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Contents

Page

INTRODUCTION v

STUDY UNIT 1: Introduction to the Curriculum and Outcomes-Based Education 1


1.1 Underpinning documents and policy 1
1.1.1 The Constitution 1
1.1.2 The Curriculum 3
1.1.3 Outcomes-Based Education 5
1.1.3.1 What is OBE? 5
1.1.3.2 Learning Outcomes 6
1.1.3.3 Outcomes-based assessment practices 6
1.1.3.4 Assessment strategies 6
1.1.3.5 Assessment Standards 7
1.1.4 National Curriculum Statements (NCSs) 8
1.2 Application of OBE and NCS principles in Religion Studies: Learning Outcomes 9
STUDY UNIT 2: Introducing the National Policy on Religion and Education 13
2.1 A note on terminology 13
2.2 Core NCS values 14
2.3 Challenges in respect of the Policy 15
2.4 The aims of the Policy 16
2.4.1 Historical background (article 3) 16
2.4.2 How the Constitution informs the National Policy on Religion and Edu-
cation (articles 5, 22, 23, 28 & 70) 17
2.5 The cooperative model (articles 3, 4 & 5) 18
2.6 Implications of Religion Education policy for classroom practice 21
2.6.1 What is taught in Religion Education? (articles 714, 21 & 25)? 21
2.6.2 How is Religion Education taught? (articles 19, 21, 23, 25 & 26) 22
2.6.3 Why is Religion Education in the Curriculum? (articles 5, 7, 14, 18, 19,
21, 26, 31 & 36) 23
2.6.3.1 Moral regeneration (articles 21 & 25) 23
2.6.3.2 Towards an open society (articles 30 & 35) 24
2.6.3.3 Religious diversity (article 21) 24
2.7 Educators, lessons and materials 24
2.7.1 Competency (article 36) 24
2.7.2 Teaching resources (articles 46 & 47) 25
STUDY UNIT 3: Planning for teaching Religion Studies 28
3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Religion Studies 28
3.2.1 Equality of religions 29
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Page

3.2.2 Universal human phenomenon 29


3.2.3 Topical issues in society 29
3.2.4 Research into and across religions 30
3.2.5 Religion Studies principles 30
3.3 Preparing to teach Religion Studies 32
3.3.1 Instilling positive motivation 33
3.3.2 Instilling positive thinking 33
3.4 Designing a teaching plan 33
3.4.1 Purpose 33
3.4.2 Importance of self-reflexivity 35
3.5 Making use of the Learning Programme Guide (LPG) 37
3.5.1 Integration of Learning Outcomes 39
3.5.2 Principles that guide the teaching of Learning Outcomes 40
3.5.3 The three-stage format in LPG development 42
STUDY UNIT 4: Teaching practice 45
4.1 Introduction 45
4.1.1 Religion Studies Learning Outcomes 45
4.3 Applying the ten principles of Religion Studies 47
4.4 How do people from different cultures find meaning in their lives? 50
4.5 How to approach Learning Outcomes 1 and 2 holistically 50
4.6 How to approach Learning Outcomes 3 and 4 holistically 54

FEEDBACK ON TASKS 57
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Introduction

The purpose of this study guide is to explain the policy that underlies the
Religion Studies Curriculum and to clarify its application in the classroom.
It is important that you have an integrated understanding of all aspects of
Religion Studies, including supporting policies and aims, so that your teach-
ing practice stems from a full appreciation of the values and vision of the
subject. This study guide will help you to achieve this, step by step. You are
advised to work through the guide sequentially, ie in the order in which the
explanations and tasks appear in the guide, so that your learning is based
on a clear and logical understanding of the policy material.
All necessary policy documents and other materials are located in Tutorial
Letter 103. These documents should be seen as appendices to this study
guide.
Appendix 1: The National Policy on Religion and Education (2003)
Appendix 2: National Curriculum Statement (Religion Studies) (NCS-RS)
Appendix 3: Learning Programme Guidelines (Religion Studies) (LPG-RS)
Appendix 4: Assessment (Religion Studies)

You should read the sections of the documents when indicated. This will
ensure that you become fully conversant with the Religion Studies discourse.
Each study unit explains the theoretical and historical development of the
concepts in the curriculum, as well as providing assistance with the im-
plementation of the curriculum in the classroom. The guide comprises four
study units. Each study unit concludes with a summative task. You can find
self-assessment sheets for each summative task in the section Feedback
on tasks, from page 64 onwards. Of course, your learning will be greatly
enhanced if you do the task without consulting the self-assessment sheet
until you have finished it!
Each section should take three weeks to complete. Try not to rush through
the sections without fully grasping their tenets.
Enjoy your studies!
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STUDY UNIT 1
1

Introduction to the Curriculum and


Outcomes-Based Education

At the end of study unit 1, you should be able to


outline the theoretical and historical processes of curriculum trans-
formation in South Africa
explain how the values of the Constitution inform the Curriculum
describe the principles of Outcomes-Based Education
apply the theory of OBE and values embedded in the Curriculum to
Religion Studies Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards

1.1 UNDERPINNING DOCUMENTS AND POLICY


This section explains the key concepts and values in Outcomes-Based Educa-
tion (OBE) and the National Curriculum Statements (NCSs). It explores the
development of these ideas and what they mean for teaching and learning
in the Religion Studies classroom.

1.1.1 The Constitution


In order to understand the goals of the Curriculum, it is necessary to focus
initially on the aims of the South African Constitution. Education policy in
South Africa is based on the values and principles of the Constitution, 1996.
Most important for education, the Constitution provides the Bill of Rights
(Chapter 2 of the Constitution), which outlines the rights of all citizens,
ensuring their equality, human dignity and freedom. In terms of section 20
of the Bill of Rights, no citizen may be deprived of citizenship.
The implication for education is that no learner may be denied their educa-
tional rights. These rights pertain to education because the state is compelled
by law to protect and respect the democratic values and principles of equal-
ity and inherent dignity of all learners.
By implication, this includes
the protection of life of all learners (Chapter 2, s 11)
the protection of freedom of religion, belief and opinion of all learners
(Chapter 2, s 15)
2

the protection of freedom of expression of all learners to the extent that


this does not constitute hate speech against individuals, cultures or re-
ligions (Chapter 2, s 16)
the protection of childrens rights to their spiritual, moral and social de-
velopment (Chapter 2, s 28(f)(ii))
the protection of childrens rights irrespective of their culture, religion
and language (Chapter 2, ss 30 & 31)

The Bill of Rights forms the basis of ten fundamental values in the Consti-
tution. These are embedded in the Curriculum and outcomes-based educa-
tion policy. As such, they form the basis of the Critical and Developmental
Outcomes. They are
democracy
social justice and equity
freedom of person, belief and expression
non-racism and non-sexism
human dignity (Ubuntu)
an open society
responsibility and accountability
mutual respect
the rule of law
reconciliation

Stop and read


In order to increase your understanding, you may read Chapter 2 of the Con-
stitution at http://www.info.gov.za/documents/constitution/1996/96cons2.
htm.

The protection of citizenship rights has implications for educators practice


in the classroom because it means that all teaching and learning must be
conducted in an environment of respect and tolerance. The South African
Schools Act 94 of 1996 stipulates that the core curriculum must uphold the
constitutional rights of all citizens. These rights include freedom of con-
science, religion, thought, belief, opinion and freedom from unfair discrimi-
nation on any grounds, including religion in public education institutions
(National Policy on Religion and Education 2003:3). These rights are ensured
by the ten fundamental values that are incorporated into all aspects of the
school experience, including Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards,
extramural activities, the respect shown to all religious festivals, school
uniforms and diets. These values are expressed in the National Policy on
Religion and Education as
respect for equality
respect for diversity
respect for openness
adherence to accountability
social honour
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Stop and read


Read the National Policy on Religion and Education (2003), paragraphs
1114 in appendix 1 (see Tutorial Letter 103/2010 for clarification of the
core values in education)

Task 1.1 Baseline assessment

Using the table below, fill in the centre and right-hand columns.

Core curriculum Problems New approaches


values I have I could try for
experienced implementing values
in applying in the Religion
these values Studies classroom
in the Religion
Studies
classroom

1 Respect for equality

2 Respect for diversity

3 Respect for
openness

5 Adherence to
accountability

6 Social honour

These core values of education, which delineate all teaching and learning
practices, are aimed at recognising and developing the potential of each
learner. In this regard, the South African Schools Act bases all teaching
and learning on the values of inclusivity, environmental and social justice,
taking into account poverty redress and the adherence to equality around
issues of race, gender, language, age and disability.

1.1.2 The Curriculum


In order to understand how the Curriculum develops from the Constitution,
we need to make a study of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes.
4

The South African Education Policy Act 27 of 1996 provides a set of cross-
learning area goals or outcomes based on the Constitutions 10 fundamental
values. These are divided into two categories: Critical Outcomes and De-
velopment Outcomes. Both sets of outcomes originated in the SA Qualifica-
tions Act of 1995 and the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) policy
statement.
The designing of the Curriculum took place between 1996 and 1997. In 1998,
Curriculum 2005 (C2005) was launched by the then Minister of Education,
Professor Sibusiso Bengu. Then, in 2000, former Minister of Education
Kader Asmal commissioned a review of Curriculum 2005. The findings of
the commission were published in 2002 in a report entitled A South African
Curriculum for the twenty-first century report of the review committee
on Curriculum 2005. In the same year, C2005 was revised in the Revised
National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). This document established the RNCS
as policy and the RNCS was implemented in the Foundation Phase in 2004.

Task 1.2 Critical and Developmental Outcomes

Read the Critical and Developmental Outcomes below and then complete
the task that follows.
Apply what you have learnt about values to the task set out above in
Task 1.1.
Analyse the Critical and Developmental Outcomes to identify their
underlying values. Be aware that these outcomes are skills-based, but
these skills cannot be developed without first developing the underly-
ing values.
The Critical Outcomes require learners to be able to
identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and
creative thinking
Value: ____________________________________________________
work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisa-
tion and community
Value: ____________________________________________________
organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and
effectively
Value: ____________________________________________________
collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information
Value: ____________________________________________________
communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills
in various modes
Value: ____________________________________________________
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use science and technology effectively and critically, showing respon-


sibility towards the environment and the health of others
Value: ____________________________________________________
demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems
by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation
Value: ____________________________________________________

The Developmental Outcomes require learners to be able to


reflect on and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively
Value: ____________________________________________________
participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and
global communities
Value: ____________________________________________________
be culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts
Value: ____________________________________________________
explore education and career opportunities
Value: ____________________________________________________
develop entrepreneurial opportunities
Value: ____________________________________________________

We will look at how the principles of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes
are implemented when we look at the Religion Studies Learning Outcomes
and Assessment Standards.
Although, as you will see later, the Curriculum is driven by the integrated
learning of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, values development is
seen to be crucial if learning is to have an ethical basis. This is more sig-
nificant in subjects such as Life Orientation, History and Religion Studies
because these subjects are inherently values-driven.

1.1.3 Outcomes-Based Education


We will now turn to the methodology that gives shape to the Curriculum.
Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) is often mistakenly thought to be syn-
onymous with the Curriculum, whereas OBE is actually the educational
methodology that informs the curriculum.

1.1.3.1 What is OBE?


OBE is a methodology for teaching and learning. Its focus is on both society
and the individual in that its aim is to streamline teaching and learning
according to the needs of society. Taking its directive from society, OBE
gears its teaching and learning towards the specific skills, competencies
6

and values that society most needs for its healthy functioning. The role
of education is to marry the individual needs of learners with those of soci-
ety. Consequently, OBE operates through a process of transparent consensus
between the learner and society.
In a nutshell, Outcomes-Based Education is
outcomes-driven
values-oriented
learner-centred and differentiated according to learner needs and abilities
relevant
the integration of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes
the appropriately balanced use of various teaching, learning and assess-
ment strategies
a principle of authentic assessment that adheres to transparency and
evidence

1.1.3.2 Learning Outcomes


A Learning Outcome is a statement that describes the goal, result or outcome
of the teaching and learning phase. It also articulates the knowledge, skills
and values that learners need to develop in order to complete the phase suc-
cessfully. Learning Outcomes are specific to each subject and learning area.
Learning Outcomes are the bricks and mortar of Outcomes-Based Education.
All Learning Outcomes in the Curriculum are derived from the Critical and
Developmental Outcomes, which are informed by the Constitution. OBE is
a tool utilised by the NCS to achieve the goals of our society, as set out in
the Constitution.
There are three principles of OBE:
Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards are clearly expressed with
specific intentions and goals.
Opportunities for learning must be expanded, adapted and extended to
meet the learning needs of learners.
Both learners and teachers should have high expectations so that poten-
tial can be released.

1.1.3.3 Outcomes-based assessment practices


OBE assessment is based on criterion-referenced assessment, which is fo-
cused on performance and process of assessment and is not comparative
(between learners). In contrast, non-OBE assessment or content assess-
ment evaluates the product, devoid of learning achievement.

