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SAMPLE CHAPTERS 4 AND 5

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter is the most important part of this research. It intends to answer the

various questions in the study. It presents the data gathered through the questionnaires.

The data gathered by the researchers would serve as a guide in the presentation,

analysis and interpretation of the study. The respondents of the study are the PNP

personnel in some selected police station who are E-Blotter PNCO. The responses

were presented in the form of graphs and tables for more systematic presentation. The

researchers analyzed and interpreted them to have a clearer understanding of the

study.

The questionnaire was set into four parts in accordance with the sub-problems of

the study.

Part I deals with the demographic profile of the respondents, which was

presented in graphical form. It includes their age, sex, educational attainment, rank, and

length of service as police personnel.

Part II shows the advantages and disadvantages of electronic blotter system as a

tool in record management.

Part III reveals the level of effectiveness of Electronic Blotter System as a basis

for record management.

Part IV presents the problems encountered by the law enforcers in using

Electronic Blotter System.


Part 1.Demographic Profile of the Respondents

40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15% 36%
Percentage 32%
10%
5% 12%
0% 0% 8% 12%
21-25 26-30
31-35 36-40 0%
41-45 46-50
51 Above

Age of respondents

Figure 2. Distribution of respondents according to age.

Figure 2 shows that 9 or 36% of the PNP personnel respondents ages were

ranging from 31 to 35 years old while 8 or 32% is in the age of 36 to 40 years old. The

two age bracket which is 26 to 30 and 51 above are with the same responses of 3 or

12%, and 2 or 8% is in the age of 41 to 45 years old.

It indicates that majority of the respondents who handle E-Blotter were old

enough and can understand the importance of E-Blotter in the field of PNP.
Male 68 68%

Male Female
Female 32 32%

Figure 3. Distribution of respondents according to sex.

The above figure shows the distribution of respondents in terms of sex. This

shows that out of 25 PNP personnel respondents 17 or 68% of them were male, while

the female respondents were 8 or 32%.

This only indicates that majority of the respondents were male. Thus, they were

mostly involved in determining the effectiveness and reliability of Electronic Blotter

System as a tool in record management.


Others0%

Technical Course Graduate0%

Educational Attainment
College Graduate 100%

Post Graduate Degree0%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120%

Figure 4. Distribution of respondents according to educational attainment.

Figure 4 shows that the distribution of PNP personnel respondents were 100%

college graduates.

The importance of educational attainment is to determine the knowledge and

capability of police personnel who handles E-Blotter. This indicates that the respondents

could have enough knowledge in determining the effectiveness and reliability of

electronic blotter system as a tool in record management.

Rank
44%
45%
40% 32%
35%
30%
25%
Rank
20% 12%
15%
10% 4% 4% 4%
5%
0%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Figure 5. Distribution of respondents according to rank.

The above figure shows that 11 or 44% of the respondents were Police Officer 3,

while 8 or 32% of the respondents were Senior Police Officer 1, and 3 or 12% of the

rank of the respondents were Police Officer 2. The three rank bracketed which is Non-

Uniformed Personnel, Police Inspector and Police Superintendent were 1 or 4% of the

respondents.

Rank is important to show the difference of how an officer with higher address

the problem as compared to those at the lower ranks.

Length of Service
45% 40%
40% 36%
35%
30%
25%
20% Length of Service
15% 8% 8%
10% 4% 4%
5%
0%

Figure 6. Distribution of respondents according to length of service.

This figure shows that 10 or 40% of the PNP respondents have been working as

a police officer for 11 to 15 years, while 9 or 36% of the PNP respondents have been

working as a police officer for 6 to 10 years. The two rank bracketed 1 to 5 years and 26
to 30 years have the same percentage of 2 or 8% and the other two ranks bracketed

which is 16 to 20 years and 21 to 25 years have the same percentage of 1 or 4%.

