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860-868

Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA

D DAVID PUBLISHING

Nailde de Amorim Coelho, Lineu Jos Pedroso, Joo Henrique da Silva Rgo and Antnio Alberto Nepomuceno

Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70.919-970, Brazil

Abstract: With the increasing development of Brazil in recent years, major engineering construction works have been designed and

built, particularly those involving large volumes of mass concrete, such as in the case of dams. Mass concrete, due to its large size and

volume, presents a considerable temperature rise caused by cement grain hydration. This temperature rise can be sufficient to cause

concrete crack and/or cracking, which may lead to serious problems. In this paper, we sought to study heat generation and temperature

field in mass concrete through ANSYS software, which uses finite element method to analyze the problem. This program allows

temperatures to be checked for different concrete ages. With that, it is possible to evaluate the temperatures obtained and the factors

influencing the results in a short period of time at a low cost. With the help of the software, it is possible to check the temperatures for

different concrete properties by analyzing them on different concreting days. Therefore, it was possible to establish that the properties

of the concrete directly influence the temperature evolution phenomenon.

predict and assess the internal temperature of mass

Mass concrete is any volume of concrete with

concrete. This process allows the identification of the

dimensions large enough to require measures to be

highest temperature achieved, heat evolution time and

taken to overcome heat generation from cement

critical temperature spots on the structure. With this

hydration, by reducing the volume change in order to

data, it is possible to find solutions more suited to the

minimize cracking [1].

problem.

Many construction works use concrete mass in their

An example of software that can be used in such

making. Such structures typically have large sizes and

problems is ANSYS, a powerful tool that uses finite

large volumes of concrete and become a concern due to

element method for solving many engineering

the likelihood of the development of pathologies such

problems of a structural, dynamic and thermal nature,

as cracking and cracks. When cement grains come into

among others. It provides a fast and economical

contact with water, they hydrate and release heat,

analysis when compared to experimental tests.

which is known as heat of hydration.

Thus, in this paper, ANSYS will be used as the

Heat generation inside a concrete block generates a

operational tool for visualizing thermal effects and

temperature gradient in relation to the external edges

temperature variation inside mass concrete structures.

which, if the concrete cannot move freely, induces the

Thermal variation arising from changes to the

appearance of a tensile stress which, if it exceeds the

parameters in the equation which govern the

tensile strength of the concrete, will cause cracking and

problem of heat inside the structure will be studied

possibly damages and tightness to the structure [2].

[8-11].

Many studies can be found in literature about the

phenomenon related to the thermal effects on mass 2. Thermal Properties of the Concrete

concrete [3-7].

The study of specific mass, specific heat, thermal

Corresponding author: Nailde de Amorim Coelho, M.Sc., conductivity and diffusivity is important for the

research fields: structures and civil construction. E-mail:

development of temperature gradients, thermal

naildea@yahoo.com.br.

Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete 861

deformations and concrete early-age cracking. Below conducts heat through its mass; receives, emits and

are brief definitions of each: reflects heat through its faces and, over time, reaches

Specific mass ( )The ratio between the mass of its thermal equilibrium.

a body and the volume that this body occupies. It is

3. Theoretical Foundations

influenced by water and fines content, aggregates used

and the voids index. The smaller the amount of water One of the main objectives of analyzing thermal

and paste content in the mixture the greater will be the effects is to determine the temperature field in a

specific mass; medium resulting from the conditions imposed on its

Thermal conductivity (k)The materials borders. That is, the intention is to know the

capability of conducting heat, which is defined as the distribution of temperatures, which represents how the

ratio between heat flow and temperature gradient. temperature varies with the position in the medium.

Thermal conductivity depends on the composition of Once that distribution is known, heat flow by

concrete and increased humidity also makes its value conduction on any point in the medium or on the

increase [12]; surface can be determined by Fouriers law [15].

Specific heat (c)A physical parameter which Consider a homogeneous medium, and a

expresses the ability of a material to store heat. The temperature distribution T (x, y, z) represented in

specific heat is the amount of heat required to increase

Cartesian coordinates. The general heat transfer

the temperature of a mass unit in one degree. Typical

equation is evaluated by the heat flow that passes

specific heat values for normal concrete are between

through that body, as is shown in Fig. 1 [8-11].

