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Caros Alunos,

O compromisso com a educao de todos que compem a sociedade


reflete a prtica fiel e cotidiana do exerccio da cidadania.

Ns, que fazemos a Universidade de Pernambuco, buscamos, em nosso


dia-a-dia, atravs da implantao de projetos e de outros procedimentos, honrar esses
compromissos com vistas a inserir o homem em seu contexto social, celebrando a sua
dignidade, promovendo aes que resultem na construo do homem pelo prprio
homem.

Respaldada nesses propsitos e fundamentos, a Universidade de


Pernambuco, atravs do Instituto de Apoio Universidade de Pernambuco IAUPE,
persiste numa caminhada crescente, voltada a ampliar conhecimentos,
especificamente nas reas de lnguas estrangeiras e da informtica, por estar ciente da
relevncia que essas assumem na contemporaneidade.

Considerado atividade de extenso universitria, o Projeto Lnguas e


Informtica PROLINFO, em seu terceiro ano de existncia, busca, atravs de seus
objetivos e metas, perseverar nas vias da qualidade.

A oferta de cursos nas reas de Ingls, Espanhol e Informtica comprova


os princpios e a filosofia que permeiam o perfil de uma Universidade visivelmente
comprometida com a excelncia em todos os segmentos dos quais se julga partcipe.

Boa Sorte!

Prof. MS. Carlos Silva


Coordenador-Geral PROLINFO

1
SEVERINO CARLOS DA SILVA
FELIPE CASADO DE LUCENA

ENGLISH FOR
BRAZILIANS

4
EDUPE 2012

3
CONTENTS

Lesson 1: William Shakespeare ................................................................................................. 7


Grammar: Infinitive/ Gerund .......................................................................................................... 8

Lesson 2: New York .......................................................................................................................... 13


Grammar: Passive voice .................................................................................................................... 14

Lesson 3: Scotland Yard ................................................................................................................. 18


Grammar: Present Perfect ................................................................................................................ 19
Numbers ............................................................................................................................... 22

Lesson 4: The Red Cross ................................................................................................................ 25


Grammar: Past Perfect ....................................................................................................................... 26

Lesson 5: The Moon Walk ............................................................................................................. 30


Grammar: Future Perfect .................................................................................................................. 31
Future Continuous ............................................................................................................ 31
Future Perfect Continuous ............................................................................................ 32

Lesson 6: The White House .......................................................................................................... 33


Grammar: Reflexive Pronouns........................................................................................................ 34
Relative Pronouns.............................................................................................................. 35

Lesson 7: Pablo Picasso.................................................................................................................. 37


Grammar: Reported Speech............................................................................................................. 38

Lesson 8: Christmas ......................................................................................................................... 42


Grammar: Conditional Sentences .................................................................................................. 42

Exercise Reinforcement................................................................................................................. 46

Lesson 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 47

Lesson 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 50

Lesson 3 ................................................................................................................................................... 53

Song: U2 I Still Havent Found What Im Looking For ....................................................... 55

Lesson 4 ................................................................................................................................................... 56

Lesson 5 ................................................................................................................................................... 58

Lesson 6 ................................................................................................................................................... 60

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Unit 1

William Shakespeare
Listen and practice.

William Shakespeare was an English poet and dramatist born at Stratford-on-Avon.


He lived at a time when new lands were being discovered, new ideas were rising, and
people were anxious to learn all that was to learn.
There are four periods in his career which covered about twenty years - from 1591
to 1611. In the beginning he adapted a lot of stories for plays such as Romeo and Juliet.
Neither the plot nor all of the characters were his own, but he put into them such ardor
and beauty that they became known as his own.
The plays of the second period consist largely of comedies and history. England was
eager to see her glorious and eventful history on stage so Shakespeare wrote a series of
plays.
In the third period Shakespeare begins to question life and death and his plays
became sadder and deeply philosophic. Hamlet belongs to this period.
The last period combines wisdom and a more cheerful outlook on life.

1 - ORAL QUESTIONS

o Who was William Shakespeare?


o What was happening in the world when he lived?
o How many periods are there in his career?
o Describe the characteristics of each period.

Discussion

o Why does the story of Romeo and Juliet interest people even nowadays?

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2 - GRAMMAR

GERUND

A gerund is the form of a verb when it acts as a noun; a gerund (often known as an -
ing word) is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing.

THE GERUND IS Example

1 used when its the subject of a Smoking costs a lot of money.


sentence Painting is a very good activity.

2 used after prepositions She is tired of working.

3 used after the verb go when it Lets go shopping.


indicates common activities. Last week I went swimming.

4 used when you talk about someone They watched the students crossing the
doing something road.

3 EXERCISES

Complete the sentences using the gerund of the verbs.

a) She is very fond of ______________________________________ (swim).


b) _____________________________________ (paint) is a terrific past time.
c) Im tired of _______________________________________(use) my PDA.
d) He finally succeeds in ________________________________ (take) her out for dinner.
e) They are going _________________________________ (chat) later on.
f) _____________________________________ (walk) is pretty good for everyone.
g) Thank you for _______________________________ (love) me.
h) He saw me __________________________________ (call) you.

Make up mottos using the first rule of the gerund. Follow the example.

o Trying is something you should never stop doing.

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INFINITIVE

Infinitive is the original form of the verb and can be used with or without to.

WITH TO Example
1 After the verbs of saying and thinking Bernardo agreed to go to the park with
agree, choose, decide, expect, hope, me.
learn, plan, promise
2 After the words: too, enough, the first, She is the next to get her passport.
the second, the next, the last, the only
3 After adjectives This exercise is difficult to do.
4 We can use verb + question word + I dont know what to do.
infinitive with to with some verbs: ask, We cant decide what to eat.
explain, learn, understand, decide,
forget, know, remember
5 After the verbs advise, tell, ask, My girlfriend advised me to buy new
remind, order and expect we use clothes
object + infinitive with to

WITHOUT TO Example
1 After auxiliaries and modals I can swim. / She will cook.
2 After the verbs make and let Let me go.
3 After the conjunctions but and except I will do nothing but cry.
5 with an object to talk about a I heard him play the guitar
completed action

4 - EXERCISE
Use the infinitive with or without to.

a) Lets ___________________________________(to dance), shall we?


b) Its hard ___________________________________ (to live) without electronics.
c) Ill do anything but _______________________________ (to lend) my iPhone.
d) Shes too shy ___________________________ (to sing) before such a large audience.
e) I can never remember how ________________________________ (to spell) her name.
f) I cant __________________________________(to agree) to do that. It is not my function.
g) Patty made him ____________________________________ (to buy) a cheap laptop.
h) We didnt know how ________________________________ (to use) a PDA.
i) You should do nothing except_____________________________(to study) for the test.
j) Pamela makes me________________________________ (to feel) comfortable.

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5- Complete the information. Use the verbs below in the gerund.

impress - take (2) - add have

My name is George, and Im a Hi, my name is Ronda and I work for a


photographer. My specialty is local radio station. I couldnt live without
____________ pictures for fashion my new cell phone. The sound quality is
magazines. Not surprisingly, the excellent, so I can use it to call the station
possession I couldnt live without is my and report live on air. Its also useful for
brand new digital camera. Obviously, I _______________conversations with my
use it for ______________ photographs, boyfriend. And, since its an expensive
but it also has a video component. phone, its also good for ______________
Sometimes I use it to make short films people!
just for fun.

Im Liam, and Im a musician and a


songwriter. I guess my favorite possession
is my computer. Well, to be exact, its
Cakewalk - the software I use to write
music. Its also great for ______________
instruments that I cant play, like the
trumpet. I just play the trumpet part on my
keyboard. It makes life a lot easier!

Answer about the texts above.

o What couldnt George live without? Why?


o Does George only use his digital camera for taking photographs?
o What can Ronda say about her cell phone?
o Whats Liams favorite possession? Why?
o What can Liam do with the software he uses?

Ask your partner:

o Whats your favorite possession? What do you use it for?


o Could you live without it? Why (not)?

10
Complete the sentences. Use to or for and the correct form of the verbs in
parentheses.

a. She went on line ________________________________________ (improve) her Spanish.


b. This program is perfect _____________________________________ (protect) against viruses.
c. I dont need a spell checker ______________________________ (correct) my spelling online!
d. This smart phone is good ____________________________ (check) e-mail when you travel.
e. They love using their cell ____________________________________ (talk) to their parents.
f. Theres some new software available ______________________________ (learn) languages.

Rewrite the conversations using gerunds.

Student 1: What do you use your cell phone for?


Student 2: I use my cell to send text messages.
_________________________________________________________________________________

Student 1: How do you use your iPhone?


Student 2: I use my iPhone to listen to music.
_________________________________________________________________________________

Student 1: What do you need an electronic translator for?


Student 2: I need an electronic translator to look up words.
________________________________________________________________________________

Student 1: What technology do you use everyday?


Student 2: I use my smart phone to organize my schedule.
________________________________________________________________________________

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Match the information to make complete sentences.

1. I use my hands-free phone _______ a. to share them with friends and family
2. He uses an electronic dictionary ______ b. to avoid getting lost.
3. Our satellite radio is great _______ c. to watch movies and sports.
4. They bought a huge plasma TV _______ d. for listening to traffic reports.
5. I put pictures on a photo website _______ e. for checking his homework.
6. She uses a navigation system _______ f. to make calls when Im driving.

Ask your partner the questions below.

o What do you use a PDA for?


o How do you use your cell phone?
o What do you use your computer for?
o What technology do you use the most?
o Whats the best digital camera nowadays?

6 - CONVERSATION

MATH CLASS
Listen and practice.

Diana: Im afraid of doing this math test.


Bill: Take it easy and stop shaking.
Diana: But I heard the teacher saying it just would be very difficult.
Bill: Well, she loves being a strict teacher, but her tests are generally easy.
Diana: All I know is that she advised us to study hard. Anyway, did you study for the
test, Bill?
Bill: Unfortunately, I havent studied.
Diana: Sorry for you and me.

12
Unit 2

New York
Listen and practice.