It only shows that most of the PNP personnel who handle E-Blotter have been in

service for 11 to 15 years. Length of service in PNP determines the familiarity on the

functions and responsibilities as a police officer. This indicates that majority of the PNP

personnel have enough length of service to have knowledge and familiarity on e-blotter

system.

Part II. Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Blotter System

Table 2.1

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Blotter System

Rank
5 4 3 2 1 TOTAL

Advantages

WM
WV

WV

WV

WV

WV
WV
F

1. E-blotter system
uses internet
connection which
19 95 2 8 0 0 4 8 0 0 25 111 4.44 7
provides a safe
transmission of data.
2. Confidentiality of
blotter incidents with
spot report is secured 14 70 6 24 1 3 4 8 0 0 25 105 4.20 9
through EBS.
3. E-blotter system
provides information
about crime statistics 0
15 75 10 40 0 0 0 0 0 25 115 4.60 3.5
of a specific area
instantaneously.
4. It helps the security
planners to have an 75 10 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 115 4.60 3.5
easy and intelligent 15
way of mapping out
peace and order and
anti-criminality
strategies.
5. It provides format
for easy encoding of
19 95 6 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 119 4.76 1.5
crime incident
information.
6. Through e-blotter
system, updating the
19 95 6 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 99 4.76 1.5
status of the case is
easy.
7. E-blotter system is
13 65 7 28 0 0 1 2 4 4 25 103 3.96 11
tamper free.
8. The system is
protected using
19 95 1 4 0 0 1 2 4 4 25 103 4.12 10
username and
password.
9. Information is
secured because
limited or authorized 18 90 2 8 0 0 5 10 0 0 25 108 4.32 8
personnel only have
access on it.
10. E-blotter system
has a backup memory
16 80 8 32 0 0 1 2 0 0 25 114 4.56 5
in case of file
corruption.
11. It ensures accuracy
in crime data 14 70 10 40 0 0 1 2 0 0 25 112 4.58 6
documentation.
Legend: 5 Strongly Agree(SA) 4.21 - 5.00
4 Agree (A) 3.41 4.20
3 No Opinion(NO) 2.61 3.40
2 Disagree(DA) 1.81 2.60
1 Strongly Disagree(SD) 1.00 1.80

Table 2.1 reveals that in terms of advantages, the police officers strongly agreed

that it provides format for easy encoding of crime incident information and that through

e-blotter system, updating the status of the case is easy, which got the same rank of 1.5

and weighted mean of 4.76. They strongly agreed that e-blotter system provides

information about crime statistics of a specific area instantaneously and helps the
security planners to have an easy and intelligent way of mapping out peace and order

and anti-criminality strategies. Both obtained the rank of 3.5 and weighted mean of 4.60.

They strongly agreed that e-blotter system has a back up memory in case of file

corruption, with a weighted mean of 4.56 and that it ensures in crime data

documentation, with a weighted mean of 4.48.

Meanwhile, they least agreed that confidentiality of blotter incidents with spot

report is secured through EBS, which got a rank of 9 and a weighted mean of 4.12. Last

in rank is that the system is protected using username and password, with a weighted

mean of 4.12, and that e-blotter system is tamper free, with a rank of 11 and a weighted

mean of 3.96.

It shows that majority of the PNP personnel are somehow knowledgeable on

Electronic Blotter System. They particularly see its advantage in providing format for

easy encoding of crime incident information and updating of the status of the case.

As stated by Florendo (2010), electronic blotter is a computerized system now

being used nationwide. Thus, each PNP operating unit maintains an official police

blotter where all types of operational and undercover dispatches are recorded

containing the five Ws (who, what, where, when and why) and one H (how) of an

information.

Sheldon and Wright (2010) added that the police service uses electronic custody

records that are far more efficient and reliable than the earlier handwritten ones which

was time-consuming and the accuracy of recorded timings could be problematic,

particularly where a custody record had been completed retrospectively.

