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This research aims to examine the performance of a car which takes air as the
working medium. Air car is a car currently being developed which is still in the
R&D stage all over the world. Review on the availability and the impact of the
fossil fuels in the present and future generations led us to design a vehicle which
runs by renewable energy sources. As the world is hard pressed with the energy
and fuel crisis, compounded by pollution of all kinds, any technology that brings
out the solution to this problem is considered as a bounty. In one of such new
technologies, is the development of a new vehicle called as Compressed Air Car,
which does not require any of the known fuels like petrol, diesel, CNG, LPG,
hydrogen etc., this works on compressed air. This replaces all types of till date
known fuels and also permanently solves the problem of pollution, since its
exhaust is clean and cool air. Though some of the renewable energy sources like
solar energy, bio fuels are currently in practice, we focused on pneumatic
technology. Since pneumatic applications are wide all over the world, basic
components and other equipment are easily available and the fabrication is not so
tough. The basic principle involved in this concept is that compressed air is capable
enough to provide sufficient thrust which in turn can propel the car.


1.1. Compressed Air Engine Basics:

A Compressed-air engine is a pneumatic actuator that creates useful work by
compressed air. A compressed-air vehicle is powered by an air engine, using
compressed air, which is stored in a tank. Instead of mixing fuel with air and
burning it in the engine to drive pistons with hot expanding gases, compressed air
vehicles (CAV) use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons.
They have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from
hand held turbines up to several hundred horsepower. For example, the first
mechanically-powered submarine, the 1863 Plongeur, used a compressed air
The laws of physics dictate that uncontained gases will fill any given space. The
easiest way to see this in action is to inflate a balloon. The elastic skin of the
balloon holds the air tightly inside, but the moment you use a pin to create a hole in
the balloon's surface, the air expands outward with so much energy that the balloon
explodes. Compressing a gas into a small space is a way to store energy. When the
gas expands again, that energy is released to do work. That's the basic principle
behind what makes an air car go. Some types rely on pistons and cylinders, others
use turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating
the incoming air, or the engine itself. Some took this a stage further and burned
fuel in the cylinder or turbine, forming a type of internal combustion engine.
One manufacturer claims to have designed an engine that is 90 percent efficient.
Compressed air propulsion may also be incorporated in hybrid systems, e.g.,
battery electric propulsion and fuel tanks to recharge the batteries. This kind of
system is called hybrid-pneumatic electric propulsion. Additionally, regenerative
braking can also be used in conjunction with this system
1.2. History:
(a) The first compressed-air vehicle was devised by Bompas, a patent for a
locomotive being taken out in England in 1828. There were two storage tanks
between the frames, with conventional cylinders and cranks. It is not clear if it was
actually built. (Knight, 1880)

(b) The first recorded compressed-air vehicle in France was built by the Frenchmen
Andraud and Tessie of Motay in 1838. A car ran on a test track at Chaillot on the
9th July 1840, and worked well, but the idea was not pursued further.

(c) In 1848 Barin von Rathlen constructed a vehicle which was reported to have
been driven from Putney to Wandsworth (London) at an average speed of 10 to 12

(d) At the end of 1855, a constructor called Julienne ran some sort of vehicle at
Saint-Denis in France, driven by air at 25 atmospheres (350 psi), for it to be used
in coal mines.

(e) Compressed air locomotives were use for haulage in 1874 while the Simplon
tunnel was being dug. An advantage was that the cold exhaust air aided the
ventilation of the tunnel.
(f) Louis Mkarski built a standard gauge self-contained tramcar which was tested
in February 1876 on the Courbevoie-Etoile Line of the Paris Tramways Nord (TN),
where it much impressed the current president and minister of transport Marchal
de MacMahon. The tramcar was also shown at the exhibition of 1878 as it seemed
to be an ideal transport method, quiet, smooth, without smoke, fire or the
possibility of boiler explosion.

(g) The compressed-air locos were soon withdrawn due to a number of accidents,
possibly caused by icing in the pipes of the brakes, which were also worked by
compressed air.

(h) In Louis Mkarski built a standard gauge self-contained tramcar which was
tested in February 1876 on the Courbevoie-Etoile Line of the Paris Tramways
Nord (TN), where it much impressed the current president and minister of transport
Marchal de MacMahon. The tramcar was also shown at the exhibition of 1878 as
it seemed to be an ideal transport method, quiet, smooth, without smoke, fire or the
possibility of boiler explosion.

1.3. Applications:
The compressed air engine can be used in many vehicles. Some of its applications
to be used as engine for vehicles are:

(a) Mopeds
Jem Stansfield, an English inventor has been able to convert a regular scooter to a
compressed air moped. This has been done by equipping the scooter with a
compressed air engine and air tank.

(b) Buses
MDI makes MultiCATs vehicle that can be used as buses or trucks. RATP has also
already expressed an interest in the compressed-air pollution-free bus.
(c) Locomotives
Compressed air locomotives have been historically used as mining locomotives
and in various areas.

(d) Trams
Various compressed-air-powered trams were trialed, starting in 1876 and has been
successfully implemented in some cases.

(e) Watercraft and aircraft

Currently, no water or air vehicles exist that make use of the air engine.
Historically compressed air engines propelled certain torpedoes.

1.4. Advantages:
The advantages are well publicized since the developers need to make their
machines attractive to investors. Compressed-air vehicles are comparable in many
ways to electric vehicles, but use compressed air to store the energy instead of
batteries. Their potential advantages over other vehicles include:
(a) Much like electrical vehicles, air powered vehicles would ultimately be
powered through the electrical grid, which makes it easier to focus on reducing
pollution from one source, as opposed to the millions of vehicles on the road.

(b) Transportation of the fuel would not be required due to drawing power off the
electrical grid. This presents significant cost benefits. Pollution created during fuel
transportation would be eliminated.

(c) Compressed air technology reduces the cost of vehicle production by about
20%, because there is no need to build a cooling system, fuel tank, Ignition
Systems or silencers.
(d) Air, on its own, is non-flammable.

(e) High torque for minimum volume.

(f) The mechanical design of the engine is simple and robust.

(g) Low manufacture and maintenance costs as well as easy maintenance.

(h) Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than

(i) Compressed-air vehicles are unconstrained by the degradation problems

associated with current battery systems.

(j) The tank may be able to be refilled more often and in less time than batteries
can be recharged, with re-fuelling rates comparable to liquid fuels.

(k) Lighter vehicles would mean less abuse on roads. Resulting in longer lasting

(l) The price of fuelling air-powered vehicles will be significantly cheaper than
current fuels.

1.5. Disadvantages:
Like the modern car and most household appliances, the principal disadvantage is
the indirect use of energy. Energy is used to compress air, which - in turn -
provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms
results in loss. For conventional combustion motor cars, the energy is lost when oil
is converted to usable fuel - including drilling, refinement, labour, storage,
eventually transportation to the end-user. For compressed-air cars, energy is lost
when electrical energy is converted to compressed air.

