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Environmental pollution in India

Environmental Pollution in India

Environmental Pollution
Air Pollution
River water Pollution
Groundwater exploitation
Plastic Pollution
Municipal solid waste
Pollution due to Mining
Pollution due to biomedical waste
Pollution due to e-Waste
Delhi's air is choking with pollutant PM 2.5
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Pollution of Indian Seas
Indian satellite to monitor green house emission
Environmental Pollution and chronic diseases
Mahatma Ghandhi on Environmental pollution
Invasive alien species
Pollution trading
Poverty is the biggest polluter T he skies over North India are
The most polluted places in India seasonally filled with a thic k
Emissions of gaseous pollutants: satellite data soup of aerosol partic les all
Is nuclear energy a solution of global warming? along the southern edge of the
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification Himalayas, Bangladesh and
Reduce pollutions: suggestions the Bay of Bengal.
- NASA researc h findings.
References
Fire, Haze -Northwest India
Environmental Pollution (NASA)
T he environmental problems in India are growing rapidly. T he inc reasing
ec onomic development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the
c ountry from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one billion people
today is putting a strain on the environment, infrastruc ture, and the c ountry’s
natural resourc es. Industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid
industrialization, urbanization, and land degradation are all worsening
problems. Overexploitation of the c ountry's resourc es be it land or water and
the industrialization proc ess has resulted environmental degradation of
resourc es. Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems
fac ing humanity and other life forms on our planet today.
With India's population at 1.2 billion people and c ounting, plus internal
ec onomic migration to urban areas from the c ountryside, the c ountry's c ities
are bursting at the seams. Housing shortages, elec tric ity and water c uts,
traffic c ongestion, pollution and a lac k of basic servic es are the reality for
millions. T he demographers are predic ting that India will add three to four
hundred million new people to its population over the next 40 years
India has been ranked among the top ten worst c limate polluters of the
world. While India holds the 7th position, US and China hold the 2nd and
3rd positons respec tively. T he study has been c onduc ted by Professor Corey Spac e Shuttle view of haze
Bradshaw of the University of Adelaide's environment institute in April 2010. and
T he study yielded the worst ten polluters as Brazil, the US, China, Indonesia, pollution over Northern India
Japan, Mexic o, India, Russia, Australia and Peru, in the order. swept
in from T ibet. Credit: NASA

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Environmental pollution in India

India is the world's fifth-biggest polluter, a new study c onfirmed on April 11,
2010, with its greenhouse gas emissions growing by more than 3 per c ent
annually between 1994-2007. India also is suffering from the effec ts of
global warming suc h as rising temperatures and sea levels along its c oasts.
T he study represents the first update to an assessment of India's air emissions
that was done 16 years ago. More than 80 sc ientists from 17 institutions
ac ross India were involved in the study, said Jairam Ramesh, India's
environment minister.
India's per c apita c arbon dioxide emissions were roughly 3,000 pounds
(1,360 kilograms) in 2007, ac c ording to the study. T hat's small c ompared to
China and the U.S., with 10,500 pounds (4,763 kilograms) and 42,500
pounds (19,278 kilograms) respec tively that year. T he study said that the Industrial pollution
European Union and Russia also have more emissions than India.
On 11 Marc h, 2010 Mr Jairam Ramesh Minister of State for Environment
and Forests informed the Rajya Sabha that the Central Pollution Control
Board has done a nation wide environmental assessment of Industrial
Clusters based on CEPI and 43 suc h industrial c lusters having CEPI greater
than 70, on a sc ale of 0 to 100, has been identified as c ritic ally polluted.
A Comprehensive environmental assessment of industrial c lusters, Blame air pollution for
undertaken by IIT Delhi and the CPCB, found that the environmental New Delhi's blanket of fog
pollution levels in 10 major industrial hubs had reac hed a “very alarmingly on January 8, 2010
high” level. T his list inc ludes Ankleshwar and Vapi in Gujarat , Ghaziabad Fog over Indian c ities
and Singrauli in UP, Korba (Chhattisgarh), Chandrapur (Maharashtra),
Ludhiana (Punjab), Vellore (T amil Nadu), Bhiwadi (Rajasthan) and Angul
T alc her (Orissa).
Air Pollution
T he World Health Organization estimates that about two million people
die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution, while many more
suffer from breathing ailments, heart disease, lung infec tions and even
c anc er.Fine partic les or mic rosc opic dust from c oal or wood fires and
unfiltered diesel engines are rated as one of the most lethal forms or air
pollution c aused by industry, transport, household heating, c ooking and
ageing c oal or oil-fired power stations.
T here are four reasons of air pollution are - emissions from vehic les, Poison in the air due to Power
thermal power plants, industries and refineries. T he problem of indoor air plants. In India, air pollution is
pollution in rural areas and urban slums has inc reased. estimated to c ause, at the
India’s environmental problems are exac erbated by its heavy relianc e on very minimum, 1 lakh exc ess
c oal for power generation. Coal supplies more than half of the c ountry’s deaths and 25 million exc esses
energy needs and is used for nearly three-quarters of elec tric ity generation. illnesses every year.
While India is fortunate to have abundant reserves of c oal to power
ec onomic development, the burning of this resourc e, espec ially given the
high ash c ontent of India’s c oal, has c ome at a c ost in terms of heightened
public risk and environmental degradation. Relianc e on c oal as the major
energy sourc e has led to a nine-fold jump in c arbon emissions over the past
forty years. T he government estimates the c ost of environmental degradation
has been running at 4.5% of GDP in rec ent years. T he low energy effic ienc y
of power plants that burn c oal is a c ontributing fac tor. India's c oal plants are
old and are not outfitted with the most modern pollution c ontrols.
With pollution level rising ac ross the c ountry, India on Wednesday, the 18 T he brilliant white of the
November 2009 revised the national ambient air quality standards after 15 T aj Mahal is slowly fading to
years. "We have notified the ambient air quality standards in India whic h is a sic kly yellow. In the famous
equivalent to the European level and exc eeds the standard prevalent in the “T ajmahal Case” a very strong
US," Minister of state for environment and forests Jairam Ramesh said. T he step was taken by Supreme
revised ambient air quality standards provide a legal framework for the Court
c ontrol of air pollution and the protec tion of public health and any c itizen to save the T aj Mahal
c an approac h the c ourt demanding better air quality. Case being polluted by fumes
Vehicle emissions are responsible for 70% of the c ountry’s air pollution. and more than 200 fac tories
T he major problem with government efforts to safeguard the environment were c losed down.
has been enforc ement at the loc al level, not with a lac k of laws. Air pollution
from vehic le exhaust and industry is a worsening problem for India. Exhaust
from vehic les has inc reased eight-fold over levels of twenty years ago;
industrial pollution has risen four times over the same period. T he ec onomy
has grown two and a half times over the past two dec ades but pollution