Table 2.2
Disadvantages of Electronic Blotter System

5 4 3 2 1 TOTAL

Rank
Disadvantages

WM
WV

WV

WV

WV

WV

WV
F

F
1. E-blotter system is
prone to corruption of
files due to viruses and 11 55 7 28 0 0 7 14 0 0 25 97 3.88 5
other computer
diseases.
2. The system is very
sensitive because any
single mistake upon 17 85 4 16 0 0 1 2 3 3 25 106 4.24 2
saving cannot be
corrected.
3. Police stations that
are in far flung area
cannot adopt the
7 35 7 28 0 0 10 20 1 1 25 84 3.36 8
investigative
innovation due to lack
of computers.
4.Transmitting
information through
internet, especially
police blotter, provides 3.5
10 50 4 16 1 3 10 20 0 0 25 89 7
an opportunities to 6
possible hackers
accessing the e-mail of
the police station.
5. E-blotter system
cannot be applied to
other police station due 3 15 5 20 0 0 7 14 1 1 25 59 2.36 9
to lack of internet
connection.
6. Police personnel
exert more effort in
encoding information
5 25 1 4 0 0 7 14 12 12 25 55 1.20 10
which they already
have written in the
police blotter logbook.
7. The system cannot
provide the
photographs of person 10 50 10 40 5 0 0 0 0 25 105 4.20 3
or things involved in
the crime.
8. Blotter records that
can be kept in the new
22 110 1 4 0 0 2 0 0 25 118 4.72 1
system are only those
which has a spot report.
9. E-blotter system
contributes to the
expenses of the
organization because it
13 65 1 4 7 21 0 0 4 4 25 94 3.35 6
needs internet
connection and
electricity for the
system to function.
10. The number of a
specific crime recorded
in the police station
12 60 9 36 0 0 1 2 4 4 25 102 4.08 4
sometimes doesnt
match to the tally of the
National Headquarter.
Legend: 5 Strongly Agree(SA) 4.21 - 5.00
4 Agree(A) 3.41 4.20
3 No Opinion(NO) 2.61 3.40
2 Disagree(DA) 1.81 2.60
1 Strongly Disagree(SD) 1.00 1.80

Table 2.2 reveals the perceptions of the PNP personnel or E-Blotter PNCO on

the disadvantages of the Electronic Blotter System.

The table indicates that they strongly agreed that the blotter records that can be

kept in the new system are only those which has a spot report, which ranked first with a

weighted mean of 4.72, followed that the system is very sensitive because any single

mistake upon saving cannot be corrected, with a weighted mean of 4.24.

Likewise, they agreed that the system cannot provide the photographs of person

or things involved in the crime, with a rank of 3 and a weighted mean of 4.20, that the

number of a specific crime recorded in the police station sometimes does not match to

the tally of National Headquarters, with a weighted mean of 4.08. They also agreed that

E-blotter is prone to corruption of files due to viruses and other computer diseases, with
a weighted mean of 3.88, and that e-blotter system contributes to the expenses of the

organization because it needs internet connection and electricity for the system to

function, with a weighted mean of 3.36. They agreed that transmitting information

through internet, especially police blotter, provides opportunities to possible hackers

accessing the e-mail of the police station, with a weighted mean of 3.56.

On the other hand, they had no opinion whether police stations in far flung area

cannot adopt the investigative innovation due to lack of computers, which got a

weighted mean of 3.36.

They also disagreed that E-blotter system cannot be applied to other police

station due to lack of internet connection, with a weighted mean of 2.36, and that that

police personnel exert more effort in encoding information which they already have

written in the police blotter logbook, with a weighted mean of 2.20 and a rank 10.

Thus, it could be deduced that its disadvantages lie more on the system itself

and not so much on the police personnel. It could imply that they are familiar with the

electronic blotter system.