(a) When air expands, as it would in the engine, it cools dramatically (Charles law)
and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger similar to the
Intercooler used for internal combustion engines. The heating is necessary in order
to obtain a significant fraction of the
theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic. While it
performs a similar task to the Intercooler, the temperature difference between the
incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device
gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist
(b) Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional
air compressor may take as long as 4 hours though the specialized equipment at
service stations may fill the tanks in only 3 minutes.

(c) Tanks get very hot when filled rapidly. SCUBA tanks are sometimes immersed
in water to cool them down when they are being filled. That would not be possible
with tanks in a car and thus it would either take a long time to fill the tanks, or they
would have to take less than a full
charge, since heat drives up the pressure.

(d) Early tests have demonstrated the limited storage capacity of the tanks; the only
published test of a vehicle running on compressed air alone was limited to a range
of 7.22 km.

(e) A 2005 study demonstrated that cars running on lithium-ion batteries

outperform both compressed air and fuel cell vehicles more than three-fold at same
speeds. MDI has recently claimed that an air car will be able to travel 140km in
urban driving, and have a range of 80 km with a top speed of 110km/h on
highways, when operating on compressed air alone.


Vaibhav Ahlawat, Compressed Air Engine-Sustained Development(2013) , The

Engine used here is a conventional 4-stroke IC engine except the fact that
mechanically operated valves were replaced by injectors, which were operated by
means of valve actuators and use of articulated connecting rod. The engine
employed a compressed air tank to store compressed air at high pressure. Refueling
of the tank can be done at home or service stations by means of a air compressor. A
main supply line transports the air from the tank further. In this line a key operated
solenoid valve was placed which served as a selective shut off valve to start and
stop the engine. After this the main supply line is delivers compressed air to the
main injectors

This line had a throttle valve arranged downstream which was connected to a
mechanical linkage which in turn was operated by means of accelerator pedal. The
pipe running morph through the distributor had a plurality of holes, which were
equal to the number of cylinders in the engine, along its length

Chih-Yung Huang , Cheng-Kang Hu, Chih-Jie Yu and Cheng-Kuo Sung The

thermodynamic cycle of the single-cylinder piston-type compressed air engine in a
2-stroke operation consists of four processes: intake, expansion, discharge, and
compression. At the beginning of the intake process, the intake valve opens
immediately, and the exhaust valve stays closed while the piston moves from the
top dead center (TDC) toward the bottom dead center (BDC). During this process,
the incoming compressed air pushes the piston downward, producing the power
stroke. The intake valve closes before the piston reaches the BDC to reduce the air
consumption, and thus changing the process from a constant pressure expansion to
an isentropic expansion. The downward movement of piston produces work while
the compressed air feeds into the cylinder during the intake process, and even after
the intake valve closes during the isentropic expansion process. At the start of the
exhaust process, the exhaust valve opens immediately while the intake valve
remains closed. The piston moves from the BDC toward the TDC to discharge the
compressed air from inside the cylinder. The cylinder pressure during the exhaust
process is always greater than the ambient pressure to facilitate discharging. If the
exhaust valve closes before the piston reaches the TDC, it adds an isentropic
compression process to the cycle. The isentropic compression requires work to
compress the air in the cylinder, and therefore, reduces the total work output of the
whole engine cycle. To increase the work output, the isentropic compression can be
removed by closing the exhaust valve after the piston reaches the TDC. These four
processes are ideal for the thermodynamic cycle, and the opening and closing time
of the valve can be changed to examine the intake or exhaust performance during a
practical operation.

This study presents the power output examination and pressure/temperature

measurements of a piston-type compressed air engine to be installed on vehicles as
a main or auxiliary power system. Results show that the compressed air engine,
which was modified from a commercially available IC engine, can be operated at
an air pressure from 5 to 9 bar and provide 0.96 kW power output and 9.9 Nm
torque. The power output was measured under the situation of a small lift of intake
and exhaust valve which is the consequence of modification from a 4-stroke to a 2-
stroke engine. Although the power output is not as much as that of conventional IC
engines using gasoline fuel, the torque generated from the compressed air engine is
greater than that obtained from an IC engine. The air consumption (flow rate) of
current air engine is low, at approximately 1050 L/min, which limits its power
performance. The overall power performance and torque output could be further
improved by adopting a larger intake and exhaust valve openings. The temperature
inside the engine was monitored during the operation, and low temperatures were
recorded. The cylinder temperature will continue to decrease if using a higher
supply pressure than the pressure applied in current study, causing problems of
lubrication and sealing between the piston and cylinder. The efficiency of the
compressed air operation is approximately 13% at 5 bar supplying air pressure
while the rotation speeds is below 1500 rpm. An approximately 2.25 bar exhaust
air pressure occurs when operating at 9 bar supplying air pressure and 2000 rpm,
showing that the under-expanded compressed air inside the cylinder reduces the
efficiency. An increase of exhaust air pressure is expected at higher operating
pressures or rotation speeds. Therefore, it is necessary to recycle this energy for
practical applications in vehicles. The residual air pressure disposed during the
exhaust process could be reused if additional cylinders are attached (i.e., adopting a
split-cycle design). The exhaust air with a pressure of approximately 2.25 bar can
be expanded with additional cylinders, producing extra work. The concept of a
split-cycle design can improve the energy usage of compressed air, thereby
extending the duration of compressed air engines used in vehicle applications.

Franco Antony, P J Albert, Rimin P R, Design and Development of Pneumatic

Hybrid Vehicle, During this stroke the piston moves from the TDC to BDC. At the
beginning of this stroke the inlet valve is opened and allows the compressed air
stored in the tank to expand inside the cylinder. This moves the piston down as
pressure energy of air gets converted into kinetic energy thus producing a power
stroke. Just before reaching BDC the specially designed cam mechanism closes the
inlet valve and the piston uncovers an exhaust valve through which the expanded
gas escapes to the atmosphere. This reduces the load on the piston by reducing the
amount of air present inside the cylinder during return stroke.
The high pressure compressed air forces the piston towards the BDC. The inlet
valve is opened for the purpose of entry of the compressed air. The exhaust valve
remains closed. This stroke is responsible for power development and hence
termed power stroke. Also expansion is the process undergone for which we can
also term it as expansion stroke. The pressure decreases as the piston reaches BDC.
During this stroke piston moves from BDC to TDC. Initially the piston covers the
exhaust valve and the cam mechanism opens the exhaust valve. The remaining air
trapped inside the cylinder is expelled to the atmosphere through the exhaust valve
and the cycle continuous. At the end of expansion stroke the exhaust valve opens
and inlet valve closes. The air inside the cylinder starts escaping through exhaust
valve. The piston starts moving from BDC to TDC which also guides in expelling
out the air. The exhaust valve closes when the piston reaches TDC. At the end of
the exhaust stroke some air will be trapped inside the clearance volume. The
pneumatic hybrid vehicle is one of the treasures for automobile industry. It
promises a good combination of power sources along with contributing to green
technology. The air hybrids are easy to manufacture and can be easily driven
without any carbon footprints. The compression of air is not much expensive and
we know that fossil fuel availability has been reduced. So for a better tomorrow
pneumatic hybrid has its role. We have made a demonstration vehicle and it has
many drawbacks which can be avoided by installing some automation technique.
Also the air hybrid with electric hybrid can be made which again reduces the
pollution. Thus for green technology air hybrid is a boon.
Many companies are producing air vehicles presently whose technology can be
implemented for a better hybrid vehicle sothat power boost can be achieved. We
have achieved what could be a major breakthrough in the battle to create greener
and cheaper motoring. We have found a way to adapt a normal petrol (gas)
combustion engine to run on compressed air generated within the vehicle to
give an extra boost to power the motor and considerably reduce the cost of running
a car. The result is a new low-cost pneumatic hybrid vehicle which significantly
cuts emissions of carbon dioxide the so-called greenhouse gas blamed for global
warming cuts fuel consumption by around 30 per cent and offers the driver of a
family car better fuel economy. Existing green hybrid cars such as the Toyota
Prius and the Honda Insight use a petrol engine and braking energy to generate
on-board electricity to give supplementary power to the vehicle. Our vehicle uses
the similar principle. But in this case, we have not entered the scope of the braking
energy which can be done in future. Thus a better green technology for tomorrow
is guaranteed with our project

A.A.Keste, S. B. Vise,A. N. Adik, P. R. Borase, Vehicle Operating on

Compressed Air by Inversion of Slider Crank Mechanism ,Pneumatic cylinders or
air cylinders are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed air to
produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion or cylinders which converts
pneumatic power into mechanical power. Compressed air forces the piston to move
in the desired direction. As the operating fluid is air, leakage from a pneumatic
cylinder will not drip out and contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics
more desirable where cleanliness is a requirement. Because air is expandable
substance, it is dangerous to use pneumatic cylinder at high pressure so they are
limited to 8 bar (gauge) pressure. Consequently they are constructed from lighter
material such as aluminium and brass. Because gas is compressible substance, the
motion of pneumatic cylinder is hard to control precisely. The force exerted by the
compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a double acting cylinder.
These are used particularly when the piston is required to perform the work not
only in the forward movement but also on the return. In principle, the stroke length
is unlimited, although buckling and bending must be considered before we select
particular size of piston diameter, rod length and stroke length.
In a pneumatic system, the working fluid is a gas (mostly air) which is compressed
above atmospheric pressure to impart pressure energy to the molecules. This stored
pressure potential is converted to a suitable mechanical work in an appropriate
controlled sequence using control valves and actuators. Conversion of various
combinations of motions like rotary-rotary, linear-rotary and linear-linear is
possible. The simplicity in design, durability and compact size of pneumatic
systems make them well suited for mobile applications. Pneumatic control system
plays very important role in industrial system owing to the advantages of low cost,
easy maintenance, cleanliness, readily available, and cheap source, etc. A
particularly well suited application for vehicle operating on compressed air is
material handling and for visitors in industry. Compressed air storage energy
(CASE) is a promising method of energy storage, with high efficiency and
environmental friendliness. Compressed air is regarded as fourth utility, after
electricity, natural gas, water and the facilitating production activities in industrial
environment . Unfortunately production of compressed air solely for pneumatic
vehicle is not affordable but in manufacturing industries compressed air is widely
used for many applications such as cooling, drying, actuating and removing metal
chips. In addition, as a form of energy, compressed air represents no fire or
explosion hazards; as the most natural substances, it is clean and safe and regarded
as totally green. The performance of air car is explain in which the importance of
the impact of the fossil fuels in the present and future generations is explained
which led them to design a new vehicle which runs by renewable energy sources.
Compressed air vehicle are more suitable for low speed, short range and flammable
environment .An inventor, JemStansfield, has been able to convert a regular
scooter to a compressed air moped . The moped has top speed of about 18 mph and
could go 7 miles before its air pressure ran out. During literature survey it is
observed that compressed air vehicles has many potential advantages over electric
vehicles which includes no degradation problems of batteries, time required for
refueling the tank, easy disposal of compressed air tank without causing any
pollution as with the batteries .Hence in order to overcome the above stated
problems there is a need of eco-friendly vehicles using compressed air as a
working medium in future. In this work a sincere effort is made to develop Vehicle
operating on compressed air by inversion of slider crank mechanism.


1. Description of Components of Compressed Air Engine:

Various parts used in engine are:

1. Storage Cylinder
2. Stop Valve
3. Pressure Regulator
4. Hose
5. Solenoid Valve
6. Air Filter and Lubricator
7. Adapter Nipple
8. Two Stroke SI Engine
9. Flywheel
10. Gearbox
11. Transmission Shaft
13.Connecting Rod
14.Steering System
15.Braking System
19.Cam and Follower
3.1.1. Storage Cylinder:
In order to use compressed air engine in vehicles for transportation purpose, high
pressure storage cylinder is used to store the compressed air. Therefore, the storage
system must be compact and lightweight. Advanced fiber-reinforced bottles are
comparable to the rechargeable lead-acid battery in terms of energy density and has
longer lifetime. Generally, the cylinder is fitted with stop valve. The valve also
includes a pressure relief device.
3.1.2. Pressure Regulator:

A pressure regulator is used to reduce the high pressure of compressed

air in the storage cylinder to working pressure of the engine and solenoid valve.
Proper selection is critical for a safe and effective transfer of the compressed air
from the supply to the solenoid valve. A two-stage regulator is used since reduction
produces a final delivery pressure showing little effect from changes in cylinder
pressure. Generally, the regulator has built-in pressure gauges; one to show inlet
pressure and the other to show delivery pressure

3.1.3. Stop Valve:
Stop valves are used to shut off or, in some cases, partially shut off the flow of
fluid. Stop valves are controlled by the movement of the valve stem. Stop valves
can be divided into four general categories: globe, gate, butterfly, and ball valves.
Plug valves and needle valves may also be considered stop valves.
3.1.4. Air Filter and Lubricator:
This unit usually is a combination of components that filters the air and adds
lubricants for moving parts in the circuit. Compressed air contains dust, condensed
water, and rust and oil sludge which must be removed to keep moving parts of the
machine working properly. Some of the components of the engine require a small
amount of lubrication to extend their life and maintain torque. The air filter and
then air lubricator are present in supply line of compressed air

3.1.5. Hoses:

A hose is a flexible hollow tube designed to carry fluids from one location to
another. Hoses are also sometimes called pipes (the word pipe usually refers to a
rigid tube, whereas a hose is usually a flexible one), or more generally tubing. The
shape of a hose is usually cylindrical (having a circular cross section).Hose design
is based on a combination of application and performance. Common factors are
Size, Pressure Rating, Weight, Length, Straight hose or Coil hose and Chemical
Compatibility. Hoses are made from one or a combination of many different
materials. Applications mostly use nylon, polyurethane, polyethylene, PVC, or
synthetic or natural rubbers, based on the environment and pressure rating needed.
In recent years, hoses can also be manufactured from special grades of
polyethylene (LDPE and especially LLDPE). Other hose materials
include PTFE (Teflon),stainless steel and other metals.