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Environmental pollution in India

c ontrol and c ivil servic es have not kept pac e. Air quality is worst in big c ities
like Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, etc .
Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma c apital of the c ountry.
Studies estimate that 10 per c ent of Bangalore’s 60 lakh population and over
50 per c ent of its c hildren below 18 years suffer from air pollution- related
ailments.
CHENNAI: Exhaust from vehic les, dust from c onstruc tion debris, industrial
waste, burning of munic ipal and garden waste are all on the rise in the c ity.
So are respiratory diseases, inc luding asthma. At least six of the 10 top
c auses of death are related to respiratory disease, says Dr D Ranganathan,
direc tor (in-c harge), Institute of T horac ic Medic ine.
Mumbai: Not only are levels of Suspended Partic ulate Matter above
permissible limits in Mumbai, but the worst pollutant after vehic ular
emissions has grown at an alarming rate. T he levels of Respirable
Suspended Partic ulate Matter (RSPM), or dust, in Mumbai’s air have
Multi-storeyed residential
c ontinued to inc rease over the past three years.
buildings
T he air pollution in Mumbai is so high that Mumbai authorities have
stand behind an expanse of
purc hased 42,000 litres of perfume to spray on the c ity’s enormous waste
slums
dumps at Deonar and Mulund landfill sites after people living near the
in Mumbai
landfill sites c omplained of the stenc h. T he Deonar landfill site, one of
India’s largest, was first used by the British in 1927. T oday, the festering pile
c overs more than 120 hec tares and is eight story's high.
Bhopal: Bhopal gas tragedy was the greatest industrial disaster in the
world that took plac e at a Union Carbide pestic ide plant in the Indian c ity of
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. At midnight on 3 Dec ember 1984, the plant
ac c identally released methyl isoc yanate (MIC) gas, exposing more than
500,000 people to MIC and other c hemic als. T he first offic ial immediate
death toll was 2,259. T he government of Madhya Pradesh has c onfirmed a Mumbai authorities have
total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release Others estimate purc hased 42,000 litres
8,000-10,000 died within 72 hours and 25,000 have sinc e died from of perfume rec ently to spray
gas-related diseases, making it the deadliest man-made environmental on the c ity’s enormous waste
disaster in history. dumps at Deonar and Mulund
landfill sites

T he greatest industrial disaster in the world


T he effec ts of air pollution are obvious: ric e c rop yields in southern India
are falling as brown c louds bloc k out more and more sunlight. And the
Drastic fall in butterfly
brilliant white of the famous T aj Mahal is slowly fading to a sic kly yellow. In
numbers in the western
the “T ajmahal Case” a very strong step was taken by Supreme Court to save
Himalayas, due to vehic ular
the T ajmahal being polluted by fumes and more than 200 fac tories were
emission.
c losed down.
Birds and species affected: Studies c onduc ted by the high altitude
zoology field station of the Zoologic al Survey of India (ZSI) based in Solan
town of Himac hal Pradesh have rec orded a drastic fall in butterfly numbers
in the western Himalayas, famous for their biodiversity.
' T he population of 50 perc ent of the 288 spec ies rec orded in the western
Himalayas, c omprising areas of Himac hal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir,
have dec lined more than half in just 10 years,' Avtar Kaur Sidhu, a sc ientist
with the field station, told IANS on World Environment Day 2010. We
notic ed a large number of dead butterflies on the Khardung La (the world's
highest motorable road in Ladakh) during one of our visits. It was primarily
due to a rise in vehic ular traffic by the tourists,' she said.

