Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker

Chapter 1

 Training – planned effort by the company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies
o Its goal is to allow employees to master KSAO’s and apply it to day-to-day activities
 Everyone in an organization is affected by training; significant budget are allocated to training.
 Subject Matter Experts (Managers and others) are asked to provide training.
 Why does this corporate emphasis on training exist? Evidence continues to grow, showing that companies
investing more in training produce improved financial results in terms of higher net sales, gross profits per
employee, stock growth and ratio of market to book value.
o However, training doesn’t always lead to an improved bottom line – and thus exist effective and
ineffective training.

TRAINING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES

 Training provides employees with the knowledge and skills to perform more effectively.
o Allows them to meet current job requirements, and prepares them to meet the inevitable changes that
occur in their jobs.
o It is used extensively to help employees understand how they can assist in meeting corporate objectives
(Strategic).
o It requires that effective systems are in place to address the performance issues facing the organization.

TRAINING AS AN OPEN SYSTEM

 Open systems have a dynamic relationship with their environment; closed systems do not.
 General Open Systems Model

System's External Input Process Output
Environment
• Mission •Organizational •Analysis •Knowlege
• Strategy
• Structure
needs •Design •Skills
• Policies •Employee Needs •Development •Attitudes
• Procedures
• Finances •Budget •Implementation •Motivation
• Resources
• People
•Equipment •Evaluation •Job Performance
• Products •Staff •(A.D.D.I.E.)
• Technology

o It indicates that an open system depends on the environment for input that supports the system (e.g.
raw materials, capital, employees).
o Environmental inputs are transformed into outputs by the system’s processes (e.g. products and
services)
o The system’s output flow into the environment, and might or might not influence future inputs to the
system.
 In effective systems, the output influences the environment to supply new supportive input to
the system.
 A system must be responsive to the needs and demands of its environment because the
environment provides the input needed for the system to replenish itself.

Carl Johnave M. Monzon, 4PSY3 | 1

e. Analysis Phase  Also known as Training Needs Analysis [TNA]  Begins with the identification of the Organizational Performance Gap [AOP is less than EOP] such as profitability shortfalls. both training and non-training needs are identified. and faulty equipment.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 o Many open systems exist as part of another system and. not just putting a large percentage of employees through some training. i. it becomes a need of the organization. or excessive scrap. logical and strategic manner. Design Phase  Training needs identified in the analysis phase.  There are also future-oriented performance gaps wherein the company is seen as likely to perform poorly in the future unless changes are made  Once a performance gap is identified. 4PSY3 | 2 . o It should be viewed as a set of integrated processes in which organizational and employee needs are analyzed and responded to in a rational.  The training process begins with some type of triggering event (i. are the inputs to the design phase. INPUT •Organizational Analysis PROCESS OUTPUT •Objectives •Resources • Identify • Training •Environment •Operational Analysis Performance Needs •EOP Discrepancy • Nontraining •job position (skills) •Person Analysis Needs •AOP 2. Monzon. the triggering events occurs when a person with authority to take action recognizes that the actual organizational performance [AOP] is less than the expected organizational performance [EOP]) 1. therefore. Once elimination is perceived to be important. in addition to areas of constraint and support. are called subsystems of that larger system. Carl Johnave M. Training needs such as inadequate KSA’s ii. Non-training needs such as motivation issues.  In this process. low levels of customer satisfaction. the cause is identified and evaluated if whether or not its elimination is important. THE TRAINING PROCESS MODEL  An effective training system is a set of processes designed to transform the organizational inputs into outputs that meets organizational needs o Viewing trainings as simply a program or a set of programs is too shortsighted.

Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1  Important process – creation of TRAINING OBJECTIVES (which provides specific direction for what will be trained and how. Even though training objectives are not direct inputs to this phase. instructional methods used to deliver the content. 4PSY3 | 3 . well-organized training plan focused on achieving the training objectives INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT • Determine factors that • Instructional Strategy • Instructional Manual facilitate • Instructional Equipment • Alternative method of • Trainee and Trainer instruction Manual • Facilitates Carl Johnave M. and include the alternative instructional methods and the information relating to learning facilitation and transfer. and combination of methods and elements used in the training program.  Inputs into this phase are provided by the design phase. and much more. they influence the program development through their influence on the direct inputs ii. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT • Learning Theory • Develop Training • Determine the • Training Needs Objectives factors that facilitate • Organizational learn and transfer Constraints • Identify alternative method of intruction • Evaluation Objectives 3. timing. the organization of the training content. Outputs are all of the things needed to implement the training program (include the specific content of the training. manuals and so forth. equipment and media. Development Phase  Development is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives as well as obtaining or creating all the things that are needed to implement the training program. alternative methods of instruction. Monzon. as well as specify the employee and organizational outcomes that should be achieved as a result of training and become inputs to the remaining phases of the model.)  These are integrated into a coherent. materials to be used.)  Another part is identifying the factors needed in the training program to facilitate learning and its transfer back to the job. amount of practice required. i.  The instructional strategy consists of the order.