The PNP personnel agreed that the disadvantages of Electronic Blotter System

is its not being totally developed for future use and efficiency. It could then possibly

replace the manual and traditional system which is still extensively used.

Part III. Level of Effectiveness of Electronic Blotter System

Table 3

Level of Effectiveness of EBS as a Basis for Record Management

5 4 3 2 1 TOTAL
Level of
Effectiveness

Rank
WM
WV

WV

WV

WV

WV

WV
F

F
1. E-blotter system
is reliable in terms 20 100 1 4 0 0 4 8 0 0 25 112 4.88 2
of record keeping.
2. Filing using the
new system is 14 70 7 28 0 0 4 8 0 0 25 106 4.24 8
organized.
3. It has an easy
retrieval of 15 75 10 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 123 4.92 1
information.
4. There is hassle-
free transmission
11 55 13 65 0 0 1 1 0 0 25 104 4.16 9
from police station
to station.
5. The system
provides quick and
accurate data on
crime incident
19 95 5 20 0 0 1 2 0 0 25 117 4.68 3
which is essential in
the investigation and
deployment of law
enforcers.
6. The integrity of
data is ensured as it
will be transmitted
11 55 10 4 0 0 4 8 0 0 25 103 4.12 10
directly by the
frontline units of the
PNP.
7. Blotter incident is
tamper-free using e- 12 60 9 36 1 3 6 0 0 25 114 4.56 4.5
blotter system.
8. Confidentiality of
blotter incident is 20 100 2 8 0 0 3 6 0 0 25 114 4.56 4.5
protected.
9. The system has a
daily update on what
15 75 6 24 1 3 3 6 0 0 25 108 4.32 7
is really happening
on the ground.
10.E-blotter system
gives complete
information about
the progress of a
19 95 2 8 0 0 4 8 0 0 25 111 4.44 6
particular crime
incident that
transpired to a
specific area.
Legend: 5 Very Effective(VE) 4.21 - 5.00
4 Effective(E) 3. 41 4.20
3 No Opinion(NO) 2.61 3.40
2 Slightly Not Effective(SNE) 1.81 2.60
1 Not Effective(NE) 1.00 1.80

Table 3 reveals the respondents' perception on EBS in terms of its level of

effectiveness as a basis for record management. It shows it has an easy retrieval of

information, which ranked first with a weighted mean of 4.92. E-blotter system is also

reliable in terms of record keeping, with a weighted mean of 4.88 and a rank of 2. It is

likewise very effective as it provides quick and accurate data on crime incident which is

essential in the investigation and deployment of law enforcers, with a weighted mean of

4.68. Blotter incident is also tamper-free and confidentiality of blotter incident is

protected, with a weighted mean of 4.56. It is also very effective as it gives complete

information about the progress of a particular crime incident that transpired to a specific

area, with a weighted mean of 4.44. The system has a daily update on what is really

happening on the ground with a weighted mean of 4.32, and filing using the new system

is organized, with a weighted mean of 4.24.

Meanwhile, found least effective were the following: hassle-free transmission

from police station to station, with a weighted mean of 4.16, and integrity of data is

ensured as it will be transmitted directly by the frontline units of the PNP, with the lowest

weighted mean of 4.12.

Overall, it shows that the respondents generally found it very effective as a basis

for record management. It could mean that the electronic blotter system has a high level

of acceptability among them.