River water Pollution


Contaminated and polluted water now kills more people than all forms of violenc e inc luding wars,
ac c ording to a United Nations report released on Marc h 22, 2010 on World Water Day that c alls for
turning unsanitary wastewater into an environmentally safe ec onomic resourc e. Ac c ording to the
report -- titled "Sic k Water?" -- 90 perc ent of wastewater disc harged daily in developing c ountries is

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untreated, c ontributing to the deaths of some 2.2 million people a year from diarrheal diseases c aused
by unsafe drinking water and poor hygiene. At least 1.8 million c hildren younger than 5 die every year
from water-related diseases.
Fully 80 perc ent of urban waste in India ends up in the c ountry's rivers, and unc hec ked urban growth
ac ross the c ountry c ombined with poor government oversight means the problem is only getting worse.
A growing number of bodies of water in India are unfit for human use, and in the River Ganga , holy
to the c ountry's 82 perc ent Hindu majority, is dying slowly due to unc hec ked pollution.

New Delhi's body of water is little more than a flowing garbage dump, with fully 57 perc ent of the
c ity's waste finding its way to the Yamuna. It is that three billion liters of waste are pumped into Delhi's
Yamuna (River Yamuna) eac h day. Only 55 perc ent of the 15 million Delhi residents are c onnec ted to
the c ity's sewage system. T he remainder flush their bath water, waste water and just about everything
else down pipes and into drains, most of them empty into the Yamuna. Ac c ording to the Centre for
Sc ienc e and Environment, between 75 and 80 perc ent of the river's pollution is the result of raw
sewage. Combined with industrial runoff, the garbage thrown into the river and it totals over 3 billion
liters of waste per day. Nearly 20 billion rupees, or almost US $500 million, has been spent on various
c lean up efforts.
The frothy brew is so glaring that it can be v iew ed on Google Earth.
Muc h of the river pollution problem in India c omes from untreated sewage. Samples taken rec ently
from the Ganges River near Varanasi show that levels of fec al c oliform, a dangerous bac terium that
c omes from untreated sewage, were some 3,000 perc ent higher than what is c onsidered safe for
bathing.

Groundwater exploitation
Groundwater exploitation is a serious matter of c onc ern today and legislations and polic y measures taken
till date, by the state governments (water is a state subjec t) have not had the desired effec t on the situation.
Groundwater Quality and Pollution is most alarming pollution hazards in India. On April 01, 2010 at least 18
babies in several hamlets of Bihar’s Bhojpur distric t have been born blind in the past three months bec ause
their families c onsume groundwater c ontaining alarming levels of arsenic , c onfirmed by Bihar’s Health
Minister Nand Kishore Yadav on Wednesday, 31st Marc h 2010 c onfirmed the c ases of blindness in newborns
in arsenic -affec ted bloc ks of the distric t.
T his is the first time that blindness at birth has been attributed to arsenic c ontamination, though doc tors say
that people using groundwater in c ontaminated areas suffer from c anc er of the intestines, liver, kidneys and
bladder and that bone deformity, gangrene and skin disorders are c ommon.
Plastic Pollution
Plastic bags, plastic thin sheets and plastic waste is also a major sourc e of pollution. A division benc h of
Allahabad High Court, c omprising Justic e Ashok Bhushan and Justic e Arun T andon, in May 03, 2010 had
direc ted the Ganga Basin Authority and the state government to take appropriate ac tion to ban the use of
polythene in the vic inity of Ganga in the entire state.
See in detail: Plastic Bag Pollution in the c ountry
Municipal solid waste
India’s urban population slated to inc rease from the c urrent 330 million to about 600 million by 2030, the
c hallenge of managing munic ipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally and ec onomic ally sustainable
manner is bound to assume gigantic proportions. T he c ountry has over 5,000 c ities and towns, whic h
generate about 40 million tonnes of MSW per year today. Going by estimates of T he Energy Researc h
Institute (T ERI), this c ould well touc h 260 million tonnes per year by 2047.
Munic ipal solid waste is solid waste generated by households, c ommerc ial establishments and offic es and
does not inc lude the industrial or agric ultural waste. Munic ipal solid waste management is more of an
administrative and institutional mec hanism failure problem rather than a tec hnologic al one. Until now, MSW
management has been c onsidered to be almost the sole responsibility of urban governments, without the
partic ipation of c itizens and other stakeholders. T he Centre and the Supreme Court, however, have urged
that this issue be addressed with multiple stakeholder partic ipation. Cities in India spend approximately 20%

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of the c ity budget on solid waste servic es.


