Abstract -The transmission-line modeling, a numerical method for Schwingers [7], [8] work, the power and flexibility of
field problems, is presented in simple terms that undergraduate stu-equivalent circuits become more obvious to engineers.
dents non-experts can understand. The method is shown to be generally
applicable to a wide range of problems. Numerical examples are pro-
The recent applications of the idea to scattering prob-
vided for waveguide problems in one and two dimensions. lems, originally due to Johns [91, has made the method
more popular and attractive.
I. INTRODUCTION The transmission-linemodeling (TLM), otherwise known
as the transmission-line matrix method, is a numerical
T HE LINK BETWEEN field theory and circuit the-
ory, the major theories on which electrical engineer-
ing is based, has been exploited in developing numerical
technique
lents. It is
for solving field problems using circuit equiva-
based on the equivalence between Maxwells
techniques to solve certain types of partial differential equations and the equations for voltages and currents on
equations arising in field problems with the aid of equiva- a mesh of continuous two-wire transmission lines. The
lent electrical networks [ll. There are three ranges in the main feature of this method is the simplicity of formula-
frequency spectrum for which numerical techniques for tion and programming for a wide range of applications
field problems in general have been developed. In terms [lo]. As compared with the lumped network model, the
of the wavelength A and the approximate dimension I of TLM is more general and performs better at high fre-
the apparatus, these ranges are [2] quencies where the transmission and reflection properties
of geometrical discontinuities cannot be regarded as
A >> L lumped [7].
h=L The TLM is not new to experts in numerical analysis of
h =-5< L. EM related problems. However, the method has been
presented in various contexts dictated by the applications.
In the first range, the special analysis techniques are This paper seeks a unified, general presentation of the
known as circuit theory; in the second, microwave theory; method in simple terms that students with basic knowl-
and in the third, geometric optics (frequency-independent). edge of differential equations and circuit theory can un-
Hence the fundamental laws of circuit theory can be derstand.
obtained from Maxwells equations by applying an ap- In Section 11, a unified treatment of the TLM method
proximation valid when A >> I. However, it should be
is presented whereby it is shown to be applicable in
noted that circuit theory was not developed by approxi- solving various problems involving the diffusion equation,
mating Maxwells equations, but rather was developed
Poissons equation, or the wave equation. A special appli-
independently from experimentally obtained laws. The
cation of the method is made to wave propagation prob-
connection between circuit theory and Maxwells equa-
lems in Section 111. Section IV presents examples of wave
tions (summarizing field theory) is important; it adds to
propagation problems in one- and two-dimensional space.
the comprehension of the fundamentals of electromagnet-
ics (EM). According to Silvester and Ferrari, circuits are
mathematical abstractions of physically real fields; never- 11. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
theless, electrical engineers at times feel they understand The TLM method involves dividing the solution region
circuit theory more clearly than fields [3]. into a rectangular mesh of transmission lines. Junctions
The idea of replacing a complicated electrical system by are formed where the lines cross, creating impedance
a simple equivalent circuit goes back to Kirchhoff and discontinuities. A comparison. of the transmission-line
Helmholtz. As a result of Parks [41, Krons [5], [6], and equations and Maxwells equations allows equivalences to
be drawn between voltages and currents on the lines and
Manuscript received July 27, 1989. This paper was recommended by electromagnetic fields in the solution region. Before we
Associate Editor T. K. Ishli.
M. N. 0. Sadiku is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, apply the method, it seems fit to review briefly the basic
Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122. concepts of transmission lines and also show how the
L. C. Agba is with the Department of Electrical and Computer TLM method can be applied to a wide range of field
Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431.
IEEE Log Number 9036287. related problems.
(a)
RAL/2
I
1
T Fig. 3. Equivalent network of a two-dimensional TLM shunt mode.
Lbl/2
I
Lbl/2 2
+
~~
(C)
Lboundaly C
Fig. 2. Transmission-line equivalent models for (a) elliptic PDE,Pois-
son's equation; (b) parabolic PDE, diffusion equation; (c) hyperbolic Fig. 4. Transmission-line matrix and boundaries.
PDE, wave equation.
Upon rearranging and dividing by Al, we have Consider the situation for which E, = E, = Hy = 0 and
Vv(x - A1/2) - Vv(x + A1/2) all derivatives with respect to y are zero. It is noticed at
once that this mode is a transverse electric (TE). Thus
A1 (23) reduces to
=-
2
L az,(
at
x - A1/2)
- + - L2 ai,( x +atA1/2) . (19b) aH,
----
aH, aE,
az ax
-E-
at (24a)
Again, taking the limit as A1 + 0 gives
ax
---
aV, 81,
L--.
at
Taking similar steps on the loop in the y - z plane yields
aVY
-- - -L-.
az at Taking similar steps in (24a)-(c) as were taken for
These equations will now be combined to give a wave (18a)-(c) results in another Helmholtz equation:
equation. Differentiating (18a) with respect to t , (18b)
with respect to x , and (18c) with respect to z , we have
a2r, a2z,
_-_-- a2v,
- 2c- Comparing (24) and (25) with (18) and (21) yields the
azat axat at2 following equivalence between the parameters:
a2vy
-=-
a2z,
E, = VY
L-
ax2 atax
a2vy a2zz H, E - I,
-=- L-.
az ataz H, = I,
Substituting (20b) and (20c) into (20a) leads to p=L
a2vy a2vy a2vy Er2C
- + y-- 2LC-.
ax2 az at2
Thus in the equivalent circuit
Equation '(21) is the Helmholtz wave equation in two-
dimensional space. voltage at a node is E,,
In order to show the field theory equivalence of (18) current in the z direction is - H,,
and (21), consider Maxwell's equations current in the x direction is H,,
inductance per unit length represents the permeabil-
aH ity of the medium,
VXE=-p-
at twice the capacitance per unit length represents the
and permittivity of the medium.
dE B. Dispersion Relation of Propagation Velocity
QXH=E--.
at For the basic transmission line in the TLM that has
Expansion of (22) in the rectangular coordinate system p, = E , = 1, the inductance and capacitance per unit length
yields are related by [81
1 1
{(m.4
m = =c
(27)
0'7b
I.... ....
0.6
Normalized Frequency A ~ / A
Fig. 5. Dispersion of the velocity of waves in two-dimensional TLM
network.
1/3+1
1
2 (30)
k+lK=-
2
[ m=l
k vi -
,771 V'
k n, a = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . (33)
so that the reflected and transmitted energy are This idea is conveniently described by a matrix equation
relating the reflected voltages at time (k + l)Al/c to the
s, = s,r2= 114 ( 3 1 ~ ) incident voltages at the previous time step kAl/c:
where
and transmitted
s,= s , ( i - rz) = 314
subscripts quantities,
i , r , and t respectively.
indicate incident,
(31b)
Thus reflected,
a voltage
impulse of - 1/2 is reflected back in terminal 1 while a
voltage impulse of 1/2 = [3/4 + 31'" will be launched
into each of the other three terminals as shown in
k+l
[;I=[ i -I
-1 1
-1
1)
k
[;I. i
(34)
where
r=-R,-1 (37)
R,+l
EXCITATION
and R, is the surface resistance of the boundary normal-
ized by the line characteristic impedance. If, for example,
a perfectly conducting wall ( R , = 0) is to be simulated
along boundary C', (37) gives = - 1, which represents a
short circuif, and
k + l % ( P , q )= - k V 4 ( P 7 4 ) (38)
is used in the simulation.
FIRST ITERATION
E. Computation of Fields and Frequency Response
We continue with the TE mode of (24a)-(24c) as our
example, and calculate E,, H,, and H,. E, at any point
corresponds to the node voltage at the point, H, corre-
sponds to the net current entering the node in the x
direction (see (26)) while H, is the net current in the
negative z direction. For any point ( z = m , x = n ) on the
grid of Fig. 4, we have for each kth transient time.
