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NO*.

9 ,

Qttk ~ " r $ . m c g a * ' & &wpubUshed~ e & u l a ~ l y


unl$s in *&nbg *a -p~ofi%, @&I laOe,~tor-$
f$&+iag Qrbs + & m i~ wW;&
~ j a%ao=h Rh& ex+r
pert i s u l a r l m e t i ~ nare' not ne@easari&appQaebk
the i t a m p b U s h e d &l'lj& w e b w t i & gractical
mended PUE omeful ~onq$d&e.f;iaa;$y w i + s @+ich may
Fieports of o w a b o ~ ~ %q, $ bani$&
~& 13cpaYfrences a r e
that,3h %e,li$%&$ of B& ~8i&,s11;ed -b~+.t&qbkson may.

L m m FRm A BRZ~ISEO 'B SJ


R m
i i itern b Z o s @a e ~ r 4 o f e de r a a r
t ~ ~ b The.
after s brjef' pet:icd " h e SiX mittsb Gaspa i
i b, .+
L J n f z be~s"&,+
~ :' row ~ q u n t x y ~
Nomnsndy has bo$n O~wi&
to I=&by certain
the wea%asta;$ :these %B &$@ $&~&sed howr wed
ease wikh w h i ~ bthe i6$823.k@yman*an' conoeal h W e
of %he t a d .w&$b' h i s dhorihrarrgei weepas, either
ting ths t& approach ?h+
b+ 3%f o % l ~ %ha%w the il-8 @ inf&n*ry s
&a&ia &&irewe&,.
-
' 1

. BtiI+ery<hy,:gy 1&t31 ssoyitr.


2 N O ~ I . X ~rn%$llexy
, pod+t$&k-~'~-:
Iw probatwd by &nf&*p,. . Re a r L i g ~ my f realim, however,- th%*-*h6~'$W1*.-
fimi3 t provi.de $he& Zwal securftyr- On o m occasion a &itisb.
unit ecoonplllsbed t + i ,by
~ f i r i n g a i r bursts.at a Fanee of less thenbD,g:$$@ t%u,
repeZ advnllciag hostk3.s i s ~ n t r y , The fire pws deso;ri%ii as ~e~Wemef$~
"
@f$&%?'
Li b
Ive 3
-
-
I t * 3 ,
t

3e Co&roJ, of an$+i-aiper a o t i - v i t ~ , . Talk about snipers scjme d%%'*&*+ ' +


-
- ~ e f : ~ a t i e &5s hatri*' k'crrrpe ad resd.&. h e of t h e s e is unjustified &d bd:*
criminate firs at &mgiwt&rgefs, y &cb f i r e , especially i n the d&&'.@~;r9s&
'.
frs@en+,ly causoa @a@a%heth~ & i r e by o$her t r o o p s , with d i s t w b i n g d ~ ~ , ~ & % s u
dangerous regw&%gc
direct and definite pl* -
mSpers ~Protxahbe hcnmtered by other. snSgem T by ;s'W '~%Bc
not by 'ab~tliacriminatabmst of smll
(Botiea mig c o m n $ 9s felt,t ~ a p p l particularly t o s k t u a t i o n ~&cf$e @$3
fee*.
** .

a r e stationary, I b 8hpd.d n o t be infergrete8 to discowage %he sps9yiyg of s- -


pected sniper ~ o c a t i o h switb au%omatic ffwd w h g an advanceu)
11. b17DGliBOl;r FIGHTD\?G
(fll:te: Ci1 27-28 June 1944 experiments mere conducted designed t o f n c r e a s e
t h e c.ciordinatioll b e h e e n t a n k s and i n f a n t r y i n h e d g e r ~ wf i g h t i n g , . C e r t a i n ex-
t r a c t s Proci 2 Us.So. d i v i s i o n a l nemo r e g d i n g t h e s e exporinents a r e g i v e n below..)