0.84 and 1.26 kJ/(kgK) [13];

Be c the specific heat of the material, k the thermal

Thermal diffusivity ()It represents the speed at

conductivity; its specific mass, (xyz) the volume

which the temperature varies inside a mass and is dT

element and ( dx ) the thermal gradient in the x

therefore an index of the ease with which the concrete

direction. The volume element will experience, in the

can undergo temperature variations. According to the dT

time unit, a temperature rise as a function of time, ( dt )

literature [14], thermal diffusivity is the property that

and the Fouriers equation shown in Eqs. (2) and (3) is

expresses heat diffusion capacity in all directions and

obtained:

indicates the ease with which the concrete tolerates

temperature variations. It is calculated according to Eq.

(1).

(1)

where,

= thermal conductivity;

= specific heat;

= specific mass of the concrete.

In mass concrete structures, the effect of cement

hydration produces an exothermic reaction with

significant temperature rise of this material. Besides

heat of hydration, there are other thermal phenomena

that act directly on these constructions: solar radiation,

conduction and convection. A mass concrete structure

generates heat in the first few moments of its existence, Fig. 1 Body subjected to a heat flow.

862 Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete

(2)

mesh and 2,500 elements was studied in ANSYS. The

(3) element used was PLANE55 from the ANSYS library,

which has thermal conduction capacity in two

where: . dimensions, 2D, sufficiently tested and externally

If the body develop heat, as is the case with concrete, evaluated. The element has four nodes and a single

there is the influence of another term in Fouriers degree of freedom at each node, the temperature [13].

equation which is a representation of the amount of The temperature isotherms were analyzed after two,

heat developed, given by . Therefore, Eq. (4) is four and six days of concreting. For all the cases, the

obtained: variables corresponding to each property are listed as

(4) follows:

k = Thermal conductivity;

Thus, the general equation of heat conduction,

considering Fouriers equation and the inner heat

= Density;

c = Specific heat;

generation (heat of hydration), is given by Eq. (5):

h = Convection coefficient;

(5)

(%) = Temperature difference in percentage.

Eq. (5) implies that at any point in the medium the

It is noteworthy that for the analyzed parameters, the

net rate of energy transfer by conduction to the interior

minimum and maximum values allowed for the

of a unit volume plus the volumetric rate of thermal

concrete were assumed. And these were rounded to

energy generation must be equal to the rate of variation

integer values, to the nearest immediately lower integer

of the thermal energy accumulated inside this number in the case of minimal values, and to the

volume [16]. immediately higher integer number in the case of

In order to solve Fouriers equation, described in Eq. maximum values.

(5), it is necessary to consider heat of hydration for Another important remark is that for this study the

the case of the concrete. The most recent study on the parameters were considered as separately varying, i.e.,

Three Gorges dam in China [15], states that the heat without depending on other parameters. However, it is

developed by cement hydration can be represented by known, for instance, that if the trace of the concrete is

Eq. (6), obtained through experimental data, taking changed, there normally is a change to all parameters

into consideration the adiabatic temperature at different and not only to just one as is being adopted.

ages of the concrete. In order to clarify the dependencies of these

1 (6) parameters, Table 1 shows them.

where, For the analysis, 20 oC ambient temperature, 25 C

= heat of hydration; temperature in the lower face of the block, and 45 oC

,, , = constants obtained experimentally, which concrete placement temperature were assumed. The

are dependent on the cement composition; results of the characteristic parameters are shown in

= is the initial heat of the concrete. Figs. 2-7 and in Tables 2-4. It is worth mentioning that

the maximum temperature node is indicated as the

4. Results Obtained with the Aid of ANSYS

black dot in Fig. 2.

Software

4.1 Thermal Conductivity

Analysis of characteristic parameters present in the

general equation, for the analysis of the parameters Table 2, and Figs. 2 and 3 summarize the main results

used in Fouriers equation for mass concrete structures, obtained for the two values (minimum and maximum)

Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete 863

Parameter Definition Dependence

Concrete composition ;

Moisture content;

Thermal conductivity k Materials ability to conduct heat Mineralogical characteristics of the aggregate;

Concrete density and temperature;

It is not influenced by the type of cement used.

Water and fines content;

It is the ratio between body mass and the Aggregates used;

Specific mass or density

volume that this body occupies Voids index;

Concrete temperature.

Temperature;

Corresponds to the amount of heat required

Specific mass of the concrete;

Specific heat c to increase the temperature of one unit of

Moisture content;

mass in one degree

Characteristic maximum size of coarse aggregate.

