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SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 21 PROBLEMS

S.21.1 With the spring in position the forces acting on the column in its buckled state are as
shown in Fig. S.21.1.

4P
k

FIGURE S.21.1

Then, from Eq. (21.1)


 
d2
EI 5 4P 2 2 kL 2 x (i)
dx2

The solution of Eq. (i) is

5 A cos x 1 B sin x 1 4P 1 kx 2 L (ii)

where
4P
2 5
EI
When x 5 0, 5 0 which gives

kL 2 4P
A5
4P
Also, when x 5 0, d/dx 5 0 from which

2 k
B5
4P

e399
e400 Solutions Manual

Eq. (ii) then becomes


h i
kL 2 4P cos x 2 ksin x 1 4P 1 kx 2 L
5 (iii)
4P
When x 5 L, 5 , then
h i
kL 2 4Pcos L 2 ksin L 1 4P
5
4P
from which
4P
k5 :
L 2 tan L

S.21.2 Suppose that the buckling load of the column is P. Then from Eq. (21.1) and referring to
Fig. S.21.2,

P
D
L
EI
4
C

x
L
4EI
2

EI L
4

y A
P

FIGURE S.21.2

in AB
 2 
d
EI 5 2P (i)
dx2

and in BC
 2 
d
4EI 5 2P (ii)
dx2
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e401

The solutions of Eqs (i) and (ii) are, respectively

AB 5 A cos x 1 B sin x (iii)


x x
BC 5 C cos 1 D sin (iv)
2 2

where

P
2 5
EI
When x 5 0, AB 5 0 so that, from Eq. (iii), A 5 0. Therefore

AB 5 B sin x (v)

When x 5 L/2, (d/dx)BC 5 0. Then, from Eq. (iv)


 
L
D 5 C tan
4

and
      
x L x
BC 5 C cos 1 tan sin (vi)
2 4 2

When x 5 L/4, AB 5 BC so that, from Eqs (v) and (vi)


     
L L L
B sin 5 C sec cos (vii)
4 4 8

When x 5 L/4, (d/dx)AB 5 (d/dx)BC so that again, from Eqs (v) and (vi)
     
L C L L
B cos 5 sec sin (viii)
4 2 4 8

Dividing Eq. (vii) by Eq. (viii) gives


   
L L
tan tan 52
4 8

or

2tan2 L

 5 2
8
1 2 tan2 L8
e402 Solutions Manual

from which
 
L
tan 5 0:707
8

i.e.
L
5 0:615
8
i.e.
r!
P L
5 0:615
EI 8

so that
24:2EI
P5 :
L2

S.21.3 The compressive load P will cause the column to be displaced from its initial curved
position to that shown in Fig. S.21.3.

L
0

y
P

FIGURE S.21.3

From Eq. (21.1) and noting that the bending moment at any point in the column is
proportional to the change in curvature produced
   2 
d2 d 0
EI 2
2 EI 5 2P (i)
dx dx2
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e403

But
 
4x
0 5 a 2 L 2 x
L

Then

d2 0 28a
5 2
dx 2 L

and Eq. (i) becomes


 
d2 P 2 8a
1 5 2 (ii)
dx 2 EI L

The solution of Eq. (ii) is

8a
5 A cos x 1 B sin x 2 (iii)
L2

where

P
2 5
EI

When x 5 0, 5 0 so that

8a
A5
L2

Also, when x 5 L/2, (d/dx) 5 0 i.e.


L
8a tan
B5 2
L2

Eq. (iii) then becomes


   
8a L
5 cos x 1 tan sin x 2 1 (iv)
L2 2

The maximum bending moment occurs when is a maximum at x 5 L/2,


i.e.

Mmax 5 2 Pmax
e404 Solutions Manual

Therefore, from Eq. (iv)




2 8aP sec L
2 21
Mmax 5 :
L2

S.21.4 The solution may be obtained directly from Eq. (21.40). Then
8 2 3  9
 < d =
P 1
max 5 1 1 4 5  23 
dt : 12 P d t ;
PCR 8dt

i.e.
     
