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A Guide to Digital Fault Recording

Event Analysis
Ren Midence
ERLPhase Power Technologies

ERLPhase Power Technologies Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 1


Agenda

This presentation will cover the following subjects:


Analysis of records captured from DFRs and relays at
different locations including generation, transmission,
distribution and industrial systems
y
Advantages of software technology as a tool for record
disturbance analysis using waveforms, phasors,
symmetrical components
components, harmonic spectrum
spectrum, R
R-X
X
impedance plane, relay differential plane, and others

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Introduction

Digital fault recorders (DFRs) and microprocessor-based


relays
l offer
ff recording
di capabilities
biliti iin th
the fform off waveforms
f
and sequences of events
The main differences are:
Sampling rate
Processing power
Type
T off record
d they
th can capturet
Lengths of records
Ability to record wide system response
It is important to know the characteristics that both DFRs
and relays offer and determine which one offers the best
information for event analysis.
analysis
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Protection Zones Covered by Relays
Utility Lines
Utility
Interconnection
Transformer

Bus

Feeder
Generator
Motor

M M G
Motor
Loads Loads

Loads
Loads M M M M
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Transformer IEDs
Information requested by the Control
Center Computer via communication
channels - Automatically:
Metering
Alarm Status
Breaker Status
Commands to Operate Breakers
Tap Changer Position
Lockout Status
Information requested from
Engineering or Maintenance - By
authorized personnel on demand:
Protection
P t ti & Control
C t l Status
St t
Oscillography Files
Sequence of Event Reports
Access to view or change setpoints
New Requirements as a result of
IEC61850:
Peer to Peer Messages (GOOSE)
Direct I/O or Mirrored Bits
Transfer Trips

5
Modern Day Recording Systems

Digital Fault
Recorder
Digital
g Fault Recorder 4

monitors the whole 52-1

21-1
52-1

station many power 52-1 52-1

elements 21-1

STATION A
52-1 52-1

Relays protect and record 21-1

one power element 52-1

21-1
52-1

52-1 52-1

21-1

52-1 52-1

21-1

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Relay & Recorder Zone Coverage

Relay Monitoring Zone

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Purpose of Fault Recording

Main focus:
Recording of system events
Monitoring of protective system performance

8
Power System Recorders Fast Transients

Capable of recording fast system events usually short-lived


and d ffastt
Very useful to recording events that cascade into multiple
system
y elements or faults characterized that remain in the
system longer than normal requiring longer transient
records
These types of records let the analyst collect information to
look for potential problems such as timing and current and
voltage magnitudes

9
Disturbance or Swing Recordings

Help to determine how well the system is designed


Used to capture:
Power swings on transmission lines
Load variations caused by voltage and frequency
fluctuations
Transient phase angle changes
Frequency fluctuations
They are sampled at very slow rates compared to the
sampling rate for transients
DFRs have swing recording as part of their design and can
capture incredibly long records.

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Purpose of Fault Recording

Recording of power system events


Power system faults including time of fault
Power system disturbances or swings
Abnormal instrument transformer behavior
CT saturation
DC offset (inductance of the system)
CCVT response
Breaker re-strikes
Ferroresonance

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Purpose of Fault Recording

Monitoring of protection system performance


Failure of a relay to operate as intended (retrofit, trip
test switch open, etc.)
Incorrect tripping of terminals for external faults
Determination of optimum line reclose delay
Failure of fault interrupting
p g devices

12
Purpose of Fault Recording

Determine the deviation of actual fault values vs.


calculated
l l t d values
l obtained
bt i d bby simulation
i l ti tto checkh k ffor
possible inconsistencies
Measure symmetrical component quantities during
steady state and fault conditions to fine tune relay
settings
Some
S conditions
diti require
i llonger recordd llengths
th tto capture
t
the early development of the event and are better
handled byy DFRs because of their record length g
capabilities.

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Advantages of Fault Recorders

Independent monitoring with triggering capabilities


Do not filter analog signals
More memory capacity, enabling longer records
Faster sampling rates
Broader frequency response
gg
More triggeringg options
p
Monitor many power system components simultaneously
Used to monitor power quality issues
Useful in studying problems associated with current inrush
They offer a wide spectrum of system responses during
faults

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Components of Oscillography

Record lengths
Transient records
Designed to capture very fast events
Lightning strikes
Faults
F lt
Switching events
Short-lived

Pre-Trigger Time Post-Trigger Time


Transient Records
(Cycles) (Cycles)
Microprocessor
10 120
Relays
Digital Fault
60 1800 (30 sec)
Recorders
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Characteristics of an Oscillographic Record

Pre-Fault Event Duration Post-Fault

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Reclosing Event

Long records in DFRs and microprocessor relays


are advantageous
d t to
t capture
t and
d check
h k reclosing
l i
events.

17
DFR Transient and Swing Records

Transient record for Va Phase sample at very fast rates on a time


scale of only 2.5 seconds

Transient record for Va Phase sample at very fast rates on a larger


time scale of 20 sec

Voltage and current RMS values sampled at 1 sample per cycle

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Time Frames

Working with oscillographic information usually requires


analyzing
l i titime frames
f that
th t could
ld b
be iin th
the fform off cycles,
l
microseconds, milliseconds, seconds, minutes, or
sometimes hours and days
Each time frame is used differently during an analysis and
is usually a function of the application or purpose
During fault analysis,
analysis electrical cycles are the most
common time frame used.

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Time Frames

Time Period Event Application

Microseconds Switching Surges Breaker Restrikes


Variable Frequency
Milliseconds Harmonics
Drives
Cycles Faults Relays
Load Flow Governor, Exciter
Seconds
Changes Response
Minutes
utes System Stab
Syste Stability
ty Power
o e SSwings
gs
Generation
Hours Load Variations
Schedules
Continuous
C ti D
Data
t
Days NERC Requirements
Recording CDR
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Fundamental RMS vs. True RMS

The analysis of waveforms sometimes involves analyzing


currents
t andd voltages
lt based
b d on th
the ttrue or ffundamental
d t l
RMS values.
Understanding g the concepts,
p differences, and applications
pp
of these two RMS quantities can help explain the behavior
of protective relays.

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True RMS

True RMS can be simply defined as the RMS measurement


values
l off waveforms
f that
th t contain
t i allll the
th harmonic
h i
components summed in the waveform.
The number of harmonics available depends p on the
sampling rate of the relay or DFR
If each individual harmonic RMS value is available, the total
true RMS value can be obtained using the following
equation:

22
True RMS Value of Waveform Including Harmonic
Content

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Fundamental RMS

Power system frequency is mostly composed of 60Hz since


thi iis th
this the frequency
f att which
hi h voltage
lt and
d currentt are
generated
Due to the existence of non-linear loads, harmonics are
injected into the power system
Voltage and current signals measured by protective and
recording equipment include this harmonic content
With new microprocessor technology, it is possible to
extract the fundamental frequency waveform
Fundamental RMS waveform is based only on the
fundamental frequency of 60 Hz or 50Hz
Microprocessor relays operate on the fundamental RMS
waveform
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Fundamental RMS Values

Fundamental RMS Original


g Waveform
Values

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Sampling Rates

Microprocessor relays and DFRs measure the continuous


currentt and
d voltage
lt signals
i l ffrom th
the power system
t and
d
convert them into discrete time signals through a process
called sampling.
The sampling rate of the captured data impacts the
accuracy of the waveform being replicated and the highest
harmonic that can be obtained
The following table shows the sampling rate, sample
frequency ranges, and the highest harmonic for a typical
DFR.
DFR

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Sampling Rates

Sample Highest
Sample per cycle
Frequency (60 Hz) Harmonic
32 1920 8
64 3840 16
96 5760 25
128 7680 33
256 15360 66
384 23040 100

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Type of Faults

Type of Fault Symbol Type


Single Line-to-
Line to
S G
SLG Unsymmetrical
Ground
Line-to-Line LL Unsymmetrical
Double Line-to-
LLG Unsymmetrical
ground
Three Phase 3P Symmetrical