1.1.3.4 Assessment strategies


Assessment strategies need to take into account that learners learn in unique
and multiple ways. Assessment strategies must ensure that the diversity
of learning styles are catered for. All forms of assessment should provide a
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range of opportunities for learners to demonstrate knowledge, skills, values


and attitudes contained within the Assessment Standard.
Study the table below to develop your understanding of how assessment
works:

Assessment strategies

Purposes of Methods of Forms of assessment Tools for


assessment assessment assessment

Baseline Self, Discussion Observations


teacher Worksheets
Questionnaires Rubrics
Diagnostic Self, peer, Project/assignment/
teacher, portfolios Performance
parent Presentation (oral or
written) Task lists
Formative Self, peer, Interviews, panel
teacher, discussions/debates Assessment
parent Roleplay; grids
dramatisation; music
Summative Teacher, Demonstration
relevant Investigation/survey
stakeholders Model/construction/
sculpture
Drawings/graphs/
mindmapping
Posters/charts/collages/
painting
Physical activity

1.1.3.5 Assessment Standards


Assessment Standards are the tools used to determine the learners level
of competency. Outcomes are achieved through the levels set in the linked
Assessment Standards. They are vital for teaching and learning because
they enable the educator to decide whether an outcome has been achieved.
Outcomes-Based Assessment determines application of learning using a
variety of assessment strategies, ie diagnostic, formative and summative.
Each Learning Outcome is made up of several Assessment Standards. As-
sessment Standards provide the knowledge, skills and values required to
achieve the Learning Outcomes for the subject. Together they set the criteria
that will provide the evidence of what the learner should know and be able
to do at the end of a specific grade. They are arranged to show progression,
both within a grade and across the grades, for a specific subject.
8

1.1.4 National Curriculum Statements (NCSs)


The NCSs refer to the National Curriculum in general. Each subject that
forms part of the general National Curriculum has its own NCS. In this guide
we will refer to the National Curriculum Statement for Religion Studies as
NCS-RS.
We will now look at how OBE is integrated into the Curriculum. As we have
seen previously, the link between the Constitution and the Curriculum is
through shared values. The NCS is aimed at developing a nation of caring
and competent citizens who participate meaningfully in society and achieve
their individual potential. These outcomes are divided into two categories:
Critical Outcomes and Developmental Outcomes.
Here is a brief outline of the principles to be employed in teaching and learn-
ing, which underpin the NCS. They are embedded in the Constitution and
are fundamental to the accomplishment of the aims of the education system.
Social justice this means that everyone must take responsibility to care
for others for the common good of society.
A healthy environment learners must be encouraged to look after their
environment on all levels: for themselves, for others and for a sustain-
able future.
Human rights a vital aspect of South African society and an important
part of democracy and the Constitution. South African learners must learn
to uphold the principles of human rights as well as understand that the
South African legal system is based on human rights laws.
Inclusivity this includes social justice, human rights and the diverse
needs of learners and communities. Schools are encouraged to create
environments where all learners participate fully in school life, regard-
less of their culture, race, language, economic background and ability.

Stop and read


Read the National Curriculum Statement for Religion Studies (NSC-RS),
pages 14 to deepen your understanding of the principles embedded in
the NCS (appendix 2 in TL 103). Note that the page numbers refer to
those of the original document.

These principles inform all teaching and learning. The educational process
is structured in terms of the integration of four OBE categories of learning:
skills, knowledge, values and attitudes (SKVAs). All Learning Outcomes and
Assessment Standards are developed from the interconnected functions
of SKVAs and the Constitutional values. These are set developmentally at
age-appropriate levels according to learning bands, phases and grades.
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1.2 APPLICATION OF OBE AND NCS PRINCIPLES IN RELIGION STUDIES:


LEARNING OUTCOMES
We will now look at how the values and principles in the NCS, together
with the OBE methodology, are expressed in Religion Studies. We will look
specifically at Grade 10.
The Religion Studies Curriculum Learning Outcome 1 and the correspond-
ing Assessment Standards from Grade 10 are as follows:

Learning Outcome (LO) 1


The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a
variety of religions and how they relate to one another.

Assessment Standards for LO 1 Grade 10


The learner is able to
identify various clusters of religions in the world
provide a historical overview of the origins of a number of religions
explain the statistical situation concerning various religions in South
Africa and the world
analyse the notion of tolerance, respect, dialogue, conflict, funda-
mentalism, pluralism, propaganda, indoctrination, syncretism with
reference to religious interaction

The table below shows the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes in Learn-
ing Outcome 1 Religion Studies and the linked Assessment Standards.
When preparing a unit plan for a Learning Outcome, it is a good idea to
begin by doing this exercise. It will sharpen your focus for planning around
questions based on what (knowledge), how (teaching strategies) and why
(values and attitudes).

Task 1.3 Summative assessment

All teaching and learning incorporates knowledge, skills, values and


attitudes in a fully integrated manner. In the tables below, sort the
progression of Religion Studies Learning Outcomes and Assessment
Standards in terms of the KSVAs.

Knowledge Skills Values and attitudes

Knowledge of world Identification Tolerance


religions

Relationships between Overview Respect


different religions
10

Religious Explain Open-mindedness


fundamentalism

Religious pluralism Analyse Dialogue

Religious propaganda Identification

Indoctrination

Syncretism

Religious dialogue

Religious conflict

Extract the Religion Studies knowledge, skills, values and attitudes


per grade from the Learning Outcomes and linked Assessment Stand-
ards for Grades 10, 11 and 12 and sort them into the correct columns
and rows in the tables below. If you need more space, copy the tables
onto pages of your own and fill them in using as much detail as you
can.

Learning Outcome Knowledge Skills Values and


attitudes

Learning Outcome 1
Variety of religions
The learner is able to
demonstrate knowledge
and understanding of a
variety of religions and
how they relate to one
another

Assessment standards
The learner is able to
identify various clusters
of religions in the world

provide a historical
overview of the origins
of a number of religions

explain the statistical


structure concerning
various religions in
South Africa and the
world
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Learning Outcome Knowledge Skills Values and


attitudes

analyse the notion


of tolerance, respect,
dialogue, conflict,
fundamentalism,
pluralism, propaganda,
indoctrination,
syncretism with
reference to religious
interaction

Learning Outcome 2
Common features of
religion as a generic and
unique phenomenon
The learner is able to
analyse, relate and
systematise universal
dimensions of religion

Assessment standards
(First Assessment
Standard)
The learner is able to
consult Assessment
Standards in the
NCS Religion Studies
document (see tutorial
letter 103)

Learning Outcome 3
Topical issues in society
The learner is able to
reflect critically and
constructively on topical
issues in society from
a Religion Studies
perspective and apply
such insight
12

Learning Outcome Knowledge Skills Values and


attitudes

Assessment standards
(First Assessment
Standard)
The learner is able to
consult Assessment
Standards in the
NCS Religion Studies
document (see tutorial
letter 103)

Learning Outcome 4
Research into and
across religions
The learner is able to
apply skills of research
into religion as a social
phenomenon and across
religions

Assessment standards
(First Assessment
Standard)
The learner is able to:
consult Assessment
Standards in the
NCS Religion Studies
document (see tutorial
letter 103)
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STUDY UNIT 2
2

Introducing the National Policy on


Religion and Education

This study unit will outline the values and principles inherent in the Na-
tional Policy on Religion and Education, 2003 (hereafter referred to as the
Policy). It is crucial to understand the principles and values embedded
in this policy to ensure the correct teaching and learning process in your
classroom.

At the end of study unit 2, you should be able to


outline the main themes in the Policy
explain the relation between the Policy, the Constitution and the
Curriculum
reflect on the implications of the Policy for Religion Studies
begin planning Religion Studies tasks based on the Policy

In each section of the study unit, reference will be made to the relevant ar-
ticles in the Policy for that section. Please refer to these articles as you work
through the study unit. There is a quick-reference guide to salient articles
in the Policy at the end of the study unit, but it is important that you study
the actual document (appendix 1 in TL 103) to get a deeper understanding
of the Policy and its underlying theoretical frameworks.

2.1 A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY

An academic activity A religious activity

Religion Education Religious Education


Learning about religion in a Study of a religion from within
broad inclusive framework. one particular religious tradition.
The religion component of Life Outcomes are religious and may
Orientation. include religious activities.
Outcomes are educational and do
not include religious activities.
14

Religion Studies Religious Instruction


Learning about religion in a Study in order to instil or
broad inclusive framework. strengthen religious commit-
The new Grade 1012 subject ment to a particular tradition.
Outcomes are educational and do Outcomes are religious and will
not include religious activities. include religious activities.

Religious Studies Religious Observance


The same as Religion Studies, Refers to religious practices, eg
but this is the name of the sub- worship and observance of di-
ject at university level. etary rules.

Please note that the National Policy on Religion and Education (the Policy)
provides guidelines for the religion component of the Life Orientation learn-
ing area and the new FET subject Religion Studies (the shadowed boxes in
the table above).

2.2 CORE NCS VALUES


In study unit 1 we saw how the ten fundamental constitutional values are
embedded in the Curriculum (articles 8 & 11). These are expressed as core
NCS values, namely
social justice
a healthy environment
human rights
inclusivity

The constitutional values are expressed in the Policy as follows (article 14):
Respect for equality. The education process in general, and this policy
specifically, must aim at the development of a national democratic culture
with respect for the value of all of our peoples diverse cultural, religious
and linguistic traditions.
Tolerance. Religion in education must contribute to the advancement of
interreligious toleration and interpersonal respect among adherents of
different religious or secular world-views in a shared civil society.
Respect for diversity. In the interest of advancing informed respect for
diversity, educational institutions have a responsibility for promoting
multi-religious knowledge, understanding and appreciation of religions
in South Africa and the world.
Respect for openness. Schools, together with the broader society, play a
role in cultural formation and transmission, and educational institutions
must promote a spirit of openness in which there shall be no overt or
covert attempt to indoctrinate pupils into any particular belief or religion.
15 SDRELSD/1

Adherence to accountability. As systems of human accountability, religions


cultivate moral values and ethical commitments that can be recognised
as resources for learning and as vital contributions to nation-building.
Social honour. While honouring the linguistic, cultural, religious or secular
backgrounds of all pupils, educational institutions cannot allow the overt
or covert denigration of any religion or secular world-view.

2.3 CHALLENGES IN RESPECT OF THE POLICY


One of the greatest challenges in bringing the Constitution to life for South
African citizens is developing the national identity, freed from the past and
focused on challenges of the present and future. The repression, coercion
and discrimination that was endemic to the apartheid era has created in
the minds of South Africans a heightened sense of the dangers and con-
sequences of not being guided by human rights in legislation, policy and
administration.
The Policy draws attention to the importance of maintaining the careful
balance between freedom of religious belief and expression and freedom
from religious coercion and discrimination (articles 3, 4 & 12). According
to this policy, citizens have the right to express their beliefs but, equally,
minority groups be they defined in terms of culture, religion or language
also have the right to protection against discrimination, defamation and
coercion. Taking its lead from the Constitution, the Policy affirms the basic
right of citizens to religious conviction, expression and association along with
all the rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship (articles 8, 11 & 14).
The Constitution, which upholds both freedom of expression and freedom of
belief, presumes a very high degree of human rights awareness among citi-
zens if both rights are to be respected. In a separatist model, the relationship
between minority rights, including religions, is simplified by splitting the
rights of cultural and religious belief off from the broader secular running of
society. The South African Constitution, however, champions inclusivity and
unity in diversity. For an inclusive value system to be successful, citizens
need to have the knowledge, skills and values to be able to honour both
their own beliefs and those of others. Ideally, human rights should not need
to be imposed on people by human rights laws or institutions, but should
rather be lived through the responsible choices of all citizens.

Stop and read


Read the section on values in the Policy (articles 1114) in appendix 1
(TL 103). Reflect on the necessary integration of knowledge, skills and
values to make the formula below possible. Write a paragraph explain-
ing how the values expressed in the Policy translate into the real-life
experience of the learners in your classroom.

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Honouring personal beliefs + honouring others beliefs = social honour

2.4 THE AIMS OF THE POLICY


The goal of Religion Education is to give learners the knowledge, skills
and values to identify common values in all religions, such as the human
search for meaning and the ethic of service to others. If practised by all,
these common values will increase understanding and tolerance, social
justice and respect for the environment and will reduce prejudice.

2.4.1 Historical background (article 3)


By the early 1990s it was becoming apparent that Christian National Edu-
cation (CNE) would have to be disbanded, following the collapse of the
apartheid government leadership and policies. Christian religious instruction
had been a very important part of CNE. The question educationalists and
policywriters had to ponder was,Would there be a role for a different type
of religion education in a future curriculum? During the apartheid era,
Christian education had been interpreted along lines that entrenched white
rule. The religious model used by CNE was theocratic because Christian
theology was imposed on government policy and institutions. The following
two alternatives were not considered appropriate for Religion Education in
a future democratic South African context:
the repressionist model, which repressed religious practice, eg as applied
in Soviet Russia and Maoist China
the separatist model, as practised in France and to some extent the
USA, which draws a distinction between religious and civil life. This model
allows for private religious practice but maintains that the civic domain
must be free of religious practice and discourse.
17 SDRELSD/1

From the early 1990s to 2002 various commissions and policy documents
investigated the theoretical options to find the most appropriate approach
to religion and education for the new democratic country. To make amends
for South Africas apartheid history, the model had to include notions of in-
clusivity, freedom and unity. In the early 1990s the matter of religion was
considered in the National Education Policy and a few years later, during
1993/4, at the National Education and Training Forum. In the same year
religion was considered directly in the Consultation around the Ministerial
Committee on Religious Education. Finally, in 2002, the Standing Advisory
Committee on Religion and Education paved the way for the National Policy
on Religion and Education in 2003, which was announced by the then Min-
ister of National Education, Professor Kader Asmal.

2.4.2 How the Constitution informs the National Policy on Religion and
Education (articles 5, 22, 23, 28 & 70)
In the previous section we saw how the Constitution provides the values
base for the Curriculum. Now we will explore how these values are ex-
pressed in the Policy.
The constitutional rights of citizens are broken down into more specific
freedoms, namely
of conscience
of thought
of opinion
of belief
of religion
from unfair discrimination
from coercion (ideological and religious)

These rights are framed by the principle of unified nationhood, enriched


by its diverse heritage.
The constitutional values are derived from the fundamental inalienable right
of citizens to pursue material and spiritual development and the freedom to
associate with others who may assist the individual in their developmental
pursuits. Individual rights may not limit the expression and pursuit of others
rights. Rights pertaining to minority groups, religions, language and cultural
groups are reducible to the rights of the individual in terms of freedom of
expression and freedom of association (articles 13 & 28).
The Policy follows the same logic, based on individual rights. In the Policy,
the state affirms its responsibility to ensure that the democratic rights of
citizens are met by stipulating that public schools must provide teaching of
the broad base of religious activities in a way that is different from religious
nurture and religious instruction in a particular religion. But, importantly,
the state is non-prescriptive about the religious approach to be adopted by
schools. Using the basic core values framework provided by the state for
teaching religion, schools, parents and communities have the right to decide
how the teaching of religion should be conducted in their schools because
18

individuals in their communities are best informed to exercise their rights


and responsibilities (articles 22, 23, 49, 68 & 70). The Policy also protects
Religion Education from being used as a tool for social engineering.
The state provides a guideline or framework within which education institu-
tions must teach religion. It is non-prescriptive about implementation; this
means that, within this framework, individual freedom can be exercised
(articles 2 & 5). Some of the results of this approach are as follows:
The relationship between religion and education must flow from consti-
tutional values (article 11).
Public institutions have a responsibility to teach about religion and reli-
gions in ways that reflect a profound appreciation of the spiritual, non-
material aspects of life, but which are different from religious education,
religious instruction or religious nurture (article 16). The latter are the
duty of religious institutions (e.g. Churches) and parents.
Religion Education must contribute to creating an integral community
that affirms unity in diversity in our society (articles 9, 10 & 25).
Teaching about religion, religions and religious diversity needs to be fa-
cilitated by trained professionals and programmes in Religion Education
and must be supported by appropriate and credible teaching and learning
materials and objective assessment criteria (articles 34, 46 & 47).

2.5 THE COOPERATIVE MODEL (ARTICLES 3, 4 & 5)


In line with the Constitution, the NCS and the OBE principle of responsibil-
ity for the growth and development of both the individual and society, the
cooperative model is adopted by the state to give structure to the relationship
between Religion Education and the state. This model recognises the legal
separation between religion and state, but allows for creative interaction
between the two bodies.
As a Religion Studies educator, your purpose is to make sure that the role
of the state in the cooperative model is performed responsibly. In essence,
the state neither advances nor inhibits religion and religious practice, but
because the state ensures freedom of religion, it fulfils its responsibility
to educate its citizens about the diversity of South Africas different religions
in order to deepen cultural heritage and democratic values. To achieve this,
you need to do the following in the classroom:
Develop in learners the knowledge, skills and values regarding the pro-
tection of citizens against religious coercion and discrimination.
Develop in learners the understanding of religious freedom from interfer-
ence by the state or other bodies or persons.
Develop in learners a profound appreciation of the spiritual values of all
citizens (article 66).
19 SDRELSD/1

Stop and read


Read the section on values in the Policy (articles 35) in appendix 1.
Reflect on how the cooperative model is used in structuring the relation-
ship between state and religion in education. What are the underpinning
values of the cooperative model? Write a paragraph on why you think
the cooperative model was chosen to structure the relationship between
the state and religion in education.

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Task 2.1 Baseline assessment

In study unit 1 we saw how the cross-field Critical and Developmental


Outcomes were derived from the Constitution. In order to arrive at a
conducive teaching and learning framework in the Religion Studies
classroom, you must match the values in Religion Studies with the
values and outcomes that you identified in task 1.2 of study unit 1.

Critical Outcomes Values in How these Teaching


Develop- values are strategies
mental and expressed that allow
Critical in Religion students
Outcomes Studies to arrive
at these
values and
outcomes

Identify and solve


problems and make
decisions using
critical and creative
thinking.

Work effectively
with others as
members of a team,
group, organisation
and community.
20

Organise and
manage themselves
and their activities
responsibly and
effectively.

Collect, analyse,
organise and
critically evaluate
information.

Communicate
effectively using
visual, symbolic
and/or language
skills in various
modes.

Use science
and technology
effectively and
critically, showing
responsibility
towards the
environment and
the health of others.

Demonstrate an
understanding of
the world as a set
of related systems
by recognising that
problem-solving
contexts do not exist
in isolation.

Developmental
Outcomes

Reflect on and
explore a variety of
strategies to learn
more effectively.
21 SDRELSD/1

Participate as
responsible citizens
in the life of local,
national and
global communities.

Be culturally
and aesthetically
sensitive across
a range of social
contexts.

Explore education
and career
opportunities.

Develop
entrepreneurial
opportunities.

2.6 IMPLICATIONS OF RELIGION EDUCATION POLICY FOR CLASSROOM


PRACTICE
The Curriculum follows the policy set out in the Constitution and the National
Policy on Religion and Education (the Policy). The Learning Outcomes are
aimed at equipping learners with the knowledge, skills and values to think
and act responsibly about religious belief and practice. These SKVs are trans-
ferrable to enable learners to reach a greater understanding of humanity,
more tolerance, empathy and critical application in issues of social justice.
In the following sections we will answer the what, why and how questions
concerning Religion Education.

2.6.1 What is taught in Religion Education? (articles 714, 21 & 25)?


Religion Education policy is consistent with the Constitution. All religions
in South Africa are taught equally, with no religion being given a privileged
status in terms of meaning, salvation or truth. The Constitution is based on
the recognition of common human rights shared by all citizens. This rec-
ognition means that, as human beings, we share a common responsibility
to care for the wellbeing of the whole of humanity, without limitation of
racial, cultural or linguistic categories. Religion, spirituality and morality
are important facets of human experience and activity that shape the way
we treat one another. The central foci of Religion Education are to
increase understanding of the worlds religions (article 23)
build respect for diversity (article 10)
value spirituality (articles 19, 25 & 26)
clarify religious and non-religious sources of moral values (article 9)
22

Stop and read


The what question concerning the content of Religion Education is dealt
with in articles 1533 of the Policy (appendix 1 in TL 103). Look out for
discussions about
religious diversity
multi-tradition approach
moral values and religion

2.6.2 How is Religion Education taught? (articles 19, 21, 23, 25 & 26)
Religion Education can be approached from a view of religion and spiritu-
ality that considers the sacred, transcendent and spiritual dimensions of
human life; alternatively, from a view of religion as a social phenomenon
with traditions, institutions and practices.
Religion Education must be taught within a framework of inclusivity. It
encompasses all religious beliefs in South Africa, all cultural groups, all
levels of authority in the education system (district, provincial and national),
interdisciplinary approaches and all schools, public and private (articles 9
& 15).
Religion Education must be taught in such a way that learners
achieve religious literacy acquire the skills and knowledge frameworks
to understand different religions (article 19)
are able meet goals and outcomes of the general curriculum (observation,
listening, reading, writing and thinking) (article 19)
learn about the rich and diverse South African religious heritage (articles
23 & 25)
grow spiritually, both in terms of their own beliefs and ethics and in
terms of their treatment and understanding of others (articles 19 & 25)

The Policy on Religion and Education derives its focus from the National
Qualifications Framework (NQF) vision for education in South Africa, namely
to produce literate, creative and critical citizens.
The NCS explains literacy in different capacities:
cultural literacy
ethical literacy

In terms of article 26, creativity refers to


developing capacities for expanding imagination
making connections
dealing with cultural difference and diversity

In terms of article 21, critical reflection refers to


comparison
23 SDRELSD/1

cultural analysis
ethical debate
formulation and clarification of values

These capacities are found in Learning Outcomes and Assessment Stand-


ards in the Life Orientation and Religion Studies Curricula, which we will
examine in detail in study units 3 & 4. Learning Outcomes and Assessment
Standards were described in study unit 1.

Stop and read


The how question concerning the way in which religion is to be taught
is dealt with in articles 1545 religion of the Policy (appendix 1). Look
out for discussions about
the NQFs views concerning literacy, creativity and critical thought
sensitivity to teaching in culturally diverse schools
the interdisciplinary approach to Religion Education

Write a one-page summary of these views.

2.6.3 Why is Religion Education in the Curriculum? (articles 5, 7, 14, 18, 19,
21, 26, 31 & 36)
The Constitution is founded on the social and personal development of citi-
zens. On a spiritual level, this means that our society and its citizens have
the right to become happier through individual and social efforts. We can
only become happier by accepting that our interests are inextricably linked
(article 26). The Religion Education policy is established on the idea that
all South Africas religions must be taught in a fair and balanced manner
so that all learners will understand one anothers cultures and defining
beliefs (article 5).

2.6.3.1 Moral regeneration (articles 21 & 25)


The Religion Education policy acknowledges that there is a decline in moral
standards in the country, which has contributed to the alarming increase
in crime and corruption. Such a context is not conducive to personal and
social development and wellbeing. Indeed, it only exacerbates the decline
in national morale. For this reason the national education policy aligns
itself with the national moral regeneration movement. Religion Education
plays a vital role in introducing moral reflection into the curriculum. All
world religions have values that share a large degree of commonality, such
as mercy, love and care, commitment, compassion and cooperation. There
are also different secular value systems that intersect with religious value
systems. Religion Education must highlight the constituents of these value
systems in order to show that the basis of ethics and moral human endeav-
our lies in the realisation that all citizens seek happiness and development.
24

2.6.3.2 Towards an open society (articles 30 & 35)


The principle of an open society requires inclusive policies to build an inte-
grated culture of citizenship. The teaching of religion and religions in schools
makes an important contribution to building an education environment where
learners from diverse cultures and religions feel comfortable and welcome,
thus engendering a sense of acceptance, security and respect for others.

2.6.3.3 Religious diversity (article 21)


The challenges our society faces require solutions that recognise all the
diverse ideas and cultures of all of South Africas citizens, including all the
religions practised in the country. Philosophies with narrow views, or which
offer a single principle as a solution be they secular or spiritual inevitably
lead to some form of exclusivism.
Thinking broadly and inclusively requires teaching and learning that informs
learners accurately and in a balanced manner about different thought
systems, including the variety of world religions.

Stop and read


The why question concerning values in Religion Education is dealt with
in articles 1114 & 2933 of the Policy (appendix 1). Look out for dis-
cussions about
constitutional values
different value traditions
acceptance and tolerance of diversity

Write a one-page summary of these principles and values.

2.7 EDUCATORS, LESSONS AND MATERIALS


In this section we will reflect on what type of educators, materials and les-
sons are necessary to produce learners who are understanding and tolerant
of the many different religions in the world.

2.7.1 Competency (article 36)


Life Orientation and Religion Studies teachers must meet competencies on
two levels:
Firstly, they must meet the requirements of all teachers, namely
to be registered with SACE
to meet the norms and standards of all teachers in terms of having
the required skills, values and attitudes to educate learners from spe-
cific communities
to protect learners citizenship rights and perform pastoral roles where nec-
essary, including developing discerning, responsible, respectful, commit-
ted and ethical attitudes towards others
25 SDRELSD/1

Secondly, religion educators must not merely provide transmission of in-


formation about religion and religions. They must also meet competencies
specific to teaching and learning in Religion Studies. Being a new subject,
the Religion Studies educator faces challenges that differ from those in the
more traditional subjects. Religion Studies educators must earn credibility,
both for the subject itself and their own ability to teach it. Religion educa-
tors need to win staff and students over to the cause of Religion Studies so
that the latter value the subject as much as you, the educator, do, by being
aware of the interests, capacities and sensitivities of learners and the cul-
ture of the school. This can also be achieved by encouraging the inclusion of
religion content in other learning areas. In order to achieve this, you need
to immerse yourself in the qualities and values of Religion Studies, human
rights and democratic values so that you are able to apply your knowledge
of world religion to ethical issues. The Religion Education policy gives the
following clear guidelines for how to make religion relevant in the classroom:
Reflect on ethical issues in religion, politics, human rights and the
environment.
Be knowledgeable about the principles and practices of the main religions
of South Africa; the customs, values and beliefs of the main cultures of
South Africa; the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
Be knowledgeable about ethical debates in religion, politics, economics,
human rights and the environment.
Show an appreciation of, and respect for, people with different values,
beliefs, practices and cultures.
Be able to respond to current social and educational problems, with par-
ticular emphasis on the issues of violence, drug abuse, poverty, child and
women abuse, HIV/AIDS and environmental degradation.
Demonstrate caring, committed and ethical professional behaviour and
an understanding of education as it relates to the protection of children
and the development of each learner as a whole person.

2.7.2 Teaching resources (articles 46 & 47)


Educators should make use of available textbooks, supplementary materi-
als, handbooks and guidelines for teaching methodology and assessment.
26

Task 2.2 Summative assessment

The table below contains the Religion Studies Grade 10 Learning


Outcomes and Assessment Standards. In the knowledge, skills and
values columns, write down two appropriate articles from the Policy
(see the quick-reference guide below).

Quick-reference guide to salient articles


Topics are arranged according to the logical progression of the Policy.
This guide does not provide comprehensive coverage of all the articles.
Rather, its purpose is to provide a quick reference to the main topics
in the Policy.

Values
constitutional values articles 8 & 11
individual rights of association articles 13 & 28
constitutional values expressed in the RE policy articles 8, 11 & 14
relationship between RE and constitutional values articles 3, 4, 5,
8, 11, 12, 14, 22, 23, 28 & 70
values independent of religion article 9
shared civic values article 14

Religion and civic life


empathy articles 21 & 26
RE develops inner spirituality and morality articles 19, 25 & 26
non-prescriptive approach to RE articles 2 & 5
the cooperative model articles 3, 4 & 5
RE policy embraces religion and spirituality articles 1, 2, 5, 8, 19 & 66
unity in diversity articles 9, 10, 15, 21, 25, 30 & 35
multi-tradition approach articles 23 & 25

RE in the classroom
religious literacy articles 19, 26 & 27
critical reflection articles 21 & 26
trained teachers article 34
materials articles 46 & 47

Write down two appropriate articles from the Policy.


27 SDRELSD/1

Learning Outcomes Knowledge Skills Values and


attitudes

Learning Outcome 1
Variety of religions
The learner is able to
demonstrate knowledge and
understanding of a variety
of religions and how they
relate to one another

Assessment Standards
The learner is able to
identify various clusters of
religions in the world

provide a historical overview


of the origins of a number of
religions

explain the statistical


structure concerning various
religions in South Africa and
the world

analyse the notion of


tolerance, respect, dialogue,
conflict, fundamentalism,
pluralism, propaganda,
indoctrination and
syncretism with reference to
religious interaction
28

STUDY UNIT 3
3

Planning for teaching Religion Studies

At the end of study unit 3, you should be able to


understand the scope and purpose of Religion Studies
think critically about Religion Studies in relation to Life Orientation
policy and the NCS
apply Religion Studies values and principles in the classroom so that
they are meaningful for learners
reflect critically on your teaching practice and make improvements

3.1 INTRODUCTION
In study unit 2 we looked at how the National Policy on Religion and Educa-
tion (2003) (hereafter referred to as the Policy) informed Life Orientation
and Religion Studies. In this study unit we will focus on teaching the new
FET subject, Religion Studies, in the classroom.
In this unit we will refer to our discussion of the Constitution in study unit
1, together with the explanations of OBE and Learning Outcomes. As we
proceed through this study unit, reference will be made to relevant sec-
tions in previous study units. You should return to those sections to revise
the central ideas in them so that you will be properly informed for tasks in
this study unit.
You will also be introduced to the Learning Programme Guidelines for Re-
ligion Studies (LPG-RS) (appendix 3 in Tutorial Letter 104), which outlines
the necessary developmental progression of knowledge, skills and values
through the FET grades.