P 1 4
max 5 11
dt 1 2 d

S.21.5 Under the action of the compressive load P the column will be displaced to the position
shown in Fig. S.21.5.


o
P P
x

L/2 L/2

FIGURE S.21.5

The bending moment at any section of the column is proportional to the change in
curvature at that section (see Eqs (13.2) and (13.3)). Then

d2 d2 0
EI 2
 EI 2 5 2P (i)
dx dx
In this case, since each half of the column is straight before the application of P,
d20/dx2 5 0 and Eq. (i) reduces to

d2
EI 5 2P (ii)
dx2
The solution of Eq. (ii) is

5 C1 cos x 1 C2 sin x (iii)


Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e405

in which

2 5 P=EI:

When x 5 0, 5 0 so that C1 5 0 and Eq. (iii) becomes

5 C2 sin x (iv)

The slope of the column at sections immediately either side of its mid-point in its unloaded
state is 2/L. This must be the slope of the column in its loaded state since a change in slope
over zero distance would require an infinite bending moment. Therefore, from Eq. (iv)
d 2 L
5 5 C2 cos
dx L 2
which gives
2
C2 5 :
L cosL=2

Then

2
5 sin x (v)
L cosL=2

The maximum bending moment will occur when is a maximum, that is at the mid-point
of the column. Then
2 2P L 2 2P p p L
Mmax 5 2Pmax 5 tan 5 EI=Ptan P=EI
L 2 L 2

S.21.6 Referring to Fig. S.21.6 the bending moment at any section of the column is given by

wLx wx2
M 5 2Pe 1 1 
2 2

y
w


e x e
P P
wL wL
2 2
L

FIGURE S.21.6
e406 Solutions Manual

or
w 2
M 5 2 Pe 1 2 x 2 Lx (i)
2

Then, substituting for M in Eq. (13.3)

d2 w
EI 2
1 P 5 2 Pe 2 x2  Lx
dx 2
or

d2 w2 2
2
1 2 5 22 e 2 x 2 Lx (ii)
dx 2P

where 2 5 P/EI. The solution of Eq. (ii) is


w w
5 C1 cos x 1 C2 sin x 2 e 1 Lx 2 x2 1 2 (iii)
2P P

When x 5 0, 5 0 so that C1 5 e 2 (w/2P). Also, when x 5 L/2, d/dx 5 0 which gives


 
L w L
C2 5 C1 tan 5 e2 2 tan
2 P 2

Eq. (iii) then becomes


  
w cos x 2 L=2 w
5 e2 2 21 1 Lx 2 x2 (iv)
P cosL=2 2P

The maximum bending moment will occur at the mid-point of the column where x 5 L/2
and 5 max. From Eq. (iv)
  
EIw sec L wL2
max 5 e 2 2 21 1
P 2 8P

Then, from Eq. (i)

wL2
Mmax 5 2Pe 2 Pmax 2
8
which gives
 
w L wL2
Mmax 5 2 Pe 2 2 sec  2 (v)
2
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e407

For the maximum bending moment to be as small as possible the bending moment at the
ends of the column must be numerically equal to the bending moment at the mid-point.
Then
 
w L w
2Pe 2 Pe 2 2 sec 2 2 50
2

from which

w L
e5 tan2 (vi)
P2 4

From Eq. (vi) the end moment is


  
w 2 L wL2 tanL=4 tanL=4
Pe 5 2 tan 5
4 16 L=4 L=4

When P-0, tan(L/4)-(L/4) and the end moment becomes wL2/16.

S.21.7 The deflected shape of each of the members AB and BC is shown in Fig. S.21.7.

a
y

MB
C P
P
x
B

MB y1

1
x1
b

FIGURE S.21.7

For the member AB and from Eq. (13.3)

d2 1
EI 5 2 MB
dx1 2
e408 Solutions Manual

Then

d1
EI 5 2 M B x1 1 C 1
dx1

When x1 5 b, d1/dx1 5 0 so that C1 5 MBb and

d1
EI 5 2 MB x1 2 b (i)
dx1

At B when x1 5 0 Eq. (i) gives

d1 MB b
5 (ii)
dx1 EI

In the member BC Eq. (13.3) gives

d2
EI 5 2 P 1 MB
dx2

or

d2 MB
1 2 5 (iii)
dx2 EI

where 2 5 P/EI. The solution of Eq. (iii) is

MB
5 C2 cos x 1 C3 sin x 1 (iv)
P

When x 5 0, 5 0 so that C2 5 2MB/P. Also, when x 5 a/2, dv/dx 5 0 which gives

a MB a
C3 5 C2 tan 52 tan
2 P 2

Eq. (iv) then becomes

MB  a 
52 cos x 1 tan sin x 2 1
P 2

Then

d MB  a 
52 2sin x 1 tan cos x
dx P 2
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e409

At B when x 5 0,
dv MB a
52 tan (v)
dx P 2
Since dv1/dx1 5 dv/dx at B then, from Eqs (ii) and (v)
b a
5 2 tan
EI P 2
Rearranging
a 21  a a
5 tan
2 2 b 2

S.21.8 a. The Euler buckling load for a pin-ended column is given by Eq. (21.5). The second
moment of area of a circular section column is D4/64 which, in this case, is given by
I 5 3 12.54/64 5 1198.4 mm4
The area of cross section is

12:52
A53 5 122:72 mm2
4
i.
1198:4
P 5 2 3 200 000 3
5002

i.e

P 5 9462:2 N

Therefore the test result conforms to the Euler theory.


ii.
1198:4
P 5 2 3 200 000 3
2002

i.e.