 Trends in training in the near future: o Aligning training with business strategy Carl Johnave M. it is useful to conduct a dry run/pilot).Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 4. but it is a mistake to assume that everything will happen as planned (and thus. their training function also needs to adapt. it does not provide enough information for the program improvement. the job and the organization  Uses the training objectives as the standard  Can also be used to improve training processes  By itself. Implementation Phase  All aspects of the training program come together during this phase. Outcome Evaluation – the evaluation conducted at the end of the training to determine the effects of training on the trainee.e. 4PSY3 | 4 . INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT •Evaluation Objectives •Evaluation Strategy and •Process Measures •Organizational Constraints Design •Content Measures •Design Issues •Reaction •Learning •Behavior •Results TRENDS IN TRAINING  Successful companies in most industries must constantly realign their activities to meet new conditions while remaining true to their mission and strategic direction  Thus. it actually begins during the development phase (since evaluation objectives are outputs of the design phase)  Two types of Evaluation i. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT • Instruction Manual • Dry Run • Actual Training • Instruction Equipment • Pilot Program Implementation • Trainer and Trainee Manual • Facilitates 5. Evaluation Phase  Though the last phase. as companies adapt. outputs) ii. Process Evaluation – determines how well a particular process achieved its objectives (i. Monzon. they can serve as a powerful tool for improving programs. but in combination with process evaluation data.

it is estimated that more than 75% of the workforce needs retraining just to keep up with the changes in their current jobs. and the like. it is only in the last decade that reliable evidence of training’s impact on the bottom line has surface.g.  In general. There will be a fight for graduates from colleges and technical schools. Along with more diversity in terms of gender. and all signs indicate that this will continue (which would require people at all levels in the organization to be able to make day-to-day decisions that support the business strategy.  Baby boomers with the highest knowledge and skill levels will be the ones most likely to leave the workforce. there are increasing demands for these programs to be aligned with business goals rather than focusing on diversity for its own sake. Thus training would be focused on:  Recruiting and selection process (e. better bottom-line results. the workforce is becoming more diverse with respect to age (different values. Increased diversity brings both the opportunity for new ways of approaching business issues ad the challenge of finding ways to integrate these perspectives.  Thus we are seeing more training focused on building bridges between older managers and the younger subordinates and programs for team skills that focus on cooperation and problem solving. ethnicity and so forth. iii. Managing Talent Due to Changing Demographics o Diversity i. Organizations now realize that effective training is a tool of getting better job performance. Monzon. Second. recruiter training. and creating organization-wide adaptability  Worker knowledge is a competitive advantage and training is a strategic tool 2. job design.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 o Managing talent due to demographics o Improving the training function o Quality o Legal Issues 1. First. ii.). iii. ii.  Because of changes in technology. ii. priorities and approaches in terms of work). o Developing the Right Talent i. Suggested that companies will face a severe shortage of all types of labor. as they will have higher levels of retirement income. the business environment over the last decade has been changing rapidly. thus it is now and will continue to be important for most businesses to secure workers with the right skill sets. 4PSY3 | 5 . Aligning Training with Business Strategy o Why is it such a priority? i. behavior-based interview)  Improve retention of knowledge workers  Assess and track job requirements and employee competencies (HRIS Systems)  Development of innovative knowledge delivery systems that increase the speed with which knowledge is obtained and provide an increased breadth of training opportunities Carl Johnave M.