Pollution due to Mining
New Delhi-based Center for Sc ienc e and Environment (CSE) on Dec ember 29, 2007 said mining was
c ausing displac ement, pollution, forest degradation and soc ial unrest. T he CSE released its 356-page sixth
State of India’s Environment report, ‘Ric h Lands Poor People, is sustainable mining possible?’ Ac c ording to
the Centre for Sc ienc e and Environment ( CSE) report the top 50 mineral produc ing distric ts, as many as 34
fall under the 150 most bac kward distric ts identified in the c ountry.
T he CSE report has made extensive analysis of environment degradation and pollution due to mining,
wherein it has said, in 2005-06 alone 1.6 billion tonnes of waste and overburden from c oal, iron ore,
limestone and bauxite have added to environment pollution. With the annual growth of mining at 10.7 per
c ent and 500-odd mines awaiting approval of the Centre, the pollution would inc rease manifold in the
c oming years.
In Orissa state, in the next five to 10 years, Jharsuguda will be home to produc tion of 3.1 million tonne
aluminum. T his, however, will generate 3,100 tonne of fluoride every year. Similarly, the State is gearing up
for power projec ts - mostly c oal-based - targeting 20,000 mega watt energy. T his will require 3.2 lakh tonne of
c oal daily whic h in turn c an lead to generation of 1,200 tonne ash a day.
T he mines of Mahanadi Coal Fields and NT PC draw about 25 Cr litres of water per day from the River
Brahmani and in return they release thousands of gallons of waste water, whic h c ontains obnoxious
substanc es like Ash,
Oil, Heavy Metals, Grease, Fluorides, Phosphorus, Ammonia, Urea and Sulphuric Ac id, into the River Nandira
(A tributary of River Brahmani). T he effluents from c hlorine plant c ause c hloride and sodium toxic ity to the
river Rushikulya – the lifeline of southern Orissa. T he Phosphoric Fertilizer Industry disc harges effluent
c ontaining Nitric , Sulphuric and Phosphoric ac ids into river Mahanadi.
An alumina refinery in Orissa blithely c ontinues to pollute the surrounding villages, despite the
rec ommendations of the Supreme Court's Central Empowered Committee that it be c losed sinc e it poses
environmental and health hazards.
Rengopalli is also at alarming proximity to the east and west c ells of the Red Mud pond built for the refinery's
alkaline waste disposal. Red Mud, whic h is the final waste produc t in the proc ess of extrac ting alumina from
bauxite. In the c urrently operational west c ell, a ton of toxic waste is dumped for every ton of alumina
produc ed in the refinery.

the Red Mud pond built for the refinery's alkaline waste disposal
In Jharkhand there are abundant c oalmines, most of the c oalmines are situated in Hazaribag, Chatra,
Palamau, Rajmahal, Dhanbad and Ranc hi distric t. Mighty Damodar River and its tributaries flow through
these c oalmines. Due to extensive c oal mining and vigorous growth of industries in this area water resourc es
have been badly c ontaminated.
Due to this large sc ale mining in T he Aravalli hills Range in Rajasthan and Haryana the forest c over has
been depleted 90 perc ent and drying up wells and affec ting agric ulture. T he governments remain silent in
these years. Due to media and public protest the Supreme Court on February 20, 2010 direc ted c anc ellation
of 157 mining leases operating in Rajasthan’s ec o-sensitive Aravalli Hills

T he Aravalli hills Range in Dehli, Haryana, Rajasthan and Sindh

Pollution due to biomedical waste


Pollution due to biomedic al waste is likely to spread disease dangerous to life and making atmosphere

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noxious to health. In early April, 2010 a mac hine from Delhi University c ontaining c obalt-60, a radioac tive
metal used for radiotherapy in hospitals, ended up in a sc rapyard in the c ity. T he death from radiation
poisoning of a sc rapyard worker in New Delhi has highlighted the lax enforc ement of waste disposal laws in
India.T he International Atomic Energy Agenc y (IAEA) said it was the worst radiation inc ident worldwide in
four years.
India being used as a dumping ground for hazardous waste, from foreign c ountries. T wenty c ontainers with
goods were detained by the offic ials of Spec ial Intelligenc e and Investigation Branc h attac hed to the
Customs Department here rec ently. Pac ks of broken toys, used diapers, empty perfume bottles, used battery
c ells, thermoc ol, used aluminum foil pac king materials and c oloured surgic al gloves were found in the
c ontainers. It c ould also lead to c ontamination and spread of c ommunic able diseases.
Pollution due to e-Waste
T he UNEP report "Rec yc ling – from E-Waste to Resourc es" was released on the Indonesian island of Bali on
February 22, 2010 at the start of a week-long meeting of offic ials and environmentalists. Ac c ording to the
report's authors by 2020 e-waste in South Afric a and China will have jumped by 200-400 per c ent from 2007
levels, and by 500 per c ent in India.
India produc es about 3,80,000 tonnes of e-Waste per annum, whic h inc ludes only the waste generated out
of television sets, mobile phones and PCs, a major c hunk of whic h c omes from organizations. E-waste
produc ed in India inc ludes over 100,000 tonnes from refrigerators, 275,000 tonnes from T Vs, 56,300 tonnes
from personal c omputers, 4,700 tonnes from printers and 1,700 tonnes from mobile phones. T he un-
organized rec yc ling sec tor whic h fails to prac tic e ec o-friendly e-Waste rec yc ling methods release large
amount of toxic c hemic als. T he toxic gases and the large volume of Elec tronic Waste Adds environmental
Pollution in India

