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LET 215 Professor Heitor Sampaio

AULA 2: Estratgia de Leitura: Inferncia


Leia o texto abaixo e discuta as perguntas:

Problema na Clamba

Naquele dia, depois de plomar, fui ver dro o Z queria ir comigo l na clamba.
Pensei melhor grulhar-lhe. Mas, na hora de grulhar o celular, vi-o passando na
golipesta. Ento, me dei conta de que ele j tinha outro programa. Tomei ento a
deciso de ir ao tode. At chegar clamba, tudo bem. Estacionei o zulpinho, pus a
chave no bolso e desci correndo para aproveitar ao chinto aquele sol gostoso e o mar
pli sulapente. No parecia haver glapo na clamba. Tirei as gripes, pus a bangoula.
Estava pli quieto ali que at me saltipou. Mas, esqueci logo das saltipaes no
prazer de ficar ali, inclusive tirei a bangoula para ficar mais vontade. No sei
quanto tempo fiquei nadando, siltando e corristando. Foi na hora de voltar da
clamba que me dei conta de que nem as gripes e nem a bagoula estavam mais onde
eu tinha deixado. O que fazer? (Adaptao de SCOTT, Michael R. Resource Package
Number 1. PUC So Paulo, 1983)

a) Voc entendeu a histria?


b) Voc reconheceu todas as palavras inventadas?
c) Que caractersticas do texto te ajudaram nesta tarefa?
d) Que tipo de conhecimento voc utilizou nessa tarefa?
e) O narrador do texto do sexo masculino ou feminino? Por qu?

Na leitura como processo, o relevo especial manifesta-se na aquisio de estratgias que facilitem a
compreenso lxica. O leitor deve, portanto, treinar tcnicas para inferir o significado de novos termos
atravs de indcios contextuais. O exerccio desta habilidade requer a utilizao do conhecimento do
assunto, da experincia anterior e de informaes contextuais que fundamentem suposies traadas ao
longo da leitura. Como ponto de partida para a prtica desta habilidade, o leitor deve observar as
seguintes estratgias:

1. Verificar se a palavra tem raiz comum com outra na lngua materna e se seu significado faz sentido
dentro do contexto;
2. Examinar o termo desconhecido e identificar sua categoria gramatical ( sujeito? verbo?);
3. Distinguir a funo gramatical dos vocbulos vizinhos (por exemplo, se for um substantivo, que
adjetivo o qualifica? se for um verbo, que substantivos o acompanham? etc.)
4. Descobrir os indcios contextuais (definies, afixos, sufixos, sinnimos, antnimos, etc.) que esto
associados ao novo item lexical;
5. Reconhecer as relaes (causa e efeito, nfase, contraste, etc.) dentro das sentenas e entre elas;
6. Utilizar o conhecimento adquirido nos itens anteriores e inferir o significado do novo termo.

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LET 215 Professor Heitor Sampaio

Entendendo o significado da palavra pelo contexto


Vocabulary Guessing

Ao encontrar uma palavra desconhecida voc pode recorrer ao dicionrio ou tentar adivinhar seu
significado fazendo uso do contexto, isto , observando a sentena em que a palavra aparece ou as
sentenas anteriores e posteriores. Talvez voc no conhea a palavra weight. Observe o que acontece
quando ela contextualizada:
Many people are worried about their weight. To reduce weight they eat less, eliminate
carbohydrates from their diet, do a lot of exercises to burn calories, etc.
Agora leia o exemplo:
The paintings contain circles, squares, triangles, pirries, cylindres and cubes.
Certamente a nica palavra que voc no compreendeu foi pirries. No entanto sem usar dicionrio, voc
reconhece que essa palavra uma forma geomtrica.
(Obs.: pirries no existe em ingls)

Identifying meaning from a given definition


(Adapted from Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL Test. Fourth Edition. Building Skills)

1. The verb BE an object following the verb be is used to define the subject
A salmon is a fish

2. Appositives it defines the noun it follows


Mercury, a silver-colored metal used in thermometers, is usually in a liquid form.
Mercury, which is the silver-colored metal used in thermometers, is usually in a liquid form.

3. Punctuation are sometimes used to set off a word that defines another word:
( ) , - []
Mercury the silver-colored metal used in thermometers is usually in a liquid form

4. The word OR
The husky, or sled dog, of the North is a hardy breed.

5. Examples some terms often introduce examples (as, for example, such as, like, for instance)
Percussion instruments, such as drums, cymbals and tambourines, were used in the band.
Everything we know about early humans such as Neanderthals is based on fossils.

