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5.

1 INDUSTRIALIZATION & GLOBAL - Industrialization changed the


CAPITALISM production of goods around the world
- It also changed how goods
were produced and consumed & what
was considered good
- Had far reaching effects on
global economy, social relations, and
culture
- The process of industrialization
was a gradual one that unfolded over
the course of the 18th and 19th
centuries, eventually becoming global
Key words:
1) Industrialization
2) Industrial revolution
3) Consumerism
4) Global economy
5) Globalization
6) Urbanization
7) Raw goods
8) Fossil fuels

- Industrialization changed how


goods were produced
- Factors led to the rise of
industrial production including:
- Europe's location - Atlantic
Ocean
- Distribution of coal, iron, and
timber
- European demographic
changes
- Urbanization
- Improved agricultural
productivity
- Legal protection of private
property
- Abundance of rivers and canals
- Access to foreign resources

MACHINES
- Development of machines
included steam engines and internal
combustion engine: they made it
possible to exploit vast new sources of
energy stored in fossil fuels -
specifically coal and oils
- Fossil fuel revolution greatly
increased the energy available to
human societies

FACTORIES
- Development of factories
concentrated labor in a single location
and led to increasing degree of
specialization of labor

RAW GOODS
- New patterns of global trade
and production developed and further
integrated the global economy as
industrials sought raw materials new
markets for the increasing amount and
array of goods produced in their
factories
- Examples of goods: Cotton,
rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, mean,
guano, and metals

SECOND INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
- Led to new methods in the
production of steel, chemicals,
electricity, and precision machinery
during the second half of the 19th
century
- As industrial production
became more common in Europe, it
spread to other

5.2 THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD - In industrial stated, many


OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM workers organized themselves to
improve working conditions, limit
hours, and gain higher wages, while
others opposed industrialists treatment
of workers by promoting alternative
visions of society, including marxism
- KEY TERMS:
1) Utopian
2) Socialism
3) Anarchism
4) Capitalism
5) Totalitarianism
6) Marxism
7) Gold standard
8) Liberalism
9) Adam smith
10) Robber barons

GLOBAL TRADE
- Global nature of trade and
production contributed to the
proliferation of large-scale
transnational business that relied on
various financial instruments

- Financial instruments that


financiers developed & expanded:
- Stock markets
- Insurance
- Gold standard
- Limited liability corporations

IDEOLOGIES
- The ideological inspiration for
economic changes lies in the
development of capitalism and
classical liberalism associated with
Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill
Henry Ford: (1863-1947) an
american industrialist, the founder of
the Ford Motor Company, and the
sponsor of development of the
assembly line technique of mass
production
- Captain of industry believed
they helped made life easier for
everyone and created jobs, etc., but the
public did not agree
- Captain of industry and robber
barons had different point of views
about the captain of industry
Andrew Carnegie: (1835-
1919) scottish-american industrialists
who led the enormous expansion of
the American steel industry in the 19th
century // built leadership role as a
philanthropist for the US and British
empire
John Rockefeller: (1839-
1937) american industrialist and
philanthropist, co-founder of the oil
company which dominated the oil
industry and was the first great US
business trust
China and ottoman empire:
- Some members of the
government resisted economic
changes and attempted to maintain
pre-industrial forms of economic
production while other members led
reforms in imperial policies
Reform:
- State pensions and public
health in Germany
- Expansion of suffrage in
Britain
- Public education in many
nation-states

Trust Busting: a trust is an


organization of business designed to
operate like monopoly

- Capitalism led to a variety of


responses

5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform - The 18th century marked the
beginning of an intense period of
revolution and rebellion against
existing governments, and the
establishment of new nation-states
around the world
- Enlightenment thought and the
resistance of colonized peoples to
imperial centers shaped this
revolutionary activity. These rebellions
sometimes resulted in the formation of
new states and stimulated the
development of new ideologies
- These new ideas in turn further
stimulated the revolutionary and anti-
imperial tendencies of this period
Key Terms:
1. Difference between revolution
and rebellion
2. The enlightenment era
3. Anti imperialism
4. Nationalism
5. Monarchy
6. Difference between socialism
and communism
7. Suffrage
8. Hierarchies
9. Global capitalist economy
10. Unindustrialized societies
11. Migrants

Enlightenment:
- the rise and diffusion of
enlightenment thought that questioned
established tradition in all areas of life
often proceeded revolutions and
rebellions against existing
governments
- Enlightenment ideas influenced
many people to challenge existing
notions of social relations, which
contributed to the expansion of rights
- Expanded suffrage, abolition of
slavery, end of serfdom

Philosophers
- Enlightenment philosophers:
Voltaire
Montesquieu
Locke
Rousseau
- The ideas of enlightenment
philosophers, as reflected in
revolutionary documents influenced
resistance to existing political
authority
- The american declaration of
development
- The french declaration of the
rights of man and citizen
- Bolivar's Jamaica lover
New communities
- Beginning in the 18th century
peoples around the world developed a
new sense of commonality based on
language, religion, social customs, and
and territory
- These newly imagined national
communities linked this identity with
the borders of the state, while
governments used this idea to diverse
populations

Nationalism:
- German nationalism
- Italian nationalism
- Filipino nationalism
- Argentine nationalism

Rebellions:
- The global spread of european
political and social thought and the
increasing number of rebellions
stimulated new transnational
ideologies and solidarities
- Slave resistance, anti-colonial
rebellions, nationalism

Discontent
- Increasing discontent with
imperial ruled propelled reformist and
revolutionary movements. Colonials
subjects led a series of rebellions that
facilitated the emergence of
independent states
- Latin american independence
movements
- French subjects rebelled
against their monarchy
- The american revolution
- The haitian revolution

Migration is a factor
- Migration was influenced by
changes in demographics in both
industrialized and unindustrialized
societies that presented challenges to
existing patterns of living

Relocations
- Migrants relocated for a variety
of reasons
- Because of the nature of the
new models of transportation, both
internal and external migrants
increasingly relocate cities
- This pattern contributed to the
significance of global urbanization of
the 19th century
- The new methods of
transportation also allowed for many
migrants to return, periodically or
permanently to their home societies

Diversity
- The large scale nature of
migration, especially in the 19th
century, produced a variety of
consequences and reactions to the
increasingly diverse societies on the
part of migrants and the existing
populations

Important conflicts in this


era
- Seven years war
- Latin revolutions
- Haitian revolution
- American revolution
- French revolution