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STEP POTENTIAL

V(x) = 0 FOR x < 0

V(x) = V0 FOR x > 0

TOTAL ENERGY OF PARTICLE = E

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PARTICLES IN REGION I (x < 0)

MOVING IN +x

PARTICLES HAVE MASS m

FIND REFLECTION COEFICIENT

REMEMBER PROBABILITY FLUX

i * ( x, t ) * ( x, t )
S ( x, t ) ( x, t ) ( x, t )
2m dx x

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DEFINE REFLECTION COEFICIENT

S I x ( x, t )
R x
S I ( x, t )

THEREFORE WE NEED THE

WAVE FUNCTION

WE WILL TAKE A SHORTCUT

THE POTENTIAL V IS A FUNCTION

OF X ONLY

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REGION I (x < 0)

TIME INDEPENDENT SWE

V=0

d I 2 2
2
0 E I
2m dx

or

d I 2mE
2
2 I 0
dx 2

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LET

2mE
k1
2

d I
2
1 I 0
2
2
k
dx

SOLUTION

I Ae ik1 x
Be ik1 x

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REGION II (x > 0)

V=V0

TISE

d II
2 2
2
V0 II E II
2m dx

REARRANGE

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d II 2m
2
2 V0 E II 0
dx 2

LET

2m
k2 (V0 E )
2

d II
2

2
k 2 II 0
2

dx

SOLUTION

II Ce k2 x
De k2 x

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WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR EACH

E
i t
ik1 x
I ( Ae ik1 x
Be )e

E
i t
k2 x
II (Ce k2 x
De )e

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FORCE TO BE WELL BEHAVED

FINITE?

ALL TERMS MUST BE FINITE

AS

x Ce k 2 x

THEREFORE C MUST BE ZERO

SO

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E
i t
II ( De k2 x
)e

WAVE FUNCTION CONTINUOUS

AT x = 0

I (0, t ) II (0, t )

E E
i t i t
( Aeik1 0 Be ik1 0 )e
( De k2 0 )e

THUS

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( A B) ( D) (1.)

DIRIVATIVE MUST BE

CONTIUNOUS


I (0, t ) II (0, t )
x x

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I
E
i t d ik1 x
e
( Ae Be )
ik1 x

x dx

II
E
i t d k2 x
e
( De )
x dx

OR

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I
E
i t
ik1 x
e
(ik1 Ae ik1 x
ik1Be )
x

II
E
i t
k2 x
e
(k 2 De )
x

AT x = 0

E E
i t i t
e
(ik1 Aeik1 0 ik1Beik1 0 ) e
(k2 Dek II 0 )

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(ik1 A ik1B) k2 D

k2
( A B) D
ik1

k2
( A B) i D
k1 2.

ADD EQUATIONS 1 AND 2

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k2
2 A D(1 i )
k1

D k2
A (1 i )
2 k1

SUBTRACT EQUATIONS 2 FROM

EQUATION 1

k2
( A B) ( A B) ( D) i D
k1

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k2
2 B (1 i ) D
k1

D k2
B (1 i )
2 k1

THEREFORE

EIGENFUNCTIONS

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D k2 ik1x D k 2 ik1x
I (1 i )e (1 i )e
2 k1 2 k1

AND

II ( De k2 x
)

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WAVEFUNCTIONS

E
i t
1 1e

E
i t
2 2e

ONLY ONE UNKNOWN D

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ANALYIZE

E
i t
ik1 x
I ( Ae ik1 x
Be )e

OR

E E
i t i t
ik1 x
I ( Ae eik1 x
Be e
)

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OR

E E
i ( k1 x t ) i ( k1 x t )
I ( Ae
Be
)

OR

I Ae i ( k1 x t )
Be i ( k1 x t )

SINCE

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E

LET

i ( k1x t )
Ae
I

EQUATION FOR WAVE MOVING

IN PLUS (+) x DIRECTION


I WAVE FN FOR +x DIRECTION

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AND

i ( k1x t )
Be
I

EQUATION FOR WAVE MOVING IN

MINUS (-) x DIRECTION


I WAVE FN FOR -x DIRECTION

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REFLECTION COEFICIENT


S
R I

S I

WHERE

i * ( x, t ) * ( x, t )
S ( x, t ) ( x, t ) ( x, t )
2m dx x

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FOR +x DIRECTION

i *
*

SI I
I
I I

2m dx x

i ( k1x t )
Ae
I


i ( k1 x t )
I
ik 1 Ae
x

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* * i ( k1x t )
Ae
I

*
* i ( k1 x t )
ik1 A e
I
x

PUT INTO PROBABILITY FLUX EQN

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s
I
2m
Ae
i * i ( k1xt )
ik1 Ae i ( k1xt )

i
2m

Aei ( k1x t ) (ik1 ) A*e i ( k1x t )

i ( k1x t ) i ( k1x t )
e e 1
etc.

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THEREFORE


s
I
i *
2m

A A(ik1 ) AA (ik1 )
*


s
I
i
2m

2 A A(ik1 )
* k
m
AA*

MOMEMTUM

p k mv
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S v1 AA
I
*

SAME PROCEEDURE WITH

i ( k1x t )
BeI

WAVE MOVING IN x DIRECTION

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S v1BB
I
*

AND

THEREFORE


S v1BB *
R I
*
S Iv1 AA

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D k2
A (1 i )
2 k1

D k2
B (1 i )
2 k1

*
D k2
A
*
(1 i )
2 k1

*
D k2
B
*
(1 i )
2 k1

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D k2 D* k2
(1 i ) (1 i )
2 k1 2 k1
R
D k2 D* k
(1 i ) (1 i 2 )
2 k1 2 k1

DD *
R *
1
DD

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PLOT WAVE FUNCTION
E
i t
1 1e

AND
E
i t
2 2e

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WHERE IS PARTICLE

BORN

P ( x, t )
*

REGION x > 0

E E
i t
* k2 x t k2 x
i
P ( x, t ) D e e De e DD*e 2 k2 x

THIS IS NOT EQUAL TO ZERO

POSSIBLE FOR PARTICLE TO BE

IN REGION x > 0
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NEW PROBLEM

WITH ENERGY OF PARTICLES

GREATER THAN V0

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