3.1.6. Solenoid Valve:

A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The

valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-
port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the
outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be
placed together on a manifold.
Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics.
Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good
medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact

3.1.7. Adapter Nipple:

3.1.8. Two Stroke SI Engine:

A two-stroke, or two-cycle, engine is a type of internal combustion engine which
completes a power cycle in only one crankshaft revolution and with two strokes
(up and down movements) of the piston in comparison to a "four-stroke engine",
which uses four strokes. This is accomplished by the end of the combustion stroke
and the beginning of the compression stroke happening simultaneously and
performing the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions at the same time.Two-
stroke engines often provide high power-to-weight ratio, usually in a narrow range
of rotational speeds called the "power band". Compared to 4-stroke engines, they
have a greatly reduced number of moving parts, are more compact and
significantly lighter.

A two-stroke, or two-cycle, engine is a type of internal combustion engine which

completes a power cycle in only one crankshaft revolution and with two strokes
(up and down movements) of the piston in comparison to a "four-stroke engine",
which uses four strokes. This is accomplished by the end of the combustion stroke
and the beginning of the compression stroke happening simultaneously and
performing the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions at the same time.

Two-stroke engines often provide high power-to-weight ratio, usually in a narrow

range of rotational speeds called the "power band". Compared to 4-stroke engines,
they have a greatly reduced number of moving parts, are more compact and
significantly lighter.

Gasoline (spark ignition) versions are particularly useful in lightweight (portable)

applications such as chainsaws and motorcycles. They are used in
diesel compression ignition engines in large and weight insensitive applications,
such as ships, locomotives and electricity generation. The heat transfer from the
engine to the cooling system is less in a two-stroke engine than in a four-stroke.
This adds to the overall engine efficiency. Crankcase compression two-stroke
engines, i.e. the common small gasoline engines, have higher exhaust emissions
than four-stroke engines as their petrol oil lubrication mixture is also burned in the

A mixture of fuel with correct amount of air is exploded in an engine cylinder

which is closed at one end. As a result of this explosion, heat is released and this
heat causes the pressure of the burning gases to increase. This pressure forces a
close fitting piston to move down the cylinder. The movement of piston is
transmitted to a crankshaft by a connecting rod so that the crankshaft rotates and
turns a flywheel connected to it.

Power is taken from the rotating crank shaft to do mechanical work. To obtain
continuous rotation of the crankshaft the explosion has to be repeated continuously.
Before the explosion to take place, the used gases are expelled from the cylinder,
fresh charge of fuel and air are admitted in to the cylinder and the piston moved
back to its starting position. The sequences of events taking place in an engine is
called the working cycle of the engine. The sequence of events taking place inside
the engine are as follows

1. Admission of air or air-fuel mixture inside the engine cylinder ( suction )

2. Compression of the air or air fuel mixture inside the engine (compression)
3. Injection of fuel in compressed air for ignition of the fuel or ignition of air-fuel
mixture by an electric spark using a spark plug to produce thermal power
inside the cylinder (power )
4. Removal of all the burnt gases from the cylinder to receive fresh charge
3.1.9 Flywheel :
A flywheel is an inertial energy-storage device. It absorbs mechanical energy
and serves as a reservoir, storing energy during the period when the supply of
energy is more than the requirement and releases it during the period when the
requirement of energy is more than the supply. The main function of a fly wheel is
to smoothen out variations in the speed of a shaft caused by torque fluctuations. If
the source of the driving torque or load torque is fluctuating in nature, then a
flywheel is usually called for. Many machines have load patterns that cause the
torque time function to vary over the cycle. Internal combustion engines with one
or two cylinders are a typical example. Piston compressors, punch presses, rock
crushers etc. are the other systems that have fly wheel. Flywheel absorbs
mechanical energy by increasing its angular velocity and delivers the stored energy
by decreasing its velocity.The flywheels are further classified into various types


1) Dual mass Flywheel:

A Dual mass flywheel or DMF is a rotating mechanical device that is
used to provide continuous energy (rotational energy) in systems where the energy
source is not continuous, the same way as a conventional flywheel acts, but
damping any violent variation of torque or revolutions theat could cause an
unwanted vibration. The vibration reduction is achieved by accumulating stored
energy in the two flywheel half masses over a period of time but damped by a
series of strong resorts, doing that at a rate that is compatible with the energy
source, and then releasing that energy at a much higher rate over a relatively short
time. The compact dual-mass flywheel also includes the whole clutch, (with the
pressure plate and the friction disc)
2) Rim type Flywheel:

A rim-type flywheel will burst at a much lower rotary speed than a disk-type
wheel of the same weight and diameter. For minimum weight and high energy-
storing capacity, a flywheel may be made of high-strength steel and designed as
a tapered disk, thick at the centre and thin at the rim. In automobile engines the
flywheel serves to smooth out the pulses of energy provided by the combustion in
the cylinders and to provide energy for the compression stroke of the pistons. The
larger the rotational inertia of the flywheel, the smaller the changes in speed
resulting from the intermittent power supply and demand.

In power presses the actual punching, shearing, and forming are done in only a
fraction of the operating cycle. During the longer, nonactive period, the speed of
the flywheel is built up slowly by a comparatively low-powered motor. When the
press is operating, most of the required energy is provided by the flywheel.

3.1.10. Gear box:

A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission

system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster
defines transmission as an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears
and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live
axle .Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear train
to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft (prop shaft), or Cardan
shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used
to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly
because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to
the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong
enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would
in turn increase their inertia.
To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and
driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more universal
joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, and sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint.

The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an engine

which translates reciprocating motion into rotary motion or vice versa. Crank shaft
consists of the shaft parts which revolve in the main bearing, the crank pins to
which the big ends of the connecting rod are connected, the crank webs or cheeks
which connect the crank pins and the shaft parts.

Fig 2.1
Crank shafts can be divided into two types:
1. Crank shaft with a side crank or overhung crank.
2. Crank shaft with a centre crank.
A crank shaft can be made with two side cranks on each end or with two or more
centre cranks. A crank shaft with only one side crank is called a single throw crank
shaft and the one with two side cranks or two centre cranks as a multi throw crank
The overhung crank shaft is used for medium size and large horizontal engines. Its
main advantage is that only two bearings are needed, in either the single crank or
two crank, crank shafts. Misalignment causes most crank shaft failures and this
danger is less in shafts with two bearings than with three or more supports. Hence,
the number of bearings is very important
factor in design. To make the engine lighter and shorter, the number of bearings in
automobiles should be reduced.
For the proper functioning, the crank shaft should fulfill the following conditions:
1. Enough strength to withstand the forces to which it is subjected i.e. the bending
and twisting moments.
2. Enough rigidity to keep the distortion a minimum.
3. Stiffness to minimize. And strength to resist, the stresses due to torsional
vibrations of the shaft.
4. Sufficient mass properly distributed to see that it does not vibrate critically at the
speeds at which it is operated.
5. Sufficient projected areas of crank pins and journals to keep down the bearing
pressure to a value dependent on the lubrication available.
6. Minimum weight, especially in aero engines.

