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ASSIGNMENT 2 ETH303V

A) DESCRIBE THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS AND GIVE EXAMPLES

i) PREJUDICE

Prejudice is the judgment or view, in opposition to or in support of a


person or thing formed prior or without appropriate inspection of the facts.
It includes the unreasonable feelings, opinions or attitudes, especially of
an antagonistic/holistic nature, focused against a group other than your
own. Example: I dont like Whites because they are racist. 3

ii) STEREOTYPES

This is an over simplified idea or image about a certain group


of people that is widely accepted by others. Stereotyping
sometimes amounts to rigid overgeneralized description of a
person or group. When a stereotyped description is attached to a
racial, cultural or national group, there is often the groups
implication that the characteristics are genetically determined
and so cannot be changed. Stereotypes influence peoples
perceptions of and behavior towards different groups. Eg. Jews
are stingy not boys. Lower class people are uneducated. Fat
people are lazy.3

iii) RACISM

The belief that ones race is superior to all other races. This
belief based on the false foundation that physical elements of a
racial group decides intellectual characteristics as well as societal
behavior. Eg. White learners would manage to perform better at maths
and science than black learners.3

iv) DISCRIMINATION

This is an equality or differential treatment of people or


groups based on categories such as race, ethnicity, sex, social
class or uniqueness. Eg. Women cannot play cricket.3

v) MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
Multicultural education refers to the recognition and inclusion of our diverse
races and cultures into the education system in a just manner. Multicultural
education includes ethnic studies, multiethnic education and antiracist
education. It consists of educational reorganization that is designed to recast
the school environment so that many different kinds of groups, including ethnic
groups, women and learners with special needs will experience educational and
academic fairness.3

vi) CULTURE

The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that
the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and
that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning. Culture
is an educated, socially transmitted inheritance of artefacts, knowledge,
beliefs and normative expectations that affords the members of a society with
tools of coping with persistent problems. It is collective patterns of
information that a group uses in order to create meaning. It is linked with
material goods and relics or with apparent visual facets such as food and
dress. Eg Setswana, Xhosa3

B) DISCUSS THE FIVE FACTORS TO ILLUSTRATE THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON EDUCATION

SOCIALISATION

This refers commonly to the method whereby a person gains the knowledge,
values, language and social skills that allow him/her to become integrated
into society. The way in which children are brought up is thus strongly
linked to culture.

COMMUNICATION

Children from diverse cultural groups sometimes speak different languages


and as a result the success of their learning will be influenced when
learning through the medium of a foreign language, example English. Also
non-verbal communication is largely culturally determined and can have a
deep effect on the communication and consequently understanding between an
educator and a learner.

LEARNING PREFERENCE
Its been advocated via research that the way in which an individual learns
is very much related with culture. As a result not all learners will learn
in the same way. To accommodate all learning styles, educators need to plan
effectively, which might be difficult to some educators who have only taught in
monocultural schools.

SOCIAL VALUES

Values are intangible constructs. They are beliefs or ideals about how
individuals should or should not behave. They are attained from the social
system and culture in which the individual grows up. Core values are those
ideals which are universal and frequently held by all. Values, nevertheless,
can vary from one culture to the next. Occasionally when the values of
others are not understood or shared, cold result in a clash. This can have
an unfavorable effect on teaching and learning.

WORLD-VIEW

This refers to the way in which a cultural group recognizes people and
events. They share similar beliefs, social values and experiences and are
more likely to view reality in the same way. In addition, they are prone to
develop comparable ways of learning, conceiving, recognizing, interpreting
and reasoning. Different world views can lead to disagreement and
10confusion.

C) ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN NO MORE THAN FOUR LINES EACH.

i) IS IT IMPORTANT FOR TEACHERS TO STUDY DIFFERENT CULTURES?

Yes, it is important for teachers to study the different cultures. Societies


in which education is provided are multicultural. Teachers will have
learners from diverse societies and they need to know the different cultures
in order to reduce cultural conflict, cultural isolation as well as
communication breakdowns in class. It will also enable teachers to educate
other learners in the classroom so that they can acquire the correct
knowledge, attitudes and skills required to function in our diverse
society.1
ii) WHICH ASPECTS OF THE LEARNERS DIFFERENT CULTURAL BACKGROUNDS SHOULD
TEACHERS KNOW ABOUT?