3.2 RELIGION STUDIES


Religion Studies was launched in 2005, although provision for the subject
had been expressed in both the Policy (2003) and the Manifesto on Values,
Education and Democracy (2001). So when we examine Religion Studies, we
have to consider it in relation to prior policies and principles. The approach
to the teaching of religion in Religion Studies is based on a thoroughly de-
veloped theoretical platform. We will begin by looking at founding ideas in
Religion Studies.
29 SDRELSD/1

3.2.1 Equality of religions


Religion Studies teaches the value of an equal and common humanity and
highlights the need for cooperation, respect for others, tolerance and accept-
ance of other peoples religious and spiritual lives. These values are taught
in the context of the constitutional principles of citizenship, human rights,
equality, freedom from discrimination and freedom of conscience, religion,
thought, belief and opinion. In this sense, religion is understood to be an
indispensable aspect of civil life. Religion Studies also promotes the NCS
values of respect for diverse cultures and religions and an inclusive idea
of humanity. Religion Studies leads to the recognition, understanding and
appreciation of the variety of religions within a common humanity.

3.2.2 Universal human phenomenon


Religion Studies is founded on the understanding that religion is a univer-
sal human phenomenon. This means that, for the vast majority of people,
religion functions as the fundamental orientating principle in the world,
defining most of the values and morals that people uphold.
Religion Studies develops religious literacy in that it empowers learners
to understand and comprehend how religions, belief systems, indigenous
knowledge systems and world-views provide meaning in followers lives
by means of
ideas of the ultimate nature of things and of divinity
sacred traditions
religious social and personal commitments
rituals and morality

3.2.3 Topical issues in society


Religion Studies promotes the study of the interrelationship between re-
ligion and society by focusing on practical social issues that coincide with
religious and spiritual concerns. These issues include
interreligious relationships
abortion
health
diseases, including HIV/AIDS
economics
the state
politics
community and individuality
family
gender
sexuality
discrimination
freedom, human rights and responsibilities
environment
indigenous knowledge systems
30

natural sciences
media
leisure
fundamentalism
education
art
leadership
international relations
euthanasia
proselytisation
substance abuse
death
suicide
kinship systems
divorce
crime and violence

3.2.4 Research into and across religions


Religion Studies provides the opportunity to conduct research into religion
that promotes interest in religion that is non-divisive in nature. Learners
are introduced to a variety of research methods, including
literature research
field work (observation)
interviewing

3.2.5 Religion Studies principles


In study unit 1 we looked at the importance of the ten fundamental values
derived from the Constitution. In study unit 2 we saw how these ten princi-
ples were expressed in terms the National Policy on Religion and Education.
In this study unit we will look at the ten principles that underlie the Learn-
ing Outcomes and Assessment Standards in the subject. All ten principles
must be viewed in an integrated way. They are as follows:

Religion Studies
(1) studies religion as part of culture and civic life
(2) is constructed in accordance with accepted academic procedures
(3) educates learners as members of the human family and citizens of
the world
(4) is situated in the South African and African contexts
(5) affirms the learners own religion, as well as those to which they do
not belong
(6) develops appreciation of and respect for their own traditions, as well
as those of their fellow citizens
(7) facilitates inclusive historical understanding and develops higher-order
skills of discovering relationships and dealing with complexity
(8) is socially relevant and transformative
31 SDRELSD/1

(9) is critical
(10) is creative

Figure 1: Principles that underlie the discipline of Religion Studies

Stop and read


It is very important that you study these principles in the LPG-RS (pages
79 of the original document see appendix 3). Each principle is de-
scribed more fully in the LPGRS.

Task 3.1 The Constitution, the Policy and the NCS

In order to understand how Religion Studies principles relate to each


other in an integrated way, it is helpful to relate them back to the human
rights principles and culture in the Constitution. In the table below, write
down the three sets of principles (in the Constitution, the Policy and the
NCS) that inform Religion Studies. Look for connections between the
three sets of principles and use coloured pens to show these connections.
32

Constitutional Religion Education Religion Studies


principles principles principles

3.3 PREPARING TO TEACH RELIGION STUDIES


In study units 1 and 2 the important point was made that Religion Studies
is values-driven. We looked at the values and principles that underlie the
NCS and Religion Education policy. However, when we teach Religion Studies
values and principles, we cannot simply impose these values on learners;
that would amount to enforcing precepts on learners without any form of
learning taking place, as was the case in social engineering programmes
such as Christian National Education. Since all knowledge and behaviour
33 SDRELSD/1

are founded on values, education is profoundly ethical in nature. There are


no objective facts; all knowledge involves a values choice.
For learning to occur in Religion Studies, learners need to develop an inter-
rogative relationship with their values and the values upheld by society. If
learners are to learn to be discerning and open to other peoples beliefs,
they need to be shown the relationship between the values people hold,
their perspectives on life and how these shape their understanding of reality.

3.3.1 Instilling positive motivation


Religion Studies should initially promote the motivation to understand the
worlds religions. Understanding can be developed in learners only when
they have been made aware of their preconceptions about other cultures
and religions and, perhaps, any chauvinistic ideas they may hold about their
own religion or culture.
The motivation to understand the worlds religions is born of interest in
other people and, even more, concern that others be recognised as human
beings with equal rights to happiness and spiritual and material progress.

3.3.2 Instilling positive thinking


Once positive motivation for learning about religion and religions has been
instilled, Religion Studies educators need to look at what thought discipline
learners need to acquire in order to enable them to develop values such
as compassion and tolerance, which are internally sustained. Such thought
discipline is not self-centred; rather, it is concerned with showing respect to
others. Thinking that involves an interest in others allows for the transla-
tion of the aforementioned values into ethical behaviour.
Critical reasoning is also vital for instilling values that are internally sus-
tained. Selfish thought cannot be sustained logically because, ultimately, it
leads to greed and fear. Critical reasoning also makes healthy communica-
tion about different peoples beliefs possible and displays discernment in
terms of what to say and how to express opinions.

3.4 DESIGNING A TEACHING PLAN

3.4.1 Purpose
The purpose of Religion Studies, as described in the NCS, is as follows:
Religion Studies enhances the constitutional values of citizenship,
human rights, equality, and freedom from discrimination, freedom
of conscience, religion, thought, belief and opinion. Religion Studies
contributes to the holistic development of the intellectual, physical,
social, emotional and spiritual aspects of the learner. The purpose is
the enhancement of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary
34

for the enrichment of each learner, interpersonal relationships and an


open and democratic society (appendix 2, page 9).
The purpose, therefore, can be described in terms of three distinct but
interconnected levels:
policy level enhances the constitutional values
relational level enhances knowledge, skills and values for each learner
for the benefit of learners interpersonal relationships and democratic
society as a whole
personal level contributes to the holistic development of the learner

Stop and read


This is very important. Read and make notes on the sections on the
kinds of learner and teacher envisaged in the Religion Studies NCS (page
5 of appendix 2).

NOTE
An effective lesson is one where knowledge, skills and values have been
clearly transferred to each of the levels: policy, relational and personal.

As an educator, it is important to relate the NCS purpose to your convic-


tions and beliefs about the importance of Religion Studies for learners. If
you are clear about your purpose, you will be able to communicate the
purpose of each Learning Outcome clearly to the learners. Remember that
your purpose in teaching Religion Studies will influence how you present
the information related to the four Learning Outcomes.
35 SDRELSD/1

Task 3.2 Purpose of outcomes

On the lines provided below, explain how you would define the pur-
pose of LO 1, LO 2, LO 3 and LO 4.

Learning Outcome 1
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

Learning Outcome 2
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

Learning Outcome 3
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

Learning Outcome 4
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

3.4.2 Importance of self-reflexivity


Educational policy requires that constitutional values be embedded in teach-
ing and learning. However, it may be argued that values such as appreciation
of diversity or tolerance are in danger of being adopted at a superficial level
only if educators fail to examine their own perspectives on constitutional
values and their efficacy in the classroom.
Teaching Religion Studies involves more than just making learners aware
of values such as diversity and tolerance. It also requires learners to be
made aware of their own perspectives on different religions and religion in
general. These perspectives are very important influences in determining
how learners learn about religions and religion and their capacity for criti-
cal self-analysis.
Before you are able to make learners aware of their perspectives regarding
different religions, you need to examine your own perspectives, prejudices
36

and blind spots concerning different religions, because this will influence
how you teach those religions and facilitate discussions about issues in the
classroom.

Task 3.3 Constitutional values and classroom practice

In the table below, fill in your perspectives on the constitutional


values provided in the left-hand column. This exercise will help you
to clarify your interpretation of these values and how they influence
your classroom practice positively or negatively.

Constitutional Perspective Prejudices Blind spots


values (issues and
topics you feel
uncomfortable
discussing)

Diversity

Inclusivity

Freedom of speech

Freedom of belief

Social justice

Citizenship

Task 3.4 Perceptions that influence your teaching practice

In a similar vein, but this time in relation to subject content, fill in


the table below to make yourself aware of your underlying beliefs
about different religions. Do not feel that you have to fill in every row
and column; only fill in those that you feel are applicable to you. This
exercise will help you to examine your feelings about the different
religions that you teach, and how this may influence your teaching
practice.
37 SDRELSD/1

Religion Perspective Prejudices Blind spots


(issues and
topics you feel
uncomfortable
discussing)

Christianity

Judaism

Islam

Hinduism

Buddhism

African religion

3.5 MAKING USE OF THE LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDE (LPG)


The Learning Programme Guide (LPG) for Religion Studies (appendix 3 in TL
103) explains how the NCS should be implemented in the classroom during
the FET phase. It is important, however, to read the LPG critically to assess
which advice is useful for your practice in the classroom. The problem with
LPGs is that they use the same language as that used in the NCS, without
explaining how the principles can be applied in the classroom. The NCS is
derived from the principles contained in the Constitution, but at no point
in the LPG is there an indication of whether these principles are effective
in the classroom, or how they can be made effective. Ideas like inclusivity,
diversity, issues-based learning are emotionally reassuring because they
are so diametrically opposed to apartheid education, but they are not placed
in a framework of educational methodology.
38

Stop and reflect


The argument above represents one point of view regarding the diffi-
culty of translating constitutional values into classroom practice. Write
a paragraph in which you critically explore the argument that constitu-
tional values are in danger of becoming a utopian ideal because of the
challenge of translating them into a learnt experience in the classroom.
Read section 1 in study unit 1 to assist you in your deliberations. Think
about how constitutional values are translated into the NCS and OBE
methodology.

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As you work through the LPG, you will be asked to think honestly and criti-
cally about how the NCS can be applied meaningfully in your classroom.
Your reflections must include your own experience, your motivation to teach
the subject and your understanding of the subject.
The LPG scheme is clearly laid out in the LPGRS document.
39 SDRELSD/1

ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED STAGES

3.5.1 Integration of Learning Outcomes


We need to begin by looking at Learning Outcomes in relation to planning
because the NCS presents Learning Outcomes as discrete units of content,
skills and values. Your application of learning outcomes requires you to
understand LOs as interconnected aspects of the subject, which cannot be
viewed separately.
The LPG stresses both the developmental and interconnectedness aspects
of the Learning Outcomes in Religion Studies. Developmentally Learning
Outcomes and Assessment Standards move from simplicity to complexity,
for example religions are initially studied in a South African context, then
in an African context and, finally, as world religions.
Learning Outcome 1 spans the view of humanitys religious experience,
ie humanism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and
African Traditional Religion.
Learning Outcome 2 views the generic, universal dimensions common
to all religions, ie views, traditions, narratives and myths, ethics, rituals,
symbols, experience and faith organisations.
Learning Outcome 3 looks at religion in relation to society and social is-
sues such as injustice and environmental issues.
40

Learning Outcome 4 emphasises the learners role as a researcher of


content and values in Learning Outcomes 1, 2 and 3.

The logic that holds the outcomes together is the basic right of all citizens
to enjoy happiness and avoid unnecessary hardship. The four Learning
Outcomes teach awareness of the needs of all humanity (Learning Outcome
1); the connectedness of all humanity (Learning Outcome 2); and the essen-
tial translation of human rights into responsibility towards others (Learning
Outcomes 3 and 4).
Therefore, when developing a work schedule and lesson plans, it is important
to teach Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards in an integrated
way. While a lesson may have a dominant Learning Outcome and related
assessment standards, there will also be related Learning Outcomes that
you can address.
You should also endeavour to make connections between Religion Stud-
ies and the skills and knowledge learners will have gained from Learning
Outcome 2 in Life Orientation; this will enable them to make the link be-
tween GET and FET.

3.5.2 Principles that guide the teaching of Learning Outcomes


The teaching of Religion Studies is based on a set of principles that are
derived from the constitutional values as well as common human values
of kindness, patience, forgiveness and tolerance; and the common human
right to happiness. These values inform how the content is taught and how
learners are taught. As role models for these values, educators will influ-
ence how learners adopt these values in their social practice.
In Task 3.5 below, fill in the middle and right-hand columns, indicating your
views about teaching Religion Studies. In your answers, try not to use NCS
terminology without exploring what the principle means to you.

Stop and read


Read LPG-RS (appendix 3, pages 16 & 17).
These principles are VERY IMPORTANT, so even if you have not done
any of the previous tasks, do not skip this one!

Task 3.5 Principles underlying the teaching of Religion Studies

LPG principles My understanding How I can apply


of the principle the principle in the
classroom

Neither promote
nor undermine any
religion.
41 SDRELSD/1

Do not confuse
Religion Studies
with religious
instruction.

Know and accept


the diversity of
learners contexts
and backgrounds.

Take into account


the level of
emotional and
intellectual maturity
of learners taking
Religion Studies.

Address issues of
inclusivity.

Neither hide nor


flaunt your own
religion.

Explain all religions


to the satisfaction of
the adherents.

Use learners
backgrounds as an
invaluable resource.

Encourage learners
to speak freely and
confidently about
their own views and
issues.

Encourage and
organise first-
hand experience of
various religions.