The crank shafts are made much heavier and stronger than necessary from the
strength point of view so as to meet the requirements of rigidity and vibrations.
Therefore, the weight cannot be reduced appreciably by using a material with a
very high strength. The material to be selected will always depend upon the
method of manufacture i.e. cast, forged, or built up. Built up crank shafts are
sometimes used in aero engines where light weight is very important.

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines among other similar mechanisms.

It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight
by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in
the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod.

The piston of an air compressed air is acted upon by the pressure of the expanding
compressed air in the space at the top of the cylinder. This force then acts
downwards through the connecting rod and onto the crankshaft. The connecting
rod is attached to the piston by a swiveling gudgeon pin. This pin is mounted
within the piston: unlike the steam engine, there is no piston rod or crosshead.

The pin itself is of hardened steel and is fixed in the piston, but free to move in the
connecting rod. A few designs use a 'fully floating' design that is loose in both
components. All pins must be prevented from moving sideways and the ends of the
pin digging into the cylinder wall.
Gas sealing is achieved by the use of piston rings. These are a number of narrow
iron rings, fitted loosely into grooves in the piston, just below the crown. The rings
are split at a point in the rim, allowing them to press against the cylinder with a
light spring pressure. Two types of ring are used: the upper rings have solid faces
and provide gas sealing; lower rings have narrow edges and a U-shaped profile, to
act as oil scrapers. There are many proprietary and detail design features associated
with piston rings.

Connecting rod is a part of the engine which is used to transmit the push and pull
from the piston pin to the crank pin. In many cases, its secondary function is to
convey the lubricating oil from the bottom end to the top end i.e. from the crank
pin to the piston pin and then for the splash of jet cooling of piston crown. The
usual form of connecting rod used in engines has an eye at the small end for the
piston pin bearing, a long shank, and a big end opening which is usually split to
take the crankpin bearing shells.

The connecting rods of internal combustion engine are mostly manufactured by

drop forging. The connecting rod should have adequate strength and stiffness with
minimum weight. The materials for connecting rod range from mild or medium
carbon steel to alloy steels.

For connecting rod of low speed horizontal engines, the material may be
sometimes steel castings. For high speed engines, connecting rod may also bemade
up of duralumin and aluminum alloys.

The usual shape of connecting rod is:

(1) Rectangular
(2) Circular
(3) Tubular
(4) I section
(5) H section
In low speed engines, the section is usually circular with flattened sides, or
rectangular, the larger dimension being in the plane of rotation. In high speed
engines, lightness of connecting rod is a major factor. Therefore tubular, I-section
or H-section rods are used.

The length of the connecting rod depends upon the ratio of connecting rod length
and stroke i.e. l/r ratio; on l/r ratio depends the angularity of the connecting rod
with respect to the cylinder centre line. The shorter the length of the connecting rod
l in respect to the crank radius r, the smaller the ratio l/r, and greater the angularity.
This angularity also produces a side thrust of
the piston against the liner. The side thrust and the resulting wear of the liner
decreases with a decrease in the angularity. However, an increase of l/r ratio
increases the overall height of the engine. Due to these factors, the common values
of l/r ratio are 4 to 5.
The stresses in the connecting rod are set up by a combination of forces. The
various forces acting on the connecting rod are:
1. The combined effect of gas pressure on the piston and the inertia of the
reciprocating parts.
2. Friction of the piston rings and of the piston.
3. Inertia of the connecting rod.
4. The friction of the two end bearings i.e. of the piston pin bearing and the crank
pin bearing.


Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc. which allow
a vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car, motorcycle, bicycle) to follow the desired
course. The most conventional steering arrangement is to turn the
front wheels using a handoperated steering wheel which is positioned in front of
the driver, via the steering column, which may contain universal joints (which may
also be part of the collapsible steering column design), to allow it to deviate
somewhat from a straight line. Other arrangements are sometimes found on
different types of vehicles The basic aim of steering is to ensure that the wheels are
pointing in the desired directions. This is typically achieved by a series of linkages,
rods, pivots and gears. One of the fundamental concepts is that of caster angle
each wheel is steered with a pivot point ahead of the wheel; this makes the steering
tend to be self-centering towards the direction of travel.
The steering linkages connecting the steering box and the wheels usually conforms
to a variation of Ackermann steering geometry, to account for the fact that in a
turn, the inner wheel is actually travelling a path of smaller radius than the outer
wheel, so that the degree of toe suitable for driving in a straight path is not suitable
for turns. The angle the wheels make with the vertical plane also influences
steering dynamics (see camber angle) as do the tires.

Steering box of a motor vehicle, the traditional (non-assisted), you may notice that
the system allows you to adjust the braking and steering systems, you can also see
the attachment system to the frame.

Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the steering
wheel turns the pinion gear; the pinion moves the rack, which is a linear gear that
meshes with the pinion, converting circular motion into linear motion along the
transverse axis of the car (side to side motion). This motion applies
steering torque to the swivel pin ball joints that replaced previously
used kingpins of the stub axle of the steered wheels via tie rods and a
short lever arm called the steering arm.


Two types of Brakings were used.The rear wheels have the hydraulic barking
While the front Wheels uses Drum brakes

Drum Brakes:
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that
press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum.

The term drum brake usually means a brake in which shoes press on the inner
surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is usually
called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a
conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake, though such
brakes are relatively rare. A related type called a band brake uses a flexible belt or
"band" wrapping around the outside of a drum.

Rear drum brakes are typically of a leading/trailing design (for non-servo systems),
or primary/secondary (for duo servo systems) the shoes being moved by a single
double-acting hydraulic cylinder and hinged at the same point.[1] In this design, one
of the brake shoes always experiences the self-applying effect, irrespective of
whether the vehicle is moving forwards or backwards.[1] This is particularly useful
on the rear brakes, where the parking brake (handbrake or footbrake) must exert
enough force to stop the vehicle from travelling backwards and hold it on a slope.
Provided the contact area of the brake shoes is large enough, which isn't always the
case, the self-applying effect can securely hold a vehicle when the weight is
transferred to the rear brakes due to the incline of a slope or the reverse direction of
motion. A further advantage of using a single hydraulic cylinder on the rear is that
the opposite pivot may be made in the form of a double-lobed cam that is rotated
by the action of the parking brake system.

Front drum brakes may be of either design in practice, but the twin leading design
is more effective.[1] This design uses two actuating cylinders arranged so that both
shoes use the self-applying characteristic when the vehicle is moving forwards. The
brake shoes pivot at opposite points to each other.[1] This gives the maximum
possible braking when moving forwards, but is not so effective when the vehicle is
traveling in reverse.