-
I, Breaching. o f hedgerows,. It ~ m sfound t h a t tanks ecpippea w i t h dozer
!?he fi-llowing s ~ p p l e m e n t ~Pro- y
7clrLdas.Text3 PO: alvmys ~ b l et o e f f e c t beaches..
cedlxre ws tdopted:
2-. gi.ree demolition men qere a t t a c h e d t o each squads m e s e came from t h e
su2;)ort p l ~ t o o i ; ~ .The
. denoLition c h a r g e s mere prepared i n advance and p l a c e 6 in
sandbags f o r conveaiense,,.
b,. Xacll c!ic?rgo co1:sis-t~ of 29 5 a u - p o ~ l ~blocks d of TRT, To t h e c e n t e r
blcclr e b o u f l f i v c fed$ of p r i m c o r d is at.tached by a clove h i t c h . %le cllarge i s
t h e n p l s c e b i n t h e beg, l o c v i n g ; - b a t f o u r f e e t of t h e cord out;bide9 . B-cYooation
i s effect.ed by a prkie,? cor,sist)ilg of o m l/2-pourd blo5.k -cf TIE with about t a ~
feek c.f p ; . l ~ ~ c ~copaectsd
i~d 'GO 5% by a clove h i t c h , : a Nos 8 1 1 ~ 1 1 - e l e ~ t ~ C iZcF )
ei&i.t i n c h e s cf' s a f e t y f - & a , a,fuse l i g h t e r ( l b t e : FIJULG e r g i n a e r s con- .;.
s i d a r it unnecess-y t o use t h e 112-gomd block of ThT a s described*. They say :
t b a No, 8 cap ( t e t s y l ) i s s u f f f c i c r b t o i r s w e d e t o n e t i c n if t h e p r i m c o r d i s
doubled o r f o l d e d a r o u d i t t o i:nsure DS~~LIV.I coilr;zct between cap end p ~ i r n c o r d o . )
cF. TWOh o l e s , z r e dug about six f e s t a p ~ r and t about o n e - t h i r d of t h e 'JJzY
dom t h e ecbarIImerite These h o l e s e r e two f e e t deep and s e t a t a f o r t y - f i v e de-
g r e e angle s i % h t h e h o y i z o ~ t a l l The c1:erges: w e placed i n t h e holes. The ends-.
of tho p x i m c o r d from t h e charges a r e j o i x t e d with a s q u a r e knot* A p r i m e r i s ,

t h e n placed on t o p of each oliurge a d t h e s g o i l replaced and tamped*


dc. Tais i_':kt>.od causes a breach vride enough f o r ar_y v e h i c l e s 4p d r i v e
- .
th~ougil~.
( ~ o t o : R a 9 0 ~ bfrom another divisior!. vjhich has. made similar t e s t s s k a t e
t h a t two o b m ~ ; e sof f i f t j ~ o w d seaclr~,p l a c e d e i g h t f e e t a p a r t , have been found
necessary t o i n s u ~ eo r a a t i a g a gag nide ehough for tab,.)

1, Gloves,. -
Leather glovos m e d e s i r a b l e t o p r o t e c t hands of. men g o i n g
through hedges from s c r a t c h e s and i n f e c t i o n s , .

-
2 0 S ~ ~ s p e i l d a r s ~ .&spenders a r e needed f o r B k ! m l u n i t i o n b e l t s aqd are
being inprovised f r o x off i c e r s t ~ e susponderso.
b

3 . Lipme p ~ ~ t ~ &e - a . u n i t recornends t h a t a smll s p m e p a r t s r o l l f o r


t h e BdJi a,nd IL-1, r i f l e s be c a r r i e d by t h o p l a t o o n guide o r o t h e r designated man i n
t h e p l c t o o n t o provido i i ; ~ i : ~ d i z traplacemacts
a f o r p c r t s damaged i n b a t t l e .
%attle 2hperiencas" a r e published r e g u k l y by t h i s headquarters t o enable
u n i t s i n t r e i n i r g to prof i t f ~ c mt h a l a t e s t combat experiences of our tr~opanow
figi?ti% t h e Germ6 io Fmnce, Al.$hough t h e experience of a s s t a i n u n i t s at a
p a r t i c u l a r l o c z t i o n are not nacossarfly applicable t o all: u n i t s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ,
tho itens- gublisbed w i l l be those based on practical experionae and are- reaommenad
f o p ~ ~ e f cc)nsidexation
u l by unita which &q encounter g i l p i l a r problem, R e p o r t s
of cdt'roborative o r corltrery experiences W E :partfeularly desired i n order thafL
t h e v a l i d i t y af tbe i n d i c a t e d bet;tls keswn may be d e t s r n i n e d ,

