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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO CRYSTALLINE

POLYMERS

Research Proposal for PhD programme in Physics


ABSTRACT

The polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) can be from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers in
size between 10-1000 nm where the drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to a
nanopaticles, nano spheres or nanocapsules can be obtained. Nan capsules are systems in which the drug
is confined to a cavity surrounded by a unique polymer membrane, while nanospheres are matrix systems
in which the drug is physically and uniformly dispersed. The field of polymer nanoparticles is quickly
expanding and playing an important role in a wide spectrum of areas ranging from electronics, photonics,
conducting materials, sensors, medicine, and biotechnology. PNPs are promising vehicles for drug
delivery by easy manipulation to prepare carriers with the objective of delivering the drug safety.
Polymer-based nanoparticles carry drug, proteins, and DNA to target cells and organs. Their nanometers-
size promotes effective permeation through cell membrane and stability in the blood stream. Polymers are
very convenient materials for the manufacture of countless and varied molecular designs that can be
integrated into unique nanoparticle constructs with many potential medical applications. Several methods
have been developed during the last two decades for preparation of PNPs, these techniques are classified
according to whether the particle formation involves a polymerization reaction or nanoparticles form
directly from a macromolecule or preformed polymer or ionic gelation method.

Advantages of polymeric nanoparticles:

o Increases the stability of any volatile pharmaceutical agents, easily and cheaply fabricated in large
quantities by a multitude of methods.
o They offer a significant improvement over traditional oral and intravenous methods of
administration in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
o Delivers a higher concentration of pharmaceutical agent to a desired location.
o The choice of polymer and the ability to modify drug release from polymeric nanoparticles have
been made them ideal candidates for cancer therapy, delivery of vaccines, contraceptives and
delivery of targeted antibiotics.
o Polymeric nanoparticles can be easily incorporated into other activities related to drug delivery,
such as tissue engineering.

Polymers used in preparation of nanoparticles:

The polymers should be compatible with the body in the terms of adaptability (non-toxicity) and (non-
antigen city) and should be biodegradable and biocompatible.

Nature polymers: The most commonly used natural polymers in preparation of polymeric nanoparticles
are.

o Chitosan
o Gelatin
o Sodium alginate
o Albumin

There are many synthetic polymers like

o Polylactides (PLA)
o Polyglycolides (PGA)
o Poly(lactide co-glycolides) (PLGA)
o Polyanhydrides
o Polyorthoesters
o Polycyanoacrylates
o Polycarprolactone
o Poly gultamic acid
o Poly malic acid
o Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)

Solvent evaporation method:

Solvent evaporation was the first method developed to prepare PNPs from a. In this methods,
polymer solutions are prepare in volatile solvents and emulsions are formulated. In the past,
dichloromethane and chloroform preformed polymer were widely used, but are now replaced with ethyl
acetate which has a better toxicological profile. The emulsion is converted into a nanoparticles suspension
on evaporation of the solvent for the polymer, which is allowed to diffuse through the continuous phase of
the emulsion. In the conventional methods, two main strategies are being used for the formation of
emulsions, the preparation of single-emulsions, e.g. oil-in-water (o/w) or double-emulsions,(water-in-oil)-
in-water,(w/o)/w. these methods utilize high-speed homogenization or ultrasonication, followed by
evaporation of the solvent, either by continuous magnetic stirring at room temperature or under reduced
pressure. Afterwards, the solidified nanoparticles can be collected by ultracentrifugation and washed with
distilled water to remove additives such as surfactants.

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