India imports almost 50,000 tonnes of e-waste yearly . It generated 330,000 tonnes of e-waste in 2007 and
the number is expec ted to touc h 470,000 tonnes by 2011, ac c ording to a study on e-waste assessment
c onduc ted
jointly by MAIT and the German government’s sustainable development body GT Z. in April 2010. T ill date,
there were no definite e-Waste rules in India to regulate the management of e-waste In September 2009,
MAIT , GT Z (German T ec hnic al Cooperation Agenc y), Greenpeac e and T oxic s Link, in c onsultation with all
stakeholders, submitted a set of draft rules for e-Waste management to Govt of India.
Delhi's air is choking with pollutant PM 2.5
PM 2.5 is only 2.5 mic rons in diameter is very very small partic le. T he diameter of a human hair strand is
around 40-120. Being so small, it esc apes emission apparatus presc ribed by Euro II and III. Any kind of
c ombustion, espec ially of vehic ular origin, c ontains this partic le. If PM 2.5 is not regulated it will ensure
major health hazards. T he number of Asthma patients will rise and in future there may huge rise of lung
c anc er c ases also. T he toxic value of PM 2.5 is suc h that metals like lead present in the PM 2.5 get inhaled
deeper into lungs whic h deposits there. T he c hildren are most affec ted by depositing lead due to inhaling
the poisonous air. T he inc reasing amount of PM 2.5 is like a poison in the air we breathe. Researc hers
believe partic ulates, or tiny partic les of soot, interfere with the respiratory system bec ause they are so small
they c an be breathed deeply into the lungs.
T oxic smog is set to engulf Delhi onc e again this winter after a six-year respite bec ause of the huge number
of new c ars c logging the roads. New Delhi adds nearly 1,000 new c ars a day to the existing four
million registered in the c ity, almost twic e as many as before 2000. Pollution levels are up to 350 mic rograms
per c ubic metre in 2006-2007 and the levels of nitrogen oxides have been inc reasing in the c ity to
dangerous levels, whic h is a c lear sign of pollution from vehic les. Of these it is the diesel c ars that are
responsible for the pollution. Diesel- run vehic les c onstituted just two perc ent of the total number of c ars on
Delhi's roads seven years ago c ompared to more than 30 perc ent today and a projec ted 50 perc ent by
2010.Diesel is being inc reasingly used bec ause it is a c heaper fuel. Diesel emissions c an trigger asthma and
in the long run even c ause lung c anc er.
A survey by the Central Pollution Control Board and the All India Institute of M edic al Sc ienc es survey
showed that a majority of people living in Delhi suffered from eye irritation, c ough, sore throat, shortness of
breath and poor lung func tioning. One in 10 people have asthma in Delhi. Worse, the winter months bring
respiratory attac ks and wheezing to many non-asthmatic s who are old, who smoke, have respiratory infec tions
or c hronic bronc hitis. Ac ross the national c apital and its suburbs, polluted air is killing people, bringing down

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the quality of life, and leaving people feeling ill and tired.
Some studies show c hildren are among the worst-affec ted by the dense haze that often shrouds the c ity, and
doc tors frequently tell parents to keep their c hildren indoors when smog levels are partic ularly high. In a
survey of almost 12,000 c ity sc hoolc hildren late last year, 17 perc ent reported c oughing, wheezing or
breathlessness, c ompared to just eight perc ent of c hildren in a rural area.
Gre e nhouse Gas Emissions
India emits the fifth most c arbon of any c ountry in the world. At 253 million metric tons, only the U.S.,
China, Russia, and Japan surpassed its level of c arbon emissions in 1998. Carbon emissions have grown
nine-fold over the past forty years. In this Industrial Age, with the ever-expanding c onsumption of hydroc arbon
fuels and the resultant inc rease in c arbon dioxide emissions, that greenhouse gas c onc entrations have
reac hed levels c ausing c limate c hange. Going forward, c arbon emissions are forec ast to grow 3.2% per
annum until 2020. T o put this in perspec tive, c arbon emissions levels are estimated to inc rease by 3.9% for
China and by 1.3% for the United States. India is a non-Annex I c ountry under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Green house gases and c limate Change, and as suc h, is not required to reduc e its c arbon
emissions. An historic al summary of c arbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from fossil fuel use in India is inc reasing
rapidly and c auses global warming.
All inhabitants of our planet have an equal right to the atmosphere, but the industrialized c ountries have
greatly exc eeded their fair, per-c apita share of the planet’s atmospheric resourc es and have induc ed
c limate c hange. T he most developed c ountries possess the c apital, tec hnologic al and human resourc es
required for suc c essful adaptation, while in the developing c ountries, a large proportion of the population is
engaged in traditional farming, that is partic ularly vulnerable to the c hanges in temperature, rainfall and
extreme weather events assoc iated with c limate c hange.
Ac c ording to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protoc ol , the most
industrialized c ountries are mainly responsible for c ausing c limate c hange. T hus equity requires that they
should sharply reduc e their emissions in order to arrest further c limate c hange and allow other c ountries
ac c ess to their fair share of atmospheric resourc es in order to develop.