Use a large range of


support materials.
42

3.5.3 The three-stage format in LPG development


The three-stage format attempts to make the Curriculum more concrete
and implementable by dividing the process into three distinct steps. This
will assist you to plan, in an integrated and coherent way, across grades,
year plans and lesson plans. This study unit, however, has looked directly at
how planning can be done effectively in practice acknowledging the cur-
riculum requirements and the limitations of what may be achieved within
the context of the classroom experience.

Useful questions to ask when planning lessons


(1) What questions is the Religion Studies Curriculum posing to learners?
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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(2) In your experience, what questions are learners asking in the Religion
Studies classroom?
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(3) Have your learners emotional and spiritual intelligence developed in


regard to their own spiritual understanding and their understanding
of others religious lives?
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(4) What frustrations have you experienced in the classroom in terms of


the learners or the Curriculum or yourself?
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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43 SDRELSD/1

Stop and take note


Be sure to read the LOs and the ASs in conjunction with the Content
and Contexts (pages 2435 of appendix 2 of Tutorial Letter 103).
This is particularly important when you design a lesson for the assign-
ment. The elaboration of the Assessment Standard in the Content and
Contexts gives you a clear indication of what the content of the lesson
should cover.

Task 3.6 Summative assessment

Following the example of a lesson plan on the next page, design a lesson
for Grade 10. If this was an assignment for this module, the marks indi-
cated would give you an idea of the importance of the different aspects.
Provide the lesson with a lesson plan sheet (see below). (10 marks)
Elaborate on the content of the lesson in detail give
the facts (this section should cover at least 5 to 6 pages).
Any textbook for Religion Studies or introductory book
on religions of the world will be useful. (60 marks)
Design at least two appropriate activities to coincide with
the competencies for Grade 10 (see NCS-RS, pages 4647
of appendix 2). (20 marks)
Indicate clearly how you intend to assess whether the
outcomes have been reached and include any assessment
tools that you are planning to use (eg rubrics or test pa-
pers). (10 marks)
44

A template for a lesson plan


School

Subject Religion Studies


Grade Grade 10
Teacher

Main Learning
Outcome(s)

Assessment
Standard(s)

Related Learning
Outcomes &
Assessment
Standards
Content

Topic

Approximate contact
time

Teachers Learners Skills, Resources Assessment Assessment


activities activities knowledge, strategies tools
values and
attitudes
45 SDRELSD/1

STUDY UNIT 4
4

Teaching practice

At the end of study unit 4, you should be able to


understand how to apply Learning Outcomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 and related
Assessment Standards
apply Religion Studies principles and classroom practice principles to
classroom practice
understand the types of reasoning that underpin the Learning
Outcomes and the pitfalls to be avoided when interpreting Learning
Outcomes
reflect critically on your teaching practice and make improvements

4.1 INTRODUCTION
In this study unit we will look at the four Learning Outcomes and related
Assessment Standards. We will focus on how to apply the National Policy on
Religion and Education (2003), the NCS and OBE to the Learning Outcomes
and Assessment Standards across Grades 10, 11 and 12.
We will focus on how to teach the four Learning Outcomes holistically and
apply these to the related Assessment Standards. Learners will be able to
contextualise their own beliefs in relation to the totality of world religions.
They will also see the patterns that shape their own beliefs in the context
of the patterns that shape others religious beliefs.

4.1.1 Religion Studies Learning Outcomes


The Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards are found in the NCS-
RS (appendix 2), in chapter 2 of Tutorial Letter 103.

4.2 COMMUNICATING THE PURPOSE OF RELIGION STUDIES THROUGH LOs


AND ASs
According to the NCS, learners need to be able to adapt and apply knowledge,
skills and values meaningfully to specific contexts. A Learning Outcome is a
basket of knowledge, skills and values that learners are expected to achieve
in every grade. There are also a number of Assessment Standards attached
to every Learning Outcome in each grade. These Assessment Standards are
the stepping stones to support the learners achievement of the Learning
46

Outcome. Learning Outcomes offer the general categories of the knowl-


edge, skills and values to be taught and the Assessment Standards give the
specific contexts for how knowledge, skills and values should be taught.
The approach is holistic because it integrates all aspects of religion so that
the learners are able to understand how people including the learners
themselves value themselves within their religio-cultural contexts. The
holistic approach, therefore, does not stop at identifying the various sections
that comprise religious experience; significantly, it shows how religions give
value and meaning to believers lives in a dynamic context.
As we saw in study unit 3, the purpose of Religion Studies is related to
three key outcomes in the NCS, namely
enrichment and empowerment of learners
enhancement of interpersonal relationships
contribution to an open and democratic society (NCS pages 910, ap-
pendix 2)

These three NCS outcomes are expressed through the Learning Outcomes
and Assessment Standards.

Task 4.1 Development of three key outcomes in Religion Studies

In the spaces provided below, show how each of the three key outcomes
in the NCS are developed across the Religion Studies Learning Outcomes
and Assessment Standards in Grades 10, 11 and 12. Refer to the Learn-
ing Outcomes and Assessment Standards provided at the beginning of
this study unit.

1 Grade 10
Enrichment and empowerment of learners eg
LO 1 (AS 10.1.1, 10.1.2)
LO 2 (AS 10.2.1, 10.2.2)
LO 3 (AS 10.3.1)
LO 4 (AS 10.4.1)

Enhancement of interpersonal relationships


LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

Contribution to an open and democratic society


LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4
47 SDRELSD/1

2 Grade 11
Enrichment and empowerment of learners
LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

Enhancement of interpersonal relationships


LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

Contribution to an open and democratic society


LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

3 Grade 12
Enrichment and empowerment of learners
LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

Enhancement of interpersonal relationships


LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

Contribution to an open and democratic society


LO 1
LO 2
LO 3
LO 4

4.3 APPLYING THE TEN PRINCIPLES OF RELIGION STUDIES


We have referred to the ten principles in the NCS for Religion Studies in
previous study units.
48

Religion Studies
(1) studies religion as part of culture and civic life
(2) is constructed in accordance with accepted academic procedures
(3) educates learners as members of the human family and citizens of
the world
(4) is situated in the South African and African contexts
(5) affirms the learners own religions, as well as those to which they do
not belong
(6) develops appreciation of and respect for their own traditions, as well
as those of their fellow citizens
(7) facilitates an inclusive historical understanding and develops higher-
order skills of discovering relationships and dealing with complexity
(8) is socially relevant and transformative
(9) is critical
(10) is creative

The LPG also refers to 11 principles concerned with classroom practice in


Religion Studies:
(1) Neither promote nor undermine any religion.
(2) Do not confuse Religion Studies with Religious Instruction.
(3) Know and accept their learners.
(4) Take into account the level of emotional and intellectual maturity of
learners taking Religion Studies.
(5) Address other aspects of inclusivity.
(6) Neither hide nor flaunt their own religious views.
(7) Explain all religions in such a way that their adherents are satisfied.
(8) Use the learners backgrounds as an invaluable resource.
(9) Encourage learners to speak freely and confidently about their own
views and about issues.
(10) Encourage and organise first-hand experience of various religions.
(11) Use a large range of support materials.

It is important that the ten principles of Religion Studies be seen in relation


to these 11 classroom practice principles. We will also look at how to apply
all these principles to the four learning outcomes.
Learning Outcomes 1 and 2 are developed very carefully and are structured
according to the cognitive pattern of inductive reasoning. If these outcomes
are applied without understanding their theoretical underpinnings, it could
result in confusion in the educator and learners.

Definition
Inductive reasoning: General understanding is inferred from particular
empirical instances.
Reasoning takes place from the specific (eg case studies), and results
are generalised to the whole population.

We distinguish inductive reasoning from deductive reasoning.


49 SDRELSD/1

Definition
Deductive reasoning: This is logic based purely on reason. If the premises
are agreed on, the conclusion has to be accepted.

For example:
All bachelors are unmarried men.
George is unmarried.
Therefore George is a bachelor.
Deductive reasoning has a number of limitations and cannot be applied
to all cognitive processes.

Learning Outcome 1 looks at knowledge and understanding of a variety of


religions. Therefore it is an understanding of particular religions.
Learning Outcome 2 looks at the universal dimensions of religion. This is
a general understanding of religion.
The assumption is that if learners are taught about the major religions in
the world, they will be able to extract generic aspects of religion from the
particular religions they have studied.
Inductive reasoning, as used above, is a very powerful method of reasoning
and is widely used in drawing conclusions about the world. But it has three
pitfalls that must be avoided:
The first pitfall is that when we study the particular, it must be done in an
objective and disinterested fashion on the basis of empirical observation.
The moment this assumption is adopted, the values base of the study is
lost. As Religion Studies is based on values, it is difficult to exclude val-
ues from our observations and focus purely on observable phenomena.
Although we strive to be objective, we know that this is not possible we
will always bring our own subjectivity to our study. The point is that we
must acknowledge this and guard against our biases.
The second pitfall is that the study of the particular, in this case a reli-
gion, is seen as a substantive form. This means that the object of study is
seen as an unchanging generic structure devoid of context and external
influence. As religion is a social and contextual phenomenon, it is not
entirely practical to study it in a decontextualised way. For this reason
it is important to bear in mind that in Learning Outcome 1, emphasis is
also placed on how religions relate to one another.
The third pitfall is that enumerating and naming elements in religion
satisfies the criterion of objectivity but does not account for the mean-
ing ascribed by people to these elements in religion. For example, to say
that there are a certain number of Muslim mosques in Johannesburg
tells us nothing at all about how the members of the mosques relate to
their places of worship. Learners must be made aware that religions are
a lived experience for people and play a key role in the human search
for meaning.
50

While it is true that we cannot make impartial value judgements because


values vary culturally, we must not allow this to lead us to think that we
must be disinterested researchers and devoid of values. As educators, it is
crucial to have values of respect and kindness as the motivation and goal
of the study of this discipline (Religion Studies), because that means that
we are interested in the feelings, beliefs and dignity of others. As a result,
although inductive reasoning is based on empirical observation, we must
be aware that it has limitations.
In order to teach Learning Outcomes 1 and 2 without falling into the pitfalls
described above, we must not look at religions or their followers as objects
of study. The study of religions, and the general category of religion, is the
study of how members of the human family establish meaning in their lives
through their spiritual and religious beliefs. It is, therefore, the study of a
highly subjective practice and has to be understood from the inside, that
is, with sensitivity to the way individuals experience their own religious
beliefs and practices. This understanding needs to be combined carefully
with the objective observation of religion in social contexts.

4.4 HOW DO PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT CULTURES FIND MEANING IN


THEIR LIVES?
Cultures have their roots in early myths and legends. These earliest narra-
tives significantly shape the premises that underpin a cultures philosophy
and belief systems.
Beliefs in myths and legends help people to understand themselves as part
of a culture. The values held by a culture are analogues of what was believed
previously by that culture. The body of knowledge of a culture comes from
the slow development of beliefs based upon previous beliefs. A cultures val-
ues develop from an awareness of human nature and how it is interpreted
culturally. The values held by a culture determine what people know and
believe about life within that culture.
In most cultures, the earliest systematised form of beliefs is found in re-
ligion. One of the fascinating questions about religion is where it comes
from. All religions claim to have their source in a transcendent revelation
or an awareness of a non-material reality. Therefore people do not believe
that their religions are invented by humans. Rather, in the beliefs of most
cultures, humanity was invented by religion. To maintain a high quality of
analysis and creativity in the study of religion, it is crucial that it be taught
in a holistic framework, taking into account the total context.

4.5 HOW TO APPROACH LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 AND 2 HOLISTICALLY

Definition
Holism being open to the present context in its totality and unique
nature
51 SDRELSD/1

The holistic study of religions and religion takes into account that religions
are made up of people who share a common set of beliefs that have evolved
through different historical contexts and epochs. Eastern religions, for
example, tend to have a more monistic (that is, unified) understanding of
reality than Western religion, which has led to a more holistic understand-
ing of society. The theism (belief in a God that is separate from humanity)
that runs through Western religion has tended to establish a more dualistic
and individualistic understanding of society.
It is tempting to view the universal elements (such as myth, ritual, ethics)
in religion as substantial objects in their own right. But viewing religion as
an object of study diminishes the values of the researcher as well as of the
believers. This is not to deny the commonalities between religions; but it
is important to retain the idea, even in Learning Outcome 2, that religions
amount to humanitys shared understanding of the world and should not
be viewed as a values-free object of study. For this reason it is important
to acknowledge the skills referred to in the Learning Outcome, namely
analyse, relate and systematise. If these skills are put into practice, they
should result in a holistic understanding of religion.

Task 4.2 Apply principles 7 and 8

Under the headings below, you are required to work with three cat-
egories, instead of the two categories that apply to Learning Outcome
1 (specific religions) and Learning Outcome 2 (universal elements of
religion). A third category, religious experience, is placed in between
the two Learning Outcomes. The aim of the task is to help you reflect
on applying principles 7 and 8 to Learning Outcomes 1 and 2.
Principles 7 and 8 are as follows:
7 facilitates an inclusive historical understanding and develops higher-
order skills of discovering relationships and dealing with complexity
8 is socially relevant and transformative
52

Task 4.2.1 Write brief summaries (give keywords) of the characteristics


of the following religions.
Nature of Path to Goal of Purpose Under- Under-
Ultimate Ultimate life of standing standing
Reality Reality ritual of time of
and creation
practices

African
religion

Hinduism

Buddhism

Judaism

Christianity

Islam
53 SDRELSD/1

Task 4.2.2

Now note where similarities exist between religions in any of the ar-
eas outlined above.
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
Can these religions be grouped in terms of related ideas about God, evil
and suffering, the path to salvation, purpose of salvation, ritual and
time? If so, how?
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................

The NCS statement regarding Learning Outcome 2 is as follows:


The various religions are studied systematically, revealing common features,
which include
views concerning divinity, the cosmos, humanity, the purpose of life,
knowledge, the good and the beautiful
sacred and normative traditions
narrative and myth
ethics
ritual
symbol
spiritual experience
faith
organisation

One of the founders of social anthropology, Edward B Tylor (18321917),


argued that religion has, since early history, been concerned with explaining
the world and the nature of reality. But the first and third NCS principles are
1 studies religion as part of culture and civic life
3 educates learners as members of the human family and citizens of the
world
Related classroom practice principles:
1 Neither promote nor undermine any religion.
4 Take into account the level of emotional and intellectual maturity of
learners taking Religion Studies.
7 Explain all religions in such a way that their adherents are satisfied.
54

8 Use the learners backgrounds as an invaluable resource.


9 Encourage learners to speak freely and confidently about their own
views and about issues.
10 Encourage and organise first-hand experience of various religions.
11 Use a large range of support materials.