SECOND ITERATION
1
Fig. 7. Scattering in a two-dimensional TLM network excited by a k ~ y ( m , n= )- [ ~ ; ( m , n+,V;(m,n)
) +,~;(m,n)
Dirac impulse. 2
+kv(m>n)] (39)
cally an incident impulse at the neighboring node. Hence
-k H , ( m > 1 =k V;( m n 1
> - kV4 ( m > n 1 (40)
k H , ( m , n )= k v ; ( m , n )-,V,'(m,n>. (41)
Thus a series of discrete delta-function of magnitudes
E,, H , , and H, corresponding to time intervals of A / / c
are obtained by the iteration of (34) and (35). (Notice that
reflections at the boundaries A and B in Fig. 4 will
cancel out, thus HL= 0.) Any point on the mesh can serve
Thus by applying (34) and (351, the magnitudes, posi- as an output or observation point. Equations (39)-(41)
+
tions, and directions of all impulses at time ( k l)Al/c provide the output-impulse functions for the point repre-
can be obtained at each node in the network provided senting the response of the system to an impulsive excita-
+hattheir corresponding values at time k A l / c are known. tion. These output functions may be used to obtain the
The impulse response may, therefore, be found by ini- output waveform. For example, the output waveform cor-
'ially fixing the magnitude, position and direction of travel responding to a pulse input may be obtained by convolv-
of impulse voltages at time t = 0, and then calculating the ing the output-impulse function with the shape of the
.:tate of the network at successive time intervals. input pulse.
The propagation of pulses in the TLM is illustrated in Sometimes we are interested in the response to a
Fig. 7, where the first two iterations following an initial sinusoidal excitation. This is obtained by taking the
cxcitation pulse in a two-dimensional shunt-connected Fourier transform of t h e impulse response. Since the
TLM are shown. We have assumed free-space propaga- response is a series of delta functions, the Fourier trans-
tion for the sake of simplicity. The scattering process form integral becomes a summation, and the real and
(incidence and reflection of pulses) forms the basic algo- imaginary parts of the output spectrum are given by [91,
rithm of the TLM method [lo],[141. [IO1
N
D. Boundary Representation
Re [ F (AI/A)] = ,Ices ~ (42a)
Boundaries are usually. placed
. halfway between two k=l
%odes,in order to ensure synchronism. In practice, this is
achieved by making the mesh parameter A1 an integer
fraction of the structure's dimensions.
Im[F(Al/A)] =
N
k=l
,Isin ( ~ (42b)
SADIKU AND AGBA: INTRODU(TI0N TO TRANSMISSION-LINE MODELlNG 997
A Fortran program was written for the numerical calcu- 0.002 0.9789 -0.1368 0.9730 -0.1396 0.9781 -0.1253 0.9747 -0.1282
lations for one-dimensional TEM waves. This example is 0.004 0.9028 -0.2432 0.8980 -0.2322 0.9072 -0.2400 0.9077 -0.2356
0.006 0.8114 -0.3068 0.8229 -0.2979 0.8170 -0.3046 0.8185 -0.3081
taken from [9]. The calculations were carried out on a
0.008 0.7238 -0.3307 0.7328 -0.3457 0.7287 -0.3404 0.7256 -0.3390
25 x 11 rectangular matrix. TEM field-continuation 0.010 0.6455 -0.3201 0.6367 -0.3350 0.6396 -0.3281 0.6414 -0.3263
boundaries were fixed along x = 2 and x = 10, producing 0.012 0.5783 -0.2730 0.5694 -0.2619 0.5742 -0.2680 0.5731 -0.2707
boundaries, in effect, along the lines x = 1.5 and x = 10.5. 0.014 0.5272 -0.1850 0.5313 -0.1712 0.5266 -0.1797 0.5255 -0.1765
The initial impulse excitation was on all points along the 0.016 0.4993 -0.0609 0.5043 -0.0657 0.5009 -0.0538 0.5018 -0.0545
line z = 4, and at all subsequent time intervals the field 0.018 0.5002 -0.0790 0.4987 -0.0748 0.5057 -0.0785 0.5057 0.0768
ing in simple terms that nonexperts can understand. The In a two-port network, the ABCD transfer matrix is
main feature of the TLM method is the simplicity of commonly used to relate the input voltage V , and current
998 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 37, NO. 8 , AUGUST 1990
(A.13)
2rr
p =- (A.16)
Ar
where r = U,,/c. Substituting (A.14) and (A.16) into
(A.131, we have
J . (A.4) r A1 T A1
COS e /2 sin( ;-T) = a s i n . ( h). (A.17)
For the network in Fig. 3, the voltage and current at By Selecting different values of A l / A 7 the corresponding
node i are related to those at node i + 1 by the transfer- values of r = U,,/C can be obtained as in Fig. 5 for
matrix equation two-dimensional problems.
Following the same procedure, the dispersion relation
(cos e /2) ( j sin e 1 2 ) 1 for three-dimensional problems can be derived as
(jsin0/2) COS^/^)
('4.5)
sin .:( y) = 2sin ( r : ) . (A.18)
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