6. Adjective Clauses (oraes adjetivas) they sometimes define words. They are introduced by the
words that, when, where, who, which, whom
Airships, which are cigar-shaped balloons, can be used for many purposes, such as filming,
advertising and entertainment.

7. Referents they are words that refer to other words in the sentence or paragraph.
(referents are: he, she, it, they (etc), this, that, those, these, )
The solar-power baterires in the ERS-1 are expected to function for at least two years, during
which time this satellite will be able to gather more information than any previous satellite.

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LET 215 Professor Heitor Sampaio

8. Contrasts (use words like but, despite, however, in constrat, instead, unlike, or, different from,
etc)
The brief scenes in the movie focus on the boys point of view, different from longer scenes.

Os exerccios que seguem tm a finalidade de auxili-lo a desenvolver sua habilidade de adivinhar o


significado das palavras fazendo uso do contexto. As sentenas abaixo contm palavras que no existem
em ingls identifique o significado dessas palavras usando o contexto.

1. Michael gave me a beautiful bunch of flowers: roses, dahlias, daisies, chrysanthemums, nogs and
orchids. _________________
2. If I dont buy a blue car, then I might buy a fobble one. _________________
3. I cant cut with this knife because it is bugler. _________________
4. John isnt married, hes meed. _________________
5. Over the last 20 years our family has owned a great variety of wurgs: poodles, dalmatians,
Yorkshire terriers, and even St. Bernards. _________________
6. In the Middle Ages, prisoners were often physically tortured in order to make them pogmortle.
_________________
7. It was so brody that it was impossible to see more than 20 meters. _________________
8. Even in the poorest parts of the country, people usually have a table, some chairs, a roup and a bed.
_________________
9. Of course he is bamp he drank 6 caipirinhas in half-an-hour. ________________
10. Be careful with Jimmy. He is considered a mutcher because he is always with a different girlfriend.
_________________
11. Whenever I go downtown I take the golper it is faster than a bus and cheaper than a taxi.
_________________
12. The girls shut down the carties in order to get dressed. _________________
13. Miss Baker is a very emating secretary she is never late and types perfectly. _________________
14. That woman is a grastor she is always interested in the money she might get from her partner.
_________________
15. Mr. Thompson bought his wife a bingle ring tomorrow is their wedding anniversary.
_________________
16. Stir the caple until it is soft, and then put it in the oven. _________________
17. The little girl wanted a tupper to stand on it. The man in front of her was very tall.
_________________

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LET 215 Professor Heitor Sampaio

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LET 215 Professor Heitor Sampaio

Estratgia de Leitura: Inferncia (Contexto)


Observe os seguintes exemplos:

1. Com um sorriso no rosto, o aniversariante


apagou as velas.

2. Tenho que limpar as velas do carro.

3. O marinheiro levantou as velas do barco.

4. Eu no gosto de segurar vela.

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LET 215 Professor Heitor Sampaio

O contexto sempre importante para a compreenso das palavras que tm vrios


significados diferentes. Como voc traduziria as palavras sublinhadas?

1. The waiter filled their glasses with champagne. _____________________________________


2. She went to the optician for a new pair of glasses. __________________________________
3. The beauty salon charges ten dollars for a complete treatment, including nails. ___________
4. I went to the hardware store to buy a hammer and some nails. _________________________
5. A formal ball is an important part of the graduation rituals at UFV. _____________________
6. Come on! Pass the ball. _______________________________________________________
7. You missed a great show! We had a ball. _________________________________________
8. The money was in the palm of his hand. _________________________________________
9. There are beautiful palm trees in the south of Brazil. ________________________________
10. Tomorrow Ill ask my secretary to phone the head of the firm. ________________________
11. She has nothing in her head. ___________________________________________________
12. He had an accident because he failed to stop when the lights were red. _________________
13. Its getting dark in here. Turn on the lights, will you? _______________________________
14. Dr. Battenburg has just published a paper on the consequences of recession. _____________
15. Just a minute. Ill get pen and paper. ____________________________________________
16. Elephants are animals with big trunks? ___________________________________________
17. Have you put the tent in the trunk of the car? ______________________________________
18. She is still convalescent and must have a rest every afternoon. ________________________
19. What are you going to do with the rest of the food? _________________________________
20. When I was a child, I read the story of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. ________________

NOTES: