Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker

Chapter 1

 Training – planned effort by the company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies
o Its goal is to allow employees to master KSAO’s and apply it to day-to-day activities
 Everyone in an organization is affected by training; significant budget are allocated to training.
 Subject Matter Experts (Managers and others) are asked to provide training.
 Why does this corporate emphasis on training exist? Evidence continues to grow, showing that companies
investing more in training produce improved financial results in terms of higher net sales, gross profits per
employee, stock growth and ratio of market to book value.
o However, training doesn’t always lead to an improved bottom line – and thus exist effective and
ineffective training.

TRAINING SYSTEM AND PROCESSES

 Training provides employees with the knowledge and skills to perform more effectively.
o Allows them to meet current job requirements, and prepares them to meet the inevitable changes that
occur in their jobs.
o It is used extensively to help employees understand how they can assist in meeting corporate objectives
(Strategic).
o It requires that effective systems are in place to address the performance issues facing the organization.

TRAINING AS AN OPEN SYSTEM

 Open systems have a dynamic relationship with their environment; closed systems do not.
 General Open Systems Model

System's External Input Process Output
Environment
• Mission •Organizational •Analysis •Knowlege
• Strategy
• Structure
needs •Design •Skills
• Policies •Employee Needs •Development •Attitudes
• Procedures
• Finances •Budget •Implementation •Motivation
• Resources
• People
•Equipment •Evaluation •Job Performance
• Products •Staff •(A.D.D.I.E.)
• Technology

o It indicates that an open system depends on the environment for input that supports the system (e.g.
raw materials, capital, employees).
o Environmental inputs are transformed into outputs by the system’s processes (e.g. products and
services)
o The system’s output flow into the environment, and might or might not influence future inputs to the
system.
 In effective systems, the output influences the environment to supply new supportive input to
the system.
 A system must be responsive to the needs and demands of its environment because the
environment provides the input needed for the system to replenish itself.

Carl Johnave M. Monzon, 4PSY3 | 1

are called subsystems of that larger system.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 o Many open systems exist as part of another system and.  The training process begins with some type of triggering event (i. i.  In this process. and faulty equipment. Monzon. Non-training needs such as motivation issues. or excessive scrap. both training and non-training needs are identified. are the inputs to the design phase. the triggering events occurs when a person with authority to take action recognizes that the actual organizational performance [AOP] is less than the expected organizational performance [EOP]) 1.  There are also future-oriented performance gaps wherein the company is seen as likely to perform poorly in the future unless changes are made  Once a performance gap is identified. the cause is identified and evaluated if whether or not its elimination is important. not just putting a large percentage of employees through some training. Once elimination is perceived to be important. THE TRAINING PROCESS MODEL  An effective training system is a set of processes designed to transform the organizational inputs into outputs that meets organizational needs o Viewing trainings as simply a program or a set of programs is too shortsighted. INPUT •Organizational Analysis PROCESS OUTPUT •Objectives •Resources • Identify • Training •Environment •Operational Analysis Performance Needs •EOP Discrepancy • Nontraining •job position (skills) •Person Analysis Needs •AOP 2. low levels of customer satisfaction. Carl Johnave M. therefore. Training needs such as inadequate KSA’s ii. o It should be viewed as a set of integrated processes in which organizational and employee needs are analyzed and responded to in a rational. Design Phase  Training needs identified in the analysis phase. it becomes a need of the organization. logical and strategic manner. Analysis Phase  Also known as Training Needs Analysis [TNA]  Begins with the identification of the Organizational Performance Gap [AOP is less than EOP] such as profitability shortfalls.e. 4PSY3 | 2 . in addition to areas of constraint and support.

)  These are integrated into a coherent. well-organized training plan focused on achieving the training objectives INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT • Determine factors that • Instructional Strategy • Instructional Manual facilitate • Instructional Equipment • Alternative method of • Trainee and Trainer instruction Manual • Facilitates Carl Johnave M. alternative methods of instruction. they influence the program development through their influence on the direct inputs ii. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT • Learning Theory • Develop Training • Determine the • Training Needs Objectives factors that facilitate • Organizational learn and transfer Constraints • Identify alternative method of intruction • Evaluation Objectives 3. instructional methods used to deliver the content. materials to be used. and much more.)  Another part is identifying the factors needed in the training program to facilitate learning and its transfer back to the job. the organization of the training content.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1  Important process – creation of TRAINING OBJECTIVES (which provides specific direction for what will be trained and how. Even though training objectives are not direct inputs to this phase.  Inputs into this phase are provided by the design phase. equipment and media. Development Phase  Development is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives as well as obtaining or creating all the things that are needed to implement the training program.  The instructional strategy consists of the order. as well as specify the employee and organizational outcomes that should be achieved as a result of training and become inputs to the remaining phases of the model. amount of practice required. manuals and so forth. Monzon. timing. i. Outputs are all of the things needed to implement the training program (include the specific content of the training. 4PSY3 | 3 . and include the alternative instructional methods and the information relating to learning facilitation and transfer. and combination of methods and elements used in the training program.

Monzon. Implementation Phase  All aspects of the training program come together during this phase. their training function also needs to adapt. it is useful to conduct a dry run/pilot). but it is a mistake to assume that everything will happen as planned (and thus. Evaluation Phase  Though the last phase. but in combination with process evaluation data. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT • Instruction Manual • Dry Run • Actual Training • Instruction Equipment • Pilot Program Implementation • Trainer and Trainee Manual • Facilitates 5. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT •Evaluation Objectives •Evaluation Strategy and •Process Measures •Organizational Constraints Design •Content Measures •Design Issues •Reaction •Learning •Behavior •Results TRENDS IN TRAINING  Successful companies in most industries must constantly realign their activities to meet new conditions while remaining true to their mission and strategic direction  Thus. it does not provide enough information for the program improvement. it actually begins during the development phase (since evaluation objectives are outputs of the design phase)  Two types of Evaluation i. the job and the organization  Uses the training objectives as the standard  Can also be used to improve training processes  By itself.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 4. outputs) ii. they can serve as a powerful tool for improving programs. Outcome Evaluation – the evaluation conducted at the end of the training to determine the effects of training on the trainee. as companies adapt. 4PSY3 | 4 .  Trends in training in the near future: o Aligning training with business strategy Carl Johnave M.e. Process Evaluation – determines how well a particular process achieved its objectives (i.

Second.g. Along with more diversity in terms of gender.  Because of changes in technology.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 o Managing talent due to demographics o Improving the training function o Quality o Legal Issues 1. priorities and approaches in terms of work).). Aligning Training with Business Strategy o Why is it such a priority? i. it is only in the last decade that reliable evidence of training’s impact on the bottom line has surface. the workforce is becoming more diverse with respect to age (different values. ii. the business environment over the last decade has been changing rapidly. behavior-based interview)  Improve retention of knowledge workers  Assess and track job requirements and employee competencies (HRIS Systems)  Development of innovative knowledge delivery systems that increase the speed with which knowledge is obtained and provide an increased breadth of training opportunities Carl Johnave M. there are increasing demands for these programs to be aligned with business goals rather than focusing on diversity for its own sake. it is estimated that more than 75% of the workforce needs retraining just to keep up with the changes in their current jobs. recruiter training. thus it is now and will continue to be important for most businesses to secure workers with the right skill sets. Increased diversity brings both the opportunity for new ways of approaching business issues ad the challenge of finding ways to integrate these perspectives. and all signs indicate that this will continue (which would require people at all levels in the organization to be able to make day-to-day decisions that support the business strategy. Suggested that companies will face a severe shortage of all types of labor. ii. and creating organization-wide adaptability  Worker knowledge is a competitive advantage and training is a strategic tool 2. better bottom-line results.  In general. ethnicity and so forth. ii. iii. There will be a fight for graduates from colleges and technical schools. 4PSY3 | 5 . and the like. iii. o Developing the Right Talent i. Thus training would be focused on:  Recruiting and selection process (e.  Thus we are seeing more training focused on building bridges between older managers and the younger subordinates and programs for team skills that focus on cooperation and problem solving.  Baby boomers with the highest knowledge and skill levels will be the ones most likely to leave the workforce. job design. Organizations now realize that effective training is a tool of getting better job performance. First. Monzon. Managing Talent Due to Changing Demographics o Diversity i. as they will have higher levels of retirement income.

g. Competitive environment demands that organizations continuously upgrade the knowledge of their workforce. o Experience trainers know that effective training is structured as a continuous performance improvement process that is integrated with other systems and business strategies. 4PSY3 | 6 .) Reduced costs and improved ability to document quality control processes to their customers. it continuously searches for performance improvement opportunities. affirmative action.) Increased awareness of opportunities for process and quality improvements. age. Design and implementation of the solution iv. o Quality improvement is a key component of most continuous improvement processes. 4. and it consequently helps improve training. develops and implements solutions. o The training does not stop and start with each program. since a training program is one of many possible performance improvement solutions.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 in another way in which companies are creating more knowledgeable workers more quickly (e. show better judgment. it will continue to be seen as a cost center. Monzon. sexual harassment and related legislation have placed legal requirements on businesses regarding specific types of training. identification of performance improvement opportunities. i. 3.) i. 4. more committed to quality. and allow 36% less bureaucracy within their company structure. Carl Johnave M. If not. 5.) Higher productivity. ii. and demonstrate more competencies than before. and evaluates the effectiveness of the solutions. 76% lower warranty costs in customer-discovered defects. Six times less likely to experience bankruptcy. and analysis of what caused the opportunities to exist (Gap Analysis) ii. strategy and objectives of the organization and how these objectives are translated to each employee’s job behaviors.) Improved quality image and market competitiveness. iii. o Common traits of Improvement systems: i. if any. o Equity  It is illegal to exclude people from training on the basis of gender. 2. and the fiercely competitive global economy requires employees at every level who are more knowledgeable. Identify alternative solutions to the opportunity and selection of most beneficial. 3. and disabilities (“the protected group”). compute-based and other electronic forms of training) iv. providing less valued contributions to the organizations. Legal Issues o Equal employment opportunity. Quality and Continuous Improvement o Training must be seen as an integral part of the organization’s performance improvement system.  Consumer demands for higher quality products and services. further action should be taken. Evaluation of results to determine what. race.) Increased customer preference. (Training is an important part of attaining ISO certification and maintaining it. 6. Training helps educate employees regarding the mission.) Better internal communication.) Improved efficiency. and 7. Advantages include 1. rather.

g. Carl Johnave M.  Trainers must also avoid discussion of the trainee’s performance with other employees.  Employers are also liable for injuries to nonemployees resulting from a poorly or incorrectly trained employee.  Trainees need to be warned of any dangers associated with training. a company can avoid such claims by allowing equal access to training for all jobs in a job classification. if performance in training is to be used in promotion or salary decisions. practice and feedback. Discrimination = Diversity training. even though training is not legally required. sexual harassment = sexual harassment trainings). Thus. unless undue hardship can be demonstrated. and be provided with safety equipment. they must receive equal treatment while participating in training.  If training is considered to be related to essential job functions and the disability prevents the person from participating in the training. the employee must be informed that it will be used in that way. o Required Training  Some training is required by law.  Not only do protected groups need equal access to training.  For promotions.  In some cases. o Liability for Injury or Illness  Employers are responsible for financial damages resulting from injuries or illness caused by participation in training.  In designing training programs to deal with discrimination and harassment. and not doing so will subject the company to sanctions from the court (e. (Good-faith efforts of employers). training needs to avoid training that itself is discriminating or harassing. in the same manner as other employee information.  If members of the protected group can demonstrate that they have been adversely affected because they did not receive training that was provided to those who received those benefits. handling hazardous materials). Monzon.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1  Employers must make sure that criteria for selecting people into training programs are based on bona fide job requirements. o Confidentiality  An employee’s performance during and at the conclusion of training is confidential. then. it makes good legal sense to provide training. reasonable accommodation means making training facilities and materials readily accessible and useable to those with a disability.g. 4PSY3 | 7 . the burden of the proof falls on the employer to demonstrate that its practices re job-related a consistent with business necessity. This means that the training must provide equal opportunities for learning.  Thus legal problems in equity falls under the selection process rather than training opportunities.  For those with disabilities. the employer is obligated to provide alternative training that develops the same competencies.  Some training is ordered by the government to redress problems identified in court proceedings (e. be it trained in methods of preventing the dangers from occurring.

a single individual may be responsible for all training activities. Facts are verifiable blocks of information.  Strategic knowledge – the highest level of knowledge.  In smaller businesses (100 – 300 employees). principles. Carl Johnave M. Monzon. depending on her KSA’s  In a medium-sized company (around 1000 employees).  The smaller the organization. it is necessary to understand how the training unit fits in the organization. o How information is organized for use. Skills. the greater the breadth of responsibility each person in the training unit will have. and  Procedural knowledge – at a higher level is the person’s understanding about how and when to apply the facts that have been learned. and information acquired over time. Evidence of factual learning exists when the learner can recall or recognize specific blocks of information.  KSA (Knowledge. Thus learning refers to: o The information we acquire and place into memory (declarative).e. but carried out by the same small group of people under the guidance of the HRD manager.  Entry level position in a large company’s HRD department are usually at the specialist level. the HRD activities of employee and management training may not be separated into separate units.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN TRAINING  To understand the types of career paths training offers. 4PSY3 | 8 . IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND MEANINGS  Learning – a relatively permanent change in cognition (i.  Another career path for a training and development professional is a member of training and consulting firm. thus. when and why information is used and is useful (Strategic). monitoring and revising goal-directed activity. These people market some core set of knowledge they have acquired through their work experience. education or both. Each individual is expected to do all (or most) aspects of each activity. HR departments may consist of only one or two people who handle the core activities and act as consultants and facilitators for the line managers. o Our understanding of how. It allows trainees to understand the underlying rationale and relationships surrounding potential courses of action so they can apply their factual knowledge appropriately. which is used for planning. Attitudes) – the three outcomes of learning  Knowledge – is an organized body of facts. into what we already know (procedural). This consists of a person’s awareness of what he knows and the internal rules he has learned for accessing the relevant facts and procedures to be applied toward achieving some goal.  Declarative knowledge – a person’s store of factual information about a subject. understanding and thinking) that results from experience and that directly influences behavior. a new hire with little experience but good education in training could start out as a materials designer or a stand-up trainer. many of the HR responsibilities are decentralized out to the line managers.  In even smaller businesses. Instead. they may not have an HRD or training department at all. procedures.

changing them can change the desirability of the object or event. which are developed as a result of training and experience. It is the capacities needed to perform a set of tasks. management) create positive or negative feelings about those objects and events.  Skills – a proficiency at being able to do something rather than just knowing how to do it. FOCUS ON SMALL BUSINESS  Small Business – organizations with fewer than 100 employees. it is the ability to integrate and use the KSA’s to perform a task successfully. lead to improved job performance.  Attitudes – employee beliefs and opinions that support or inhibit behavior. o Moreover.  Thinking about what you are doing slows you down. to a person’s job or career.  Training – the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSA’s for current or future jobs. o A set of activities. Management training – also known as Management Development o This changes shifts focus from process to outcome  Education – compared to training.  When a person is learning a skill or only recently learned.g. it focuses on more general KSA’s related. and thus. o Result of learning. o Skill level is demonstrated by how well one is able to carry out specific actions. but not specifically tailored.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1  When this type of knowledge is the focus of training/education. the desired outcome of those activities. o General capacities to perform a set of tasks developed as a result of training and experience.  Acquired through practice.  Development – the learning of KSA’s. o The competencies required to perform the job are determined through an analysis of the tasks.  Competencies – a set of KSA’s that enables a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks.  Abilities – general capacities related to performing a set of tasks that are developed over time as a result of heredity and experience.  Automaticity (Higher) – one is able to perform the skill without really thinking about what he/she is doing. o The KSA’s determine what types of training will improve competencies and. 4PSY3 | 9 .  Difference with large organizations Carl Johnave M. o Two Levels of Skill Acquisition:  Compilation (Lower) – one needs to think about what he is doing while performing the skill. it is often called “learning how to learn” program. Monzon. which provides opportunity to learn. o Motivation – which is reflected in the goals people choose to pursue and the effort they used in achieving those goals – are influenced by how a person feels about things related to the goals. thus. o The belief and opinions the person holds about the objects or events (e.  Training departments – also known as Human Resource Development. (some evidence suggest that skills are also influenced by heredity) o Knowledge is the prerequisite for learning skills.

and can design training accordingly. Monzon.Effective Training Blanchard & Thacker Chapter 1 o Large companies train greater number of employees that need to be trained. o Larger companies may be able to reduce per-person cost of training if common training is needed across the workforce. o Small companies can use less costly and formalized methods for evaluating training. Carl Johnave M. larger companies require a more rigorous approach to identifying needs since more employees are employed. 4PSY3 | 10 . and thus uses a more systematic and controlled method of determining what training needs exist o The owner/president can have a close working knowledge of each employee and his/her training needs o Smaller businesses can easily determine what types of training are more or less important to the company’s objective.

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