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1. Scrieti pluralul urmatoarelor substantive.

1. book (carte) 9. schoolboy (elev, scolar)


2. shelf (raft) 10. brother-in-low (cumnat)
3. toy (jucarie) 11. milkman (laptar)
4. man (barbat) 12. race horse (cal de cursa)
5. tourist (turist) 13. footstep (pas, urma de pas)
6. child (copil) 14. woman dentist (dentista)
7. story (poveste) 15. bedroom (domitor)
8. flower (floare)

2. Recunoasteti si scrieti (cu litere mici) articolul hotarat sau nehotarat din fiecare propozitie.
1. The milk is white. 7. The cows give us milk.
2. That is a bird. 8. He saw an elephant.
3. Where is the car? 9. That is a personal notebook.
4. Did you fly with an airplane? 10. Do you like the fruits?
5. He has a nice doggy. 11. Lets write an english poem.
6. I like the flowers in their nature. 12. I just ate a pear.

3. Identificati cuvintele ce reprezinta adjective in urmatoarele propozitii:


1. This is an easy test. 8. You seem happy.
9. This is the main purpose of the meeting.
2. He was fat.
3. You are a good boy.
10. She is asleep.
4. This ia a wonderful day.
11. His father is Canadian.
5. She likes yellow apples.
12. My brother is a young man.
6. The tomatoes are red.
13. Her hair is black.
7. They saw a very big elephant
14. The teacher has a round desk.

4. Recunoasteti si scrieti la fiecare proppozitie cuvantul din ea ce reprezinta o zi a saptamanii, luna din an
sau anotimp.
1. For English peoples, Sunday is the 1st day of the
7. Where have you been in May?
week.
8. All spring I stayed at my grandparents.
2. The 7th day is Saturday.
9. He came home Friday.
3. We start the school on Monday.
10. He has an exam Wednesday.
4. The holiday ends in September. 11. When is a leap year, February has 29 days
5. The summer is a warm season.
6. Where have you spent the time in November? 12. Autumn ripen many fruit, vegetables and grains.

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13. My brother cames Thursday. 14. His birthday is in August.
15. January is a cold month.

5. Scrieti pentru fiecare propozitie unul din cuvntele urmatoare, din paranteza, in acord cu traducerea.
(of, to, o'clock, past, sharp, it, quarter, half, and)
1. Today is 8th ___ June 2010. 9. It is a ___ to 5.
10. The train arrives at ten ___ eleven.
2. I was born on the 7th ___ July 1996.
3. one thousand nine hundread ___ ninety-six
11. We play till ___ past two.
4. ___ is two o'clock. 12. George says it waz 4 ___ sharp.
5. He came at three o'clock ___. 13. Can we play till ___ past three?
14. Eminescu was born on 15th ___ January 1850.
6. Let's meet at 8 ___ in the garden.
7. What time is it? ___ is half past seven.
15. It is twenty minutes ___ three p.m..

8. She'll leave at quarter ___ eight.

6. Scrieti verbul din paranteze la timpul prezent simplu (Present Tense), in acord cu subiectul.
1. I ___ (to swim) 9. The birds ___ fast. (to fly)
2. You ___ (to swim) 10. The eagle __ very high. (to fly)
3. We ___ (to walk) 11. You ___ at the theater. (to be)
4. He ___ (to walk) 12. He ___ two books. (to have)
5. They ___ (to sing) 13. She ___ good things. (to do)
6. She ___ (to read) 14. I ___ a student. (to be)
7. it ___ here (to be) 15. You ___ a blue shirt. (to have)
8. My father ___ here. (to come) 16. I ___ to live peacefully. (to choose )

7. Scrieti verbul din paranteze la timpul trecut simplu (Past Tense), in acord cu subiectul.
1. I ___ (to work) 9. The birds ___ fast. (to fly)
10. The painter __ a brush. (to ask for)
2. You ___ (to stop)
3. We ___ (to walk)
11. You ___ at the theater. (to be)
4. He ___ (to jump)
12. He ___ two games. (to have)
5. They ___ (to sing)
13. She ___ good things. (to do)
6. She ___ (to read)
14. I ___ a student. (to be)
7. It ___ here (to be)
15. You ___ a blue shirt. (to wear)
8. My brother ___ here. (to come)
16. I ___ 2 hours. (to wait )

