM symbols (and 7 CPs) when Normal CP = 5 usec is used (the

subcarriers in frequency standard case). And LTE 6 OFDM symbols (and 6 CPs) when the

and 7 symbols time (0.5 Extended CP = 17 usec is used.

msec).

LTE frame is of 10

msec can be divided

into 10 subframe or 20

timeslots

A subframe is also

called one TTI

(Transmit Time

Interval)

Block.

Resource Block - A unit of transmission resource consisting of 12

subcarriers in the frequency domain and 1 time slot (0.5 ms) in the time

domain. So12 subcarriers x 7 symbols = 84 Resource Element (with

Normal CP) makes a Resource Block. IF extended CP is used there are

72 Resource elements (RE). Since 12 OFDM subcarriers are used in a

RB, the bandwidth of a Resource Block is 180 KHz.

2 LTE Frame - 10 ms or 10 subframes or 20 slots.

3.1 Relation between Bandwidth and Resource Block:

different number of RBs.

and Resource Blocks.

Though 10 % guard band assumption is not valid for 1.4 MHz

bandwidth.

10% of 20 MHz is 2 MHz, used as guard band, thus effective

bandwidth will be 18MHz.

Number of Resource Blocks =18 MHz/180KHz = 100

the number of subcarriers and Resource Blocks. Same is shown

below:

FDD 20 MHz, it has a pair of 20 MHz Bandwidth i.e. 20 MHz for

Downlink and 20 MHz for Uplink.

MHz, it has only 20 MHz which is used for both Downlink and

Uplink.

3

This Multiplexing technique directly affects throughput as in FDD

which has symmetric bandwidth so both Uplink and Downlink have

same throughput, but in TDD the bandwidth is asymmetric and same

bandwidth is shared by Uplink and Downlink on time sharing basis so

the total throughput is also shared accordingly.

throughput.

band used in US is FDD and 2300MHz band in India is TDD.

and 64QAM in Downlink and QPSK, 16 QAM in Uplink.

Each of Modulation has its bits carrying capacity per symbol. One QPSK

symbol can carry 2bits, one 16QAM symbol can carry 4bits and 64 QAM

symbol can carry 6 bits. This is shown below with constellation diagram:

4

Along modulation there is term called coding rate. Coding rate

describes the efficiency of particular modulation scheme. For

example, if we say 16 QAM with coding rate of 0.5, it means this

modulation has 50% of efficiency i.e. as 16QAM can carry 4 bits

but with coding rate of 0.5, it can carry 2 information bits and rest

of the 2bits for redundancy of information.

LTE uses different coding rate with QPSK, 16 QAM and 64QAM.

The combination of Modulation and Coding rate is called

Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS). Below figure shows MCS

index and Modulation Order which describes the type of

modulation (2 for QPSK, 4 for 16QAM and 6 for 64 QAM).

as per R8.

Modulation supported

LTE supports

QPSK,16-QAM and

64- QAM for data

channel

QPSK carries 2 bits per

Symbol, 16 QAM

carries 4 Bits per

Symbol and 64 QAM

carries 6 Bits per

symbol.

Each modulation is

used with some coding

which makes

Modulation Coding

Scheme (MCS).

Each MCS have a

corresponding TBS

index value which is

used for mapping TB

size with Resource

Block numbers to find

the throughput.

5

3.4 UE Categories in LTE

The category of UE specifies the ability of the Device in terms of

DL/UL throughputs, Antenna Support in DL/UL, TBS size supported

in DL/UL and Modulation supports.

1 -5 are for release 8 and 9 and UE categories 6-8 are for release 10

LTE Advance.

which have 2 receive chains and 1 transmit chain. Cat 3 UE does not

support 64 QAM in uplink.

The Max TB size supported in DL is 75376 bits and in Uplink 51024

bits. This TB size limits the throughput at UE end while do not have

such limitation at eNodeB side.

Maximum Bandwidth 4. Maximum Throughput with Maximum Bandwidth

For any system throughput is calculated as symbols per second.

There are different UE Further it is converted into bits per second depending on the how

categories depending on many bits a symbol can carry.

capabilities like TB size

support, Number of In LTE for 20 MHz, there are 100 Resource Blocks and each

antenna support and Resource block have 12x7x2=168 Symbols per ms in case of Normal

Modulation support CP.

Category 3 is available So there are 16800 Symbols per ms or 16800000 Symbols per second

commercially. or16.8 Msps. If modulation used is 64 QAM (6 bits per symbol) then

Maximum throughput throughput will be 16.8x6=100.8Mbps for a single chain.

for LTE is 300 Mbps in

Downlink and 75 Mbps

For a LTE system with 4x4 MIMO (4T4R) the throughput will be

in Uplink.

Throughput is

four times of single chain throughput. i.e. 403.2 Mbps. Many

calculated as symbols simulations and studies show that there is 25% of overhead used for

per second and further Controlling and signalling. So the effective throughput will be 300

converted in to bits per Mbps.

second depending upon

the Modulation used. The 300 Mbps number is for downlink and not valid for uplink. In

uplink we have only one transmit chain at UE end. So with 20 MHz

we can get Maximum of 100.8Mbps as calculation shown above.

After considering 25% of overhead we get 75Mbps in uplink.

This is the way how we get the number of throughput 300Mbps for

6

Downlink and 75Mbps for Uplink shown everywhere.

5. Use of 3GPP specification 36.213 for

Throughput calculation

In 3GPP specification 36.213 E-UTRA- Physical Layer, table

7.1.7.1-1 shows the mapping between MCS (Modulation and

Coding Scheme) index and TBS (Transport Block Size) index. The

highest MCS index 28 (64 QAM with the least coding), which is

mapped to TBS index 26 as shown below.