In 1524 an Italian navigator, called Giovanni da Verrazzano, was the first European
to arrive at the region that today is called New York. In fact, the first name of this city
was given by another navigator that worked for the Dutch East Company. In 1666,
during a war between the English and the Dutch, New Amsterdam
was captured by the English and the king Charles II of England
gave the colony to his brother, the Duke of York. Both the city and
the province were renamed New York, in honor of the Duke.
Today New York is one of the biggest cities in the world and
receives millions of tourists each year. You would like to visit New
York, wouldnt you?

1 - ORAL QUESTIONS

o When was New York discovered?


o What was the first name given to this city?
o Would you like to visit New York? Why?
o Even if you havent gone to New York yet, describe it.

Discussion: City x Country

o Did you grow up in the city or in the country?


o What are some of the advantages of living in a city?
o What are some of the disadvantages of living in a city?
o What are some differences between living in the city and living in the country?
o How can we make our cities safer places to live?

13
2- GRAMMAR

PASSIVE VOICE

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not
known, however, who or what is performing the action. Passive verbs are
formed from the verb to be (in the adequate time) and the past participle of the
verb.
Example:
o My wallet was stolen.

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by:
Example:
o My brother was bitten by a dog last week.

Compare active and passive:

Ex: Jane writes a letter (active) A letter is written by Jane (passive)


Ex; Jane wrote a letter (active) A letter was written by Jane (passive)

Active Passive
Present continuous Is writing Is being written
Past continuous Was writing Was being written
Going to Is going to write Is going to be written
Future Will write Will be written
Future continuous Will be writing Will be being written
Simple present Writes Is written
Simple past Wrote Was written
Present perfect Has written Has been written
Past perfect Had written Had been written
Can Can write Can be written

3 - EXERCISE
Supply the correct form of the verbs in the passive voice.

a) He writes many letters every day.


Many letters _________________________________________ by him every day.
b) The boys have finished the report.
The report ____________________________________ by the boys.
c) The dog ate the cake.
The cake ________________________________________by the dog.
d) She will read the message.
The message __________________________________________by her.
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e) They had opened the box.
The box ______________________________________________by them.
f) We would invite her.
She _________________________________________ by us.
g) Bruno rescued three cats.
Three cats __________________________________________by him.

4 EXERCISE
Complete the conversation in the passive.

hit - see - broken hurt - delay - close - find steal

Ann: Anything new in the paper?


Tim: Well, not much. Lets see Uh, $10,000 ____________ _____________ in a bag on a city
bus.
Ann: $10,000? I should ride on buses more often!
Tim: Yeah, and listen to this. Two large bears _______________ _______________ last night in
someones yard.
Ann: Huh. Thats scary.
Tim: Oh, and a jewelry store _____________ _______________into, and some diamonds
____________ _______________Um, what else? The city airport _____________ ________________
yesterday because of strong winds.
Ann: Really? Well, it was pretty windy.
Tim: Yeah. All the flights ______________ _______________. Oh, and a bus _____________
______________ by a falling tree. Fortunately, the passengers _____________ ______________.
Ann: Is that all? Nothing exciting, I guess.

5 EXERCISE
Change the sentences from the active to the passive.

a) They publish The Times newspaper in London.


_____________________________________________________________________________________________
b) They transport oranges from Valencia to Germany in special crates.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
c) They are destroying the forests in Indonesia.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
d) The shark ate the man.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
e) They've treated him very well.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

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6-Rewrite the conversation using passive sentences. Then practice it with a
partner.

Student 1: Whats your favorite museum?


Student 2: The Guggenheim. People visit it from all over.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Student 1: Can you tell me who designed it?
Student 2: I think Frank Lloyd Wright designed it.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Student 1: Whats your favorite work of art?
Student 2: Its called the Poet. Pablo Picasso painted it.
_______________________________________________________________________________________

READING & DISCUSSION

o Read the text below and try to match the traditions to the countries.
o Highlight the passive, and rewrite these sentences in active voice.
o Discuss the traditions, and compare them with Christmas or another popular
celebration in your own culture.

Christmas around the world


Belgium
St. Nicholas visits on December 4th to find out which children have been good and bad. When he
visits again on December 6th good children are given presents and bad children are left twigs in
their shoes. French-speaking children are visited by Pere Noel. He and his friend Pere Fouettard
give sweets to good children and a handful of sticks to bad children. A sweet bread called cougnou
or cougnolle is sometimes eaten on Christmas morning.

Hungary
Fresh fish with rice or potatoes is usually eaten on Christmas Eve. Children are visited by Santa
Claus on December 6th. Their shoes are left outside the door or window before they go to bed. In
the morning they find red bags in them filled with sweets and toys. After this, the Christmas tree is
seen for the first time by the children. Christmas songs are sung and gifts from under the tree are
shared.

Venezuela
An early morning church service called Misa de Aguinaldo is attended daily between December
16th and 24th. In the capital city, it is customary to roller-skate to the church! A piece of string is
tied to children's toes before they go to bed. The other end is hung out the window. The next
morning, the pieces of string are pulled by the rollerskaters!

Syria
On Christmas eve, candles are carried to an unlit bonfire. The Christmas story is read by a family
member and then the bonfire is lit. At mass on Christmas day another bonfire is lit and hymns are
sung. Chicken, oranges, nuts and pastries are eaten for dinner.

16
7- CONVERSATION
Listen and practice.

Robert: Would you know that New York was made by people from all over the world?
Anna: Yes, I would, and its really interesting, isnt it?
Robert: Yes, it is. A book was written by a famous author telling about the beginning
of this city. Thats because I know everything about New Yorks history.
Anna: And this author was born in New York, wasnt he?
Robert: Yes, he was born in New York. And he also tells us in his book the lives of the
first navigators to arrive at New York harbor.
Anna: Great! I think Im going to read this book.

8 PUZZLE

Across
2. The police were_________________________(give) the information.
3. Have you ever been __________________________(bite) by a dog?
5. The room will be ___________________________(clean) later.
6. Something must be _______________________(do) before it's too late.

Down
1. The concert has been_______________________________(cancel).
3. This house was _____________________________(build) in 1985.
4. I remember being __________________________(take) to the zoo when I was a child.

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Unit 3

Scotland Yard
Listen and practice.

The name Scotland Yard came from a 13th century palace which kings and queens
of Scotland used during their state visit to England. This building was situated near
Whitehall and was the first head-quarters of the Metropolitan Police of London. In 1890
Scotland Yard moved to a red brick building on the Thames.
Scotland Yard soon became famous for the difficult cases that it managed to solve.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, writers such as Sir Arthur Conan, who as
the author of Sherlock Holmes stories, found inspiration for their novels
in the reports of cases solved by the Yard men. Their writings have
helped materially in the development of the cult of the modern detective
story, which in Britain frequently has a Scotland Yard central character.

1- ORAL QUESTIONS

o Whats the origin of the name Scotland Yard?


o Where was it first situated?
o Where did it move to?
o Why did it become famous?
o Who was Sherlock Holmes?

Discussion: Books & Reading

o What is your favorite story?


o Who is your favorite author?
o Do you have any ideas for a story for you to write?
o What are some of the books that were recommended to you?
o Do you watch the movie that came from a book?
o Most people say the book is better than the movie. Is this true for you?

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2- GRAMMAR

PRESENT PERFECT

HAS/HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

The present perfect is used to describe Example


1 An action or situation that started in the I have lived in Recife since 1998 (=
past and continues in the present. and I still do.)
2 A repeated action in an unspecified We have visited Miami several times.
period between the past and now.
3 An action that was completed in the very I have just finished my homework.
recent past (expressed by 'just').
4 An action when the time is not Daniel has read 'War and Peace'.
important.

Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we use the
simple past. Example: Daniel read 'War and Peace' last week.

We can use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as just, yet,
never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for.

STRUCTURE

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

I have gone to Paris. I havent gone to Paris. Have I gone to Paris.


You have gone to Paris. You havent gone to Paris. Have you gone to Paris.
He has gone to Paris. He hasnt gone to Paris. Has he gone to Paris.
She has gone to Paris. She hasnt gone to Paris. Has she gone to Paris.
It has gone to Paris. It hasnt gone to Paris. Has it gone to Paris.
We have gone to Paris. We havent gone to Paris. Have we gone to Paris.
You have gone to Paris. You havent gone to Paris. Have you gone to Paris.
They have gone to Paris. They havent gone to Paris. Have they gone to Paris.

3-EXERCISE

Complete the conversations with the present perfect. Then practice with a
partner.

Student 1: I _________________________ _____________________ (not do) anything fun lately.


Student 2: Me neither. I ______________________ _____________________ (not have) any time.

19
Student 1: _________________________ you ever ______________________ (be) to Europe?
Student 2: No, I __________________________ ___________________________ (be) there.

READING & DISCUSSION Whats your dream?


Read what people say their dreams are then discuss the questions below.

Actually, Ive always wanted My parents have never


to be an actor. I havent had traveled outside of Brazil, so I
any formal training, but Ive want to take them to Europe.
been in a couple of college Ive been there many times, so
plays. So my dream is to study I know the best places to go!
acting. Well, Tom and I have gone
-Megg McDonald sailing a few times with friends, -Daniel Oliver
Paris, France. and weve had a lot of fun. So Recife, Brazil
our dream is to buy our own
sailboat. But we havent saved
enough money!

-Chris and Tom Warren


Sydney, Australia.

Discuss the questions below with a partner or in a group.

o Whats something youve always wanted to buy?


o Whats a city that youve never been to but would like to visit?
o Whats something youve always wanted to learn how to do?
o Whats something else youve always wanted to do?

PRESENT PERFECT X PAST SIMPLE

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST


We use this tense when time is not We use this tense when time is
relevant. We do not mention it. mentioned. We want to focus on
it.

4 - EXERCISE

Complete the conversations with the present perfect or simple past. Then
practice with a partner.

Student 1: ____________________ your family __________________ (have) a vacation last year?


Student 2: Yes, we ____________________. We _______________________ (go) to London in May.

20
Student 1: ____________________ you ever _______________________ (see) the Pyramids?
Student 2: No, I _____________________. I ______________________ always ______________________
(want) to go to Egypt.

FOR AND SINCE WITH PRESENT PERFECT

We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.

Examples:
o I have been here for 30 minutes.
o Greg hasnt called me since May.

5 EXERCISE
Supply since or for:

a) We have lived there______________________________two years.


b) The bell has rung___________________________half an hour.
c) We havent spoken Spanish ____________________________.last Christmas.
d) I havent eaten any meat _____________________________ I was a boy.