Part IV. Problems Encountered in the Use of Electronic Blotter System


Table 4

Problems Encountered by Law Enforcers in Using Electronic Blotter System

5 4 3 2 1 TOTAL

Rank
Problems Encountered

WM
WV

WV

WV

WV
in the Use of EBS

WV

WV
F

F
1. There is lack of F
internet connection in the 10 50 0 0 0 0 7 14 8 8 25 72 2.88 5.5
police station.
2. Database is limited to
0 0 5 20 0 0 8 16 12 12 25 48 1.92 8
the data entered.
3. It is time consuming in
terms of encoding of
4 20 1 4 1 3 4 8 15 15 25 40 1.60 10
information which have
already been written.
4. The success of reliable
information in e-blotter
12 60 3 12 0 0 3 6 7 7 25 85 3.40 3
system depends on
human/police personnel.
5. Some application in e-
blotter system are not yet 13 65 6 12 0 0 6 12 0 0 25 101 4.04 1
totally developed.
6. E-blotter requires
clerical skills of 3 15 2 8 0 0 4 8 16 16 25 47 1.88 9
personnel.
7. The system is only
accessible by personnel 9 45 0 0 3 9 5 10 8 8 25 72 2.88 5.5
in charge.
8. Police personnel lack
skills in using the 12 60 2 8 0 0 11 22 0 0 25 90 3.60 2
computer.
9. There is limited
knowledge on the part of
the officer-in-charge in 5 25 2 8 0 0 8 16 10 10 25 59 2.36 7
handling electronic
blotter system.
10. There is limited
number of personnel who
10 50 4 16 0 0 10 20 1 1 25 77 3.04 4
are authorized to handle
e-blotter.
Legend: 5 Very Serious Problem(VSP) 4.21 - 5.00
4 Serious Problem(SP) 3. 41 4.20
3 No Opinion(NO) 2.61 3.40
2 Slightly Serious Problem(SSP) 1.81 2.60
1 Not Serious Problem(NSP) 1.00 1.80
Table 4 reveals the problems encountered by law enforcers in using electronic

blotter system. The serious problem encountered by the law enforcers in using

electronic blotter system were that some applications of e-blotter system are not yet

totally developed, which got the highest weighted mean of 4.04. The police personnel

who lack skills in using the computer was seen as a problem, with a weighted mean of

3.60.

Meanwhile, they had no opinion in terms of the success of reliable information in

e-blotter system that depends on human/police personnel, with a weighted mean of

3.40, limited number of personnel who are authorized to handle e-blotter system, with a

weighted mean of 3.04, that the system is only accessible by personnel in charge, with

a weighted mean of 2.88, and lack of internet connection in the police station, with a

weighted mean of 2.88.

The slightly serious problems encountered by the law enforcers in using

electronic blotter system were the following: there is limited knowledge on the part of the

officer-in-charge in handling electronic blotter system, with a weighted mean of 2.36;

database is limited to the data entered, with the weighted mean of 1.9; e-blotter requires

clerical skills of personnel, with a weighted mean of 1.88; and it is time consuming in

terms of encoding of information which have already been written, with a weighted

mean of 1.60.

Therefore, it could be concluded that the main problem with the use of electronic

blotter system was that it is not yet totally developed and still undergoing observation by

the PNP. It is more on the hardware and software components rather than peopleware,

although they have also seen the need for training people regarding its use.
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and

recommendations based on data gathered, presented, analyzed and interpreted in the

previous chapter. These are based on the sub-problems set by the researchers

regarding the study.

Summary of Findings

Based on the data gathered from the respondents, the following findings are

derived:

1. Most or 36% of the police respondents were 31-35 years old; majority or 68%

of them were male; most or 32% were female. The respondents were all

college graduate. In terms of rank, 44% of the police respondents were Police

Officer 3 (PO3); 32% were Senior Police Officer 1 (SPO1); 12% were Police

Officer 2 (PO2); and Non-Uniformed Personnel (NUP), Police Inspector

(P/Insp.), and Police Superintendent (P/Supt.) got 4%. Most or 40% of them

had served for 11-15 years.