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Type of Faults

29
Type of Faults

30
Single Phase to Ground (-g)

Phase C fault

1.0 cycle
d l
delay

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Single Phase to Ground (F-g)

Symmetrical
y
components of
phase to ground
fault

32
Single Phase to Ground (F-g)

R-X impedance
plane showing
ground fault
progress into the
relays operation
zone

33
Phase to Phase Fault (F-F)

Graphical view of
a phase to phase
fault at A-C phases
Phases
under
fault

34
Phase To Phase Fault (F-F)

Symmetrical
components of
phase to phase fault

35
Three-Phase Fault (3

HV Side LV Side

B-Phase (+850)

b-Phase (-960)

Measurement of phase shift between primary and secondary


currents in both high and low side of the power transformer

36
Three-Phase Fault (3F)

Differential relay
characteristic plane

Trip

Restraint

37
Transformer Overexcitation (V/Hz)

Record captured at
large thermal plant
showing a typical
disturbance of
overexcitation

38
Transformer Overexcitation (V/Hz)

Zoom view of current


record

39
Stator Ground Fault

40
Stator Ground Fault

Zoom view of the


previous record in
Stage A (beginning)
showing a premature
Va-Fundamental
ground fault

Vn-Third
Harmonic

Relay 41
Inrush Current

Typical behavior of
an inrush current in
all three phases

42
Inrush Current

Current Behavior during Transformer In-Rush

43
Inrush Current

Inrush current with


appropriate
Curve-1
activation of the Inrush

differential relay via


output contacts Operating

(differential trip and Curve-2


Restraint
restraint)

Blocked
Curve-3

44
Inrush Current

Record and
harmonic spectrum
for a typical inrush Inrush
current at phase C of
the transformer

Harmonics

45
Power Swing

Record of oscillation
phenomena (power
swing) from a hydro
power plant
The high level of
mechanical stress
almost broke the
shaft that joins the
generator and
turbine

46
Power Swing

Progress of the
impedance in the R-
X plane

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Loss of generation
Phenomena
Loss of significant generation can
i
impact the
h performance
f off the
h
entire power system. Losing as
little as 1600 MW of generation at
once can reduce the entire system
frequency by to Hz.
Goals
Verify
ypperformance of 81U load
shed schemes
Verify system stability during
event
Verify operator performance
during event
What do you want to do
Document performance of the
protection and control system
during loss of generation.
Loss of generation

Challenges
Capturing entire event in one
record
Analyzing
y g system
y frequency,
q y,
power, and apparent
impedance for an event
Loss of generation
DFR solution:
Phasor data for voltage,
current, power, frequency, and
impedance
Transient records generally
arentt long enough
aren enough, miss
event start and event end
1 phasor / cycle is high
enough resolution
Record
R d mustt contain
t i
adequate pre-event data (at
least 30 seconds) and
capture entire event in one
record
Automatically extend for
multiple trigger conditions
Triggering on rate of
frequency change, frequency
magnitude
Loss of generation: frequency response

1600MW generator
tripped
pp on May y 1,,
2005
Impacted system
f
frequency across the
th
country
This record shows a
0.048Hz drop in
frequency in 1.70
seconds
Frequency response
as observed 1000
miles from event
Industrial Application

Waveform distortion
caused by non-linear
loads

52
Industrial Application

Harmonic spectrum
sample with high
level of harmonic
distortion

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Conclusion

Using analysis software tools like the ones mentioned here, makes it easier to identify
types
yp of faults and relay
ypperformance ((e.g.
g distance, differential, and others).
)
Protection engineers and technicians can perform fault analysis, relay configuration,
relay settings and relay commissioning more easily and reliably with these powerful
software tools.
These software tools allow users to import/export fault records in COMTRADE format
for better analysis. In addition, user-defined settings enable operators to create
detailed reports for individual cases.
These comprehensive software tools help protection engineers and technicians to
maintain performance and reliability of their power systems.
Many blackouts, material and human loss can be avoided by using proper
power system fault analysis tools available today.

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Thank You

Ren Midence
ERLPhase Power Technologies
Director of Technical Services
rmidence@erlphase.com

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