YET AND ALREADY WITH PRESENT PERFECT

Already means that something happened earlier than we expected. With Present Perfect
already usually goes after have or has and before the main verb.
Yet means that something that we expected has happened or hasn't happened. We
usually put it at the end of a sentence.

Examples:
o Weve already had our lunch.
o Has the pack arrived yet? - No, it hasnt arrived yet.

6- EXERCISE
Supply yet or already:

a) Ive______________________________done my exercises.
b) Have you_______________________________invited her?
c) Has she left_______________________________?
d) We havent finished our homework___________________________ .

21
NUMBERS
Listen and repeat.

CARDINAL NUMBERS ORDINAL NUMBERS


1- One First
2- Two Second
3- Three Third
4- Four Fourth
5- Five Fifth
6- Six Sixth
7- Seven Seventh
8- Eight Eighth
9- Nine Ninth
10- Ten Tenth
11- Eleven Eleventh
12- Twelve Twelfth
13- Thirteen Thirteenth
20- Twenty Twentieth
30- Thirty Thirtieth
40- Forty Fortieth
50- Fifty Fiftieth
60- Sixty Sixtieth
70- Seventy Seventieth
80- Eighty Eightieth
90- Ninety Ninetieth
100- One hundred One hundredth
1,000- One thousand One thousandth
1,000,000- One million One millionth

Imagine a perfect holiday. Tell your partner at least five things that
would make it perfect. Dont forget to use the ordinal numbers.

o First

Separation between hundreds and tens


Hundreds and tens are usually separated by 'and' (in American English 'and' is not
necessary).
110 - one hundred and ten
1,250 - one thousand, two hundred and fifty
2,001 - two thousand and one

22
Hundreds
Use 100 always with 'a' or 'one'.
100 - a hundred / one hundred
'a' can only stand at the beginning of a number.
100 - a hundred / one hundred
2,100 - two thousand, one hundred

Thousands and Millions


Use 1,000 and 1,000,000 always with 'a' or 'one'.
1,000 - a thousand / one thousand
201,000 - two hundred and one thousand
Use commas as a separator.
57,458,302

DATES

THE ORDINAL NUMBER + OF + THE MONTH


15/1 = the 15th of January

When writing dates and numbers, the British and American English differ. To
write the date 7th of September 2007 a Brit would write dd/mm/yy
(07/09/07) and an American would write mm/dd/yy (09/07/07). This often
causes great confusion. It's better to write the date in full (7th September 2007
or September 7th 2007). It also looks nicer.

7- EXERCISE
Write the dates below.

a) 22/2 ____________________________________________________________
b) 3/12 ____________________________________________________________
c) 8/11 ____________________________________________________________
d) 23/7 ____________________________________________________________
e) 19/1 ____________________________________________________________

Ask your partner the birthdays of 5 people he/she knows.

23
8- READING

TALKING ABOUT THE CLASS

Listen and practice.

Brandon: I didnt like the class today.


Louise: Of course not. You slept all the time.
Brandon:: These last days, the teacher has only taught boring subjects.
Louise: Boring, but important for our lives. Imagine how life would be if men hadnt
discovered the micro-organisms.
Brandon: Im seeing that youre very interested in Biology. Would you help me giving
extra classes?
Louise: Yes, I would. But first youre going to promise me that youre going to study
hard.
Brandon: Ok, teacher. I wait you at 7.00pm in my house.

9. Interview your classmates. Take notes if they answer yes or no.


Follow the example.

HAVE YOU EVER


NAME ANSWER
Read a book in one day? Danielle Yes, she has.
Seen a celebrity?
Won an award?
Written a poem?
Stayed up all night?
Climbed a mountain?
Taken dance lessons?
Been abroad?
Studied German?
Found a lot of money?
Had the flu?
Won a contest or competition?
Lost something important?
Taken an exciting trip?
Fallen and hurt yourself?
Broken something valuable?

24
Unit 4

The Red Cross


Listen and practice.

The International Red Cross was founded by a Swiss, Henri Dunant, who invested
all of his fortune in it. In his honor, the symbol adopted by the movement is a red cross
on a white background the reverse of the Swiss flag.
He had two inspirations to found the Red Cross: the brilliant example of the English
Nurse Florence Nightingale that helped the war-wounded,
and his own experience in the battlefield. Dunant offered
the war-wounded medical help and established an
emergency hospital in the village of Castiglione.
Nowadays the Red Cross operates in several
countries and although they work independently, there is
an international committee in Switzerland composed by
25 Swiss citizens which can act as a neutral intermediary
between conflicting nations.

1- ORAL QUESTIONS:

o Why the name red cross?


o Which inspirations did Henri Dunant have?
o Tell us about the Red Cross nowadays.

Discussion: Health care

o How is the health care in your country?


o Is the health care in your country getting better or worse?
o Is health care in your country free for some people?
o Do you ever think about health care for when you are old?
o What is health care like for old and poor people in your country?
o Is your countrys health care system in need of reform?
25
2 - GRAMMAR

THE PAST PERFECT

HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE

The past perfect tense is used to express She lost the key she had bought last
an action that happened before the other year.
one in the past.
.

EXERCISE

Complete the sentences with the past perfect tense:

a) I dressed after I_________________________________________(wash).


b) They_______________________________(do) nothing before they met me.
c) We were sorry that we________________________________(hurt) him.
d) They ______________________________(clean) the room before I called them.
e) The boys______________________________(leave) before I arrived.

PAST SIMPLE X PAST PERFECT

We use Past Simple if we give past events


in the order in which they occurred.
However, when we look back from a
certain time in the past to tell what had
happened before, we use Past Perfect.

26
Now complete with the simple past or the past perfect tense:

a) She __________________________ (lose) the book he_______________________ (give) her.


b) After they _______________________ (have) lunch, I ______________________(wash) the dishes.
c) I_________________________(see) the film before you _______________________ (talk) about it.
d) He _________________________ (tell) me that he ________________________ (fall) from the tree.
e) I ________________________ (be) very tired because I_______________________(study) too
much.

3- READING
Complete the letters with the past perfect.

leave(2) be (4) - spend

The trip to Brazil was fine except that our flight Im in France. Its been an exciting trip! We flew
arrived late. By the time we landed in Rio, our into Paris about a week ago and stayed in a youth
connecting flight to So Paulo __________ hostel. After we ____________ ____________
__________. Luckily I have a friend who lives in two nights there, we decided to catch a TGV to the
Rio, and we were able to stay there overnight. The south of France. Unfortunately we overslept, and
city is absolutely amazing! My travel companions when we got to the station, the train __________
___________ ___________ there before, so they already ___________. But Im kind of glad. Paris
knew what to expect, but I was just stunned by the is very cool!
beauty of the place.

Im really enjoying studying Chinese in Beijing. I


still cant believe Im here! When our Chinese
teacher first recommended the exchange program, I
said Yes immediately. Until last week, I
___________ never ___________ to another
country and ____________ never even
___________ on an airplane. In fact, I
____________ only __________ away from home
two times. Im going to have fun but Im also
taking my studies seriously.

27
4- READING

MY LAST DREAM

Listen and practice.

Generally I dont remember my dreams. As soon as I wake up, my mind comes to


the reality and I forget that I had just finished to sleep for hours.
Sometimes, I remember perfectly what I dreamed. The last time I dreamed, I was
eaten by an alligator and before someone helped me, this wild animal had chewed all
my bones. All this happened because I had entered in a big forest full of lions, tigers,
and alligators.
But when I was fighting against this animal, suddenly I woke up and breathed
smoothly: My God, I was saved!

Do you remember your last dream? Share part of the story with a
classmate. (Use some sentences in the past perfect).

5- Match the information to make complete sentences.

1. After our plane had landed, _______ a. we learned they had lost our reservation.
2. We found out the train had left, ______ b. until I decided to study abroad.
3. When we got to the hotel, ______ c. before I had finished eating my meal.
4. I had never really traveled, ______ d. we waited an hour for our luggage.
5. The waiter took my plate, _______ e. I noticed I had left my pass at home.
6. As I stepped onto the bus, _______ f. ten minutes before we got to the station.

6- Complete the conversation with information about you.

Student 1: Where did you go on your last vacation?


Student 2: ____________________________________________________________________.
Student 1: Was it your first time there?
Student 2: (Yes/No) _________________________________________________________ before.
Student 1: Where did you stay?
Student 2: ____________________________________________________________________.
Student 1: Had you stayed there before?
Student 2: (Yes/No) _________________________________________________________ before.

28
Complete the sentences

o When I arrived at the movies


o By the time I woke up
o When I turned on my TV
o I had never travelled
o I didnt get good grades because

7-READING
Read the first part of this short story.

Matt had just finished watching the late news when there was a knock at the door. Thats
strange, he said to himself. Who can it be at this time of night? He opened the door. A
young girl was staring at him.
Matt Warren? she asked.
Yes? he said.
Great! she said. Im Toni. Can I come in?
Come in? repeated Matt. Who are you?
Im your cousin from Canada. I wrote you a letter. Didnt you get it?
Matt hadnt received any letter. Actually, he had never received a letter from Canada in his
life. Before he said anything, she had walked past him into the apartment.
Just a second. Matt said
What are you doing?

Answer the questions according to the story above.

o Was Matt expecting a visitor?


o Did he know the woman?
o Did she know him?

In pairs or small groups discuss what happens next. Include the


information below:

o They go somewhere to talk.


o Toni explains why Matt didnt know about her.
o Matt finds out some strange family secrets.

In pairs or small groups make up the end of the story answering the
questions:

o How long did Toni stay?


o Did they arrange to meet again?
o Did Matt ever visit her in Canada?

29
Unit 5

The Moon Walk


Listen and practice.

After a four-day journey, the three astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and
Michael Collins reached the Moon on July 20th, 1969.
While Michael Collins piloted the command module round
the Moon, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin landed in a lunar
module at a place called the Sea of Tranquility.
Neil Armstrong was the first to leave the module and when
his left foot stepped on the surface of the Moon said: Thats one
small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. After nineteen
minutes Aldrin joined Armstrong outside the module.
Because of the weaker gravity of the Moon they could jump easily and everything
weighted about one-sixth of its normal weight. The surface of the Moon is empty, almost
flat, with a lot of craters, gray and white, yet Armstrong described it as having a beauty
of its own. After 2 hours and 21 minutes they entered the lunar module and started their
journey back to Earth.