The optimum arrangement of twin leading front brakes with leading/trailing brakes
on the rear allows more braking force at the front of the vehicle when it is moving
forwards, with less at the rear. This helps prevent the rear wheels from locking up,
but still provides adequate braking at the rear.[1]

The brake drum itself is frequently made of cast iron, though some vehicles have
used aluminum drums, particularly for front-wheel applications. Aluminum
conducts heat better than cast iron, which improves heat dissipation and reduces
fade. Aluminum drums are also lighter than iron drums, which reduces unsprung
weight. Because aluminum wears more easily than iron, aluminum drums
frequently have an iron or steel liner on the inner surface of the drum, bonded or
riveted to the aluminum outer shell.

Hydraulic Brake:

The most common arrangement of hydraulic brakes for passenger vehicles,

motorcycles, scooters, and mopeds, consists of the following:

Brake pedal or lever

A pushrod (also called an actuating rod)

A master cylinder assembly containing a piston assembly (made up of either

one or two pistons, a return spring, a series of gaskets/ O-rings and a fluid

Reinforced hydraulic lines

Brake caliper assembly usually consisting of one or two hollow aluminum or

chrome-plated steel pistons (called caliper pistons), a set of thermally
conductive brake pads and a rotor (also called a brake disc) or drum attached to
an axle.
The system is usually filled with a glycol-ether based brake fluid (other fluids may
also be used).

At one time, passenger vehicles commonly employed drum brakes on all four
wheels. Later, disc brakes were used for the front and drum brakes for the rear.
However disc brakes have shown better heat dissipation and greater resistance to
'fading' and are therefore generally safer than drum brakes. So four-wheel disc
brakes have become increasingly popular, replacing drums on all but the most
basic vehicles. Many two-wheel vehicle designs, however, continue to employ a
drum brake for the rear wheel.

The following description uses the terminology for and configuration of a simple
disc brake.
In a hydraulic brake system, when the brake pedal is pressed, a pushrod exerts
force on the piston(s) in the master cylinder, causing fluid from the brake fluid
reservoir to flow into a pressure chamber through a compensating port. This results
in an increase in the pressure of the entire hydraulic system, forcing fluid through
the hydraulic lines toward one or more calipers where it acts upon one or two
caliper pistons sealed by one or more seated O-rings (which prevent leakage of the

The brake caliper pistons then apply force to the brake pads, pushing them against
the spinning rotor, and the friction between the pads and the rotor causes a
braking torque to be generated, slowing the vehicle. Heat generated by this friction
is either dissipated through vents and channels in the rotor or is conducted through
the pads, which are made of specialized heat-tolerant materials such
as kevlar orsintered glass.

Subsequent release of the brake pedal/lever allows the spring(s) in the master
cylinder assembly to return the master piston(s) back into position. This action first
relieves the hydraulic pressure on the caliper, then applies suction to the brake
piston in the caliper assembly, moving it back into its housing and allowing the
brake pads to release the rotor.

The hydraulic braking system is designed as a closed system: unless there is a leak
in the system, none of the brake fluid enters or leaves it, nor does the fluid get
consumed through use.

The vacuum booster or vacuum servo is used in most modern hydraulic brake
systems which contain four wheels. The vacuum booster is attached between the
master cylinder and the brake pedal and multiplies the braking force applied by the
driver. These units consist of a hollow housing with a movable
rubber diaphragm across the center, creating two chambers. When attached to the
low-pressure portion of the throttle body or intake manifold of the engine, the
pressure in both chambers of the unit is lowered. The equilibrium created by the
low pressure in both chambers keeps the diaphragm from moving until the brake
pedal is depressed. A return spring keeps the diaphragm in the starting position
until the brake pedal is applied. When the brake pedal is applied, the movement
opens an air valve which lets in atmospheric pressure air to one chamber of the
booster. Since the pressure becomes higher in one chamber, the diaphragm moves
toward the lower pressure chamber with a force created by the area of the
diaphragm and the differential pressure. This force, in addition to the driver's foot
force, pushes on the master cylinder piston. A relatively small diameter booster
unit is required; for a very conservative 50% manifold vacuum, an assisting force
of about 1500 N (200n) is produced by a 20 cm diaphragm with an area of 0.03
square meters. The diaphragm will stop moving when the forces on both sides of
the chamber reach equilibrium. This can be caused by either the air valve closing
(due to the pedal apply stopping) or if "run out" is reached. Run out occurs when
the pressure in one chamber reaches atmospheric pressure and no additional force
can be generated by the now stagnant differential pressure. After the run out point
is reached, only the driver's foot force can be used to further apply the master
cylinder piston.

The fluid pressure from the master cylinder travels through a pair of steel brake
tubes to a pressure differential valve, sometimes referred to as a "brake failure
valve", which performs two functions: it equalizes pressure between the two
systems, and it provides a warning if one system loses pressure. The pressure
differential valve has two chambers (to which the hydraulic lines attach) with a
piston between them. When the pressure in either line is balanced, the piston does
not move. If the pressure on one side is lost, the pressure from the other side moves
the piston. When the piston makes contact with a simple electrical probe in the
center of the unit, a circuit is completed, and the operator is warned of a failure in
the brake system.

From the pressure differential valve, brake tubing carries the pressure to the brake
units at the wheels. Since the wheels do not maintain a fixed relation to the
automobile, it is necessary to use hydraulic brake hose from the end of the steel
line at the vehicle frame to the caliper at the wheel. Allowing steel brake tubing to
flex invites metal fatigue and, ultimately, brake failure. A common upgrade is to
replace the standard rubber hoses with a set which are externally reinforced with
braided stainless-steel wires; these have negligible expansion under pressure and
can give a firmer feel to the brake pedal with less pedal travel for a given braking

The term 'power hydraulic brakes' can also refer to systems operating on very
different principles where an engine-driven pump maintains continual hydraulic
pressure in a central accumulator. The driver's brake pedal simply controls a valve
to bleed pressure into the brake units at the wheels, rather than actually creating the
pressure in a master cylinder by depressing a piston. This form of brake is
analogous to an air brake system but with hydraulic fluid as the working medium
rather than air. However on an air brake air is vented from the system when the
brakes are released and the reserve of compressed air must be replenished. On a
power hydraulic brake system fluid at low pressure is returned from the brake units
at the wheels to the engine-driven pump as a the brakes are released, so the central
pressure accumulator is almost instantly re-pressurised. This makes the power
hydraulic system highly suitable for vehicles that must frequently stop and start
(such as buses in cities). The continually circulating fluid also removes problems
with freezing parts and collected water vapour that can afflict air systems in cold
climates. The Routemaster bus is a well-known application of power hydraulic
brakes and the successive generations of Citroen cars with hydropneumatic
suspension also used fully powered hydraulic brakes rather than conventional
automotive brake systems.