Pollution of Indian Se as
A first-ever exerc ise on Marc h 25, 2010, the c ountry's 7500-km-long c oastline will be surveyed to demarc ate
areas vulnerable to sea erosion, high tide and waves in order to help government take measures in protec ting
c ommunity living in suc h poc kets. T he Cabinet Committee of Ec onomic Affairs (CCEA) approved a Rs
1,156-c rore Integrated Coastal Zone Management(ICZM) projec t whic h among other things c over c oastline
survey, c apac ity building of the people living near to c oast,expand their livelihood opportunities and
demarc ation of sensitive and hazardous zones.
T he ship Platinum-II arrived in Indian waters on 8 Oc tober, 2009 T he ministry of environment and forests
said it inspec ted Platinum-II and found the ship c ontained toxic material. T he Platinum-II - formerly known as
SS Oc eanic or the SS Independenc e - was destined for the Alang ship- breaking yard. T he Gujarat Maritime
Board leases out the yard to ship-breakers. It is Asia's largest ship-breaking yard and known as the "graveyard
of ships". It said many of the workers tested showed early signs of asbestosis - an inc urable disease of the
lungs.

T he ship Platinum-II Indian dedi c ated satellite


Indian sate llite to monitor gre e n house e mission
A dedic ated satellite would be launc hed with the support of Indian Spac e Researc h Organisation (ISRO)
by 2012 to monitor India's greenhouse gas emission, Union Minister for Environment and Forests Jairam
Ramesh said. "Currently, Japan and European c ountries have this satellite but by 2012 we will have a
dedic ated satellite that will monitor greenhouse gas emission ac ross the c ountry and globe," Ramesh told
reporters on Marc h 13, 2010 at IIT -Powai.
"T he objec tive is to study the impac t of c limate c hange, fallout of greenhouse gas emissions on the
environment by monitoring it through satellite tec hnology," he said. Another satellite for protec tion and
development of the forest c over in India would be ready by 2013. "As the forests are getting depleted at a
rapid pac e elsewhere in the world, there seems to be a need for a satellite," Ramesh said.

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Env ironme ntal Pollution and chronic dise ase s


In an Indo-US joint workshop, on September 05, 2008 at Chandigarh, Prof S K Jindal said it has
been globally rec ognised that environmental fac tors, have important links with infec tious as well as
non-infec tious diseases of both ac ute and c hronic nature. “T he WHO estimates that 24 per c ent of global
disease burden and 23 per c ent of all deaths c an be attributed to environmental fac tors. T he burden is
more on the developing than the developed c ountries.” He said: “In developing c ountries, an estimated
42 per c ent of ac ute lower respiratory infec tions are c aused by environmental fac tors.”
T he major burden of these hazards is borne by the lungs. Bronc hial Asthma and other allergies; c hronic
obstruc tive lung disease, respiratory infec tions inc luding tuberc ulosis and oc c upational lung diseases are
some of the c ommon problems with a strong environmental risk whic h, ac c ount for a large disease burden
all over the world, inc luding in India. “T here is a need for extensive studies to gauge the effec ts of
environmental fac tors on the human health.”
Ac c ording to New England Journal of Medic ine, 2007, even a short exposure to traffic fumes c an
inc rease your c hanc es of Heart Disease, inc luding heart attac k. People who exerc ise in areas where there
is heavy traffic may be espec ially at risk, researc hers say.

M ahatma Ghandhi on Env ironme ntal pollution


Mahtma Gandhi had said that nature has enough to satisfy everyone’s need but
has not enough to satisfy man’s greed. Sadly our ever-expanding greed has put
us in suc h prec arious situation. Will we realise it? T he polic y of industrialisation
had helped ric h to bec ome ric her and poor bec ome poorer. T he disparity has
widened. It is the democ ratic system followed in the c ountry whic h has forc ed
our polic y-makers to think of growth for all. T hat is why we are hearing plans for
inc lusive growth. Industrialisation is not without pric e. All these have a direc t
bearing on environmental pollution leading to c limatic c hange. We are all
witness to the deleterious effec ts of c limate c hange. T he whole world is now
anxious to repair the damage.
Inv asiv e alie n spe cie s
Invasive alien spec ies are spec ies whose introduc tion and/or spread outside
their natural habitats threatens biologic al diversity. T hey oc c ur in all groups,
inc luding animals, plants, fungi, bac teria and viruses, and c an affec t all types of
ec osystems. T hey c an direc tly affec t human health. Infec tious diseases are
often trac ed to IAS im ported by travellers or vec tored by exotic spec ies of birds,
rodents and insec ts. IAS also have indirec t health effec ts on humans as a result
of the use of pestic ides and herbic ides, whic h pollute water and soil. T hey may Mahatma Ghandhi
look harmless but are dangerous, mainly c ausing flu, allergies, respiratory
disorders and even infertility among humans and animals. Sometimes they
manifest themselves as bird flu and at other times as foot-and-mouth disease and
mad c ow disease and lead to massive destruc tion of livestoc k populations. T he
biggest c asualty of suc h spec ies has been our ric h biodiversity, and threats to
food sec urity.
MIKANIA MICRANTHA, is of the most prominent invasive aliens in India.
It is a major threat in many parts of the c ountry, it grows 8 to 9 c m a day and
muzzles small plants and c hokes larger trees suc h as c oc onut and oil palm.
Parthenium: Parthenium Hystrophorous a poisonous plant T he parthenium now
oc c upies 50 lakh hec tares in the c ountry and has bec ome a major health
hazard for people and animals.
PROSOPIS JULIFLORA: Vilayati babul(prosopis j uliflora) was introduc ed in
Parthenium Hystrophorous
India in the last c entury as a very promising spec ies for the afforestation of dry
and degraded land. But over the years, it has emerged as a noxious invader that
c an grow in diverse ec osystems, enable it to wipe out other plant spec ies in its
surroundings.