1 ORAL QUESTIONS:

o When did the astronauts reach the Moon?


o Which of them piloted the module while the others were landing?
o Whats the famous sentence of Neil Armstrong?
o What happened because of the gravity?

Discussion: Moon

o What images spring to mind when you hear the word moon?

30
2 - GRAMMAR

FUTURE PERFECT

WILL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

The future perfect expresses an action that Before they come, we will have cleaned
will be concluded in the future, but before a up the room.
point in the future. We also use this tense to
express situations that will last for a By the next year, I will have known
specified period of time at a definite moment
Barbara for 30 years.
in the future. The last use is to express
certainty that an action was completed.

3 - EXERCISE
Complete these sentences with the future perfect.

a) The plane _____________________________________________(land) by 4 oclock.


b) They _________________________________________(meet) her tomorrow at this time.
c) She_______________________________________(be) in this town for two years next June.
d) We ___________________________________________(learn) our lessons by tomorrow.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

WILL + BE + VERB+ING

We mainly use it to indicate that we will In an hour, I will be sitting in front of my


be in the middle of doing something in a TV.
specified time in the future.

4 - EXERCISE
Complete these sentences with the future continuous.

a)William ___________________________________________ (not/come) soon. He is at the school.


b) ________________________ you ______________________ (come) home before or after 10 p.m.?
c) We _________________________________________ (have) lunch this time tomorrow.

31
Imagine that you're a businessman with a busy day tomorrow. Write 4
things that you will be doing tomorrow. Start with 8a.m. Example.: "I will
be going to a conference tomorrow at 10 a.m."

1._______________________________________________________________________________________________
2._______________________________________________________________________________________________
3._______________________________________________________________________________________________
4._______________________________________________________________________________________________

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

WILL + HAVE + BEEN + VERB+ING

We use it to express situations that will


last for a specified period of time at a Before my parents come, we will have
definite moment in the future. We also been cleaning the apartment for 5 hours.
use this tense to express certainty about
the cause of some future situation.

5 - EXERCISE
Change the verb into the future perfect continuous:

a) By midnight, you ______________________________________________(dance) for 4 hours.


b) By dinner, she ______________________________________(cook) the whole afternoon.
c) He __________________________________________(work) there for 10 years by 2015.
d) By next year, I ________________________________________(study) English for 7 years.

6 -READING
WHEN ILL GROW UP

Listen and practice.

Cindy: Joe, what will you do when you grow up?


Joe: I will be an astronaut, and Ill probably work at another planet.
Cindy: Another planet! Are you getting crazy?
Joe: No, Im not Cindy. Ive read in magazines and newspapers that soon the men will
reach other planets. For example, at 2050 the men will have gone many times to Mars.
Cindy: Thats great! But at this time I will have gotten some rankles on my face.
Joe: Too bad! I think I still will be a handsome guy!
Cindy: Oh, Joe!

32
Unit 6

The White House


Listen and practice.

Pierre LEnfant, a French engineer, who was the author of the plans for
the city of Washington, D.C., knew this city would become the capital of an
important country. So he designed the buildings in a Greek style giving an
impression of greatness.
During the war between the United States and Great Britain in 1812 the British
burned the presidents house leaving only walls standing. The house was then painted
white, giving the mansion its name.
The White House has two floors. Most of the furniture on the first floor, which is
used for receptions, is of French 18th century influence. The second floor is the
presidents private residence. The room where Abraham Lincoln signed the
Emancipation Act by which all slaves became free is still as it used to be.

1- ORAL QUESTIONS:

o Who was Pierre LEfant and what did he do?


o What happened during the war between the United States and Great Britain?
o Describe the White House.

Discussion: USA

o What are the good things and bad things about the USA?
o What are the differences between the USA and your country?
o Would you like to visit the USA, or live there?

33
2- GRAMMAR

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

SINGULAR PLURAL
MYSELF
YOURSELF OURSELVES
HIMSELF YOURSELVES
HERSELF THEMSELVES
ITSELF

We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to I saw myself in the mirror.


refer back to the subject of the sentence or
clause. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" We blame ourselves.
(singular) or "-selves" (plural).

By + Reflexive Pronouns Idiomatically, meaning ALONE/WITHOUT HELP

o I live by myself. = I live alone.

The Reflexive Pronouns can be used to give emphasis

o She talked to the President herself (emphasis in the subject)


o She talked to the President himself (emphasis in the object)

3- EXERCISE
Supply the correct reflexive pronouns.

a) He ________________________________________ prefers to cook lunch.


b) The boys cut __________________________________in the garden.
c) I hurt __________________________________during the game.
d) The old woman likes to live by _________________________________
e) Behave _______________________________children.
f) She ________________________________ is responsible for the children.
g) We saw the king _______________________________ in the park.

Lets suppose youre in a monologue. What would you say to yourself?

34
RELATIVE PRONOUNS

WHO WHERE
WHOM WHOSE
WHICH THAT

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that The person who phoned me last night is
introduces a relative clause. It is called a my teacher.
"relative" pronoun because it "relates" to
the word that it modifies.

More Examples:

The place where I live is far from here.


A thief is a person who steals things.
An airplane is a machine that flies.
The car which hit me was yellow.
The boy whose bicycle is broken is my friend.
The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher.

4-Supply all possible relative pronouns.

a) He was speaking about the books and the writes ______________________he likes.
b) The man to ________________________you gave the money has died.
c) The table on ________________________ you put your shoes cost 300 dollars.
d) My mother knows everything ________________________is written in this book.
e) All ______________________ glitter is not gold.
f) There is the lady ________________________car has been stolen.
g) Porto de Galinhas is the kind of beach _______________________ many tourists go to.
h) I broke the vase in ________________________ you had put the flowers.

5-Complete the sentences. Choose the best ending from the box and change it
into a relative pronoun.

He invented the telephone they were on the wall


It cannot be explained they stole my car

a) The Police have caught the man ________________________________________________


b) Alexander Bell was the man ________________________________________________
c) A mystery is something ________________________________________________
d) What happened to the pictures ________________________________________________

35
6-Combine the sentences using defining relative pronouns. When the relative
pronoun is an object, it can be omitted.
a) That's the girl. She spoke to me yesterday.
_________________________________________________________________________________________
b) What's the name of the book? You want me to read it.
________________________________________________________________________________________
c) We stayed in a hotel. The hotel was very expensive.
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Ask your partner the questions below.

o Whos your closest friend? How did you meet?


o Do you have any friends that you met through other friends?
o Do you keep in touch with any of the friends you grew up with?
o Do you have any friends who have exciting lives? Explain why.
o Do you have friends you chat with online? Where do they live?
o Do you have any friends who are very different from you? How are they
different?

7- READING

WHAT A BEAUTIFUL DAY


Listen and practice.

When the sun rises in the mountains


I open my window
And let him come in
I see the beauty of the flowers
Like I have never seen

I prepare myself some coffee


The children wake up themselves
Toast, milk and honey
The family around the table
It values more than money

We go out through the gardens


We can see the butterflies
The heat warms our hearts
And the peace passes by
36
Unit 7

Pablo Picasso
Listen and practice.

In 1906, Picasso had to paint a picture of a lady who visited the


painters studio eighty or ninety times while he was painting her picture.
While he painted, they talked about everything in the world that
interested them. One day Picasso erased the painted head and said,
When I look at you I cant see you anymore.
After some months he returned to the unfinished picture in the
corner of the studio and completed the face from memory. When the
people complained that the painting didnt look like her, Picasso said,
Too bad shell have to change to look like the picture. Later the lady declared that
Picassos painting was only a true picture of hers.
Picasso said a camera can make a more exact picture than a painter. What great
painters should do is give us a view of life through their eyes and every mans view is
different.

1- ORAL QUESTIONS:

o What Picasso had to do in 1906?


o Did the woman like her picture?
o Whats Picassos opinion about the art of painting?

Discussion: Art

o How great is your interest in art?


o Do you like modern art?
o Do you ever think a lot of art is not really art?
o What kind of art do you like paintings, sculpture, ceramics, etc?
o Do you think anyone can be an artist or do you need a special talent?

37
2- GRAMMAR

REPORTED SPEECH

If we report what another person has


said, we usually do not use the speakers
exact words (direct speech), but reported Sue said: I studied yesterday.
(indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to
learn how to transform direct speech into
reported speech. The structure is a little Sue said she had studied the day before.
different depending on whether you want
to transform a statement, question or
request.

STRUCTURE

Direct speech Reported speech


He said 'I live in Paris. He said he lived in Paris.
He said 'I am cooking dinner.' He said he was cooking dinner.
He said 'I have visited London twice.' He said he had visited London twice.
He said I went to New York last week.' He said he had gone to New York the
week before
He said 'I had already eaten. He said he had already eaten.
He said 'I am going to find a new job. He said he was going to find a new job.
He said 'I will give Jack a call'. He said he would give Jack a call.
He said 'I have been working on that He said he had been working on that
project for over two weeks. project for over two weeks.
He said 'I can come tonight. He said he could come that night.
He said 'I may buy a new car.' He said he might buy a new car.
He said 'I might go to Denver.' He said he might go to Denver.
He said 'I must give Ken a call.' He said he had to give Ken a call.
He said 'I have to give Ken a call.' He said he had to give Ken a call.
He said 'I should see a doctor.' He said he should see a doctor.

3 - EXERCISE

Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense, although
it is sometimes not necessary.

a) Peter: "I cleaned the black shoes yesterday."


Peter told me that ______________________________________________________________________

38
b) Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."
Helen told me that ____________________________________________________________________

c) Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."


Patricia said that ______________________________________________________________________

d) Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago."


Andrew remarked that _______________________________________________________________

4 - READING & DISCUSSION


Read the information and then discuss the questions below.

I read an interesting interview with a Spanish


Theres an eye-opening article about how much rock star in Spinning Rock magazine. She usually
soccer players earn in this weeks issue of records her songs in English, but she told the
Scoreboard. One player said that he made more interviewer that from now on she would only
than $200,000 a week! When the reporter asked sing in Spanish. When asked why she wanted to
him if he was worth that much money, he do this, she explained that she was tired of
replied, Of course I am! Ronaldo earns twice as singing in English. Im going to change, she
much as I do, and Im half as good as he is! said, even if it means that fewer people buy my
CDs.