3.1.16. CHASSIS:

A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object in its

construction and use. It is analogous to an animal's skeleton. An example of a
chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame (on which the
body is mounted). If the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and
sometimes even the driver's seat, are included then the assembly is described as
a rolling chassis.
functions of the chassis frame:

1. To carry load of the passengers or goods carried in the body.

2. To support the load of the body, engine, gear box etc.,

3. To withstand the forces caused due to the sudden braking or


4. To withstand the stresses caused due to the bad road condition.

5. To withstand centrifugal force while cornering


Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock

absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative
motion between the two.[1] Suspension systems serve a dual purpose
contributing to the vehicle's roadholding/handling and braking for good active
safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and a ride
quality reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and
vibrations,etc. [2] These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions
involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep
the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the
road or ground forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of
the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage
from damage and wear
Damping is the control of motion or oscillation, as seen with the use of hydraulic
gates and valves in a vehicle's shock absorber. This may also vary, intentionally or
unintentionally. Like spring rate, the optimal damping for comfort may be less than
for control.

Damping controls the travel speed and resistance of the vehicle's suspension. An
undamped car will oscillate up and down. With proper damping levels, the car will
settle back to a normal state in a minimal amount of time. Most damping in modern
vehicles can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the resistance to fluid flow in
the shock absorber.


In automobiles and other wheeled vehicles, the differential allows the outer drive
wheel to rotate faster than the inner drive wheel during a turn. This is necessary
when the vehicle turns, making the wheel that is traveling around the outside of the
turning curve roll farther and faster than the other. The average of the rotational
speed of the two driving wheels equals the input rotational speed of the drive shaft.
An increase in the speed of one wheel is balanced by a decrease in the speed of the
When used in this way, a differential couples the input shaft (or prop shaft) to
the Pinion, which in turn runs on the Crown wheel of the differential. This also works
as reduction gearing to give the ratio. On rear wheel drive vehicles the differential
may connect to half-shafts inside an axle casing or drive shafts that connect to the
rear driving wheels. Front wheel drive vehicles tend to have the pinion on the end of
the main-shaft of the gearbox and the differential is enclosed in the same casing as
the gearbox. They have individual drive-shafts to each wheel. Older 4x4 vehicles
and tractors usually have a solid front axle, the modern way can be a separate
differential and drive shaft arrangement for the front.

A differential consists of one input, the drive shaft, and two outputs which are the two
drive wheels, however the rotation of the drive wheels are coupled by their
connection to the roadway. Under normal conditions, with small tyre slip, the ratio of
the speeds of the two driving wheels is defined by the ratio of the radii of the paths
around which the two wheels are rolling, which in turn is determined by the track-
width of the vehicle (the distance between the driving wheels) and the radius of the


A cam is a rotating machine element which gives reciprocating or oscillating

motions to another element known as follower. Cams are also used to transform
rotary motion into a translating or oscillating motion. The cam and the follower
have a line contact and constitute a higher pair. The cams are usually rotated at
uniform speed by a shaft, but the follower motion is predetermined and will be
according to the shape of the cam. The cam and the follower is one of the simplest
as well as one of the most important mechanisms found in modern machinery
today. The requirements which are imposed on cams vary from machine to
machine because the requirements depend not only on the speed of the cam, but
also on the kind of machine in which they are being used. In certain kind of
wrapping machines, for example, the forces imposed on the material to be wrapped
should be kept as low as possible, but it doesnt matter if these forces are applied
suddenly, whereas in other machines it is very important for the proper
performance of the machinery that the variation of forces is smooth and gradual.


Several key constraints are considered regarding the existing two stroke engine for
characterizing the conversion of a two stroke engine into a compressed air engine.
The first one is that the base technology is needed to be economically available.
Secondly, the final system should not deteriorate the ability of the two stroke
engine to operate in hostile conditions. The third constraint is that the simplicity of
the existing two stroke engine should not be sacrificed for the attainment of the
goal. Fourthly, the part of the energy consumed by the injection system of the
compressed air engine should be comparable to the existing two stroke engine.
Last but the most important compulsion is that the kit must be inexpensive to
install, with commonly available tools and adequate expertise.


The two stroke engines studied for the conversion into compressed air engine are:
spark ignition engine and compression ignition engine. The compression ignition
(CI) engine is based on diesel cycle which uses diesel oil as fuel due to lower self-
ignition temperature. A high pressure fuel pump and injector is required to inject
the fuel into the chamber. For direct injection diesel engines with a displacement of
0.5 Lt. per cylinder, the compression ratio is approximately 18: 1 [3]. It has low
speed (RPM) due to its heavy weight.

The spark ignition (SI) engine is based on otto cycle which uses gasoline as fuel
due to high self-ignition temperature. The fuel and air mixture as a gaseous mixture
is introduced in the combustion chamber during the suction stroke. A carburetor is
used to mix the fuel and air mixture in desired ratio. It has the compression ratio of
10 [3]. It has high speed (RPM) due to its light weight.

The spark ignition engine is found to be more suitable because it inherits several
structural features which offer high degree of customizability and tuning. It is
much easier to mount and dismount the components like spark plug, carburetor and
flywheel form the engine. The low weight of the moving parts offer less resistance,
thus an instant torque is obtained even at low pressure of injected air.


A. Cylinder Head

Instead of designing and casting a new cylinder head for the purpose
of the injecting compressed air into the combustion chamber, the existing cylinder
head could be applied to this purpose with minimum modifications. The spark plug
is seated at the top of cylinder head of the engine. In general, a spark plug of two
stroke SI engine has an isometric screw thread profile: M14x1.25 or M18x1.5 [4].
The spark plug is dismounted and the internal threads present on the cylinder head
are machined until it is completely removed. Thereafter, the plain cylindrical bore
obtained is threaded according to profile of given adapter or reducer nipple. The
adapter nipple connects the engine cylinder to the solenoid valve as shown in the
B. Intake Port

The carburetor does not find any application in the engine running
on compressed air only which is injected at the top of the combustion chamber.
Therefore, it is advantageous to remove the carburetor since it will help to reduce
the weight of the engine. Next to carburetor, a reed valve could be located. Its
removal will eliminate the pressure force applied to piston in opposite direction
during the expansion stroke. Moreover, these modifications will also facilitate the
quick removal of the residual air from the combustion chamber at the end of the
expansion stroke.
B. Flywheel

A steel disc of equivalent weight is attached to a separate fanwheel

using nuts and bolts in the manner as shown in the figure 2. The steel disc and
fanwheel assembly is then mounted on the crankshaft of the engine. This type of
arrangement has an advantage of adding or removing additional weight later
without any modification.