8. Scrieti verbul din paranteze la timpul viitor simplu, cu "will" (Future Tense), in acord cu subiectul.

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1. I ___ (to study) 9. The airplanes ___ fast. (to fly)
2. You ___ (to start) 10. The painter __ a brush. (to get)
3. We ___ (to dance) 11. You ___ in the park. (to run)
4. He ___ (to sing) 12. It ___ three windows. (to have)
5. They ___ (to write) 13. She ___ my homework. (to do)
6. She ___ (to cook) 14. I ___ some nuts. (to eat)
7. It ___ here (to be) 15. You ___ a green shirt. (to wear)
8. My brother ___ tomorrow. (to leave) 16. I ___ 2 hours. (to wait )

9. Recunoasteti si scrieti la fiecare proppozitie Verbul modal ce-l contine.


1. Can you be my friend?
10. He can speak two foreign languages.
2. I could run ten miles in my twenties.
3. May I come in?
11. The children must eat many fruits.
4. He mihgt be there right now.
12. Can you read this?
5. You must pray to the God
13. The teacher might be late.
6. Might I borrow the stapler?
14. You may copy the lesson.
7. You may sit now.
15. Tom can help all his brothers.
8. She must go to the school. .)
9. It was late, but we could plant the flowers. 16. She could run one kilometer more.

10. Fill in the blanks with the right subject / personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they):

1. Angelina Jolie is American. isn't French.


2. Brad Pitt is American, too. isn't German.
3. Brad and Angelina aren't French. are American.
4. My friend and I are high school students. aren't primary school students.
5. The Statue of Liberty is in New York. isn't in Washington.

11. Fill in the blanks with the right form of to be ( am, are or is):

1. you the new student? 6. The girls tired.


2. Yes, I . 7. These women beautiful.
3. Leila and Nancy students. 8. The tea delicious.
4. Nancy Australian . 9. Nadia and Leila friends.
5. My sister and I students. 10. The newspaper cheap.

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Reading Comprehension

Brain Drain

Brain drain, which is the action of having highly skilled and educated people leaving their country to
work abroad, has become one of the developing countries concern. Brain drain is also referred to as
human capital flight. More and more third world science and technology educated people are heading
for more prosperous countries seeking higher wages and better working conditions. This has of course
serious consequences on the sending countries.

While many people believe that immigration is a personal choice that must be understood and
respected, others look at the phenomenon from a different perspective. What makes those educated
people leave their countries should be seriously considered and a distinction between push and pull
factors must be made. The push factors include low wages and lack of satisfactory working and living
conditions. Social unrest, political conflicts and wars may also be determining causes. The pull factors,
however, include intellectual freedom and substantial funds for research.

Brain drain has negative impact on the sending countries economic prospects and competitiveness. It
reduces the number of dynamic and creative people who can contribute to the development of their
country. Likewise, with more entrepreneurs taking their investments abroad, developing countries are
missing an opportunity of wealth creation. This has also negative consequences on tax revenue and
employment.

Most of the measures taken so far have not had any success in alleviating the effects of brain drain. A
more global view must take into consideration the provision of adequate working and living conditions
in the sending countries. Another option should involve encouraging the expatriates to contribute their
skill to the development of their countries without necessarily physically relocating.

Comprehension:

1. Another term for brain drain is:


a. capital flight
b. human capital flight
2. To address the problem of brain drain we should understand:
a. the causes.
b. the effects.
3. Brain drain has terrible consequences on the economic development of :
a. sending countries
b. receiving countries
4. To limit the negative impact of brain drain, expatriates should
a. come back to their home countries for good.
b. try to help their home countries while staying there.

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Stereotypes

A stereotype is a fixed idea that people have about what specific social groups or individuals are like,
especially an idea that is wrong. Other terms that are associated with the term stereotype are prejudice
and clich. The term has a Greek origin: stereos means solid or firm and typos mean blow, impression,
engraved or mark. The term was first used in the printing business. The first modern English use of the
term was in 1850, meaning "image perpetuated without change."

Because stereotypes are standardized and simplified ideas of groups, based on some prejudices, they
are not derived from objective facts, but rather subjective and often unverifiable ideas. As Sociologist
Charles E. Hurst states* "One reason for stereotypes is the lack of personal, concrete familiarity that
individuals have with persons in other racial or ethnic groups. Lack of familiarity encourages the
lumping together of unknown individuals".

The existence of stereotypes may be explained by the need of groups of people to view themselves as
more normal or more superior than other groups. Consequently, stereotypes may be used to justify ill-
founded prejudices or ignorance and prevent people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding
in various activities or fields. The stereotyping group are, generally, reluctant to reconsider their
attitudes and behavior towards stereotyped group.

Stereotypes may affect people negatively. This includes forming inaccurate and distorted images and
opinions of people. Stereotypes may also be used for scapegoating or for making general erroneous
judgments about people. Some stereotyping people may feel comfortable when they prevent
themselves from emotional identification with the stereotyped group, which leads to xenophobic or
racist behavior. Finally another serious consequence of stereotypes is the feeling of inferiority that the
stereotyped people may have and which may impair their performance.

*Hurst, Charles E. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences. 6. Boston: Pearson
Education, Inc, 2007

Comprehension:

1. The word stereotype has:


a. a Greek origin.
b. an English origin.
2. Stereotypes are used to:
a. make generalizations about different groups of people.
b. have an accurate understanding of the stereotyped people.
3. If you label people in terms of stereotypes, you will probably :
a. be having an exact judgment of their worth.
b. be behaving in a discriminatory way

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Humor

A big mystery: the tremendous benefits of laughter.

Humor, the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement,
affects how we perceive and respond to life. It enhances the quality of life and may relieve the body
from so many health problems. In fact, humans are the only creatures on earth that are endowed with
the ability to laugh.

The difference between humor and laughter is that humor is a perceptual process while laughter is a
behavioral response. People of all ages and cultures respond to humor. The majority of people are able
to experience humor, i.e., to be amused, to laugh or smile at something funny, and thus they are
considered to have a sense of humor. The hypothetical person lacking a sense of humor would likely
find the behavior induced by humor to be inexplicable, strange, or even irrational. Though ultimately
decided by personal taste, the extent to which a person will find something humorous depends upon a
host of variables, including geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education, intelligence
and context.

Regular laughter sessions can have important effects on our health and well being. For instance,
laughter is considered to be a stress buster and researchers found a direct link between laughter and
healthy function of blood vessels. Laughter causes the dilatation of the inner lining of blood vessels,
the endothelium, and increases blood flow. It also has been shown to lead to reductions in stress
hormones such as cortisol and epinephrine. When laughing the brain also releases endorphins that can
relieve some physical pain. Laughter also boosts the number of antibody-producing cells and enhances
the effectiveness of T-cells, a type of cells that lead to a stronger immune system.

Since laughter does effect the body, mind and spirit the only thing you have to do to lead a happy life
is LAUGH, as simple as that.

Comprehension:

1. The expression "stress buster" means:


a. something that stops stress,
b. something that produces stress.
2. Laughter strengthens:
a. the immune system
b. the muscles
3. The response to humor is the same everywhere in the world.
a. True
b. False

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4. A person lacking the sense of humor may find it difficult to get along with other people.
a. True
b. False

The Great Wall Of China

The Great Wall of China, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was
first built between 220206 BC. In fact, it began as independent walls for
different states when it was first built, and did not become the "Great"
wall until the Qin Dynasty. Emperor Qin Shihuang succeeded in his
effort to have the walls joined together to serve as fortification to protect
the northern borders of the Chinese Empire from invasion. Afterwards it
was rebuilt and maintained over the years, between the 5th century BC
and the 16th century.