Did you see the review of the new Pirates of


the Caribbean movie in Five Star magazine?
Apparently theres a really famous Asian
actor who turned down the lead role in the
original! The reviewer said that the actor
really regretted his decision because the film
was such a success. She also said that while
she had enjoyed the original, the
performances in the sequel were even better.

Report the following answers about the information above.

o What did the soccer player say about how much money he earns?
o What did the rock star mention she would do from now on?
o What did the reviewer find out about the famous Asian actor?

In pairs, discuss the questions below.

o What did the soccer player, rock star, and reviewer actually say? Do the people
described remind you of any stars?

39
Use the paragraph to write a conversation. Then practice it with a partner.

The reporter asked the officer what was going on. He said that there had been a
robbery. She asked him if there were any suspects. He said that they had arrested
someone. She asked him if he would give her the persons name. He explained that he
could not. She asked him when he would have more information. He said that he
wasnt sure. He told her he hoped to close the case soon.

Reporter: Whats going on?


Officer: There has been a robbery.
Reporter: ____________________________________________________________________________________
Officer: ____________________________________________________________________________________
Reporter: ____________________________________________________________________________________
Officer: ____________________________________________________________________________________
Reporter: ____________________________________________________________________________________
Officer: ____________________________________________________________________________________

Reading and writing

Read this short extract about a funny incident in the park. Once you have
finished, answer the reading comprehension questions and complete the
reported speech activity. Continue to the next page for answers.

Guess Who I Bumped Into?

Tim wandered along the path thinking aloud, "If I continue this diet I should lose
twenty pounds by the end of..." when BOOM! and bumped into another city
dweller out for a day's walk in the park. "I'm terribly sorry", he apologized. "I was
so caught up in my thoughts I didn't see you!" he managed to stammer. Smiling,
Sheila responded, "It's OK. Nothing's broken... No really, I wasn't watching my
step either." Suddenly they both stopped making excuses and stared at each other.
"Don't I know you from somewhere?" inquired Tim while Sheila exclaimed,
"You're Tim, Jack's brother, aren't you?!" They both began to laugh as they had
met each other the week before at a party that Jack had given. Still laughing, Tim
suggested, "Why don't we have a cup a coffee and donut?" to which Sheila replied,
"I thought you wanted to continue your diet!" They both were still laughing by the
time they reached the Swimming Donut cafe.

40
Comprehension Questions
a) Why did Tim bump into Sheila?
( ) He was on a diet.
( ) He wasn't paying attention.
( ) He was writing his thoughts down.

b) Whose fault was the incident?


( ) Tim's
( ) Sheila's
( ) It's not clear.

c) Where did they first meet?


( ) In the park
( ) At the Swimming Donut
( ) At Tim's Brother's house

d) Why was Tim's suggestion funny?


( ) He was supposedly on a diet.
( ) The name of the cafe was strange.
( ) They were on a walk and there were no donuts in the park.

Later that day Sheila reported the story to her friend Mike. Fill in the blanks
with reported (indirect) speech using the text above.

As he was walking down the path Tim said if he _________ _________ diet he __________ lose
twenty pounds. We bumped into each other. He apologized saying he __________
terribly sorry. I told him it _________ OK, that nothing ____ broken. Tim said he __________
so caught up in __________ thoughts that he _________ _________. He seemed embarrassed,
so I added that I __________ my step either. At that moment we recognized each other!
He asked me if he __________ ___________ from somewhere. I then remembered that he
was Jack's brother. We both had a good laugh and then he invited me to have a cup of
coffee and a donut. We had a great time together.

5 - READING
Listen and practice.

Clark: I may go to the beach this weekend.


Jill: Oh really, can I go with you?
Clark: If its not raining, you can come with me. It must be great to play soccer in the
beach.
Jill: Well, I dont know how to play soccer. I prefer volleyball. I think you should learn
to play volleyball.
Clark: My mom used to take me to the volleyball classes when I was a boy. But when I
grew up I realized that I love soccer.
Jill: Thats nice. So I hope youll be a professional soccer player.
41
Unit 8

Christmas
Listen and practice.

When I was a child, my dad used to tell me stories about the Christmas. And every
December, when there was much snow on the streets and the cold was too intense, I
used to open my window hoping that Santa Claus would come and left a Christmas gift
for me.
But the thing I liked most in my childhood at Christmas time was the peace and
happiness that any child can feel at this time of the year.
Once, my mom told me that we were going to spend the
Christmas at my grandmothers house and I was too happy,
because I knew the family would be together and certainly, we
would have a special dinner: turkey, wine for adults, and some
delicious desserts. Besides, my grandma always placed a very
Beautiful Christmas tree in the middle of the living room. Oh,
how I miss the Christmas in my childhood!

1 - ORAL QUESTIONS:

o Whats the best Christmas youve ever had?


o Have your feelings towards Christmas changed since you were a child?
o What do you usually do on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day?
o Is Christmas too commercial nowadays?

42
2- GRAMMAR

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

First Conditional: Real Possibility

IF + SIMPLE PRESENT, SIMPLE FUTURE


SIMPLE FUTURE, IF + SIMPLE PRESENT

We are talking about the future. We are


thinking about a particular condition or If I see Tony I will invite him.
situation in the future, and the result of
this condition. There is a real possibility What will you do if it rains tomorrow?
that this condition will happen.

Second Conditional: Unreal Possibility or Dream

IF + SIMPLE PAST, WOULD


WOULD, IF + SIMPLE PAST

We are still thinking about the future. We


are thinking about a particular condition If I married Kelly I would be happy.
in the future, and the result of this
condition. But there is not a real Would you be happy if I came to see you?
possibility that this condition will
happen.

Third Condition: No Possibility

IF + PAST PERFECT, WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE


WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE, IF + PAST PERFECT

We talk about a condition in the past that If I had called her she would have known
did not happen. That is why there is no it all.
possibility for this condition. The third
conditional is also like a dream, but He would have been sad if he hadnt
with no possibility of the dream coming passed his exam.
true.

43
3 ORAL EXERCISE

According to the first conditional, answer in pairs.

What will you do if

o You have time this weekend?


o It doesnt rain?
o You get a visa?
o You get a bad grade?
o You see your best friend tonight?

According to the second conditional, answer in pairs.

What would you do if

o You were the leader of your country?


o Someone offered you your dream job?
o You could live anywhere in the world?
o You didnt have to be in class right now?
o You were a millionaire?

Complete the statements with information about you according to the


third conditional.

o If I had studied harder


o If I had read more books
o If my parents had let me
o If I hadnt studied English

o I wouldve talked to him if


o My mom wouldnt have let me go if
o You wouldve come late if
o I wouldnt have traveled if

44
4 - READING & DISCUSSION

1.While Carl was waiting for Andrew, he 2.Andy came out of a busy subway station and
picked up a handmade mug. It slipped out saw a wallet on the ground. He picked it up and
of his hands, fell on the floor, and broke. He opened it. Inside he found a card with the
picked up the pieces and tried to put them owners name and address. He knew the place
back together. When Andrews father came because it was near where he lived. He decided
in, he didnt notice that it was missing. Carl to take it directly there. He passed a police
went home and tried to glue the pieces, but station on the way, but decided not to go inside.
it looked terrible.

3.Beth was at the supermarket. As she was


standing in the fruit section, she saw an old man
picking up an apple and taking a bite. The man
looked at Beth, and put it into his pocket. Beth
went and told the store manager that there was
someone stealing fruit, but she left the store
without describing the man.

What would you have done in each situation?

Choose one of the situations. Ask your classmate what he/she would
have done. Take notes.

Situation:
Me
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3

5 - READING
Listen and practice.

When Jesus was born, the world was happy because the king of the kings came to
the world to save every soul from the darkness. Jesus didnt come to the rich, but
to the poor people. Indeed he was born in an old horn in a little town called
Nazareth. His parents used a donkey, and not a horse, to take him to Egypt, where
He would be kept away from the bad king Herodes. Three foreign kings from the
orient came to visit him and gave him gifts to welcome the king of the kings. In
fact, we dont know if Jesus was born in December, but just about all the Christians
have chosen this time of the year to mark Jesus birth.

45
ENGLISH FOR BRAZILIANS 4

Exercises Reinforcement

46
UNIT 1

1) Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses.

a) She is good at __________________(dance) .


b) He is crazy about ___________________(sing) .
c) I don't like ___________________(play) cards.
d) They are afraid of ____________________(swim) in the sea.
e) You should give up ___________________(smoke) .
f) Sam dreams of ____________________(be) a pop star.
g) He is interested in ____________________(make) friends.
h) My uncle is afraid of __________________(go) by plane.
i) We insist on ____________________(cook) the dinner ourselves.
j) Thank you so much for ____________________ (be) by my side.

2) Complete with gerund or infinitive.

Yuri was in his first year at university, studying History. He was rather a lazy student,
and he tended to avoid ______________(work) whenever he could. In the middle of the
semester, his history professor gave out an assignment, due in two weeks. Yuri
intended _____________(do) the assignment, but he postponed _____________(write) it for
a week. The following week, he forgot ______________(do) it. The night before the
assignment was due, he suddenly remembered it, and rushed to the library. He tried
_________________(read) as much as possible on the topic, but there wasn't enough time.
Yuri considered (ask) for more time to do his paper, but the History professor was
known to be very tough on students, so finally he decided __________________(cheat) and
copy his paper from somewhere else. He found an old article on the same topic, and
quickly typed it out. The next day, he submitted the paper. The following week, he was
alarmed _________________(see) the professor approaching him, looking angry. "Is this
your own work, or did you copy it?" asked the professor. Yuri denied
_______________(copy) the paper. "If you expect me _______________(believe) that, you
must be very stupid," said the professor. "Every word is taken from an article I wrote
myself five years ago. Did you really think I would forget ______________(write) it?"