2. That in terms of the perception of the respondents on the advantages and

disadvantages of Electronic Blotter System, they strongly agreed that the

new system provides format for easy encoding of crime incident information

and through this updating the status of the case is easy, which got the highest

weighted mean of 4.76. They also said that EBS helps the security planners
to have an easy and intelligent way of mapping out peace and order and anti-

criminality strategies, provides information about crime statistics of a specific

area instantaneously, both with a weighted mean of 4.60. On the other hand,

they agreed that blotter records that can be kept in the new system are only

those which has a spot reports, with a weighted mean of 4.72. Also, the

system is very sensitive because any single mistakes upon saving cannot be

corrected, which got a weighted mean of 4.24. They further said that it cannot

provide the photographs of person or things involved in the crime, which got a

weighted mean of 4.20.

3. That in terms of its level of effectiveness, the new system is very effective in

terms of retrieving information, with a weighted mean of 4.92. It is reliable in

terms of record keeping, with a weighted mean of 4.88. They also said that it

provides quick and accurate data in crime incident which is essential in the

investigation and deployment of law enforcers, with a mean of 4.68.

4. That in terms of the problems encountered in the use of Electronic Blotter

System, the respondents agreed that some applications in the system is not

yet totally developed, which got a mean of 4.04. Also, lack of skills in using

the computer is a serious problem, with a weighted mean of 3.60. Another

problem is that the reliability of the information depends on human/police

personnel, which got a weighted mean of 3.40.


Conclusions

In view of the foregoing summary of findings, the following conclusions are

drawn:

1. A large number of respondents were male, college graduate, 12 years in

service, 37 years old, and have a rank of Police Officer 3 (PO3).

2. The Electronic Blotter System could help make the police work easier since it

provides a format which can only be filled by encoding the data needed so

that saving information is not time consuming at all. Through this system,

updating of a case is so easy because it had been already included in the

application installed in the system, so the personnel needed a small amount

of effort on it. Furthermore, it provides information about crime statistics of a

specific area instantaneously. However, the new system is only applicable to

those blotter records which have a spot reports, which means there is a

limited or specific cases that can only be kept in the system. It is also very

sensitive because encoded information could not be replaced at all. This

system also cannot provide the photographs of the person or things involved

in the crime which is one of the important aspects of investigation.

3. That e-blotter system is effective as it can make possible the easy retrieval of

information, has reliability in terms of record keeping, and can provide quick

and accurate data on crime incident which is essential in the investigation and

deployment of law enforcers.


4. The problems encountered in the use of the system include the personnel in

charge of it, some applications that are not yet totally developed, and its being

human dependent.

Recommendations

Based on conclusions, the following recommendations are made:

1. The PNP-Information Technology Management Service (PNP-ITMS) must

develop an application for the electronic blotter system which can provide

photographs of persons or things involved in the crime to identify the following

persons or things that is needed in the progress of the investigation.

Moreover, they should create an additional category on the cases without

spot report because a simple case is still a part of the records of the police

station. PNP-ITMS shall also conduct an evaluation on Electronic Blotter

System to be done by the E-blotter PNCO`s to identify matters that shall be

developed to further enhance the ability of the system to be effective and

reliable in terms of record keeping.

2. Additional training on the part of the personnel-in-charge must be conducted

for the purpose of familiarization and continuous learning and development

about the system. However, personnel in the police station should have

personal knowledge on it and should already have attended the seminar on e-

blotter system so that in case of the absence of personnel who is assigned to

handle the said system anyone in the station could take charge of it. They
should create two teams that shift in handling EBS for the convenience of

personnel.

3. There must be a manual on how Electronic Blotter System functions given in

every police station that can be used in case of emergency, which will serve

as guide to those personnel who have no personal knowledge about the

system.

Implications of the Study

This study reveals the effectiveness of the Electronic Blotter System in selected

police stations in Quezon including Quezon Police Provincial Office.

As shown by the findings, records management that includes creation, storage,

maintenance, transmission, and retrieval could be more efficient with the new system.

Although there are some aspects of the system that is not fully developed, the study

implies that if it is improved, it will be more effective and negative effects would be

wiped out.

This study also implies that when the application for the photographs is installed

and continuous development of the system is done, it could be a replacement to the

manual and traditional form of blotter.