I , '=T W IUdJ IN THE FfiX H O i THI&XS

E+, &1ne of the II,. S. so2dicrqt #m %hctu@l%a 'ebout h + s trekring, i n t h e li&t


of b 8 t U 3 aperisnc'e mre obtarified by ET, Edmb I Young through i n t e r d e w s with
a nmw e dgeneral hospitals. on 10-d July, 3.944. They are given i n
~ i ~ ~ m din
aubstanbid extract& from Ik, Y ~ u i g ~rsport.s below,

2, i a Our men seemd t o k1e tsken by surprsse by t h e gmaWl* of


sll$g@g Prora t r e e s and hedgerom. They a d q t e d t h e m e l v e s quickly, hov~veat, w d
Sewned 2A proceed cautiously and t o f o r r e t out t h s n ~ i p z r a ,
hi The sniper-hunting i-esulted i n firing a t some of our rn a r t i l l e r y
absxvers p ~ s % e idn t r e e s , To R r e v e q t this, u n i t s adopted t h e prackice of
m k i l l g trunks aE trees being used by bur pcrsorinel,
c * The mai. found t h a t if they kepi t h s move it nas more dif'ficd*
f o r anfpera t o pick +hem: o f f ,

3 l % d m ~ q ?hezards,.
apecif$ed by various men aS follawa.:
- P a r t i c u l m pnscix&ions regarding hedgerows- were

a* 2liey r w d i l y concoaL p l l s o r t s of booby t r a p s ; keep out of them a*


night,
ti, E x i s t i n g o p e n i n e my c o n t e i n !;rip-wire 1 i n e s or may be zeroed i n by
h ~ . ( ; $ L ewczrpons j avoid them. Ibkke hole,

4.. Dispersi~nc s Tvkz: %nded f o keep (:Lose togetlrsr u n d e r f i r e


i n t o ditciies or s l i t %renck~eain bunches. :&is was mre apparent with men new
to fall-
to battl.ea
-
5. . bvemenk* Ihe impetanee af beping on the W e and of W ~ M W
running I tl a c r w h i n g p i t i o n am s t r e s s e d * . ~ t o p p l d gt o w k ~~~d gay@the
r>Iuamy a stationary -an8 ~ i e t arr g e t *

6, * $everal m wished they ha4 received training


rscogni m~fpom ..
&@~men%,a
H$
-
The t h I n f a n t r y Reginaent h a s found that t h e 60
be fired f wn the 34-3 r
m*ar
by means of t h e pen%& launcher Bn-7
and the Trazmntstirm genada adap.Ceit %Jsb Six inches of wire per shell an8 a
pair af pXieW are thg only Gditional materials needed*
21 &parationil. -
me p$parat.ion
Remove hcremaeab $ram m a &eTl+
is aa follws#
,
b e Bend outmerd $he fb-r bf t h o @ma& adapter design& receive
$ha fragmentation g e n a h hand&+ +
,cg b e r t .i;hb I$- of t h e aorta s h e l l into the finger'e of %hep e n a d e
adapter, ' The shsL1 n b ~ m ~ u16y fired with .the adaptor down as f a r as it go

--
on the Launcher*
df+ !E3& a pi,eoe of wire atow$ t h e t i g s of t h e fingars of t h e
aaap-r,, bhw secufling shell t a t& adapter.
3 , Mathod.. +: %e r i T h nannalu is f i r e d from t h e h o e l i w position with
the butt resting on the grDufldc M a,@&Oi &Qm i 1 I i v e a mfimum range of
WD h
hm -10
1u arda; bOO ~ $ 1 1give $ y a r d s range;
f &o
w0dB1 give 0 y ~ d 8 range.
t
also be used aq% (a o f t e n f irad. into thick hedgerow foliage
b produce tree burstaA.- f ,
Uots: Clautio~grenadier t o gull s a f e t y p i n bsfoqe firing*
- 4. @$,a; ' D ~ e ' t o the mlativelq $ow f o r c e e x c r t e a by t h e r i f l e gremae
castridge, t h e fuse dl1 & ~ w t bnot s aran a;nd,,.Che shell d13.be dude This
is especially true of lm-angle Tire which will produce about 25%dud& b
+