Pollution trading
India may let power c ompanies start trading renewable-energy c redits in
May in a push to c reate a multibillion-dollar market to enc ourage reduc tions
in greenhouse-gas emissions. T he estimates trade in renewable energy
c redits c ould rise to as muc h as $10 billion by 2020. India is pressing ahead
with its own efforts to fight c limate c hange after last month’s Copenhagen
talks failed to reac h a new global c limate treaty. T he move puts the world’s
fourth-largest emitter ahead of China and other developing nations in

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Environmental pollution in India

c reating a domestic emissions-trading market to boost investment in solar,


T he only large-sc ale
wind and other c lean-energy projec ts.
"pollution trading" system in
India is the sec ond-largest generator of c arbon c redits in the United Nations
the world, run by the
Clean Development Mec hanism, the world’s sec ond-biggest greenhouse-gas
European Union, is failing to
trading market. Certified Emissions Credits, or CERs, issued for pollution-
deliver green energy
c utting projec ts in India are sold to businesses in Europe and elsewhere
investment.
seeking to meet either mandatory or voluntary limits.

Pov e rty is the bigge st pollute r Toxic Release


Indira Gandhi, a former prime minister, famously announc ed at the United Per c apita emission in
Nations’ first environmental c onferenc e, in 1972, that “Poverty is the biggest 2007-08 in selec t c ities
polluter.” T hose sentiments were ec hoed rec ently when Environment Minister ac ross the world (in a study
Jairam Ramesh snubbed the U.S. sec retary of state, Hillary Rodham Clinton, by in Oc tober 2009)::
telling her in public that India c ould not ac c ept binding c arbon emission
targets bec ause doing so would stunt the nation’s ec onomic growth. Jamshedpur - 2.76 tonnes
T he United States, with under 5 perc ent of the world’s population, ac c ounts Gargaon - 2.33 tonnes
for more than 20 perc ent of total c arbon emissions. India, with more than 17 Kolkata - 1.83 tonnes
perc ent of the global population, ac c ounts for just 5.3 perc ent of emissions. Delhi - 1.6 tonnes
Why, he asks. Faridabad - 1.58 tonnes
Bangalore - 0.82 tonnes
The most pollute d place s in India Washington DC- 19.7
Vapi in Gujarat and Sukinda in Orrisa is among the world's top 10 most tonnes
polluted plac es, ac c ording to the Blac ksmith Institute, a New York-based Beijing,China - 6.9 tonnes
nonprofit group. London, UK - 6.2 tonnes
Vapi : Potentially affec ted people: 71,000 -Pollutants: Chemic als and heavy Sourc e:
metals due to its Industrial estates. www.newsc ientist.c om
Sukinda: Potentially affec ted people: 2,600,000. -Pollutants: Hexavalent and ICLEI study
c hromium due to its Chromite mines.
The most polluted cities in India
As many as 51 Indian c ities have extremely high air pollution, Patna,
Luc know, Raipur, Faridabad and Ahmedabad topping the list. An environment
and forest ministry report, released on September 14, 2007 has identified 51
c ities that do not meet the presc ribed Respirable Partic ulate Matter (RSPM)
levels, spec ified under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). In
2005, an Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) plac ed India at 101st
position among 146 c ountries. ET P dic harge at Vapi
T aking a c ue from the finding, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
formulated NAAQS and c hec ked the air quality, whic h led to the revelation
about air quality in leading c ities.
Ac c ording to the report, Gobindgarh in Punjab is the most polluted c ity, and
Ludhiana, Raipur and Luc know hold the next three positions. Faridabad on the
outskirt of Delhi is the 10th most polluted c ity, followed by Agra, the c ity of T aj
Mahal. Ahmedabad is plac ed 12th, Indore 16th, Delhi 22nd, Kolkata 25th,
Mumbai 40th, Hyderabad 44th and Bangalore stands at 46th in the list. T he
Orissa town of Angul, home to National Aluminium Company (NALCO), is the
50th polluted c ity of the c ountry.
Emissions of gaseous pollutants: satellite data
Sc ientists and researc hers from around the world gathered at ESRIN, ESA’s
Earth Observation Centre in Frasc ati, Italy, rec ently to disc uss the c ontribution
of satellite data in monitoring nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. Using Worst 5 Indian power
nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data ac quired from 1996 to 2006 by the Global Ozone c ompanies in terms of total
Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument aboard ESA’s ERS-2 satellite, emission of CO
2
Nitrous oxide emissions over India is growing at an annual rate of 5.5 -NT PC LT D.
perc ent/year. T he loc ation of emission hot spots c orrelates well with the -Maharastra State Power
loc ation of mega thermal power plants, mega c ities, urban and industrial Gen Co.
regions. - Gujrat Urja Vikas Nigam
Emissions of gaseous pollutants have inc reased in India over the past two - Uttar Pradesh Rajya
dec ades. Ac c ording to Dr Sac hin Ghude of the Indian Institute of T ropic al Vidyut
Meteorology (IIT M), rapid industrialization, urbanization and traffic growth are - Andhra Pradesh Power
most likely responsible for the inc rease. Bec ause of varying c onsumption Gen Corp.
patterns and growth rates, the distribution of emissions vary widely ac ross India.

