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Acupuncture

Halos, Heredia,
Herejias, Hicarte
BACKGROUND AND THEORY OF
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE
Acupuncture
Acupuncture is an important
component procedure in
traditional Chinese medicine which
prevents and treats disease by
puncturing certain points in the
body with needles. Of marked
efficacy and requiring but simple
equipment, they have been widely
popular in china and elsewhere for
thousands of years.
Acupuncture
200 BC basic tenets of Chinese
medicine were recorded in Huang Di
Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperors
textbook of physical medicine
Man was seen as an integral part of
nature and in a state of intensive
interaction with his environment.
It was regarded as the expression of
inherent conformity with a natural
law (TAO)
Tao
5th century BC by Laotse in the Tao Te
King
Tao creates the One, the One
creates the Two, the Two generates
the Three, but the Three creates all
things
All things in nature develop within
the field of tension between Yin and
Yang Tao remains as the continuous,
creative force and the basis of all
dynamic creation and transformation
Yin and Yang
Yang is the sunny side of the hill,
while Yin symbolizes the shady side
Law of Unity of Opposites:
Inter-consuming-supporting Relation
Consuming implies losing or weakening
Supporting- implies gaining or
strengthening
Inter-transforming Relation
Once a certain limit is reached, a change
to the opposite direction is inevitable
The Vital Energy, Life Force: Qi
vital energy or life force is
omnipresent in nature and is
apparent in all life in the form of
change and movement.
Every life process, every organic
function is an expression of the action
and movement of the vital energy.
Qi accumulates in the organs and
flows in channels or meridians that
are called Jing and Luo in Chinese.
Forms of Qi
seen in various levels of density in the human body:

LUNG QI- Qi is received from the respiratory air.