5 e @~h&.* &awacy has been h~proved,by use o f a si&t 3aqxclvibed by


the nivimon ordnance Oohpany. It is attached t o t h e tacking s k p e y sfid escab-
lisbes the angle of elevation* Direction is o b t a i n e a by s i g h t i n g mer %he b a r r 2

aRadio opcrctor replacements we pot trained in the usa d the sir&&! a


sign proco&ure used hera. Zhey aro being t r a i n e d I n t h e use d the W r -3
fha combined Atmy arid Navy procedm,b-Com1unicatio~ OPficer, 9th Divi&ione
FIRST U.S. ARMY GROUP

BATTLE EXPERIENCES
No. I I 3 0 JULY 1944

'@BattleExperiences" are published r e g u h r l y by t h i s head-


quarters t o enable u n i t s ;hn training t o p r o f i t from the latest
combat experiences of our troops n m fighting the Germans i n
France, Although the q r i e n c e s of certain u n i t s at a particu-
lar location are mot necessarily applicable t o d l units i n a l l
situations, t h e items published w i l l be those based on practical
experience a d a r e recommended f o r careful consideration by units
which may encounter s i m i l a r problems. Reports of corroborative
o r contrary experiences a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y desired i n order that
the v a l i d i t y of the Lndicated b a t t l e lesson may be determined.,

0WR No mDm
E t Gen, USA
Sormnanding

GERMAN INFANTRY-TANK DEFENSE.


The ViE Corps reports two diffferent t y p 3 s of German infantry- tank defenses
as described below:
1, b e of the types i s based on the movement and f i r e of tanks protected
k y infantry,, Such a defense is frequently found s e t up a t an important cross-
roads or road junction, Infantry digs i n along the hedges and a t other suitable
locations in t h e immediate vicinity, The talks move out to varying distances up
t o several. yards t o the f r o n t and f l a n k and occupy mutually supporting f i r i n g
positZcms, After f i r i n g from one of these positions they immediately move to
another.
2. The other type of defense i s based o1.1 simulated movemen-It. and deception,
Tanks s p e d about 100 yards apart and well camouflaged a r e dug in behind a
hedgerow t~ be defended, The i n f m t r y digs :in along the hedgeruw between the
tanks. I n executing t h e defense the Idark Ig tanks f f r e but do not move, The
company cormnander, in a Mark V, periodically moves ap and d o m the road adding
t o tb f'5z-s of the fixed defenses.
I I o G E W ~ O I J T I O N S , BDJES AND BOOBY TRAPS,
I

1, Demolition of A r t i l l e r y Pieces, U n i t s of t h e V I I Corps report finding


var2a.m s i z e s of prepared demolition kits matie t o f i t i n t o the barrels of %he
different types of ~ertnana r t i l l e r y pieces, These a r e packaged complete with
detonators and igniters and appear t o be standard equiprent in German a r t i l l e r y
unitis;;, Thev reauire onlv a few minutes to connect.
2. Magnetic Antitank Mines. Magnetic antitank mines with the detonators
and Pgnibrs i n s e r t e d have been found in areas captured f m the Germans. Same
of these dries are armed without delay p e l l e t s making them particularly hazardous
to baame.
3. Grenade Booby Traps. Geman grenades packed i n the original baxes have
been found in Normandy with one or more of *he grerzades rigged a s a booby trap.

. "Sn AMnes i n Shell Craters. German i'S1t mines have been encountered con-
cealed i n shell c r a t e r s i n ~ o r m a n d ~ .

111. TROOP M-NT HANDLED BY G-4.


The V I T Corps and i t s subordinate units have employed experimentally a system
whereb responsibility f o r planning and conduct of troop movements is assumed by
tk G
d Section instead of G-3. The 0-4 of the Corps recommends the system. J3e
states that it relieves G-3 of movement m s p o n s i b i l i t y , avoids duplication of effort,
ard lessens confusion and chances of error. G-3's s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is to n o t i e
G& mhat is to be moved, fm and t o where and *en.

TV , C?3%RVAnW CF EQUIPMENT.