Legal Issues o Equal employment opportunity. Carl Johnave M.) Improved efficiency. affirmative action. Monzon. Evaluation of results to determine what. ii. and the fiercely competitive global economy requires employees at every level who are more knowledgeable. and evaluates the effectiveness of the solutions. 76% lower warranty costs in customer-discovered defects. and demonstrate more competencies than before. o Equity  It is illegal to exclude people from training on the basis of gender.) Reduced costs and improved ability to document quality control processes to their customers. and analysis of what caused the opportunities to exist (Gap Analysis) ii. it will continue to be seen as a cost center. race. rather. 2. 4.  Consumer demands for higher quality products and services. develops and implements solutions. If not. and disabilities (“the protected group”). o Experience trainers know that effective training is structured as a continuous performance improvement process that is integrated with other systems and business strategies. if any. 4. o Quality improvement is a key component of most continuous improvement processes. age. o The training does not stop and start with each program. Training helps educate employees regarding the mission.) Better internal communication. and 7. i. 5. Design and implementation of the solution iv. 3. 3.) i. more committed to quality. 6. since a training program is one of many possible performance improvement solutions. compute-based and other electronic forms of training) iv.g. and allow 36% less bureaucracy within their company structure. further action should be taken. Quality and Continuous Improvement o Training must be seen as an integral part of the organization’s performance improvement system.) Increased customer preference. Six times less likely to experience bankruptcy. 4PSY3 | 6 . providing less valued contributions to the organizations. Identify alternative solutions to the opportunity and selection of most beneficial. Competitive environment demands that organizations continuously upgrade the knowledge of their workforce.) Increased awareness of opportunities for process and quality improvements. identification of performance improvement opportunities. show better judgment. o Common traits of Improvement systems: i. sexual harassment and related legislation have placed legal requirements on businesses regarding specific types of training. and it consequently helps improve training.) Higher productivity.) Improved quality image and market competitiveness. it continuously searches for performance improvement opportunities. strategy and objectives of the organization and how these objectives are translated to each employee’s job behaviors. (Training is an important part of attaining ISO certification and maintaining it. iii. Advantages include 1.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 in another way in which companies are creating more knowledgeable workers more quickly (e.

and be provided with safety equipment. training needs to avoid training that itself is discriminating or harassing.  Some training is ordered by the government to redress problems identified in court proceedings (e.  Trainers must also avoid discussion of the trainee’s performance with other employees.  For those with disabilities. Discrimination = Diversity training.  Employers are also liable for injuries to nonemployees resulting from a poorly or incorrectly trained employee. Carl Johnave M.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1  Employers must make sure that criteria for selecting people into training programs are based on bona fide job requirements. unless undue hardship can be demonstrated.  If members of the protected group can demonstrate that they have been adversely affected because they did not receive training that was provided to those who received those benefits.  In designing training programs to deal with discrimination and harassment.  Thus legal problems in equity falls under the selection process rather than training opportunities.g. (Good-faith efforts of employers). the burden of the proof falls on the employer to demonstrate that its practices re job-related a consistent with business necessity. o Required Training  Some training is required by law. reasonable accommodation means making training facilities and materials readily accessible and useable to those with a disability. sexual harassment = sexual harassment trainings). This means that the training must provide equal opportunities for learning. o Confidentiality  An employee’s performance during and at the conclusion of training is confidential.  For promotions. o Liability for Injury or Illness  Employers are responsible for financial damages resulting from injuries or illness caused by participation in training. handling hazardous materials). the employer is obligated to provide alternative training that develops the same competencies. the employee must be informed that it will be used in that way.g.  Trainees need to be warned of any dangers associated with training. they must receive equal treatment while participating in training. Thus. and not doing so will subject the company to sanctions from the court (e. 4PSY3 | 7 . be it trained in methods of preventing the dangers from occurring.  If training is considered to be related to essential job functions and the disability prevents the person from participating in the training.  Not only do protected groups need equal access to training. practice and feedback. a company can avoid such claims by allowing equal access to training for all jobs in a job classification.  In some cases. it makes good legal sense to provide training. Monzon. in the same manner as other employee information. then. even though training is not legally required. if performance in training is to be used in promotion or salary decisions.

Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN TRAINING  To understand the types of career paths training offers. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND MEANINGS  Learning – a relatively permanent change in cognition (i. Evidence of factual learning exists when the learner can recall or recognize specific blocks of information.  In even smaller businesses. which is used for planning. education or both. Facts are verifiable blocks of information. the greater the breadth of responsibility each person in the training unit will have. many of the HR responsibilities are decentralized out to the line managers.  Another career path for a training and development professional is a member of training and consulting firm.  Strategic knowledge – the highest level of knowledge.  KSA (Knowledge. Each individual is expected to do all (or most) aspects of each activity. and  Procedural knowledge – at a higher level is the person’s understanding about how and when to apply the facts that have been learned. Carl Johnave M. understanding and thinking) that results from experience and that directly influences behavior.  Declarative knowledge – a person’s store of factual information about a subject. it is necessary to understand how the training unit fits in the organization. the HRD activities of employee and management training may not be separated into separate units. procedures.e. 4PSY3 | 8 .  In smaller businesses (100 – 300 employees). principles. Skills. when and why information is used and is useful (Strategic). Instead. o How information is organized for use. thus. Thus learning refers to: o The information we acquire and place into memory (declarative). Monzon. a single individual may be responsible for all training activities. This consists of a person’s awareness of what he knows and the internal rules he has learned for accessing the relevant facts and procedures to be applied toward achieving some goal. they may not have an HRD or training department at all. monitoring and revising goal-directed activity. o Our understanding of how.  The smaller the organization. These people market some core set of knowledge they have acquired through their work experience. into what we already know (procedural). a new hire with little experience but good education in training could start out as a materials designer or a stand-up trainer. depending on her KSA’s  In a medium-sized company (around 1000 employees). and information acquired over time.  Entry level position in a large company’s HRD department are usually at the specialist level. but carried out by the same small group of people under the guidance of the HRD manager. Attitudes) – the three outcomes of learning  Knowledge – is an organized body of facts. It allows trainees to understand the underlying rationale and relationships surrounding potential courses of action so they can apply their factual knowledge appropriately. HR departments may consist of only one or two people who handle the core activities and act as consultants and facilitators for the line managers.

 Training – the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSA’s for current or future jobs. it focuses on more general KSA’s related.  When a person is learning a skill or only recently learned.  Acquired through practice. (some evidence suggest that skills are also influenced by heredity) o Knowledge is the prerequisite for learning skills. o A set of activities.  Competencies – a set of KSA’s that enables a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks.  Thinking about what you are doing slows you down. it is the ability to integrate and use the KSA’s to perform a task successfully. lead to improved job performance.  Automaticity (Higher) – one is able to perform the skill without really thinking about what he/she is doing. which provides opportunity to learn. and thus. o The KSA’s determine what types of training will improve competencies and. Monzon.  Skills – a proficiency at being able to do something rather than just knowing how to do it. thus. which are developed as a result of training and experience. o Moreover. management) create positive or negative feelings about those objects and events. o Result of learning. Management training – also known as Management Development o This changes shifts focus from process to outcome  Education – compared to training.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1  When this type of knowledge is the focus of training/education.  Abilities – general capacities related to performing a set of tasks that are developed over time as a result of heredity and experience. o General capacities to perform a set of tasks developed as a result of training and experience.  Development – the learning of KSA’s. to a person’s job or career. o Motivation – which is reflected in the goals people choose to pursue and the effort they used in achieving those goals – are influenced by how a person feels about things related to the goals. 4PSY3 | 9 . but not specifically tailored. o The competencies required to perform the job are determined through an analysis of the tasks. It is the capacities needed to perform a set of tasks. changing them can change the desirability of the object or event. it is often called “learning how to learn” program.  Training departments – also known as Human Resource Development. the desired outcome of those activities. o Two Levels of Skill Acquisition:  Compilation (Lower) – one needs to think about what he is doing while performing the skill. FOCUS ON SMALL BUSINESS  Small Business – organizations with fewer than 100 employees. o The belief and opinions the person holds about the objects or events (e.g. o Skill level is demonstrated by how well one is able to carry out specific actions.  Attitudes – employee beliefs and opinions that support or inhibit behavior.  Difference with large organizations Carl Johnave M.

and thus uses a more systematic and controlled method of determining what training needs exist o The owner/president can have a close working knowledge of each employee and his/her training needs o Smaller businesses can easily determine what types of training are more or less important to the company’s objective. Monzon.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 o Large companies train greater number of employees that need to be trained. and can design training accordingly. Carl Johnave M. o Small companies can use less costly and formalized methods for evaluating training. 4PSY3 | 10 . o Larger companies may be able to reduce per-person cost of training if common training is needed across the workforce. larger companies require a more rigorous approach to identifying needs since more employees are employed.