A teacher must be acquainted with what topics/discussions are prohibited in


a particular culture, so that a learner does not feel prejudiced. Teachers
need to know about the various celebrations, festivals, basic laws etc. Eg.
Celebrations such as EID, Diwali. Also teachers should consider
socialization, communication, learning preferences, social values and world
views.2

iii) HOW DOES CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT GROUPS HELP TEACHERS WORK MORE
EFFECTIVELY IN THE CLASSROOM?

Knowledge about cultural groups help teachers to organize their classrooms,


create valuable effective teaching strategies and devise creative ways of
learning about culturally diverse groups of pupils in the classroom.
Cultural knowledge helps to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding and
conflict in a classroom. It creates effective communication through
understanding of different verbal & non-verbal meaning transmitted by
different cultures.2

iv) GIVE EXAMPLES OF HOW VARIABLES SUCH AS RACE, GENDER AND CLASS
INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOR OF LEARNERS AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL NEEDS?

Race - Some races may find learning difficult as they are being taught in
a second or third language, so they are being stereotyped as being not
smart.

Gender It is believed that boys are more disobedient in class than


girls and that certain subjects are far more appropriate for girls than
for boys. This can also have an effect on the needs and behavior of
learners.

Class - The higher class have many fancy things from school stationery to
lunchboxes while the lower classes have few material possessions and
sometimes never bring lunch to school. These lower class learners have
desires to be like them and are left feeling oppressed and inferior. 3
QUESTION 2

THE HISTORY OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

A) WHAT WAS THE CAUSATIVE FACTOR LEADING TO THE EMERGENCE OF MULTICULTURAL


EDUCATION GLOBALLY?

Resistance to assimilationist policies was gaining force in the USA during


the late 1950s and early 1960s, which created expression in the civil
rights movement which strongly opposed isolated education and
assimilationist policies. Ethnic courses were initiated, however later many
educationists felt that the stress on ethnic studies was inadequate and
unlikely to bring about equal education prospects, and that a more
comprehensive and inclusive approach to education was required that
concentrated not only on racial and cultural inequalities but also socio-
economic and gender-based inequalities. 2

B) COMPARE THE EMERGENCE OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION IN THE USA WITH THE


SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA.

In the USA multiculturalism emerged as a reaction to the ideology of


assimilation in an attempt to preserve cultural diversity and recognize the
rightful existence of different cultural groups, which it views as an asset
and source of social enrichment rather than a problem. Education in the USA
can be portrayed as being divided and unequal until the 1950s. Opposition
against this state of affairs gained impetus in the late 1950s and 1960s
which instituted expression in the civil rights movement that powerfully
opposed isolated education. In 1954 the Brown vs. Board of Education court
case ruled that divided education were intrinsically unequal. Inclusion of
courses and programs to accommodate these groups was the first reaction to
include ethnic minorities. There can be five phases described in the
development of multicultural education in the USA.
In South Africa the few schools that pursued the policy of desegregated
schooling prior to 1994, generally followed an assimilation approach, as
learners of a dominant grouping saw minority group pupils as the ones who
had to change and adapt to the school. The South African population had
always been culturally and constitutionally alienated. Random students
riots in protest against separate development were seen since the 1950s and
1960s. It was in 1976 where the beginning of the end of separate
development was signaled and subsequently, a variety of attempts were made
to construct an education system that would be beneficial to all races. Such
attempts included the Peoples Education Movement, the Open Schools Movement
and the opening of previously white-only schools to other race groups. Since
then the curriculum gradually retorted towards including content from
different cultural groups. South Africa still needs to reach the point where
it can claim to have implemented multicultural education. 6
C) NAME AND DISCUSS FIVE DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

Content integration-refers to the degree in which teachers use examples


from various cultures and groups to demonstrate theories when teaching a
diverse group of learners.

The knowledge construction process-refers to the techniques teachers use


to assist learners in understanding how knowledge is created and also how
racial, ethnic and social classes of individuals and groups can carry
weight over it.

Prejudice reduction- assists learners in developing positive attitudes


towards various racial, ethnic and cultural groups.

Equity pedagogy- this is when teachers adjust their approach in teaching


to facilitate the academic accomplishment of learners from various
racial, cultural, gender and social class groups.

An empowering school culture- entails reforming the culture and


organization of the schools to ensure that diverse groups experience
equality. 10

D) NAME THE SIX CATEGORIES OF CASTAGNOS SYNTHESIS OF THE DIFFERENT


APPROACHES TO MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION.

Educating for assimilation-aims to assimilate learners into the


conventional culture of the school.
Educating for amalgamation-highlights commonalities across groups in an
endeavor to decrease prejudice.
Educating for pluralism-the focal point is to uphold various group
identities and group membership.
Educating for cross-cultural competence- endeavor to make certain that
learners obtain the knowledge and skills which are essential to function
in their own culture as well as that of others.
Education for critical awareness-the learners are given an enhanced
understanding of power, privilege and oppression within and amid groups.
Educating for social awareness-learners are obliged to act to influence
social change. 3

E) READ THE FOLLOWING AND ARRANGE THEM IN ORDER OF PRIORITY

I) WE NEED MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION IN MONOCULTURE SCHOOLS BECAUSE:

learners should be prepared for life in a multicultural society


learners need to learn about other cultural groups
learners have little experience of other cultures
learners need to be less racist 1
II) DO YOU THINK THAT A MULTICULTURAL APPROACH IS APPROPRIATE FOR
MONOCULTURAL SCHOOLS?

Yes I do as teachers are required to provide a suitable learning environment


that will meet the needs of all learners from diverse cultural, linguistic,
educational and socio-economic backgrounds. 2

F) NAME AND DISCUSS THREE POLICY DOCUMENTS WHICH OUTLAWED DISCRIMINATION IN


EDUCATION.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS ACT 84 OF 1996

The South Africa Schools Act provides for the democratic transformation of
schools in South Africa in order to rectify precedent injustices in
educational provision and provide education of increasingly high value for
all learners and in that way it is anticipated that education will lay the
foundation for the development of all our peoples talents and capabilities,
press forward the change of society, eliminate racism and sexism and all
other forms of discrimination and intolerance.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTITUTION (1996)

The founding principles of the Constitution affirm human dignity, equality,


freedom, non-racism and non- sexism. The Constitution states that every
individual in South Africa has the right to a basic education and to receive
education in the languages of their choice in any public educational
institutions where such education is reasonably practicable. Also Section 9
of the Constitution protects individuals against discrimination by providing
that learners may not be excluded from school activities on grounds of race,
language or religion. Section 15 requires schools to recognize religious
diversity, and Section 30 requires that learners language and culture
should be recognized and be protected.

REPORT ON THE STUDY ON RACISM IN SCHOOLS BY THE SOUTH AFRICAN HUMAN


RIGHTS COMMISSION (1999)

The report, titled: Racism, racial integration and desegregation in South


Africa public secondary schools (Valley & Dalamba: 1999) consists of details
of incidents of racism in South African schools and investigates the lack of
racial communication in many schools. It emphasizes that much still to be
done to ensure multicultural education in South African schools. 6
QUESTION 3: CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

A) NAME FOUR CATEGORIES OF BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. GIVE TWO


EXAMPLES OF EACH CATEGORY.

Physical barriers (physical noise, such as the sound of heavy traffic


passing the school building or the scratching of chalk on the blackboard)
Physiological barriers (poor health or specific handicaps, such as a
hearing disability or a stammer)
Psychological barriers (a negative attitude, such as the dislike of a
particular school subject, or emotions such as fear of punishment)
Perceptual barriers (differences in the age, background, education,
gender, interests or the culture of the teacher and the learners 8

B) DISCUSS THE IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES FOR THE EDUCATOR IN THE


CULTURALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOM.

Classroom interaction -Teachers should make certain that instructions and


cues given in the classroom are clear, steady and to the point, and they
should be repeated if needed. Using the child's name as well as suitable
hand gestures can also help.

Learner feedback -Learners from different cultures may provide feedback


that is vague to the teacher, hence the teacher should check learners'
understanding of group instructions, repeat instructions on a one-to-one
basis if required, use follow-up exercises or ask the learners to show
what they have to do to make certain that they have understood.