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 2 Temperature isotherms for 2 (a), 4 (b) and 6 (c) concreting days, with k = 1 W/moC.

of thermal conductivity of the concrete. low thermal conductivity, the greater will be the

It is noted that the lower the thermal conductivity of difficulty of dissipating heat internally generated in this

the concrete, the higher the maximum temperature body. It is noted also that the time parameter directly

reached. This can be explained by the fact that with a influences these isotherms. Eventually, it is observed

864 Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete

Maximum temperature; Node

Properties

2 days 4 days 6 days

k = 1 W/mC

= 2,300 kg/m3 64.534 oC 73.606 oC 77.460 oC

c = 1,000 J/goC Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401

h = 10 W/m2C

k = 4 W/mC

= 2,300 kg/m3 64.460 oC 71.874 oC 71.375 oC

c = 1,000 J/goC Node = 1,402 Node = 1,402 Node = 1,402

h = 10 W/m2C

(%) 0.11 2.41 8.52

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 3 Temperature isotherms for 2 (a), 4 (b) and 6 (c) concreting days, with k = 4 W/moC.

becomes smaller. It is known that specific heat corresponds to the

amount of heat required to increase the temperature of

4.2 Specific Heat

a mass unit in one degree; and that it reaches a

Table 3 and Figs. 4 and 5 summarize the results maximum value for saturated concrete. It is observed

obtained for two extreme values of the specific heat of that for a lower value of specific heat, higher

Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete 865

temperatures are obtained, i.e., less heat is required in for two different values (extreme) of the specific mass

order for a temperature rise to occur. However, for a of the concrete.

higher value of specific heat, the maximum With the reduction in specific mass there is an

temperature isotherms are higher than in the case of increase in temperature. It is known that specific mass

lower specific heat. is the ratio between the mass of a body and the volume

this body occupies; and that with the reduction of

4.3 Specific Mass

water/cement ratio in the mixture there is an increase

Table 4 and Figs. 6 and 7 show the results obtained in its specific mass. Thus, it can be said that for a lower

Table 3 Results for different values of c.

Maximum temperature; Node

Properties

2 days 4 days 6 days

k = 1.79 W/mC

= 2,300 kg/m3 69.416 oC 80.549 oC 84.179 oC

c = 800 J/gC Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401 Node = 1,402

h = 10 W/m2C

k = 1.79 W/mC

= 2,300 kg/m3 60.026 oC 66.996 oC 69.856 oC

c = 1,300 J/gC Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401

h = 10 W/m2C

(%) 15.64 20.23 20.50

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 4 Temperature isotherms for 2 (a), 4 (b) and 6 (c) concreting days, with c = 800 J/goC.

866 Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 5 Temperature isotherms for 2 (a), 4 (b) and 6 (c) concreting days, with c = 1,300 J/goC.

Maximum temperature; Node

Properties

2 days 4 days 6 days

k = 1.79 W/mC

= 2,000 kg/m3 67.463 oC 77.767 C 81.358 oC

c = 1,000 J/goC Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401

h = 10 W/m2C

k = 1.79 W/mC

= 3,000 kg/m3 59.976 oC 66.923 oC 69.775 oC

c = 1,000 J/gC Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401 Node = 1,401

h = 10 W/m2C

(%) 12.48 16.20 16.60

specific mass there is higher insulation, which makes concrete. When cement grains come into contact with

the dissipation of internal heat more difficult. water they hydrate and release heat. This heat

generation causes thermal stresses that can damage the

5. Conclusions

structure. However, these stresses are more significant

One of the factors that have the greatest influence on when there is a larger temperature gradient, that is,

thermal effects is internal heat generation in the when there is a greater difference between the

Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete 867

maximum and minimum temperatures in the mass analyzed through temperature isotherms obtained

concrete. using ANSYS software. These isotherms indicate the

Various analyzes have been performed for structures evolution of heat, showing the temperatures within the

in mass concrete, where thermal effects could be studied body.

(a) (a)

(b) (b)

(c) (c)

Fig. 6 Temperature isotherms for 2 (a), 4 (b) and 6 (c) Fig. 7 Temperature isotherms for 2 (a), 4 (b) and 6 (c)

concreting days, with = 2,000 kg/m3. concreting days, with = 3,000 kg/m3.