'Supply Officers of t h e V I I Corps feel t h e need of more emphasis i n training on


the conservation of unit amd individual equipmnt. The back of accountability and
responsibility f o r praperty i n b a t t l e areas, they say, is causing excessive care-
lessness which sometimes re&Q i n c r i t i c a l shortages of items most i n demand,
v. mLOm OF T r n BOm GUN

Caution comes from the VII U S Corps t h a t when are mrldng closely w i t h
infantry great care x u s t be exercised in using the tank's bow gun, Its low position
and other characteristics mke it a serious hazard t o infantry dm may be i n f r o n t
of the tank.
NO. 12 9JULY 1944
"Battle Zxperience,sll a r e published r e g u l a r l y by t h i s heaaquartere t o enable
units i n t r a i n i n g t o p r o f i t from t h e l a t o s t combat experiences of our t r o o p s now
fight- the & r c a s i n a t h o u g h t h e experiences of c s r t a i n u n i t s at a
P a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o d l units i n dl s i t u a t i o n s ,
t h e i t e m r p u b l i s h e d n i l 1 be t h o s e based on p r a c t i c a l experience and are recorn-
mended f o oaref 111 c o n s i d o r a t i o n br u n i t s ~ ; h i c hm y encounter sirnilar problons.
R e p o r t s of c o r r o b o r a t i v e or c o n t r a r y experiences &re p a r t i c ~ l l a r l yd e s i r e d i n ordm
t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n d i c a t e d b a t t l e l e s s o n may be determined*

1 PARATROOPERS' ~~RESSIONS OF IBDC;E90V/ FIGETING,


( ~ o t e : The f o l l o w i n g cments a r e e x t r a c t e d f r o m interviews published by t h e
V I I L Corps immediately a f t e r t b c Normandy invesio116 C o m n t s were a11 obtained
from o f f i c e r s and e n l i s t e d rnen of p m a c k u t e u n i t s which took p a r t i n t h e fi$ting.)

1, "Ii;eep Moving if you ant t o liven-The outstand-ing impression seerns to


have been o f - t h o iinportmce of aggccssj.ve a c t i o n and continuous, e n e r g e t i c for-
w e ~ dmovement a g a i n s t t h e type of o s p o s i t i o n o f f e r e d by t h e Germs+ E x m ~ h
f olJLowff:
o h f i g h t i n g , t h e Germns I t h i n k if we keep pushing them h a d
enough t;e n i l l . have a 1 o t l e s s c a s - a c l t i ~ sthan if ve j u s t sit t i g h t . "-Lt Col. T.J.V.
Shenley,.
BA n & ~ ~ ien ~hedgeron a f i g h t i r l g is due p a r t l y t o autoinatic meapons.
f i r e , but p r i n c i p a l . 1 ~t o a g g c ~ s i v e r ~ e s s , ' ~ - L Doe:.f
t, ler.
c. Uove f o r nard a g p e s s i v e l y , The German i s a poor marksman ua.der
t h e b e s t conditions, In the f a c e of hezvy f i r e and an t i g r s c s i v e e n e w h i s f i r e
&cornea illef-fective. A heavs,. a r t i l l s r y bcrrage before t h e j~inp-off t d l
p r o v i d e i n i t i a l impetus* The advance &hould t h e n n e v e r be allowed t o l o s e its
momentum, Display of courage and l e a d e r s h i p bjr o f f i c o r s u d .bTCOs -is iraperativc*
An o f f i c e r vho ' h i t s t h e groudfi f u r n i s h e s ail example t o h i s men and bolas up
m o ~ e n e n t , . ~ ~ - l .Ls tt , I r a 1 Lillge.
d+ n 1 t is e s s e n t i a l t o keep mo.ving f o r ~ a r da g g r e s s i v e l y a s long a s '
t h e r e s i s t a n c e i s s p o t t y ; otherwise t h e m t i l l e r y %illrange i n on :roue # S U ~
when you move through t h z hedgerows f a s t t h e J e r r y nill often abandon h i s g u m
and equipment, BIcve ri&t i n on bin. Follow r i g h t a f t e r your a r t i l l s r y and you.
w i 1 1 i n v a r i z b l y c a t c h - h bdisorganized. ft-C~pt. Ray crocko
e. We have l e w m d. t o keep mooira forward^. Sf t h e r e is anything t h e
Germans h a t e it is c l o s e f T $ t i a ~ . IT he ins yo3 dorn ~ i t . 5s r l i p z r or machine gun
he xi11 z e r o i n oil you :;-ith mortzz and 68 a d then you had b e t t e r dig.
s n i p e r s h a r d l y e v e r open up on a l a r g e body of men, You have t o bc con-
s t a n t l y on t h e a l e r t f o r them but do not e v e r 1 e t them make you h i t t h e d i r t 0 .
ICeep moving i f you want t o l i v e . List Sgt, &a Eo.Ricks..
f,. n t hIi n k s n i p e r s should never hold up t h e advance of a u n i t , D i s -
p a t c h one o r more men t o hunt him out and f o r g e t about him. Snipers could never
c r e a t e a s many c a s u a l t i e s a s they causo by p i n n i n g you down u n t i l a r t i l l e r y
zeroes i n on you.. v-Capt. Ray Creek,.
go. "Vhen caught i n t h e open by h o s t i l e a r t i l l e r y f i r e , g e t dov~slf n s t
b u t s t a y only as l o n g a s necessmy, 13b not bog down under a r t i l l e r y f i r e D " - 1 s t
Lt Rex G, Combso