Our focus, therefore, in teaching Learning Outcome 2, is on how humans,


all sharing the same human nature, experience the world. Despite the fact
that the notion of human nature is difficult to define, members of the human
family, coming from different religions, share common conceptual categories
in making sense of the world. The common categories listed in Learning
Outcome 2 shape our perspectives on the world, constructing myths and
legends and developing upwards through symbols, ritual, traditions (both
normative and sacred), ethics and social organisations. Knowledge and re-
spect for our own religion and culture come from our self-knowledge being
based on these universal categories. Both Western and Eastern religions
are founded on values of being honest and keeping integrity. In the West,
Greek thinkers called it aret and in Eastern thought, the same value is
called dharma. The words aret and dharma refer to the importance of
respecting and being true to your own religious tradition and respecting
and caring about the religious traditions of other people.
Principle number 5 in the NCS stipulates that learners affirm their own
religion, as well as those to which they do not belong and principle 6
stipulates the importance of developing appreciation of and respect for (the
learners) own traditions, as well as those of their fellow citizens.

4.6 HOW TO APPROACH LEARNING OUTCOMES 3 AND 4 HOLISTICALLY


Learning Outcomes 3 and 4 will address how to teach learners how to view
social issues related to religion and conduct research into religious issues.
In study unit 3 we looked at the importance of becoming aware of blind
spots in your understanding of religions. This is based on deepening your
knowledge of your own religious cultural tradition so that you know the
assumptions that contribute to the understanding of your religion. You also
need to be aware that different religions understand the nature of religion
itself differently. This understanding informs how followers of religions see
the world and the values they live by. Task 4.3 in this study unit focused
on how followers of the worlds major religions express themselves in dif-
ferent social contexts.
When teaching issues in religion such as
gender
fundamentalism
liberalism
scientific and intellectual challenges to religion
social challenges to religion
environmental ethics
religion and sexuality
55 SDRELSD/1

religious freedom
religions relationship with the media,

it is crucial to teach learners to be open to the issue being studied in its to-
tality and unique nature, that is, holistically. This means that learners need
to be able to see how peoples responses to situations are created by the
signs and symbols people live by. As members of the human family, learners
should be made aware of their shared human nature, such as feelings of care,
motives to protect life and needs for food and shelter, which will facilitate
the understanding of religious people and their issues on their own terms.
The skills, values and knowledge obtained in Learning Outcomes 1 and 2
form the basis for Learning Outcomes 3 and 4. Learners must be shown that
the patterns recognised in various religions and the universal dimensions
of religions will assist in their coming to understand issues in religion and
developing theories and insightful ways of understanding religion through
their own research. The patterns they observed while studying their own
religion can assist them in seeing interreligious similarities and reviewing
previously held assumptions about religion.
Studying religion involves constantly changing and re-evaluating opinions
and understandings seeing new connections and relationships between
religious ways of viewing the world. This approach is based on deductive
logic, as defined earlier: the testing of theories against empirical situations
and patterns. Deductive logic calls for the researcher to bring his or her
personal understandings into relationship with conditions and contexts in
the external world. The relationship between the subjective interior world
and the external world defines the journey into critical and creative thought
that learners take in their search for meaning (NCS principles 9 and 10).

Task 4.3 Research into a specific issue

This task will help you to plan lessons incorporating Learning Outcomes
3 and 4 in a way that is holistically informed. It will also help you to
apply principle 2 in your teaching practice.
Principle 2: Religion Studies is constructed in accordance with accepted
academic procedures.
Choose an issue from the following list:
gender
fundamentalism
liberalism
scientific and intellectual challenges to religion
social challenges to religion
environmental ethics
religion and sexuality
religious freedom
religions relationship with the media
56

Now write short notes for a lesson where you take a hypothesis relating
to your chosen issue within a particular religion (for example, men and
women have equal rights in Hinduism, or the media in South Africa
treats all religions with respect) and plan how you will conduct research
into whether this premise is viable or not.
This task unites Learning Outcomes 3 and 4 by focusing your attention
on the experiences of people within religion. It also calls for a holistic
approach to the study of religion in that the researcher cannot separate
himself or herself from the issue being researched. Rather, the research
has to be conducted with a view to keeping the researchers own views
in mind, as well as those of the religion being studied.
The aim of this task is for researchers to theorise their own values and
test them against empirical research.

That brings us to the end of this guide and we hope that it has helped you
to deepen your understanding of Religion Studies and hone your teaching
skills.
The following pages will provide you with some feedback on the tasks that
were included in the study units.
57 SDRELSD/1

F E E D B A C K O N TA S K S

Study unit 1

Task 1.1 Baseline assessment

Personal response

Task 1.2 Critical and Developmental Outcomes

The Critical Outcomes require learners to be able to


identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and crea-
tive thinking
Value: accountability
work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation
and community
Values: inclusivity, respect for equality, mutual respect
organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and
effectively
Value: accountability
collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information
Value: accountability
communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills
in various modes
Values: open society, human dignity, mutual respect, human rights
use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibil-
ity towards the environment and the health of others
Values: healthy environment, accountability
demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems
by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation
Values: social justice, healthy environment, inclusivity, equality, diversity,
openness

The Developmental Outcomes require learners to be able to


reflect on and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively
Value: accountability
participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and glo-
bal communities
58

Values: accountability, social justice, reconciliation, equality, open society,


mutual respect, rule of law, diversity
be culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts
Values: democracy, equity, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, open-
ness, inclusivity
explore education and career opportunities
Value: accountability
develop entrepreneurial opportunities
Value: accountability

Task 1.3 Summative assessment

All teaching and learning incorporates knowledge, skills, values and attitudes
in a fully integrated manner. Working in the tables on the following pages,
identify the knowledge, skills and values for each of the Religion Studies
Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards. Notice the progression of
the KSVAs as you identify them.
Extract the Religion Studies knowledge, skills, values and attitudes per
grade from the Learning Outcomes and linked Assessment Standards for
Grades 10, 11 and 12. If you need more space, create your own tables and
fill them in using as much detail as you can.
Please note: The answers provided below are for all of the Assessment
Standards for Learning Outcome 1 only. Your answers for Learning Outcomes
2, 3, 4 should follow a similar pattern.

LEARNING OUTCOMES AND ASSESSMENT STANDARDS


Learning Outcome 1: The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding
of a variety of religions and how they relate to one another.
The learner is able to understand a variety of religions, each with reference
to its own unique historical development and understanding of itself, in the
context of a comprehensive mental map of religions and their interactions.
59 SDRELSD/1

Assessment Standards
We know this when the learner is able to

Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12

10.1.1 11.1.1 12.1.1


identify various provide a critical distinguish between
clusters of reli- overview of the the concepts of iden-
gions in the world historical develop- tity, uniqueness, unity,
Knowledge: clus- ment of a number similarity, difference
ters of religion of religions and comparability, as far
Knowledge: his- as religion is concerned
Skills: identify
torical develop- Knowledge: conceptual
Values and at- ment of a number knowledge of specific
titudes: toler- of religions characteristics of religions
ance, inclusivity,
respect Skills: critically Skills: compare,
overview distinguish
10.1.2
Values and at- Values and attitudes:
provide a his- titudes: toler- tolerance, inclusivity, re-
torical overview ance, inclusivity, spect, open society
of the origins respect
of a number of 12.1.2
religions 11.1.2 analyse the internal dif-
Knowledge: over- describe and criti- ferences in a number of
view of the ori- cally analyse the religions
gins of a number interdependence Knowledge: internal dif-
of religions between religion ferentiations in a number
and social factors of religions
Skills: read,
compare, Knowledge: in- Skills: analyse, compare,
compile and terdependence show insight
overview between religion
and social factors Values and attitudes:
Values and at- tolerance, inclusivity,
titudes: toler- Skills: describe, respect, compassion, open
ance, inclusivity, critically analyse society
respect Values and at- 12.1.3
10.1.3 titudes: toler-
ance, inclusivity, identify and explain
explain the sta- respect, compas- unique features of vari-
tistical situation sion, open so- ous religions in the wider
concerning vari- ciety, equality, religious context
ous religions in democracy Knowledge: unique fea-
South Africa and tures of various religions
the world 11.1.3
in the wider religious
Knowledge: sta- explain patterns context
tistical situation of mutual influ-
60

concerning vari- ence and adap- Skills: identify and


ous religions in tation between explain
SA and the world religions Values and attitudes:
Skills: explain Knowledge: pat- tolerance, inclusivity, re-
Values and at- terns of mutual spect, open society, equal-
titudes: toler- influence and ad- ity, democracy
ance inclusivity, aptation between 12.1.4
respect, open religions
examine the history and
society Skills: explain, the present dynamics of
10.1.4 see patterns inter-religious relation-
analyse the no- Values and at- ships in South African,
tions of tolerance, titudes: toler- African and internation-
respect, dialogue, ance, inclusiv- al communities
conflict, funda- ity, respect, open Knowledge: history and
mentalism, plu- society the present dynamics of
ralism, propagan- 11.1.4 inter-religious relation-
da, indoctrination identify and criti- ships in South African,
and syncretism cally investigate African and internation-
with reference approaches aimed al communities
to religious at dialogue be- Skills: examine
interaction tween religions Values and attitudes:
Knowledge: no- Knowledge: iden- tolerance, inclusivity, re-
tions of tolerance, tify and critically spect, open society, equal-
respect, dialogue, investigate ap- ity, democracy
conflict, funda- proaches aimed at
mentalism, plu- dialogue between
ralism, propagan- religions
da, indoctrination
and syncretism Skills: iden-
with reference tify and critically
to religious investigate
interaction Values and at-
Skills: analyse titudes: toler-
ance, inclusiv-
Values: toler- ity, respect, open
ance, inclusivity, society, equality,
respect, open democracy
society, equality,
democracy
61 SDRELSD/1

Study unit 2

Task 2.1 Baseline assessment

Developmental Values in How these Teaching


and Critical Developmental values are strategies that
Outcomes and Critical expressed in allow students
Outcomes Religion Studies to arrive at
these values and
outcomes

Identify and solve Accountability LO 3 and LO 4 Dialogue, debate,


problems and using source
make decisions documents/texts,
using critical and discussion
creative thinking.

Work effectively Inclusiv- LO 4 Modelling


with others as ity, respect for respect for self
members of a equality, and others,
team, group, mutual respect effective commu-
organisation nication skills,
and community. teaching planning
strategies

Organise and Accountability LO 4 Teaching effec-


manage them- tive communica-
selves and their tion skills, teach-
activities ing planning
responsibly and strategies
effectively.

Collect, analyse, Accountability LO 2 and LO 3 Dialogue, debate,


organise and using source
critically evaluate documents/texts,
information. discussion

Communicate Open society, LO 1, LO 3 Teaching effec-


effectively using human dignity, tive communica-
visual, symbolic mutual tion skills,
and/or language respect, dialogue, respect
skills in various human rights
modes.
62

Use science and Healthy LO 3 and LO 4 Teach effective


technology environment, use of technol-
effectively and accountability ogy, respect,
critically, show- responsibility
ing responsibility
towards the envi-
ronment and the
health of others.

Demonstrate an Social justice, LO 1, LO 2, LO 3 Respect, dialogue,


understanding of healthy and LO 4 research, teach
the world as a set environment, meaning and
of related systems inclusivity, context, teach
by recognising equality, diver- self-awareness
that problem- sity, openness and awareness of
solving contexts others
do not exist in
isolation.

Reflect on and Accountability LO 4 Study skills, read-


explore a ing and research
variety of skills, writing
strategies to learn skills, thinking
more effectively. skills, construct-
ing an argu-
ment, collecting
evidence

Participate as Accountability, LO 3 Respect and


responsible citi- social justice, responsibility for
zens in the life of reconciliation, self and others,
local, equality, open interdependence,
national and society, mutual dialogue,
global respect, rule of debate, discus-
communities. law, diversity sion, source-
based information

Be culturally Democracy, LO 1, LO 3 and Dialogue,


and aesthetically equity, free- LO 4 debate, exposure
sensitive across dom of speech, to difference
a range of social freedom
contexts. of religion,
openness,
inclusivity
63 SDRELSD/1

Explore educa- Accountability LO 3, LO 4 Research, work


tion and career experience, appli-
opportunities. cation of Learn-
ing Outcomes
to work-related
activities

Develop Accountability LO 3 and LO 4 As above


entrepreneurial
opportunities.

Task 2.2 Summative assessment


KSVs

The table below contains the Religion Studies Grade 10 Learning


Outcomes and Assessment Standards. In the knowledge, skills and
values columns, write down two appropriate articles from the Policy
(see the quick-reference guide below).

Quick-reference guide to salient articles


Topics are arranged according to the logical progression of the Policy.
This guide does not provide comprehensive coverage of all the articles.
Rather, its purpose is to provide a quick reference to the main topics
in the Policy.

Values
constitutional values articles 8 & 11
individual rights of association articles 13 & 28
constitutional values expressed in the RE policy articles 8, 11 & 14
relationship between RE and constitutional values articles 3, 4, 5,
8, 11, 12, 14, 22, 23, 28 & 70
values independent of religion article 9
shared civic values article 14

Religion and civic life


empathy articles 21 & 26
RE develops inner spirituality and morality articles 19, 25 & 26
non-prescriptive approach to RE articles 2 & 5
the cooperative model articles 3, 4 & 5
RE policy embraces religion and spirituality articles 1, 2, 5, 8, 19 & 66
unity in diversity articles 9, 10, 15, 21, 25, 30 & 35
multi-tradition approach articles 23 & 25
64

RE in the classroom
religious literacy articles 19, 26 & 27
critical reflection articles 21 & 26
trained teachers article 34
materials articles 46 & 47

Write down two appropriate articles from the Policy.