P 5 59 137:5 N

Therefore the test result does not conform to the Euler theory.
b. From Eq. (21.27) and considering the first test result
122:72s
9800 5  
kL2
11
1198:4
122:72
e410 Solutions Manual

which simplifies to

79:86 1 2:05 3 106 k 5 s

Similarly, from the second test result

215:12 1 0:88 3 106 k 5 s

Solving gives

k 5 1:16 3 1024 ; s 5 317:2 N=mm2 :

S.21.9 The second moment of area of the column is given by


h  4 i
D4 2 7D
8
I5 5 0:0203D4
64

The area of cross section is given by


h  2 i
D2 2 7D
8
A5 5 0:1841D2
4
Then

0:0203D4
r2 5 5 0:11D2
0:1841D2

Substituting in Eq. (21.27)

0:1841D2
300 3 3 3 103 5 h  1 2:5 3 103 2 i
1 1 7500 0:11D2

which simplifies to

D4 2 14:85 3 103 D2 2 0:125 3 103 5 0

Solving

D 5 122 mm

Say

D 5 128 mm; t 5 8 mm:


Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e411

S.21.10 In Eq. (21.27) SA 5 70 kN. Also the area of the cross section of the column is


A5 322 2 252 5 313:4 mm2
4

and its second moment of area is


I5 324 2 254 5 32297:1 mm4
64

The radius of gyration of the column cross section is then


p
r5 32297:1=313:4 5 10:15 mm

The equivalent length, Le, of the column is equal to 0.5 3 2.5 3 103 5 1250 mm. Now
substituting the above in Eq. (21.27)

70 3 103
24:1 3 103 5
1 1 k1250=10:152

which gives

k 5 0:000126

For a column with pinned ends Le is equal to the actual length of the column which in this
case is 1500 mm. Therefore, from Eq. (21.27) the crippling load is

70 3 103
P5 5 18700 N:
1 1 0:0001261500=10:152

or

P 5 18:7 kN

S.21.11 The column will buckle about an axis along the line of symmetry through the web (see
Section 21.4). The second moment of area of the column cross section about this axis is

10 3 1503 230 3 83
I 523 1 5 5:6 3 106 mm4
12 12

The area of the cross section is

A 5 2 3 150 3 10 1 230 3 8 5 4840 mm2


e412 Solutions Manual

The radius of gyration of the cross section is then


q
r 5 5:6 3 106 =4840 5 34:0 mm

The equivalent length, Le, of the column is 0.5 3 6 3 103 5 3000 mm. Then, from
Eq. (21.25)

2 3 200000
CR 5 5 253:7 N=mm2
3000=34:02

The yield stress of the material of the column is given as 300 N/mm2. Then, substituting
these values in Eq. (21.46) gives

5 168:1 N=mm2

Applying a factor of safety of 2 the safe working load is then

168:1 3 4840 3 1023


Psafe 5 5 406:8 kN
2

S.21.12 The second moment of area about the axis of symmetry parallel to the flanges of the
composite section is

Ix 5 2 3 38740 5 77480 cm4

and about the axis of symmetry parallel to the webs of the section

Iy 5 212524 1 201:2 3 192 5 170314 cm4

The column will therefore buckle about the x axis.


The corresponding radius of gyration is then given by
p
r 5 77480=2 3 201:2 5 13:88 cm

0:5 3 12 3 103
The slenderness ratio 5 5 43:2
13:88 3 10
and

2 3 200000
CR 5 5 1058 N=mm2 Eq: 21:25
43:22

The yield stress in compression of the material of the column is 250 N/mm2. Substituting
these values in Eq. (21.46) gives

5 215:1 N=mm2
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e413

The maximum allowable load is then, taking the factor of safety as 2

215:1 3 2 3 201:2 3 102 3 1023


Pmax 5 5 4328 kN
2

S.21.13 By inspection and by comparison with S.21.11 the column will buckle about its axis of
symmetry along the web. The second moment of area of the section about this axis is then
 