One of the myths associated with the Great Wall of China is that it is the
only man-made structure that can be seen from the moon with the naked eye. The legend originated in
Richard Halliburton's 1938 book Second Book of Marvels. However, This myth is simply not true.
Richard Halliburton's claim was contradicted by astronauts Neil Armstrongby and Yang Liwei. A more
plausible assumption would be to say that the Great Wall can be visible from a low orbit of the earth
which is not unique in this regard as many other artificial constructions can be seen from that height.

Comprehension

1. The Great Wall of China was first built as a single wall.


a. True
b. False
2. The Great Wall of China
a. was built in a single dynasty.
b. was refurbished during its history.
3. The Great Wall was first designed
a. to protect the Empire from invasion.
b. to help trade between different provinces.
4. The wall can be seen from moon with the naked eye.
a. True.
b. False.

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Democracy

Develop your reading skills. Read the following text about Democracy and do the
comprehension questions

The term Democracy comes from the Greek words dmos (people) and Kratos (power). In its literal
meaning, democracy means the "rule of the people". In fact it is a form of government in which all
eligible people have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy as a political
systems existed in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.

Equality and freedom have both been identified as important characteristics of democracy since
ancient times.These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal
access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal
weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, and the
freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a
constitution.

There are several varieties of democracy, some of which provide better representation and more
freedom for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not structured so as to prohibit the
government from excluding the people from the legislative process, or any branch of government from
altering the separation of powers in its own favor, then a branch of the system can accumulate too
much power and destroy the democracy. Separation of powers is a model of governance under which
the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of
responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches. The normal division of
branches is into an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary.

Comprehension:

1. Democracy is a new system of governance.


a. True
b. False
2. The most important principles of democracy are equality and freedom.
a. True.
b. False.
3. The separation of powers threatens democracy
a. True
b. False

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Greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Saying Goodbye

Parting phrases

There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases depend on situations
and the people involved, their social status and personal relationship.

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.


Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!


I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone

Nice to see you.


It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

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Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!


Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye

Take care
Bye!
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes

Catch you later


Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

Introducing yourself and others

There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people.

Introducing yourself:

Here are expressions to introduce yourself:

My name is ...
I'm ....
Nice to meet you; I'm ...
Pleased to meet you; I'm ...
Let me introduce myself; I'm ...
I'd like to introduce myself; I'm ...

Introducing others:

Here are expressions to introduce others:

Jack, please meet Nicolas.


Jack, have you met Nicolas?
I'd like you to meet Liza.
I'd like to introduce you to Betty.
Leila, this is Barbara. Barbara this is Leila.

Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:

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Nice to meet you.
Pleased to meet you.
Happy to meet you.
How do you do?

How to express ability

To express that someone has the power or skill to do something, can and be able are used.

Examples:

I can't help you.I am busy.


I'm unable to help you.
When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well; I could work hard. Now I can't. I'm
too old.
I can stand on my head for five minutes.
Can you speak Arabic?
Yes, I can.

Expressing ability

In the present:

Express ability in the present as follows:

I can speak good English.


I can't stand on my head.

In the past

Express ability in the past as follows

I was unable to visit him.


I couldn't eat at all when I was ill.

In the future

Express ability in the future as follows

I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job.


The teacher can assist you after class if you have
any questions.

Things to remember:

Can is always followed by an infinitive without


"to."

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Examples:
I can ride my bike and I can drive a car, but I can't drive a lorry.

Can in the past is was able or could


Examples:
When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. Now I can't; I'm too old.
I couldn't hear what he was saying.
Can in the future is will be able.
Example:
When I finish my studies, I will be able to find a job.

Asking for and giving permission:

When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best
to be polite. It is desirable to use the word "please."

Asking for Permission:

Can I go out, please?


May I open the window, please?
Please, can I have a look at your photo album?
Please, may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish?
Do you mind if I smoke?
Would you mind if I asked you something?
Is it okay if I sit here?
Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone?

Giving Permission:

Yes, please do.


Sure, go ahead.
Sure.
No problem.
Please feel free.

Refusing to give permission:

No, please dont.


Im sorry, but thats not possible.
I'm afraid, but you can't.

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