Learning Outcomes Knowledge Skills Values

Learning Outcome 1 9 20 21
Variety of religions 23 44 18
The learner is able to 45
demonstrate knowledge and understand-
ing of a variety of religions and how they
relate to one another

Assessment Standards 19 20 18
The learner is able to 44
identify various clusters of religions in the
world

provide a historical overview of the origins 9, 28 25 14


of a number of religions and 29 and
27

explain the statistical structure concern- 9 21 10


ing various religions in South Africa and
the world

analyse the notion of tolerance, respect, 45 30 22


dialogue, conflict, fundamentalism, plu- 26
ralism, propaganda, indoctrination and
syncretism with reference to religious
interaction
65 SDRELSD/1

Study unit 3

Task 3.1 The Constitution, the Policy and the NCS

In order to understand how Religion Studies principles relate to one another


in an integrated way, it is helpful to relate them back to the human rights
principles and culture in the Constitution. In the table below, write down
the three sets of principles (in the Constitution, the Policy and the NCS)
that inform Religion Studies. Look for connections between the three sets
of principles and show these connections by using coloured pens.

A: B: C:
Constitutional Religion Education Religion Studies principles
principles principles

Democracy Equity Studies religion as part of


culture and civic life
(Column A: freedom of per-
son, belief and expression;
human dignity; an open so-
ciety; mutual respect
Column B: equity; diversity;
openness)

Social justice and Diversity Is constructed in accord-


equity ance with accepted aca-
demic procedures
(Column A: social justice
and equity; freedom of
person, belief and expres-
sion; non-racism and non-
sexism; responsibility and
accountability
Column B: accountability)

Freedom of per- Openness Educates learners as mem-


son, belief and bers of the human family
expression and citizens of the world
(Column A: social justice
and equity; mutual respect
Column B: equity, social
honour; openness)
66

Non-racism and Accountability Is situated in the South Af-


non-sexism rican and African contexts
(Column A: democracy;
social justice and equity;
human dignity (Ubuntu);
responsibility and account-
ability; the rule of law; mu-
tual respect
Column B: equity, diversity)

Human dignity Social honour Affirms the learners own


(Ubuntu) religion, as well as those to
which they do not belong,
by developing appreciation
of and respect for their own
traditions as well as those of
their fellow citizens
(Column A: social justice
and equity; freedom of per-
son, belief and expression;
human dignity (Ubuntu);
an open society; mutual
respect; reconciliation
Column B: diversity;
openness)

An open society Facilitates inclusive histori-


cal understanding and de-
velops higher-order skills
of discovering relationships
and dealing with complexity
(Column A: social justice
and equity; freedom of per-
son, belief and expression;
human dignity (Ubuntu);
an open society; mutual
respect; reconciliation
Column B: diversity;
openness)
67 SDRELSD/1

Responsibility and Is socially relevant and


accountability transformative
(Column A: social justice
and equity; an open society;
mutual respect; the rule of
law; reconciliation
Column B: equity; diversity;
accountability; openness)

Mutual respect Is critical


(Column A: social justice
and equity; non-racism
and non-sexism; freedom
of person, belief and ex-
pression; an open society;
mutual respect; the rule of
law; reconciliation
Column B: equity; diversity;
accountability; openness)

The rule of law Is creative


(Column A: an open so-
ciety; mutual respect;
reconciliation
Column B: equity;
accountability)

Task 3.2 Purpose of outcomes

On the lines provided below, explain how you would define the purpose of
LO 1, LO 2, LO 3 and LO 4.

Learning Outcome 1: Variety of religions


The purpose of Learning Outcome 1 is to help your learners develop clear
knowledge, skills and values with regard to the variety of religions. This
will support the development of an understanding of religious groupings
and the histories and development of religions.
68

Learning Outcome 2: The universal dimensions of religion


The purpose of Learning Outcome 2 is to enable learners to recognise
the common elements/characteristics of various religions. This will support
their ability to treat different religions with understanding and insight.

Learning Outcome 3: Social issues and issues of religion


The purpose of Learning Outcome 3 is to help learners develop an under-
standing of the role of religion in social issues and to examine if religions
can contribute towards solving social problems.

Learning Outcome 4: Research


The purpose of Learning Outcome 4 is to enable learners to develop research
techniques by applying Learning Outcomes 1, 2 and 3 in research tasks.

Task 3.3 Constitutional values and classroom practice

Personal response

Task 3.4 Perceptions that influence your teaching practice

Personal response

Task 3.5 Principles underlying the teaching of Religion Studies

Personal response

Task 3.6 A lesson plan

This lesson is adapted from one in OBE for FET Religion Studies Gr 10 by
HC Steyn et al. 2006. Pretoria: Nasou.
Your own lesson does not have to be as extensive but you should include
content, activities and assessment strategies.
A lesson plan

School Summerville High School

Subject Religion Studies

Grade Grade 10

Teacher Miss Knowitall


69 SDRELSD/1

Main LO 1
Learning
Outcome(s)

Assessment AS 6
Standard(s)

Related LO 4
Learning
Outcomes &
Assessment
Standards

Content Defining the terms below with regard to religions and their
interaction:
tolerance
respect
dialogue
conflict
fundamentalism
pluralism
propaganda
indoctrination
syncretism

Topic The many ways in which religions relate to one another

Approximate 3 hours
contact time

Teachers Learners Skills, Resources Assess- Assess-


activities activities values, ment ment tools
knowledge strategies
and
attitudes

Research on Individual Knowledge: Variety of Formative Rubric for


the defini- activ- definitions books and assessment extended
tions of the ity for of terms articles writing
terms portfolio: Knowledge Internet
Research of
70

Research on a reli- religions


the rela- gious attitudes
tionships conflict towards
between Pair the other
religions activity Skills:
Presentation for class- research,
of the defi- work on data gath-
nitions and religious ering,
supervision diversity analysis,
and facilita- systema-
tion of the tisation,
activities report
writing

Outcome 1: Assessment Standard 6


How do religions relate to one another?

Assessment Standard: Analyse the notions of tolerance, respect, dia-


logue, conflict, fundamentalism, pluralism, propaganda, indoctrination
and syncretism with reference to religious interaction.
After you have studied this unit, you should understand the interaction
between religions in terms of
tolerance
respect
dialogue
conflict
fundamentalism
pluralism
propaganda
indoctrination
syncretism

In any given society where more than one religious tradition is present,
interaction between different religions is bound to take place. In order to
understand what religious interaction entails, we will now look at some of
the fundamental concepts that characterise this process. We will look at the
occurrence of religious conflict and the concepts of religious fundamen-
talism and religious pluralism. We will also deal with the phenomena of
religious propaganda and indoctrination, as well as religious syncretism.
71 SDRELSD/1

Tolerance and respect

Tolerate: endure, permit (practice, action, persons doing); allow (person,


religious sect, opinion) to exist without interference or molestation
Toleration: allowing of differences in religious opinion without
discrimination
Respect: regard with deference, esteem or honour; avoid degrading or
insulting or injuring or interfering with or interrupting; treat with con-
sideration; spare; refrain from offending or corrupting
Dialogue: conversation; discussion between representatives of two groups

Given the above definitions of tolerance and respect, the questions that come
to mind are: Is tolerance (in the sense of endurance) enough and is respect
(esteem and honour) always possible?

Group activity 1: Discussion on tolerance and respect


Allow learners to discuss the meanings of the terms tolerance and re-
spect with regard to religion. It is not necessary that they agree on the
limits of tolerance and respect. It is, however, important that they under-
stand that the terms and their application are more complex than may be
immediately apparent.

Teachers notes:
Allow learners to express their own opinions, but guide the discussions
in order for learners to see the complexities involved in these appar-
ently simple terms.
Assessment
Type Formative assessment
Method Observation
Form of assessment Discussion
Tool See group discussion rubric at end of lesson.
I will know that learners have achieved the Assessment Standards for
this activity when they are able to participate in a discussion on the
relevant terms.
Integration Life Orientation

Interreligious dialogue

Dialogue: conversation; discussion between representatives of two groups

Interreligious dialogue can take place on many different levels. On the


one hand there are the conversations that take place when learners from
72

different religious backgrounds discuss their beliefs and practices among


themselves in a classroom situation. On the other hand, there are also very
formal occasions where the religious leaders have meetings to foster better
relationships among the adherents of the various religions. In between these
two poles, there are many different levels of dialogue, with many different
practical (working together) or theoretical (differences in dogma) aims.
Religious conflict
People who live in a country with different religions may respond in many
different ways to the fact that their neighbours and people that they work
or study with belong to religions that are different from their own.

Im scared of those Hindus


next door. Theyre so
different!

Those Christians next


door are so different and d
interesting! Id really like
to get to know more
about them and their
religion.

The people next door are


Jewish. Ive never met any Jews
before. Im not sure how I should
act.
73 SDRELSD/1

Intolerance is a response which has serious negative effects on peace and


harmony in society. It is natural to be proud of your own religious, cultural
and linguistic identity, but being proud of your own identity should not lead
to prejudice against those who are different; rather, it should form the basis
for genuine tolerance. However, pride and prejudice may gain the upper hand
and lead to intolerance when one particular group forms a large majority.

Intolerance of people from other religions can pave the way for religious
conflict, of which there are many examples around the world, both in his-
tory and in contemporary society. Such conflict usually involves a power
struggle with one group seeking to control and manipulating the others. It
is not always easy to determine the true causes of conflict in society, but
political alliances, economic differences and ethnic battles often come into
the picture. However, conflict in India, Lebanon, Nigeria, Northern Ireland,
Pakistan and Palestine have shown that religious differences contributed
to the conflict, even if they were not the sole cause.
74

Fact file: Current conflicts and wars


Cte dIvoire (Ivory Coast): Following elections in late 2000, government
security forces started a campaign of violence and repression against
civilians on the basis of their religion, ethnic group or national origin.
The overwhelming majority of victims were Muslims living in the north
of the country. A military uprising continued the slaughter in 2002.
East Timor: In this predominantly Roman Catholic country, about 20 per
cent of the population died by murder, starvation or disease after they
were forcibly annexed by Indonesia (mainly Muslim). After voting for
independence, the situation is now stable.
Nigeria: Yorubas and Christians in the south are involved in continuous
battles with Muslims in the north. The country is struggling towards
democracy after decades of Muslim military dictatorship.
Indonesia: After centuries of relative peace, conflict arose between Chris-
tians and Muslims in 1999. The situation now appears stable.
Northern Ireland: After around 3 600 killings and assassinations in the
30 years of conflict between Catholics and Protestants, some progress has
been made in the form of a ceasefire and independence for the country.
Sri Lanka: Most Tamils in the north of Sri Lanka form part of a Hindu
minority. Since 1983 they have been fighting for independence from the
rest of the country, which has a Buddhist majority. An estimated 65 000
have been killed in the conflict, which improved in 2002 when the Tamils
dropped their demand for complete independence.

Possible portfolio individual activity 2: Religious conflict


Choose a religious conflict from the fact file above (or any other source).
It can be a current or a historical conflict.
Research this conflict: find out where it is happening, which religious
groups are involved, and what damage both sides have incurred. If the
conflict is over, find out how it was resolved. You can find information in
history books and textbooks, from history teachers, on the news and in
newspapers, in a library or on the internet.
Write a one-page essay on the conflict you have researched.
75 SDRELSD/1

Teachers notes:
This is a most challenging research activity because it deals with a
topic that will be largely unfamiliar, so the learners will need plenty of
support. I will need plenty of resources in the class for them to consult
(both historical resources and contemporary ones such as newspapers
and magazines).

Assessment will be:


Type Formative assessment
Method Task-based
Form of assessment Written essay
Tool Rubric 15

I will know that learners have fully achieved the Assessment Standards
for this activity when they have written an essay on religious conflict
that includes material from their own research.
Integration History, First Additional Language

Fundamentalism
Fundamentalism is a movement aimed at maintaining strict adherence to
the founding principles of all religious traditions. It involves resistance to
modern trends and the desire to protect the faith against secular influences.
One of the main points of criticism of fundamentalism is that it fails to
acknowledge that modern life sometimes poses serious challenges to reli-
gious ideals. According to this argument, fundamentalists become selec-
tive in what they believe and practise. For instance, the book of Exodus in
the Old Testament of the Bible dictates that when a mans brother dies, he
must marry his widowed sister-in-law. According to the critics, few, if any,
fundamentalist Christians adhere to this doctrine, despite the fact that it
is not contradicted in the New Testament.
76

FUNDAMENTALISTS
ENTALISTS BELIEVE

The sacred scripture of my tradition is the


authentic word of God: its exactly what God
said. So nobody can change it or disagree
with it; youve just got to obey the word
of God.
God

The only right way to practise my religion is


to practise it in exactly the same way as did
the first ppeople
p who believed in it.

Im a Christian fundamentalist, so I
think the only way to be a Christian is
to do exactly what the people did
who first followed Jesus when
he was alive on earth
earth.

Im a fundamentalist Muslim, so I
think the only way to be a Muslim is to do ex-
actly what the people did who first followed
Muhammad when he was alive on
earth.

I havent made any new-fangled changes


to my religion. I practise it in exactly the same
way as the first people who believed in it did.

Religious pluralism
Fact file: Religious pluralism
During the second half of the twentieth century there have been tremendous
migrations of peoples from one country to another, both as immigrants and
refugees. It is estimated that 2 per cent of the entire world population today
lives outside its country of origin. These migrations have also caused the
religious landscape in many countries to change. In Britain, for instance,
there are 200 000 Sikhs, more Muslims than Methodists and more Jews
per kilometre in the town of Redbridge than in the state of Israel! Similar
changes have taken place in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the
USA. Of course, South Africa is and has always been a country of great
religious diversity.
77 SDRELSD/1

Pause for thought


When we acknowledge that there are adherents of African religion, Bud-
dhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims and Jews present in a province such as
Gauteng or KwaZulu-Natal, we do not know whether the followers of those
faiths have respect for one anothers beliefs. The fact that there are many
religions present in a given country, province, city or town does not tell us
whether there is harmony or discord between different religions in such a
society or community.

The term religious pluralism is ambiguous.


It is sometimes used as a synonym for religious diversity, which means
having followers of many religions in one society.
It is sometimes used to describe how well different religions are co-
existing in a particular society.

Theres a lot of religious diversity in my


ttown.
own. I pass a mosque and a church on the way to
school every day, and theres a church around the corner
from my flat. I dont mind all these religions. I mean, just
because theyre in my town doesnt mean I have to get in-
volved in them. I go to temple and mind my own
business,
b usiness, and the others go to their synagogues and
mosques and d churches
h h and d mind
i d their
th i own
b tolera
r ntt
business. Its all about being tolerant
of one another.