Is nuclear energy a solution of global warming?

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Environmental pollution in India

India a c ountry of 1.1 billion people c urrently gets only a frac tion of its
elec tric ity from nuc lear power. Now the US atomic trade pac t with India and an
atomic energy pac t with Franc e, India c an fight global warming with c lean
nuc lear energy. Nuc lear energy has been rec ognized as a c lean as CO 2 to the
atmosphere after its reac tion that c ould damage our environment. It's also
known that nuc lear energy has reduc ed the amount of greenhouse gas
emission, reduc ing emissions of CO 2for about 500 million metric tons of
c arbon.
Despite the advantage of nuc lear as a c lean energy, the big c onc ern is the
waste resulted from nuc lear reac tion, whic h is a form of pollution, c alled
radioac tivity. Nuc lear waste is also a problem with nuc lear power, in that spent
nuc lear fuel has no safe plac e to be stored right now. Perhaps the greatest Nuclear power plants
problem with nuc lear power is the pric e to taxpayers.
Environmentalists and antinuc lear ac tivists say the Civil Liability for Nuc lear
in India
Damage Bill (2009) whic h exempts foreign c ompanies from legal liabilities in
c ase of a nuc lear ac c ident and proposes a low c ap of Rs 500 c rores is
unc onstitutional and undermines public safety. “T he Bill to be tabled in the
parliament on Marc h 15, 2010 not only allows US c ompanies to go sc ot free in
c ase of a nuc lear mishap but also uses Indian taxpayers money to pay for the
damages,” said Karuna, Anti Nuc lear Campaigner, Greenpeac e India.
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification
T he EIA Notific ation was first enac ted in 1994 and was amended several times
before being replac ed with a new Notific ation in 2006. T hose who fail to
c omply with the EIA Notific ation guidelines are punishable under the
Environment Protec tion Ac t and other laws. One of the proposed amendments
states that in c ase of any expansion of existing projec ts, they are free to c ertify
themselves as environmentally sound.
Reduce pollutions: suggestions Tulsi (Holy Basil)
National Action Plan on Climate Change T ulsi reduc es pollution:
T hat India will put solar energy generation at the forefront of its battle against Now T ulsi an ayurveda
c limate c hange bec ame evident with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh wisdom to help T aj Majal
releasing the National Ac tion Plan on Climate Change in New Delhi last year. retain its pristine allure.
T he plan c onsisted of eight national missions. T hey are on solar energy, T he forest department has
enhanc ed energy effic ienc y, sustainable habitat, water c onservation, c ome up with a quic k-fix
sustaining the Himalayan ec osystem, c reating a 'green India' through a large projec t -- plant a T ulsi
tree-planting programme, sustainable agric ulture and establishing a knowledge drive in Agra. T ulsi is
platform on c limate c hange. c hosen for its anti-
Steps in Budget 2010-11 for the Env ironment pollutant anti-oxidation
T he inc reased pollution levels assoc iated with industrialisation and and air-purifying properties
urbanisation, a number of proac tive steps have been proposed in the Union making it an ideal
Budget (2010-11). T he major steps inc lude: ornamental shrub in the
National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) - for funding researc h and innovative vic inity of the T aj Mahal.
projec ts in c lean energy tec hnology. Alloc ation for National Ganga River Basin
Authority has been doubled in 2010-11 to Rs.500 c rore. T he “Mission Clean
Ganga 2020” under the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) with the
objec tive that no untreated munic ipal sewage or industrial influent will be
disc harged into the National river has already been initiated.
Mumbai Cyclothon 2010.

Choose an ec o- friendly
bic yc le for short distanc e.

Mumbai witnessed it's first ever Cyc lothon on February 21, 2010, with over
7,000 partic ipants at the Mumbai Cyc lothon 2010. An event like this gives the
right message to the public as well as the government about saving fuel as well
as our environment.
References

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Environmental pollution in India

1. Ministry of Environment. & forest


http://moef.nic .in/index.php
2. United Nations Environment Programme
http://www.unep-wc mc .org/
3.Asian Brown c loud
http://web.arc hive.org/web/20071009231830/http://arc hives.c nn.c om/
2002/WORLD/asiapc f/south/08/12/asia.haze/
4. Pollution and Soc iety
http://www.umic h.edu/~gs265/soc iety/pollution.htm
5, Carbon dioxide Charts
http://rainforests.m ongabay.c om/09-c arbon_emissions.htm

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