47
3) A gerund or an infinitive? Change the verb in brackets into the correct form
(note that in some cases both forms can be correct).

a) My reasons for _______________ (accept) the position are well known.


b) My parents don't allow my sister ________________ (eat) much candy.
c) The frozen lake is likely _______________ (melt) soon.
d) We enjoy ______________(watch) movies.
e) The opportunity ________________(see) Rome excited her.
f) We hope _________________(be) ready soon.
g) This teacher doesn't permit students ________________(speak) in class.
h) The doctor advised ______________(rest) a couple of days.
i) We don't permit ___________________(park) outside.

4) Use the words below to complete the sentences by making suggestions with
Lets:

Have a rest go for a drink go and see it go inside do another exercise


ask someone for help

a) Im thirsty. Lets___________________________________________________
b) Its very hot.______________________________________________________
c) Theres a good film on at the cinema.___________________________________
d) I need more practice.________________________________________________
e) Im tired._________________________________________________________
f) Were lost.________________________________________________________

5) Complete the sentences with the infinitive of the verbs in brackets with or
without to:

a) Please, let me _________________here. (study)


b) I cannot _______________ to do that. (agree)
c) We could do nothing but __________quiet. (be)
d) They told me _______________down. (sit)
e) I made him _____________ the letter. (answer)
f) He didnt know how ______________ in front of her. (behave)

48
Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name


Mark Twain, was an American author, essayist, lecturer and
humorist who wrote a series of famous books including
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom
Sawyer. Mark's first important work, The Celebrated Jumping
Frog of Calaveras County was first published in the New York
Saturday Press and became a bestseller within a short span of
time.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri in the
United States and died of a heart attack on 21 April 1910 in Redding in Connecticut and
now rests at the Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira, New York, where his wife and other
children were buried.
Mark Twain Timeline:

1835- Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on 30 November 1835.


1847- Marks father John Clemens died of pneumonia in 1847.
1851- Mark took a job of typesetter in 1851.
1857- He traveled to New Orleans and became an apprentice cub river pilot.
1858- He earned his license as a pilot.
1863- Mark wrote the first humorous account of his travel.
1867- He traveled to Europe and the Middle East.
1869- He wrote first travels letters, known as the Innocent Abroad.
1868- Mark Twain first met Olivia Livy Langdon in 1868.
1870- Mark married Olivia in 1870.
1871- They moved to Hartford.
1888- Mark Twain was awarded the Master of Art degree from Yale University.
1895- He set off on a world tour to Australia, Canada, India and New Zealand.
1896- His daughter Susy died of meningitis in 1896.
1901- Yale University awarded him an honorary Doctor of Letters degree.
1904- His wife Olivia died.
1907- He received the same award from Oxford University in 1907.
1908- Mark moved to his home in Redding, Connecticut in 1908.
1909- His daughter Jean died in 1909.
1910- Mark twain died of a heart attack on 21 April 1910.
Adapted from: http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/mark-twain-64.php

1. Have you heard of Mark Twain?


_______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. What were his remarkable books?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. When and where was Twain born?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Who was he married to?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. What did he die of?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
49
UNIT 2

1) Rewrite the sentences using passive voice.

a) Julia rescued three cats.


______________________________________________________________________
b) They play handball.
______________________________________________________________________
c) The girls had lost the match.
______________________________________________________________________
d) Steven has forgotten the book.
______________________________________________________________________

2) Rewrite the given sentences in passive voice.

a) She bought four apples.


______________________________________________________________________
b) We won the match.
______________________________________________________________________
c) The man stole the blue car.
______________________________________________________________________
d) The police arrested the thieves.
______________________________________________________________________
e) Jack swam the 200 meters.
______________________________________________________________________
f) The dog bit the old lady.
______________________________________________________________________
g) Tom and Max ate five hamburgers.
______________________________________________________________________
h) Oliver taught the children.
______________________________________________________________________
i) Victoria rode the brown horse.
______________________________________________________________________
j) Grandmother told good stories.
______________________________________________________________________

3) Put in the correct form of the verb in Passive into the gaps. Use the verb and
the tense given in brackets.

a) The words by the teacher today. (to explain - Simple Present)


____________________________________________________

b) We a letter the day before yesterday. (to send - Simple Past)

50
____________________________________________________
c) This car . It's too old. (not/to steal - will-future)
____________________________________________________
d) This street because of snow. (already/to close - Present Perfect)
____________________________________________________
e) A new restaurant next week. (to open - will-future)
___________________________________________________

4) Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.

a) I can answer the question. ___________________________________________________


b) She would carry the box. ___________________________________________________
c) You should open the window. ___________________________________________________
d) We might play cards. ___________________________________________________
e) You ought to wash the car. ___________________________________________________
f) He must fill in the form. ___________________________________________________
g) They need not buy bread. ___________________________________________________
h) He could not read the sentence.___________________________________________________
i) Will the teacher test our English?_________________________________________________
j) Could Jenny lock the door? ___________________________________________________

5) Please put the correct passive form into the box.

a) Many people begin new projects in January.


New projects _____________ by many people in January.

b) They called the customers yesterday afternoon.


The customers ______________ yesterday afternoon.

c) We will give you a discount if you buy 100.


A discount _____________ if you buy 100.

d) I have improved the presentation.


The presentation _________________ .

e) The president of the company is listening to his proposal.


His proposal _________________ to by the president of the company.

51
The Worlds Most Visited City

Paris is the capital city of France. It is situated on the River Seine, in


northern France, at the heart of the Ile-de-France region. Paris has
many nicknames, but its most famous is The City of Lights. It
represents worlds number one tourist destination.
More than half of all Paris visitors, 55% come from foreign countries
such as: United Kingdom, The United States, Germany, Italy and Japan.
The places considered to be the most popular in Paris are the Eiffel
Tower and the Louvre. In addition the capital of France is extremely
popular for housing international conferences as well as various trade shows. A number of
convention centers can be found in the city. One of the most popular convention centers is
entitled the Palais des Congrs at Porte Maillot, located northwest
of the Arc de Triomphe.
Paris is also famous for its restaurants that specialize in dishes
from all regions of France. Finally, no visit to Paris is complete
without a visit to the famous stores that specializes in clothes,
fashion, and beauty.

Visit the city and live the experience for yourself.


Adapted from: http://www.bizaims.com/content/paris-worlds-most-visited-city-leisure-and-statistics

1. Check True or False:

a) Paris is the biggest city in France. _______


b) You can ride a horse in Centre Pompidou. _______
c) The River Seine goes through Paris. _______
d) Paris restaurants specialize in international food. _______
e) Paris is famous for its clothes stores. _______

2. Have you ever gone to Paris? If so, how is it there?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Would you like to visit Paris? Why (not)?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Why do you think Paris is the worlds most visited city?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

52
UNIT 3

1) Complete the sentences with the verbs in The Present Perfect tense.

a) She ____________(buy) a new dress.


b) He _______________ (drink) a glass of milk.
c) They _______________(cook) dinner.
d) William and Sue _________________(play) chess with me.
e) Mrs Dean __________________(clean) the house.
f) My parents _________________ (visit) my grandparents.
g) We _________________(wash) our hair.
h) Sue ________________(study) a lot for the test.
i) Emily _________________(swim) in the sea.
j) Vera _________________ (live) in Paris for a long time.

2) Simple Past or Present Perfect? Choose the best option and write it down.

a) I _____________________________________ this letter to Mary yesterday. (write)


b) Gery _____________________________her sisters car for 10 years. (drive)
c) We ____________________________this TV set since 1945, and it still works! (own)
d) Junko _________________________to Sweden 5 years ago. (travel)
e) I _________________ him last night. (see)
f) They __________________to England in 1984.(go)
g) I can't find my keys. I _______________ them.(lose)
h) Annette _______________ many books and is writing another one now. (write)
i) We don't know where he ________________. No-one can find him. (go)
j) They __________________ their friends in New Zealand two years ago. (visit)
k) I ____________________ him in hospital three times this month. (visit)
l) We _______________________ bad weather last week. (have)
m) We ______________________ great weather this week. (have)
n) I ________________ to Spain yet. (not/be)

53
3) Fill in the gaps with since or for.

a) I haven't been to Erika's house ____________May.


b) Lucas has worked in the bank _____________five years.
c) 3)I have known him __________I was six.
d) It has rained ___________more than three days.
e) They have been married _____________1999.

4) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:

a) I don't know where Amy is. _______________(you see) her?


b) When I ____________(get) home last night I ____________(be) very tired.
c) Your car looks very clean. _________________(you wash) it?
d) John _________________(not be) very well last week.
e) Mr Clark_______________ (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
f) Molly lives in Dublin. She _________________(live) there all her life.
g) _________________(you go) to the cinema last night?
h) 8, My grandfather ______________(die) 30 years ago.
i) I don't know Carol's husband . I _____________(never meet) him.
j) Where do you live? In Boston. How long _________________(you live) there? 5 years.
Where _______________(you live) before? Chicago. And how long ________________(you
live) there? 2 years.

5) Match the columns.

a) 14th ( ) hundredth
b) 55th ( ) twentieth
c) 100th ( ) fifty-fifth
d) 80th ( ) thirty-first
e) 1000th ( ) Fourteenth
f) 43rd ( ) twenty-second
g) 20th ( ) forty-third
h) 22nd ( ) eightieth
i) 12th ( ) thousandth
j) 31st ( ) twelfth

54
MUSIC

Listen to the music and fill in the blanks.

I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking But I still haven't found what I'm
For (U2) looking for
But I still haven't found what I'm
I ________________highest mountains looking for
I _________________through the fields
Only to be with you I believe in the Kingdom Come
Only to be with you Then all the colors will bleed into one
I have run Bleed into one
I ________________ But yes I'm still running
I ________________these city walls
These city walls You broke the bonds
Only to be with you And you loosed the chains
Carried the cross
But I still haven't found what I'm Of my shame
looking for Oh my shame
But I still haven't found what I'm You know I believe it
looking for
But I still haven't found what I'm
I ______________honey lips looking for
Felt the healing in her fingertips But I still haven't found what I'm
It burned like a fire looking for
This burning desire But I still haven't found what I'm
looking for
I ______________with the tongue of angels
I _________________the hand of a devil
It was warm in the night
I was cold as a stone

55
UNIT 4

1) Complete with the simple past or the past perfect.

a) Mary ________________ (go) into the room, ______________(sit) down and _____________
(discovered ) that someone ________________(smoke) some cigarrettes because the
ashtray (be) full .
b) The match already ________________(finish) when we ________________(arrive), so we
________________(can) find a nice place to park our car. Our friend Thomas
_________already ___________ (tell) us that it _________________(be) very difficult to find a
place on match days.
c) Those Congolese children ____________ never ______________ (see) the sea, so they
____________(find) it very impressive.
d) Someone ____________________(pick up) all the oranges, because the trees
_________________ (be) empty.
e) Nobody _____________________ (tell) us the temperatures were going to be so low, so
we ___________________________(not bring) warm clothes .