Im a very committed Catholic


myself, but I really like the Jewish com-
munity at the synagogue in my area. Its interesting
learning about what they believe, and I really respect
the way they practise their faith. My church and the syna-
gogue are working together on a project to raise money for
a school in our town. We all believe in charity, so it makes
sense to work together to help other people. My priest
says were practising religious
pluralism.

Did you know?


In South Africa, the National Religious Leaders Forum may be an example
of cooperation across religious boundaries.
So, if a society has religious diversity, it does not necessarily mean that it
also has religious pluralism. Religious pluralism, or good relations between
different faiths, is something that requires effort on the part of those who
are so inclined. It does not happen overnight, but involves a process.
78

Pair activity 2: Religious diversity


Make a list of all the religions that you are aware of in South Africa.
Cross out every religion that you have never had any personal contact
with. For example, do you know anyone who is Muslim? If you do, leave
Islam on your list. If not, cross it out.
If there is a religion that you do not belong to but have good relations
with, mark it with a star. For example, if you are Hindu but you have
gone to a Christian wedding, mark Christianity with a star.
How much religious diversity is there in your life?
How much religious pluralism is there in your life?
Is there a big difference between the extent of diversity and pluralism
in your life? Why do you think that is? If the extent of religious diversity
and pluralism in your life are quite similar, why do you think that is?

Teachers notes:
It should be easy for learners to compile a list of South African religions.
For example, use the broad term Christianity, rather then mentioning a
long list of distinct churches. In this activity learners should try to inter-
nalise the pluralistic nature of South African society by reflecting on the
religions of which they have some personal experience, however slight.
Assessment
Type Formative assessment
Method Task-based
Form of assessment Discussion
Tool Rubric 11

I will know that learners have achieved the Assessment Standards for
this activity when they are able to participate in discussions on the
pluralistic nature of the South African society.
Integration Life Orientation

Propaganda and indoctrination


The terms propaganda and indoctrination are often used when attempts
are made by a religious group to win people over to its cause. Critics of
such attempts then accuse those involved of propagating its teachings and
trying to indoctrinate others.
79 SDRELSD/1

propaganda (noun): information used to spread a particular point of


view, especially biased or misleading information
indoctrination (noun): teaching a person or group of people to accept
certain beliefs uncritically

I dont know why so many people are against


religious propaganda. Its just an organised programme
o publicity and information to spread a particular reli-
of
gious point of view, like a particular doctrine or
way of practising a religion.

Well, I think its biased information! You guys


just tell one side of the story and you ignore any
arguments anyone else might have.

Okay, but I still dont see why people criticise


indoctrination. Its just about persuading people to
accept certain teachings or ideas by teaching them
systematically over a long period of time.

Hmm Ive got nothing against teaching,


but when you indoctrinate people, you try to teach
them to accept your teachings uncritically. I think
people should rather think about
what they learn.

Group activity 3: Propaganda and indoctrination


Discuss how propaganda is different from ordinary spreading of information.
Discuss how indoctrination is different from ordinary teaching.
People probably talk about political propaganda more often than religious
propaganda. Can you think of any situations in the past or currently in
which political propaganda was used to indoctrinate people into certain
political beliefs?
Can you think of any example where religious propaganda and religious
indoctrination took place in the past or is still taking place?
80

Teachers notes:
Learners can discuss a few examples of both political and religious
propaganda to get the discussion going.
Assessment
Type Formative assessment
Method Observation
Form of assessment Discussion
Tool Rubric on group discussions below

I will know that learners have fully achieved the Assessment Standards
for this activity when they are able to take part in a class discussion on
the topics indicated.
Integration History, First Additional Language

Syncretism
The concept syncretism has been coined to describe the mixing of ele-
ments from different religious sources. It is often viewed in a negative light.

I dont think you can create a new religion by just


picking out the parts you like from some other
religions!

Well, historically speaking, all religions have adopted


ideas from other traditions, so in a way, one could
say that they are all syncretistic already.
81 SDRELSD/1

Case study of syncretism


The Sikh faith, which is of Indian origin, is a classic example of a syn-
cretistic religion, since it arises from two very different sources. It was
founded more than five hundred years ago by Guru Nanak (14691538).
His parents were Hindus, but in time he also came under the influence
of Islam. He went through a personal crisis, from which he emerged
with the message that there is no Hindu and no Muslim; in the new
religion that he proclaimed, the two were mixed. Its monotheism came
from Islam and its devotion from Hinduism.

Individual activity 4: Extended writing task


Religions cannot interact, only people can.
Discuss the statement above with reference to the many ways in which
interaction takes place between people with regard to religious matters.
Indicate how harmonious civil relationships can be promoted despite real
religious differences. In your essay, pay attention to the technical terms
discussed in this lesson.
Your essay will be assessed by using the following rubric and guidelines.
Rubric
Presentation
5 4 3 2 1
Content Well planned and Well planned and Planned and struc- Attempts to sustain No clear structure.
structured. Develops structured. Develops a tured to a certain a line of argument. No sustained line of
a relevant line of relevant line of argu- extent. Attempts Thinking skills and argument. Thinking
argument. Thinking ment. Thinking skills to sustain a line of operative concepts skills and operative
skills and operative and operative concepts argument. Think- applied at low level. concepts applied at
concepts applied at applied at very high ing skills and op- Little independence. very low levels. No
outstanding level. level. High level of erative concepts independence.
Very high level of independence. Good applied at moderate
independence and measure of originality. level. Measure of
originality. independence.
5 Question fully ad- 90100 8088
dressed. Very rich
content. Content fully
82

relevant to question.
4 Question largely ad- 8088 7079 6069
dressed. Rich content.
Content relevant to
question.
3 Question partially 6069 5059 4049
addressed. Omissions
and sometimes irrel-
evant content.
2 Question inadequately 4049 3039 2029
addressed. Omissions
in coverage. Some ir-
relevant content.
1 Question not ad- 2029 2029
dressed. Content
sparse and irrelevant.
83 SDRELSD/1

Guidelines for educator

Mark sheet
Weighting Your Weighting Your Total
mark mark
1 Structure 3
Is there an introduc-
tion and a conclusion?
Are there rel- 3
evant headings and 9
subheadings?
Does each con- 3
cept have its own
subsection?
2 Content

tolerance & respect 8 55

dialogue 8

conflict 8

fundamentalism 8

pluralism 8

propaganda & 8
indoctrination
syncretism 7

3 Independence & 10
originality
Logical argument 30
Are differences taken 10
seriously?
Suggestions for pro- 10
motion of good civil
relationships
4 Technical presentation 6 6
Grammar, spelling and
neatness
TOTAL 100 100
84

Assessment rubric: General class participation

Learners 1 2 3 4 5 6

offer their thoughts and opinions

respond to questions

listen respectfully to other learners

work when they are given activities to do

do not interrupt aggressively or out of turn

participate in pair/group work

demonstrate interest in discussions and activities

Study unit 4

Task 4.1 Development of three key outcomes in Religion Studies

In the spaces provided below, show how each of the three key outcomes
in the NCS are developed across the Religion Studies Learning Outcomes
and Assessment Standards in Grades 10, 11 and 12. Refer to the Learning
Outcomes and Assessment Standards provided at the beginning of this
study unit to help you.
i Grade 10
Enrichment and empowerment of learners
eg
LO 1 (ASs 10.1.1, 10.1.2)
LO 2 (ASs 10.2.1, 10.2.2)
LO 3 (AS 10.3.1)
LO 4 (AS 10.4.1)
Enhancement of interpersonal relationships
LO 1 (AS 10.1.4)
LO 2 (ASs 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4, 10.2.5, 10.2.6)
LO 3 (ASs 10.3.1, 10.3.2)
LO 4 (ASs 10.4.1, 10.4.3)
Contribution to an open and democratic society
LO 1 (AS 10.1.4)
LO 2 (ASs 10.2.2, 10.2.6)
LO 3 (ASs 10.3.1, 10.3.2, 10.3.3)
LO 4 (ASs 10.4.1, 10.4.3)
85 SDRELSD/1

ii Grade 11
Enrichment and empowerment of learners
LO 1 (AS 11.1.2)
LO 2 (AS 11.2.2)
LO 3 (ASs 11.3.1, 11.3.2, 11.3.3, 11.3.4)
LO 4 (ASs 11.4.1, 11.4.2)
Enhancement of interpersonal relationships
LO 1 (ASs 11.1.2, 11.1.3, 11.1.4)
LO 2 (AS 11.2.2)
LO 3 (AS 11.3.4)
LO 4 (ASs 11.4.1, 11.4.2)
Contribution to an open and democratic society
LO 1 (ASs 11.1.2, 11.1.3, 11.1.4)
LO 2 (AS 11.2.2)
LO 3 (ASs 11.3.1, 11.3.2, 11.3.3, 11.3.4)
LO 4 (AS 11.4.1)
iii Grade 12
Enrichment and empowerment of learners
LO 1 (AS 12.1.4)
LO 2 (ASs 12.2.1, 12.2.2, 12.2.3, 12.2.4, 12.2.5, 12.2.6)
LO 3 (ASs 12.3.1, 12.3.2, 12.3.3)
LO 4 (ASs 12.4.1, 12.4.2)
Enhancement of interpersonal relationships
LO 1 (ASs 12.1.1, 12.1.4)
LO 2 (AS 12.2.1)
LO 3 (AS 12.3.1)
LO 4 (AS 12.4.1)
Contribution to an open and democratic society
LO 1 (ASs 12.1.3, 12.1.4)
LO 2 (ASs 12.2.1, 12.2.3, 12.2.6)
LO 3 (ASs 12.3.1, 12.3.2, 12.3.3)
LO 4 (ASs 12.4.1, 12.4.2)
86

Task 4.2 Characteristics of religions and how they relate to one


another

Under the headings below, you are required to work with three cat-
egories, instead of the two categories that apply to Learning Outcome
1 (specific religions) and Learning Outcome 2 (universal elements of
religion). A third category, religious experience, is placed in between
the two Learning Outcomes. The aim of task is to help you reflect on
applying principles 7 and 8 to Learning Outcomes 1 and 2.
Principles 7 and 8 are as follows:
7 facilitates an inclusive historical understanding and develops higher-
order skills of discovering relationships and dealing with complexity
8 is socially relevant and transformative

Task 4.2.1 Characteristics of religions

See next page


Task 4.2.1 Characteristics of religions

Nature of Ultimate Path to Ultimate Reality Goal of life Purpose of ritual and Understanding of time Understanding of
Reality practices creation

African Supreme being who is Living a life respectful of Achieving a full and Showing reverence to Time is continuous God created the
religion creator and sustainer ancestors, clan, family, complete life ancestors, com- across material and world and continues
of all things nature and God munity and God spiritual realms to sustain creation

Hinduism Brahman the one Yoga (the path of Release (moksha) Purification and enli- Cyclical; time is an The world and cos-
Reality knowledge, action and vening the experience illusion mos are an illusion
devotion) of inner divinity dreamt by Brahma

Buddhism Emptiness sunyata Eightfold path Nirvana To free the mind from Time is a concept Mind created realm
attachment established by the at- that contains a mix-
tached mind through ture of half-truths
sensory experience and delusion

Judaism One God who created Covenant relationship To live in obedience to Purification and to Time is linear. God God created the
the world; transcend- with God based on a the Torah enact the covenant fulfils his promise world
ent but immanent, om- promise made by God. If relationship to Jews through the
87

niscient, omnipotent covenant is maintained, course of history


and good it will ensure union with
God at the end of time

Christianity One God. Accepting Jesus Christ as Ultimate reunion with To remind Christians of Time is linear. Reward God created the
saviour and following the God in heaven the meaning in birth, and punishment at world
God is a Trinity
teachings of Jesus death and resurrection Judgement Day
God became flesh and of Jesus Christ
experienced human
suffering. Through his
suffering, humanitys
sins can be forgiven

Islam Allah (God) is one Submission to the will of Return to Allah in Purification, spiritual Time is linear. All will Allah created the
and is Allah heaven and moral training be judged at end of world. Everything
completely transcend- time and good people happens according to
ent. He is merciful, will be accepted into Allahs will
omniscient, omnipo- paradise
tent and good
SDRELSD/1
88

Task 4.2.2 Similarities between religions

Now note where similarities occur between religions in any of the areas
outlined above.
Hinduism and Buddhism see time as circular.
Judaism, Christianity and Islam see time as linear with a beginning
and an end.
God is seen in theistic terms (a Creator separate from creation) by
Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Ultimate reality in Hinduism and Buddhism is the only truth; nothing
else exists in reality.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam and African Religion see ritual and reli-
gious practice as a unifying, lived experience with God.
Hinduism and Buddhism see ritual and religious practice as a way of
enabling people to see past the delusory nature of the world so that
the truth can be experienced.

Can these religions be grouped in terms of related ideas about God, evil
and suffering, the path to salvation, the purpose of salvation, ritual and
time? If so, how?
89 SDRELSD/1

Western/theistic Eastern/monistic
Judaism, Christianity, Islam Hinduism, Buddhism

A creator God who acts as a person A concept of the Ultimate Reality


as undifferentiated and impersonal

A human being is fundamentally The human reality is identical to


different and separate from God the Reality: atman is Brahman
(monism); or as in Buddhism no
statement can be made about the
person who has achieved nirvana

Evil and suffering are due to sin- Evil and suffering are due to hu-
ning against the law of God man ignorance and self-delusion

The path to salvation depends ei- The path to salvation is through


ther on good works and adherence the acquisition of knowledge or
to the Holy Law; or it is simply a wisdom, that is, the ability to see
matter of faith and the grace of things as they really are
God

The purpose of salvation is to es- The purpose of salvation is to


cape from the threat of hell to reach escape from the suffering of this
the goal of heaven or paradise world and to achieve the state of
blissfulness, nirvana or moksha

Most important ritual elements Most important ritual elements


revolve around worship and revolve around meditation and
sacrament achievement of altered states of
consciousness

Progressive historical time with Cyclical time with no beginning


a beginning and an end or end

Task 4.3 Research into a specific issue

This task requires personal research and investigation around a specific


issue chosen from the list provided.
Research should provide evidence of the following:
relevant hypothesis
deductive investigation into the hypothesis using research data that tests
the hypothesis against research findings
verification or falsification of the hypothesis