1:2 3 303
I 5 2 166 1 36:6 3 6:92 1 5 9217 cm4
12

The area of the cross section is

A 5 236:6 1 30 3 1:2 5 145:2 cm2

The radius of gyration of the section is


p
r5 9217=145:2 5 7:97 cm

The effective length of the column is 5 0.5 3 10 3 102 5 500 cm so that its slenderness
ratio is equal to 500/7.97 5 62.8. Then, from Eq. (21.25)

2 3 200000
CR 5 5 513 N=mm2
62:82

The yield stress of the material of the column is 250 N/mm2. Therefore, substituting these
values in Eq. (21.46) gives

5 192:1 N=mm2

The crippling load for the column is then

192:1 3 145:2 3 102


P5 5 2789 kN
103

S.21.14 The column will buckle about an axis parallel to its web. The second moment of area of
the column is then given by

2 3 8 3 1303 184 3 63
I5 1 5 2:93 3 106 mm4
12 12
The area of cross section is

A 5 2 3 130 3 8 1 184 3 6 5 3184 mm2


e414 Solutions Manual

Then

106
r 2 5 2:93 3 5 920:2
3184
so that

r 5 30:3 mm

Then

L 2:5 3 103
5 5 82:5
r 30:3
Also

2 3 200 000
CR 5 see Eq: 21:25
82:52
i.e.

CR 5 290:0 N=mm2

Substituting these values etc. in Eq. (21.46) gives

5 180:9 N=mm2

Then the maximum load the column can withstand is given by

P 5 180:9 3 3184 3 1023 5 576 kN

The Euler buckling load is

PCR 5 290 3 3184 3 1023 5 923:4 kN

Then

P 576
5 5 0:62:
PCR 923:4

S.21.15 The bending moment at any section of the column is given by

M 5 PCR 5 PCR kxL 2 x

Also

d
5 kL 2 2x
dx
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e415

Substituting in Eq. (21.65)


 2 2   a   L2a
PCR k 1 1
U 1V 5 Lx2x dx 1
2 2
Lx2x2 2 dx
2E I1 0 I2 a
  L   
1 PCR k2 L
1 Lx2x dx 2
2 2
L22x2 dx
I1 L2a 2 0

i.e.
    2 3 
PCR k2 I2 L a La4 a5 L2 L2a3 LL2a4 L2a5
U 1V 5 21 2 1 2 1 2
2EI2 I1 3 2 5 3 2 5
  5 
I2 L PCR k2 L3
1 2
I1 30 6

From the principle of the stationary value of the total potential energy

@U 1 V
50
@k

Then, since I2 5 1.6I1 and a 5 0.2L this gives

14:96EI1
PCR 5
L2

Without the reinforcement

2 EI1
PCR 5
L2

The ratio of the two is 14.96/2 5 1.52


Therefore the increase in strength is 52%.
S.21.16 Assume the equation of the deflected centre line of the column is
 
4
5 2 x2
L

in which is the deflection of the ends of the column relative to its centre and the origin
for x is at the centre of the column. The second moment of area varies in accordance with
the relationship
h  x i
I 5 I1 1 2 1:6
L
e416 Solutions Manual

The bending moment at any section of the column is given by


  2 
x
M 5 PCR 2 5 PCR 1 2 4 2
L

Also, from the above


 
d 8
5 2 x
dx L

Substituting in Eq. (21.65)


  L     L
PCR 2 2 L2 24x2 2 64PCR 2 2 2
U 1V 5 dx 2 x dx
EI1 L3 0 L 2 1:6x L4 0

i.e.

0:3803P2CR 2 L 8PCR 2
U 1V 5 2
EI1 3L

From the principle of the stationary value of the total potential energy

@U 1 V 0:7606P2CR L 16PCR
5 2 50
@ EI1 3L

which gives

7:01EI1
PCR 5
L2
For a column of constant thickness and second moment of area I2

2 EI2
PCR 5
L2
For the columns to have the same buckling load

2 EI2 7:01EI1
5
L 2 L2

so that

I2 5 0:7I1
Solutions to Chapter 21 Problems e417

Therefore, since the radii of gyration are the same, A2 5 0.7A1


The weight of the constant thickness column is equal to A2L 5 0.7A1L.
The weight of the tapered column is equal to 3 average thickness 3 L 5 3 0.6A1L so
that the saving in weight is 0.1A1L, i.e.

0:1 A1 L
saving in weight 5 5 0:143
0:7 A1 L

i.e. about 15%.