Effective teacher feedback-Effective teachers are those who are able to


precisely read the reaction of the learners and fine-tune their teaching
consequently. Teacher feedback is essential to learners as it specifies
their progress. Therefore teachers should show learners the types of
feedback that they use. The teacher should explain his/her marking system
and should avoid strategies which may embarrass minority learners such as
calling on them publicly before they have the required self-confidence to
respond. 3
C) SUGGEST GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN THE CULTURALLY DIVERSE
CLASSROOM.

Listen-be an objective, concentrated listener and do not jump to


conclusions.
Check perceptions: Ensure that the learners perceptions were grasped
correctly.
Seek feedback from learners to see if they have the correct understanding
Resist judgmental reactions: Premature and emotional judgments should be
avoided to develop tolerance during communication
Develop self-awareness of communication style to conform to the ideals of
multicultural goals.
Take risks: Have the courage to take risks by asking for honest critique,
opening channels of communication between educator and learner, and
developing a trusting relationship. 3

QUESTION 4: MULTILINGUAL TEACHING

A) WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) PUPILS IN THE


SCHOOL?

The educator 1

B) DISCUSS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BICS AND CALP.

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills consist of the visible facets


of language such as pronunciation, basic vocabulary and grammar which
allow learners to communicate effectively in undemanding everyday
situations, but BICS alone are not enough for academic success.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency is a prescribed grasp of the
language which is needed to understand academic concepts and to perform
the higher cognitive operations essential to achieve in school. Learners
learning new language frequently experience difficulty with academic
concepts and terminology because of the more abstract nature of these
terms. 4

C) NAME AND DISCUSS IN NO MORE THAN FOUR LINES EACH THREE ASPECTS THAT
SHOULD BE INCORPORATED IN THE SCHOOL POLICY TO SUPPORT LEP LEARNERS.

Class Environment-Educators should incorporate learners diverse cultural


experiences and backgrounds into meaningful language learning within the
classroom and provides opportunities for authentic-communication inside the
classroom.

Formal Language Learning-Teaching formal English as a core subject is a key


area for successful language acquisition by learners who are not proficient
in English.
General school climate. A general school climate should be created in which
language diversity is respected.6
SECTION B
QUESTION 1

I do agree with the contents of the article published, I think that all
has not been done to make provision for the post democratic learning by
involving all role players in the education system. The biggest
challenge that we in education are facing is the language barrier.
Whereas, in the pre-democratic South Africa, public schools, especially
in dominant black areas, were given instruction in the preferred
language, eg, Xhosa. The reality of this situation is that it is still
happening in these schools which makes it harder for the learner to
adapt to the language of instruction in other schools eg, high schools
and institutions of higher learning. Focus should be on providing
instruction that will benefit learners in the future. Language barriers
is the most common problems and the education department should address
these as well as the cultural barriers. I feel that workshops should be
held to address these barrier facing education in the Post democratic
society. Teachers should know the implications of the language
barriers. Learners that are affected by language barriers tend to
develop low self-esteem and struggle to adapt to the instruction in
class and does not mix with other multicultural groups they only mix
with the group that they have an understanding with. Teachers who have
qualified in the pre democratic society should also attend workshops
and it should be compulsory for them to undergo training in the new
educational system and in doing so provide quality education to
learners. The teachers who have qualified and taught in the pre
democratic education system should be on part with the post democratic
teachers thus it will achieve better results. As for the publication
suggesting student teachers should be exposed to different cultural
diversities, I wonder how they will cope if they havent been exposed to
these diversities from a young schooling age. For eg, a white student
teacher will be scared to go into a township school if she has not been
involved in the cultural diversity from a young age. Education
department should implement a compulsory module in the curriculum where
teaching about the diverse cultural and ethnic groups in schools along
with cultural days should start from primary schools to ensure that it
is understood by all, especially the learners.
8/10
Total 98/100 Excellent

References

Fraser WF 1995 Changing Society And Consecutive Changes In Curriculum


Development Issues. Jansen JD 1998 our educators see children, not
colour, the Politics Of Diversity In South African Schools, Department
Of Education 1997 An Agenda Of National Policy on teacher supply,
utilization and development, a stakeholder response (unpublished)