called Zong Qi Chest Qi, Big Qi, or Yang Qi
Dynamic
also called the gathering Qi and is formed in the
interaction with the nutrient Qi;
YING QI
The digestive process transforms food into nutrient
Qi or Yin Qi (Ying Qi)
YUAN QI - source Qi hereditary Qi
the vital energy each person inherits from his or her
parents and which brings about the persons growth
and development.
Forms of Qi
The three forms of Qi combine in
the body.
Jing Qi is the vital energy that flows
through the channels (Jing)
The functions of the organs are
brought about by the Qi inherent
in each.
The Aim of Chinese
Acupuncture
harmonize the flow of Qi by dissolving blockages
and stagnation in the organs and channels
If the Qi of an organ is weakend: incomplete or
faulty function
If Qi is present in excess: excessive function.
Acupuncture can balance the conditions of excess
or deficiency in the organs and thus achieve an
undisturbed function
Qi Gong: Qi can be felt by the practitioner as a
tingling, vibration or flow during acupuncture
session
De Qi: felt by the patient after insertion of the
needles or through manual stimulation of the
needles
The Aim of Chinese
Acupuncture
Since the preponderance of
diseases is the outcome of
imbalance between yin and yang,
acupuncture is aimed at reconciling
the two and restoring them to a
condition that is of relative
balance.
MECHANISM OF ACUPUNCTURE
Acupuncture Theory
At the basis of acupuncture, is the theory
that the body has a constant energy force
running through it.
This energy force is known as Qi.
The Qi consists of all essential life
activities which include the spiritual,
emotional, mental and the physical
aspects of life.
People who practice and receive
acupuncture therapy believe that a
person's health is influenced by the flow
of Qi in the body.
Acupuncture Theory
It is believed that energy constantly
flows up and down pathways in the
body called Meridians.
When these pathways become
obstructed, deficient, excessive, or
just unbalanced, Yin and Yang
(positive and negative energy in every
person) are said to be thrown out of
balance. This causes illness.
Acupuncture is said to restore the
balance.
Acupuncture Theory
It is believed that energy constantly
flows up and down pathways in the
body called Meridians.
When these pathways become
obstructed, deficient, excessive, or
just unbalanced, Yin and Yang
(positive and negative energy in every
person) are said to be thrown out of
balance. This causes illness.
Acupuncture Theory
Meridians are described as special
pathways of energy.
The Meridians, or channels, are the same
on both sides of the body.
The acupuncture points for each disorder
are specific locations where the Meridians
come to the surface of the skin, and are
easily accessible by "needling."
Electroacupunture - method of
acupuncture usually used for pain relief
and prevention
funnels very small electrical impulses
through the acupuncture needles
ACUPUNCTURE IN ANALGESIA
Acupuncture in Analgesia
Pain treatment - one of the most
consistently supported uses of
acupuncture therapy
Acupuncture generates its analgesic
effects through afferent sensory
stimulation.
Large A-Beta fibers which mainly
carry touch sensation will inhibit
transmission of small A-Beta C fibers
which have been found to transmit
pain.
Acupuncture in Analgesia
Acupuncture analgesia is caused
through endogenous opioids that are
released from the anterior pituitary
such as Beta-endorphin.
Beta-endorphin binds to analgesic
receptors in the dorsal horn of the
spinal cord causing pain inhibition.
Additionally, acupuncture's analgesic
effects have found to be diminished
by administration of naloxone.
Acupuncture in Analgesia
Meridians that are so full of energy are
closely related to the gap junctions of
neurons.
It is thought that these synapses that connect
neurons are the places of highest energy in
the nervous system and thus the place when
Meridians must lie.
This suggestion links acupuncture to
pharmacology. Many drugs, including
psychotropic and pain relievers have their
effects at the synapses of neurons as a re-
uptake mechanism or prolonging effect. This
theory would suggest that acupuncture
works on the nervous system by a similar
mechanism to create analgesia.
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE OF
ACUPUNCTURE
Scientific Evidence
Twelve patients were monitored using a
functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI), a technology that reveals what
parts of the brain are receiving increased
blood flow.
The patients were subjected to pain in the
form of a tiny filament used to prick the
inside or outside of their upper lip.
Seven subjects received traditional
acupuncture at the Hegu point (LI4)
thumb and index finger
Remaining five subjects received
electroacupuncture at the Hegu point
Scientific Evidence
fMRI showed considerably decreased
levels of brain activity associated with
the pain
The study found activity subsided in 60
to 70 percent of the entire brain
The response was even greater
among those who received
electroacupuncture
Those subjects showed a greater
tolerance to pain than those who
received traditional acupuncture
treatment
Scientific Evidence
Duke University Study (acupuncture
for headaches)
4,000 participants
62% showed significant pain reduction
after acupuncture
45% showed significant pain reduction
with pharmaceuticals
Acupuncture produces fewer harmful
sign effects versus pharmaceuticals
Acupuncture and fMRI study confirms
acupuncture and neurological response
Scientific Evidence
Outcome measure: Findings on
fMRI imaging in the anterior
cingulate cortex and thalamic
areas.
Scientific Evidence
Conclusion:
Acupuncture appears to inactivate
brain regions involved in the
transmission and perception of pain.
ACUPUNCTURE METHODOLOGY
Acupuncture Methodology
Varied approaches to practice of
acupuncture
Meridians and points are
universally accepted
Each approach differs in choice of
points and method of stimulation
Goal: To restore the flow of Qi
Acupuncture Methodology
Classical acupuncture is the
traditional practice according to the
principles of Taoism.
French/Vietnamese meridian energetics
Aurical acupuncture
Korean hand acupuncture
Japanese acupuncture
Scalp acupuncture
Tendinomuscular acupuncture
Electroacupuncture
TECHNIQUES IN ACUPUNCTURE
Techniques in Acupunture
Tonification for deficient energy
requires form of needle stimulation
Manually by intermittent twirling,
rotation or up and down thrusting of
the needle
Electrical stimulation
Moxibustion
Cupping
Acupuncture Methodology
Tonification for deficient energy
requires form of needle stimulation
Manually by intermittent twirling,
rotation or up and down thrusting of
the needle
Electrical stimulation
Moxibustion
Cupping
BENEFITS OF ACUPUNCTURE
Benefits of Acupuncture
Improvement of Health and Quality of life and
stress reduction
balances the bodys energy system through
acupuncture points. These acupuncture points are
gateways to the bodys energy (Qi) flow.
Pain reduction
relieves arthritis, neck pain, back pain, menstrual
pain, carpal tunnel, plantar fasciitis, joint sprains &
strains, digestive pain etc. As well as migraine, and
kinds of headaches.
Improved and Faster Recovery from Injury, Illness
and Surgery
circulation, reduce inflammation and reduce scaring.
Many professional sports teams have staff
acupuncturists
Surgery as compared to general anesthesia produces
no adverse effect.
Benefits of Acupuncture
Emotional Balance
Comparable with amitryptiline
More effective than psychotherapy
Depression, anxiety, frustration, and
worry
Respiratory health
More effective than antihistamine drugs
Allergies, asthma, sinusitis, rhinitis
Insomnia Relief
Insomnia and other sleep issues
Strengthening Your immune system
balancing the bodys energy system.
Benefits of Acupuncture
Premenstrual (PMS) Menopausal
Symptom Relief
Common symptoms such as headaches,
cramping, sleep disturbances, mood swings,
night sweats, cycle length, duration and
pimples
It also releives dysmenorrhea
Relieves pain and regulates motility of uterus
Reduction of Side Effects of Chemo and
Radiation Therapies
No controlled trials has been proven but
known to be helpful in relieving the pain
and controlling adverse effects of radio and
chemotherapy
RESEARCH FINDINGS
Research Findings
Research Findings
Research Findings
Research Findings
CONTRAINDICATIONS
Benefits of Acupuncture
Acupuncture in the first trimester
of pregnancy and certain points to
be avoided thereafter. Some of the
forbidden points are anatomically
related to the uterus, and some are
powerful autonomic switches, so
caution is reasonable
Benefits of Acupuncture
Acupuncture during menses is
relatively contraindicated, as it may
not be as effective during this
period
Initiating acupuncture while a
patient is taking medication,
particularly corticosteroids,
benzodiazepines, and narcotics,
may reduce its effectiveness
Benefits of Acupuncture
Relative contraindications may
include extreme frailty and
concurrent febrile illness.
Local skin infection or breakdown
dictates that points in the area of
skin involvement not be used.