868 Use of ANSYS for Thermal Analysis in Mass Concrete

It was noted that a lower thermal conductivity of the Paulo, 1986. (in Portuguese)

[3] M.A.D. Azenha, Numerical simulation of the structural

concrete implies a higher maximum temperature due to behaviour of concrete since its early ages, Dr. Thesis,

the difficulty of dissipating internally generated heat in Engineering Department, University of Porto, Porto, 2009.

the body. With the reduction in specific mass there is [4] P. Choktaweekarn, S. Tangtermsirikul, Effect of

aggregate type, casting, thickness, and curing condition on

an increase in temperature. This happens because they

restrained strain of mass concrete, Songklanakarin Journal

have greater porosity, which hinders the dissipation of of Science and Technology 32 (4) (2010) 391-402. (in

internal heat. For a lower specific heat the lower the Portuguese)

value, the higher the temperatures, because a smaller [5] E.E. Kavamura, Study of the behavior of two-dimensional

thermo-structural concrete dams using the finite element

amount of heat is required in order for a temperature method, M.Sc. Dissertation, Federal University of Paran,

rise to occur. Thus, it is clear that in order to reduce the State of Curitiba, 2005. (in Portuguese)

internal heat a concrete with higher thermal [6] D.A.V. Krger, Transient thermal analysis of concrete

structures performed by layers, M.Sc. Dissertation, Federal

conductivity, density and specific heat is desirable. University of Paran, State of Curitiba, 2001. (in Portuguese)

However, these properties establish a relationship of [7] S.B. Santos, A contribution to the study of the

dependency that was not considered in this paper. thermomechanical behavior of massive concrete structures.

linear viscoelastic modeling and applications, M.Sc.

It was also verified that using a program based on

Dissertation, Federal University of Esprito Santo, Vitoria,

finite element method to solve the problems can be a 2004, p. 287. (in Portuguese)

quick and practical means for a thermal analysis in [8] N.A. Coelho, A numerical study of thermal effect in mass

concrete, M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Braslia,

structures. It enables structures to be analyzed before

Braslia, 2012.

construction, thus allowing strategies for reducing [9] N.A. Coelho, L.J. Pedroso, J.H.S. Rgo, A.A.

stress arising from thermal effects. Nepomuceno, Influence of the thermal properties of the

The mass concrete must have a higher thermal concrete mass analysis of the temperature in large

structures, in: 10th World Congress in Computational

conductivity, density and specific heat, because these Mechanics, So Paulo, 2012. (in Portuguese)

features reduce the internal temperature of the concrete [10] N.A. Coelho, L.J. Pedroso, J.H.S. Rgo, A.A.

and reduce the possibility of cracks due to thermal Nepomuceno, A numerical study of thermal effects caused

by heat of hydration of cement in Dams, in: 54th Brazilian

gradient. Thus, it is necessary to study the thermal

Concrete Congress, Macei, 2012 (in Portuguese)

parameters and its influence more thoroughly, [11] N.A. Coelho, L.J. Pedroso, J.H.S. Rgo, A.A.

including experimentally. With this, one can create Nepomuceno, Numerical analysis and thermal of mass

mass concrete mixtures that correspond to smaller concrete blocks using a computer code, in: 54th Brazilian

Concrete Congress. Macei, 2012. (in Portuguese)

generation of heat of hydration. It is also recommended [12] A.M. Neville, Properties of Concrete, 2nd ed., Pini

to make a study of trustworthiness due to uncertainties Publisher, Sao Paulo, 1997, p. 828. (in Portuguese)

in the parameters used. [13] E.F. Faria, Exothermy prediction of concrete hydration

reaction by thermo-chemical and data modeling, M.Sc.

Acknowledgments Dissertation, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de

Janeiro, 2004, p. 145.

Thanks to the team at PECCPost-Graduate [14] NBR 12818: ConcreteDetermination of Thermal

Program in Structures and Civil Construction of Diffusivity, ABNTBrazilian Association of Technical

UNBUniversidadede Brasilia. Standards, Rio de Janeiro,1993. (in Portuguese)

[15] F.P. Incropera, D.P. Dewitt, T.L. Bergman, A.S. Lavine,

References Fundamentals of Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, 6th ed.

LTC, Rio de Janeiro, 2008. (in Portuguese)

[1] Cement and Concrete Terminology, ACI 318 Farmington [16] J. Liu, L. Qiao, P. Li, C. Dai, Laboratory test and

Hills, American Concrete Institute, 2005. numerical simulation of time-dependent thermo

[2] G. Inoue, Preventive Measures to Control Temperature mechanical behavior of the three-gorges dam, Journal of

Induces Cracking in Mass, Technical Bulletin #7, Materials in Civil Engineering 22 (2) (2010) 111-123. (in

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