2. B f z c t of bomn mortar.
The value of t h e 6om mortar was r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y
because it Fas claimed t h a G e r m s s t a y under cover nhen mortars a r e f i r e d * Fol-
lowing a r e sone of t h e comments;
ac. " ! b e 60m mortar i s of g r e a t value because t h e Germans m i 1 1 st=,
i n t h e i r f o x h o l e s when it s t a r t s f i r i n g . n-lst L t , Rex G+ Combs,.
bp. 'IGur squad should use a 60mm mortar i n c l o s e s u p p o r t , a s t h e

..
Germans s t a y i n t h e i r f o x h o l e s ~ i h e nm o r t w f i r e startset'-1st Lto Gerald 2 ,
Guillet
a nh t h e f a c e of heavy autorratic and mortar f i r e and an a g g r e s s i v e
enemy, German f i r e becomes h i g h l y i n e f f e c t i v e * h i s a poor marksman a t b e s t e k
kt Lto C a r l J. L i l l g e .
da Ykee b u r s t s ~ i t 6h~ i m nmortar a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e . "-CoU. 2nd Bn-
P c h t I2f

3.Bazooka a ~ A.. d T c Grenadeb


ac '"I'?x bazoolca a i d t h e r i f l e grenade a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t
enemy d q i n along a t r e e l i n e , A k i t above t h e enplacemnt on a t r e e t r u n k i s
hi&lyeffective*fI-C,0, 2 n d h Echt Inf..
b, iBaz~okasshould f o l l o n t h e nu.tomtic xeapons of each sguad.
They are v e r y e f i e c t i v e a g a i n s t machine gun p o s i t i o n s , "-1st Lte Gerald P, G u i l l o t e

4, ifcrack and T h u m ~ "


Ifme Gerrnan machine p i s t o l h a s caused our men a l o t of t r o u b l e * The
passage of tlie b u l l e t m h s a v i c i o u s ' c r a c k t behind you. This i s f o l l o m d by a
Less n o t i c e a b l e tthm.pl from t h e f r o n t , I have s e e n e n t i r e squads t a k e cover,
t h i n k i n g they were Tired on f'rorn behind, whou a c t u a l l y t h e e c e q r was some d i s t a n c e
t o t h e f r o n t . Tho place t o look f o r the W- f i r i n g i s to-d t h e ' t h ~ and
' not
toward t h e "crackt,."-1st lit. Rex G,. Co~ilbs.

3 r. Deceptive Idlethod,
Germanssoilletknes employ t h e i r machine guns t h i s nay: One man w i l l
f i r e t r a c e r a m x i ~ i t i o nhigh and ~ i l dand a t t h e saxe t i x e another w i l l be l a y i n g
down p r e t t y e f f e c t i v e f i r e with B a l l anmunition, They use t h e t r a c e r s t o make
you t h i n k t h e i r f i r e i s wild, Tihen it is' notl "1st Sg-t-, &a go Ricks,