Steel disc and fanwheel assembly



Unlike gasoline or diesel engines, the CAE technology does not use any
form of internal combustion. Compressed air (or other gases or combination of
gases) is used as energy carrier and storage medium. The air is stored at pressure of
around 200bar in compressed air storage cylinders. For energy carrying purpose,
the pressure of the compressed air is reduced to around 10 bar or less using
pressure regulator connected in front of cylinder valve. The air with reduced
pressure is carried by poly-Teflon hose. The hose is then connected to the solenoid
valve using barbed fitting. The air inlet timing and duration is controlled by the
Solenoid valve. A small magnet is attached on the flywheel and a sensor is fitted
very close the flywheel. After each revolution of the flywheel, the sensor gets
activated by the magnetic field of the magnet passing nearby and sends signal to
solenoid valve. The air is fed through an air injector to the engine and flows into
which air expands. The air pushing down on the piston moves the crankshaft,
which gives the vehicle power. The flywheel stores some energy to provide it back
during the upstroke.

The process taking place inside the cylinder could be divided into four stages (in
reference to the figure 5):

A. Stage 1

The compressed air at 10bar or above is injected at TDC by injector at the cylinder
head. The compressed air is injected till 10-15 degree after TDC. The injected air
immediately acquires the passage above the piston.

B. Stage 2

As the cam rotates the signal transmission is discontinued and hence, the solenoid
valve closes, disrupting the flow of air in to the engine. The compressed air in
passage in the cylinder then starts to expand and forces the piston down. The piston
moves the crankshaft which powers the vehicle, reducing the air pressure inside the

C. Stage 3

At about 35 degree before BDC, both the exhaust and transfer ports are exposed to
the chamber having reduced air pressure (still greater than the atmospheric
pressure). The pressure is relieved and chambers pressure becomes equals to the
atmospheric pressure.

D. Stage 4
From 35 degree after BDC, the air remaining in chamber at atmospheric pressure is
compressed by the upward movement of the piston and the cycle is repeated.

Different stages in CAE working cycle.


Pro-e design:



1. Indicated power

Indicated Power = indicated network cycles/sec.

Ip = pimep LA n K/ 60,000 kW


pimep = indicated mean effective pressure (15, 16, 17.20) (bar),

L = Length of stroke (meter)

A = area of piston (m2)

N = speed in revolution per minute

n = no. of power stroke per minute (N for atwo stroke engine)

K = no. of cylinder.

Observations of indicated power are as follows:-

The value of K = 2, L = 0.11, A = 0.00079

ip = PimLANK/60,000kW

=0.5* 100000* 0.11 *0 00079 *450* 2/60000

= 0.165 kW

2. Brake Power

Brake power (bp) =2NT/60000 kW

Where, Length of moment arm should be .06 meter.

Table : Observation of torque
S.No Rpm Load Length Torque
(Avg) (Newton) (m) =(load/2)*length
1 570 7.6 .06 T=7.6*.06/2

2 570 8 .06 T=8*.06/2


3 570 8.4 .06 T=8.4*.06/2


Brake power (bp) =2NT/60000 kW

=2 *3.14* .228* 570/60000

= 0.013 kW

3. Mechanical efficiency

Mechanical Efficiency ()= Braking Power/Indicated Power





Length of the shock absorber (a) = 400mm

Distance to be moved from the fixed point(b) = 125mm


Thickness of the coil = 10mm

Pitch of the coil(p) = 8.5mm

Outer diameter of coil(do) = 53mm

Inner diameter of coil(di) = 33mm

Modulus of rigidity for steel = 0.890x10^5 N/mm2

Mean diameter of spring (D) = 43mm

Number of coils (n) = 12

Travelling length of the shock Absorber = 125mm

To calculate the stiffness of the spring:

q= Gd4/8D3n (N/mm)

Therefore , stiffness of the spring q is

7.38kN/mm or 752.2kg/mm


Material: Steel(modulus of rigidity) G = 41000

Mean diameter of a coil D=62mm

Diameter of wire d = 8mm

Total no of coils n1= 18

Height h = 220mm

Outer diameter of spring coil D0 = D +d =70mm

No of active turns n= 14

Weight of car = 150kgs

Let weight of 1 person = 80Kgs

Weight of bike + persons = 230Kgs

Rear suspension = 65%
65% of 230 = 150Kgs
Considering dynamic loads it will be double 0
W = 300Kgs = 2943N
For single shock absorber weight = w/2= 1471.5N = W

C = spring index = = 7.75 = 8

() = 282.698

Solid length, Ls=n1d=188=144

Free length of spring, Lf = solid length + maximum compression + clearance
between adjustable coils

=+ 0.15 = 144 + 282.698 + 0.15 282.698

= 469.102 mm

Spring rate, K = 5.719

Pitch of coil, P =26

Stresses in helical springs: maximum shear stress induced in the wire = K K =

0.97 = K = 0.97 = 499.519

Buckling of compression springs, = Values of buckling factor KB= 7.5 K = 0.05

(for hinged and spring)

The buckling factor for the hinged end and built-in end springs



diameter of the piston, Dp=56mm

length of the connecting rod, Lc=136mm

diameter of the connecting rod small end, Dc1=19mm

diameter of the connecting rod big end, Dc2=23.5mm

diameter of the crank shaft, Dt=92mm

thickness of the crank shaft, Tt=12mm

thickness of the connecting rod, Tc=18mm

weight of the gudgeon pin, w2=50gm

density of the steel=7.81kg/m3

density of the aluminium=2.60kg/m3

To find the weigth of the piston:

Dp 2hdensity of the steel
W1 4

W1 = 979.2178gm

for aluminum taking 1/3 of density of steel,

W1 = 320gm

W2 = 50gm

To calculate the weight of the connecting rod:

Dc 12Tc
for the bigger end,A1 = 4


Dc 22Tc
for the smaller end,A2= 4

112.5 Tc
for the middle rod,A3= 4




To calculate the weight of the crankshaft:

Dt Ttdensity of the steel2
Wc= 4


Therefore the difference between=(W1+W2+W3)-Wc


which is the excess weight provides the balancing of the engine during the dynamic


The model designed by us is a small scale working model of the compressed air

engine. When scaled to higher level it can be used for driving automobiles

independently or combined (hybrid) with other engines like I.C. engines.

Main advantages of Compressed Air Engine (C.A.E.) are:

1. Zero emission.

2. Use of renewable fuel.

3. Zero fuel cost (the cost is involved only in the compression of air).

But the Compressed Air Engine (C.A.E.) has some disadvantages, which are:

1. Less power output

2. High pressure of compressed air may lead to bursting of storage tank.

3. Probability of air leakage.



This concept can be effectively used in all automotives,including cars, three

wheelers, generator setups, Lorries, heavy machines, buses etc.


More research in this virgin area is needed in designing the engine more
professionally. The air storage is one area, which has to be given additional care
since the existing heavy cylinders are not feasible to be used in automotive
industry. Reinforced Fiberglass rubber bound tanks to be fabricated, which are
light in weight and can store more air for long runs.

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[4] SAE Handbook Parts and Components, SAE Standard J548d, Volume 2, 1990.

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Emissions Solution for both 2- and4-stroke Small Vehicle Engines, SAE, 2001,
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Mechanical Engineering and Design, Tata McGraw Hill, Ed. 3rd.

Wiki Foundation Wikipedia Website.

How Stuff Works Website.

Engineering Hobbyist Website.