2) Choose the best option.

a) When I got to Mary's, George had gone.

( ) George left after I arrived.


( ) George left before I arrived.

b) The children had got up when their father arrived.

( ) The children were already up before the father arrived.


( ) The children got up after the father arrived.

c) The children got up when their father arrived.

( ) The children were up before their father arrived.


( ) The children got up after their father arrived.

d) When they heard the news, Rob and Chris left.

( ) Rob and Chris left before they heard the news.


( ) Rob and Chris left after they heard the news.

e) When they heard the news, Rob and Chris had left.

( ) Rob and Chris heard the news and then left.


( ) The news came after Rob and Chris left.

56
3) Past simple or past perfect?

a) He ______________(work) in a supermarket before he ______________(work) as a


postman.
b) She _______________ (feed) the dog as soon as she ______________(do) her homework.
c) 3. My sister _______________ (live) in England before she ____________(move) to
Belgium.
d) 4. After he _____________(eat) all the sandwiches he ______________(drink) some
orange juice.
e) 5. We ______________(be) tired because we ______________ (work) all day.
f) 6. As I ______________(miss) the bus I _____________(walk) home again.
g) 7. After they ________________(install) the file they _______________(can) go on working.
h) 8. He __________________(just start) to watch TV when the telephone_______________
(ring).
i) 9. Before she __________________ (go) to bed she _______________(listen) to her favourite
CD.
j) 10. After he _______________(lose) all his money he ________________ (be) poor as a
church mouse.

4) Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple. Use the negative form.

a) In the shopping centre, I met a friend who I ___________________(see / not) for ages.
b) The thief could walk right into the house because you _______________(lock / not) the
door.
c) We lost the match because we ________________(practise / not) the days before.
d) At school, Jim quickly copied the homework that he ______________(do / not) .
e) We ate at a restaurant last night because I _____________(buy / not) anything for
dinner.

5) Make the past perfect simple - 'wh' or 'yes/no' questions

a) _________________(you/go) there before we went together?


b) _________________(she/see) the film already?
c) Why ________________ (he/forget) about the meeting?
d) _________________(it/be) cold all week?
e) _________________(I/read) the book before the class?

57
UNIT 5

1) Change the verb into the correct form (future perfect):

a) By this time tomorrow, I ______________________(finish) the project.


b) By 8 o'clock, the kids _____________________ (fall) asleep.
c) By tomorrow morning, he _______________________ (sleep) wonderfully.
d) By next year, she _____________________(receive) her promotion.
e) Robin _______________________(sell) his car by next Sunday.

2) Create sentences using the future perfect, future continuous and future perfect
continuous. Use the expressions below.

Future perfect:

a) Next week:______________________________________________
b) By 8 oclock:____________________________________________

Future continuous:

c) By tomorrow:____________________________________________
d) Tonight:__________________________________________________

Future perfect continuous:

e) For 2 hours:__________________________________________
f) For five years:________________________________________

3) Put the verbs into the correct form (future continuous).

a) At midnight we ______________________(sleep) .
b) This time next week we ____________________(sit) at the beach.
c) At nine I _____________________(watch) the news.
d) Tonight we ___________________(cram up) for our English test.
e) They ________________(dance) all night.
f) He _____________________(not / play) all afternoon.
g) I_______________________(not / work) all day.
h) _______________________(eat / you) at six?

58
i) ________________________(drive / she) to London?
j) ________________________(fight / they) again?

4) Put the verbs into the correct form (future perfect continuous):

a) By the end of this month we ___________________(live) together for six years.


b) By the end of the term she ________________________(study) for nine years.
c) By midnight we ______________________(play) this computer game for 48 hours.
d) She ________________________(talk) on the phone for the last couple of hours.
e) They ______________________(look for) me all night long.
f) He ______________________(play) soccer all day long.

5) Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the
appropriate tenses: Future continuous or future perfect continuous.

Simona: Margaret is really going to speak Spanish well when she gets back from that
language school in Mexico.
Isabelle: Hopefully! She ___________________(take) classes for more than six months.
Simona: She is going to be able to speak Spanish with some of our Latin American
clients.
Isabelle: Good. Two clients from Peru ____________________(visit) us next month when
Margaret returns. We need someone to entertain them while they are here.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jason: I am leaving!
Nurse: If you would please wait, the doctor will be with you in ten minutes. The doctor
is having some problems with a patient.
Jason: The doctor was having problems with that patient an hour ago. If I wait another
ten minutes, I am sure he _________________________(have, still) problems with her. By the
time he's finally ready to see me, I __________________________(wait) for more than two
hours.

59
UNIT 6

1) Fill in each gap with the correct reflexive pronoun.

a) My sister doesn't like _______________very much.


b) John spends hours looking at _______________in the mirror.
c) Mary is a person with lots of problems. Sometimes she even hurts__________ .
d) I like Peter, but I wish he didn't spend so much time talking about____________ .
e) Did you do this all by______________ ?
f) We enjoyed _______________ very much at the party.
g) I don't like them at all. They want everything for _________________ .
h) Why are you standing? Find some chairs for _________________ and sit down.
i) Last week he cut ______________with a knife.
j) I answer all my letters ______________.

2) Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose).

a) This is the bank _______ was robbed yesterday.


b) A boy ____________ sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.
c) The man ____________ robbed the bank had two pistols.
d) He wore a mask _______________ made him look like Mickey Mouse.
e) He came with a friend ______________ waited outside in the car.
f) The woman _____________ gave him the money was young.
g) This is the car __________ owner is a doctor.
h) Lucas is a boy ________ takes good pictures.
i) The skate__________ I found is black.

3) Who or which?

a) Did you take the chair __________was in the room?


b) Give me the book ________ is on the table.
c) The girl __________ is standing there is Fatou.

60
d) That's the dog __________ barks all the time.
e) A baker is a person ____________makes bread.
f) This is the pen ___________I bought last week.
g) Frank is the man __________ I met yesterday.

4) Who or whose?

a) _____________book is it ?
b) _____________is this boy ?
c) _____________car is that ?
d) _____________address is this ?
e) _____________'s your teacher ?
f) _____________s that girl?
g) _____________ notebook is this?
h) _____________s your friend?
i) _____________ skate is that?

5) Complete each relative clause with who or that. If both who or that can be
used, write who or that:

a) That's the man ________________ stole my purse!


b) That's the jacket _______________I want to buy.
c) That's the girl ______________won the race.
d) The students _____________do well on the exam will be allowed to leave early.
e) We saw the cat ______________ lives in the house next door.
f) The airport _____________is being built will be the largest in the country.
g) The woman ________________sang that song is very beautiful.
h) People ______________use this site will learn English very quickly.
i) The computer _______________ I want to buy costs $1,000.
j) The dinner _______________your mother prepared was delicious.

61
Christ the Redeemer, Brazil
The statue of Christ the Redeemer is located at the top of Corcovado
Mountain. The entire monument of statue of Christ the Redeemer is
38m high with the statue accounting for 30m and overlooking the
city of Rio de Janeiro is one of the tallest statues in the world; the
span from finger tip to fingertip is 28m and there is a small chapel
housed in the base.

The reason why it was built was to show that Christ loves all. In
Portuguese, this iconic monument is known as Cristo Redentor. Christ the Redeemer was
designed by a French sculptor by the name of Paul Landowski and a local engineer named
Heitor da Silva Costa was chosen to supervise the entire construction. The statue was built
not out of steel but from reinforced concrete as that was considered a more suitable material
for the cross shaped statue. The external caps of the idol were constructed in soapstone due
to the resistance of this material to the extreme time and also due to its malleability.

The statue of Christ the Redeemer can be accessed by the 2.4 meter Corcovado Railway that
has the capacity to hold 360 passengers every hour. The trip by rail is approximately 20
minutes and leaves the base each half hour. From the road or the train terminal Christ the
Redeemer statue is reached by 222 steps. For those not wishing to make the arduous trek up
the mountain, reaching the statue is possible by escalators and elevators.

Christ the Redeemer is one of the tourist attractions that every year attracts to more and
more visitors. The best time to visit the Christ the Redeemer statue is late afternoon or
evening when you can enjoy the splendour of the setting sun while taking in one of the most
important landmarks in the world.

Adapted from: http://www.7wonders.org/wonders/america/brazil/rio-janeiro/christ-redeemer.aspx

1. Where is the Statue located?


__________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. How high is it?


__________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. When is the best time to visit Statue? Why?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Do you think Christ the Redeemer should really be considered one of the 7
World Wonders? Why?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

62
UNIT 7

1) Change the sentences into reported speech:

a) Mary said: "I like ice cream."


Mary said (that) __________________________________________________________________.

b) The Browns said: "We are on time."


The Browns said (that) __________________________________________________________.

c) Sue said: "He is sitting on the table."


Sue said (that) ____________________________________________________________________.

d) Mother said: "Bill always goes to bed early."


Mother said (that)________________________________________________________________.

e) Mrs Smith said: "I often drive to London."


Mrs Smith said (that) ____________________________________________________________.

2) Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense,
although it is sometimes not necessary.

a)) Mandy: "Are the boys reading the book?"


Yesterday Mandy asked me .
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
b) Jason: "Who gave you the laptop?"
Yesterday Jason wanted to know .
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
c) Robert: "Is Tim leaving on Friday?"
Yesterday Robert asked me .
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
d) Daniel: "Will it rain tomorrow?"
Yesterday Daniel asked me .
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
e) Jennifer: "Where do you play football today?"
Yesterday Jennifer wanted to know
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

3) Change the sentences into reported speech:

a) They said: "It will be hot tomorrow."


They said (that) _________________________________________________.