36.213

Table 7.1.7.2.1-1 shows the transport block size. This table index table7.1.7.1-1 is

indicates the number of bits that can be transmitted in a used for Modulation

subframe/TTI (Transmit Time Interval) w.r.t bandwidth (number of and TBS index

RBs).The Transport Block size given in this table is after mapping

considering the controlling overhead. Resource block and

TBS index mapping

table 7.1.7.2.1-1 is used

for TB size

By using these two tables the number of data bits can be calculated,

with the combination of MCS Index and Number of Resource

Blocks.

For example, with 100 RBs and MCS index of 28, the TBS is

75376. Assume 4x4 MIMO, the peak data rate will be 75376 x 4 =

301.5 Mbps.

FDD

The FDD system has a paired spectrum, same bandwidth for

Downlink as well as for Uplink. 20 MHz FDD system have 20

MHz for Downlink and 20 MHz for Uplink.

Bandwidth 20MHz

Multiplexing scheme - FDD

UE category- Cat. 3

Modulation supported- as per Cat 3 TBS index 26 for DL (75376

7

for 100RBs) and 21 for UL (51024 for 100 RBs)

So the throughput can be calculated by a simple formula:

UL throughput = 1 x51024 =51.024 Mbps

As we have 2 receive chains and one transmits chain.

Before starting throughput calculation, lets become familiar with LTE-

TDD.

As stated earlier, TDD is unpaired spectrum. We have to use same

bandwidth for DL and UL on time sharing basis. Suppose if we have 20

MHz spectrum, we have to use this 20 MHz bandwidth for both DL

and UL.

LTE TDD frame structure is shown below. The TD frame consists of

Downlink subframe, Uplink and Special subframe.

There are seven possible configurations for LTE TDD frame as shown

below. Here D- is downlink, S- for Special subframe and U- for Uplink.

As shown 5 ms periodicity frame have two S subframe and 10 mili

sec frames have only one S subframe.

divided into DwPTS, GP and UpPTS depending upon the number of

symbols.

8

.

model. If the service model is heavily downloading based, operator

may use TDD config 2 or TDD config 5 and if service model is

heavily uploading based, operator may use TDD config 0 or TDD

config 6.

and upload, operator may use TDD config 1 or TDD config 3.

TDD

compared to FDD system as same spectrum is used by uplink,

downlink and for the guard period (Used for transition from downlink

to uplink).

Bandwidth 20MHz

Multiplexing Scheme- TDD

TDD Configuration- 2 (D-6, S-2 and U-2)

Special Subframe configuration-7 (DwPTS-10, GP-2 and UpPTS-2)

UE category- Cat. 3

Modulation supported- as per Cat 3 TBS index 26 for DL (75376 for

100RBs) and 21 for UL (51024 for 100 RBs)

by DL Subframe + Contribution by DwPTS in SSF)

by UL Subframe + Contribution by UpPTS in SSF)

9

Lets calculate throughput for the above assumptions:

factor contribution by Special subframe comes twice whose 10

symbols out of 14 are for downlink.

= 111.9872 Mbps ~ 112 Mbps.

factor contribution by Special subframe comes twice whose 2 symbols

out of 14 are for uplink.

= 11.66263 ~12 Mbps.

Special subframe configuration 7 (DwPTS-10, GP-2 and UpPTS-2)

same UE category 3

factor contribution by Special subframe comes twice whose 10

symbols out of 14 are for downlink.

= 81.8368 Mbps ~ 82 Mbps.

factor contribution by Special subframe comes twice whose 2 symbols

out of 14 are for uplink.

= 21.8674286~22 Mbps.

10

8. Conclusion

for both TDD and FDD system.

The paper describes all the factors which affect the throughput like

Bandwidth, Modulation, UE category and mulplexing. It also

describes how we get throughput 300Mbps in DL and 75Mbps in UL

and what are assumptions taken to calculate the same.

Paper describes the steps and formulae to calculate the throughput for

FDD system for TDD Config 1 and Config 2.

Mohit Luthra

The throughput calculations shown in this paper is theoretical and

LTE RF Design Engineer

limited by the assumptions taken to calculate for calculation.

9. References

1. Wikipedia.com

2. www.3gpp.org

Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi 3. 3GPP standard 36.211 , Evolved Universal Terrestrial

LTE Testing Engineer Radio Access (E-UTRA)- Physical Channels and

Modulation

4. 3GPP standard 36.212 , Evolved Universal Terrestrial

Radio Access (E-UTRA)- Multiplexing and Channel

Coding

5. 3GPP standard 36.213 , Evolved Universal Terrestrial

Radio Access (E-UTRA)- Physical Layer Procedures

6. 3GPP standard 36.300 , Evolved Universal Terrestrial

Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial

Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall Description

7. LTE, The UMTS long Terms Evolution: From Theory to

Rahul Atri, LTE

Radio Access Network Engineer Practise

Disclaimer:

Authors state that this whitepaper has been compiled meticulously and to the best of their

Sukhvinder Malik knowledge as of the date of publication. The information contained herein the white

LTE Testing Engineer paper is for information purposes only and is intended only to transfer knowledge about

the respective topic and not to earn any kind of profit.

Every effort has been made to ensure the information in this paper is accurate. Authors

11 does not accept any responsibility or liability whatsoever for any error of fact, omission,

interpretation or opinion that may be present, however it may have occurred

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