63
b) Mother said: "I am busy."
Mother said (that) __________________________________________________.

c) She told the police: "I have heard strange noises during the night."
She told the police (that) __________________________________________ .

d) Peter said: "I go to school by train."


Peter said (that) ____________________________________________________.

e) Sandy said: "My father likes sweets."


Sandy said (that) ___________________________________________________.

4) A speaker was asked these questions after a presentation. Report the


questions:

a) 'How much are you planning to spend on advertising?'

They asked me____________________________________________________________________.

b) 'Where do you intend to advertise?'

_____________________________________________________________________________________.

c) 'What discount will you give to your distributors?'

_____________________________________________________________________________________.

d) 'Why has it taken so long to develop?'

_____________________________________________________________________________________.

5) Put in reported speech using the verbs given:

a) 'I think it is Mary who must pay for the expenses' Antonio said to George.
Antonio suggested__________________pay for the expenses.

b) 'I'll bring the sandwiches for the party" said Helen


Helen offered___________________the sandwiches for the party.

c) 'Let's all go to Lisbon and rent a flat there!', they said


They suggested__________________to Lisbon.

d) 'OK, I think I'll wait for another three months.' said Maggie finally
Maggie finally agreed___________________ for another three months.

64
Romero Britto
Born in Recife, Brazil in 1963, Romero Britto grew up in a modest
family, surrounded by 8 siblings. In his early years, he discovers his
natural gift to color his life. Using all kinds of support, from old
newspapers to cardboard, he creates a new form of expression
reflecting his optimism and his vision of the world's beauty. His
audacious character leads him to ignore the traditional system that surrounds him. In 1983, he
leaves for Europe to gain better knowledge of "Masters' Art". Loaded with confidence and
determination, Britto chooses Miami, where Pop Art is rapidly expanding, as his next
destination.
During the following years, Romero Britto will take part in several exhibitions, attracting not
only young crowds but also long-time art lovers eager to discover his unique, modern skills.
Britto's art is as diverse as his personal experiences and covers a wide variety of themes. It
combines Pop Art with compositions inspired from cubism. In 1989, he is selected by Absolut
Vodka to design their new bottle, succeeding some of the most notorious artists such as Andy
Warhol.
Appointed arts' ambassador at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Britto is also
a humanitarian activist. He claims that "art should reflect the celebration of simple and good
things in life".
His modern influences, flashy colors and fun work led him to become
one of the most recognized artists of his generation. His dreams are
still filled with endless inspiration. Pepsi, Apple, Movado repeatedly
called for his genius when they needed to reinvent their brands.
Many heads of states, political and show-business personalities
celebrate his skills across the world.
Romero Britto permanently redefines art and its role in our lives.

Adapted from: http://www.art-zurich.com/files/2011/aussteller/files/Colorfield-Gallery_Britto(Biography).pdf

1. Has Romero Britto always been a rich person?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. What kind of art inspires him?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Are you into painting? Who is your favorite painter?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. What calls your attention about Romero Brittos painting?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

65
UNIT 8

1) Complete the conditional sentences.

a) If Mr Brown ____________(sell) his car last year, he would have got more money for it.
b) If Susan takes her driving lessons regularly, she _____________(pass) her driving test.
c) If Mr Jones ______________(watch) the news every evening he would know more
about politics.
d) If Charlie ________________ (not stop) eating these green apples hell soon feel sick.
e) If you had told me the truth I ____________ (help) you.

2) Complete using conditional sentences:

a) If I were you, _______________________________________________________


b) She would have had time _______________________________________________________
c) I will phone him _______________________________________________________
d) If you came for dinner, _______________________________________________________
e) She would have missed the train_____________________________________________________
f) What would you do _______________________________________________________
g) If you stopped drinking, _______________________________________________________
h) If I had been offered the job, _______________________________________________________
i) If you meet my boss, _______________________________________________________
j) If you won the prize, _______________________________________________________

3) Choose the correct alternative:

a) If I ________ you, I would apologize to her right away. (to be)


( ) was
( ) were
( ) have been

b) If I run into her, I ________ her that you're looking for her. (to tell)
( ) would tell
( ) tell
( ) will tell
66
c) If you ________ that again, I will call the police. (to do)
( ) to do
( ) do
( ) will do

d) He would never have asked her out on a date if she ________ him first. (to kiss)
( ) hadn't kissed
( ) didn't kiss
( ) will not kiss

e) If you were her, what ________? (to do)


( ) would you do
( ) did you do
( ) do you do

4) Put the verbs into the correct form:

a) If the company offered me the job, I think I ___________(take) it.


b) I'm sure Liz will lend you some money. I would be very surprised if she
_________(refuse).
c) Many people would be out of work if that factory _________ (close) down.
d) If she sold her car, she _____________ (not / get) much money for it.
e) They're expecting us. They would be disappointed if we ___________ (not / come).

5) Choose the correct alternative.

a) If you'd arrived on time, none of this would have happened


( ) This sentence is about something that happened in the past
( ) This sentence is about something that is very unlikely to happen

b) If I were you, I'd get in touch with a solicitor


( ) This is about something that is likely to happen in the near future
( ) This is about something now

c) If I won the lottery, I'd go on a cruise


( ) This is about the present
( ) This is about the future

d) If you should see him, tell him I've got the video he was looking for
( ) This is less likely to happen than if the speaker had said 'If you see him...'
( ) This is as likely to happen as if the speaker had said 'If you see him...'

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Easter in the United States
The Easter Sunday date varies because it is determined using a calculated lunar calendar.
It is the first Sunday approximately after the first full moon on or after the March equinox.

What do people do?


Many churches hold special services on Easter Sunday, which celebrate the Jesus Christ's
resurrection after his crucifixion. Many people also decorate eggs. These can be hard
boiled eggs that can be eaten later, but may also be model eggs made
of plastic, chocolate, candy or other materials. It is also common to
organize Easter egg hunts. Eggs of some form are hidden, supposedly
by a rabbit or hare. People, especially children, then search for them.
In some areas, Easter egg hunts are a popular way for local
businesses to promote themselves or may even be organized by
churches.

Symbols
For people with strong Christian beliefs, the cross that Jesus was crucified on and his
resurrection are important symbols of the period around Easter. Other symbols of Easter
include real eggs or eggs manufactured from a range of materials, nests, lambs and rabbits
or hares. Sometimes these symbols are combined, for example, in candy models of rabbits
with nests full of eggs. Eggs, rabbits, hares and young animals are thought to represent the
re-birth and return to fertility of nature in the spring.

Adapted from: http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/us/easter-sunday

1. What do kids do on Easter?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. What kind of symbols the Christian have to celebrate the Easter?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Is there any difference between Easter in the USA and in Brazil? What is it?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. What do you usually do on Easter?


___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

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MUSIC

Listen to the music and underline the conditional sentences.

If I Were A Boy (Beyonce)


So they think that I was sleeping alone
If I were a boy I'd put myself first
Even just for a day And make the rules as I go
I'd roll out of bed in the morning Cause I know that she'd be faithful
And throw on what I wanted and go Waiting for me to come home
Drink beer with the guys It's a little too late for you to come back
And chase after girls Say it's just a mistake
I'd kick with who I wanted Think I'd forgive you like that
And I'd never get confronted for it If you thought I would wait for you
Cause they'd stick up for me. You thought wrong
If I were a boy
I think I could understand But you're just a boy
How it feels to love a girl You dont understand (Yeah you dont
I swear I'd be a better man. understand)
I'd listen to her How it feels to love a girl
Cause I know how it hurts Someday you wish you were a better
When you lose the one you wanted man
Cause he's taken you for granted You don't listen to her
And everything you had got destroyed You don't care how it hurts
If I were a boy Until you lose the one you wanted
I would just turn off my phone Cause you've taken her for granted
Tell everyone it's broken And everything you had got destroyed
But you're just a boy

69
Universidade de Pernambuco UPE 2012
Copyright Severino Carlos da Silva
Este livro no pode ser reproduzido por qualquer meio sem
autorizao do autor

ISBN 978-85-7856-103-1

Impresso no Brasil Tiragem 1.500 exemplares

EDUPE

Av. Agamenon Magalhes s/n Santo Amaro


Recife/PE CEP: 50.100-010 Fone: (81) 3183-3724

70
SEVERINO CARLOS DA SILVA

Mestre em Letras pela UFPB (Linguagem e Ensino de Lngua Estrangeira). Professor


Assistente da Universidade de Pernambuco - UPE desde 1986. Atua principalmente
nos seguintes temas: seleo, educao, formao de professores, reflexo sobre a
prtica pedaggica do professor de lngua estrangeira e processo ensino-
aprendizagem de lngua estrangeira. Atua tambm na rea de Sociolngustica
(Variaes Lingusticas e Sociointeracionismo). Pesquisa desde 2002 sobre o processo
ensino-aprendizagem de vocabulrio de lngua inglesa, considerando a Lexical
Approach (Michael Lewis), Lingustica de Corpus (Michael McCarthy), bem como
Reflexo sobre a Prtica Pedaggica (Dewey, Shn, Paulo Freire, Perrenoud, Alarco
etc). Pesquisa tambm sobre a Abordagem Colaborativa. Vem pesquisando sobre o
processo ensino-aprendizagem de lngua estrangeira na modalidade a distncia desde
2009. coordenador do Curso de Ps-Graduao em Lngua e Literaturas de Lngua
Inglesa da UPE e do Curso de Ps-Graduao em Ensino de Lngua Inglesa do Centro
de Ensino Superior do Vale do So Francisco CESVASF. Coordena o Programa de
Lnguas e Informtica da UPE PROLINFO e o Curso de Graduao em Formao
Pedaggica no Ensino de Lngua Inglesa na Modalidade a Distncia da UPE. Diretor
didtico-Pedaggico do Special English Course, em Recife-PE. doutorando em
Lingustica Aplicada pela UFPB.

FELIPE CASADO DE LUCENA

Professor do Departamento de Letras da Universidade Catlica de Pernambuco


(UNICAP). Possui mestrado em Lingustica (UFPE), Especializao em Lingustica
(FAFIRE), Graduao em Jornalismo (UNICAP) e em Letras Portugus/Ingls
(UNICAP). Foi professor de ingls no PROLINFO de 2007 a 2011 e Coordenador de
Apoio rea de Lngua Inglesa.

71

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