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trusses: the axial forces in the statically determinate trusses could can be calculated considering

the equilibrium of forces only, butwhereas the calculation of the axial forces in the statically

indeterminate frame, where for which the calculation of the internal forces (axial forces, shear

forces and bending moment) requires consideration of both the force equilibrium of forces and

the calculation process for a determinate structure, that for an indeterminate structure is longer,

yebut straightforward.

Recall Fig. 1-5-9, where the axial forces in statically indeterminate trusses changed when we

changed the axial stiffness EA for the section (the Youngs modulus multiplied by the cross-

sectional area). Similarly, the internal forces in an indeterminate frame changes if we change the

bending stiffness EI for the section (the Youngs modulus multiplied by the moment of inertia).

In Fig. 5-3-10d, we obtained a bending moment diagram for a portal frame with all of its

members having the same stiffness. If we assume that the stiffness of column CD is extremely

large as shown in Fig. 5-4-1, which should be the correct bending moment diagram among

74

We note that tThe moment diagram in Fig. 5-4-2a is identical with that the one obtained for a

frame with all of its members having the same stiffness. and, In in Figs. 5-4-2b and c, the

The portal frame in Fig. 5-4-1 is an indeterminate frame. We cannot determine the internal forces

procedure:

Step 1: We release the horizontal-force restraint on reaction D (Fig. 5-4-3a). Now the portal

frame, with the degrees of freedom increased, is determinate. We can determine the reactions

Step 2: Given the distributions of internal forces, we can determine the horizontal

displacement, uFD , at reaction D, uFD caused by the applied vertical load F (Fig. 5-4-3c).

Step 3: Again referring to the frame with the released horizontal restraint, we apply a

75

horizontal force of a given magnitude, R, at reaction D (Fig. 5-4-4a); and determine the

horizontal displacement uRD it causes at reaction D (Fig. 5-4-4c). (The value of R is not

Step 4: The condition we must satisfy is that the horizontal displacement at reaction D must

be zero under the influence of the vertical load F and the horizontal load R. We determine the

We shall go through the process described above in detail in the following paragraphs.

Step 1: With the horizontal restraint released at support B, the portal frame has no horizontal

reaction. As we have observed earlier (Section 5-3), the beam responds as a simply supported

76

beam. Given that the slope is zero at mid-span, the rotation at each end is

FL2

B C (5.4.2)

16 EI

The columns are not subjected to bending moment. They do not bend. Thereforen, the horizontal

deflections contributionsed ofby the column rotationss to the horizontal deflections are

uleft B L and uright C L (because the column height is equal to the beam span L). The total

displacement is

FL3

uFD uleft uright B L C L (5.4.3)

8EI

Step 2: We apply a horizontal force R at support B. The resulting bending-moment distribution is

shown in Fig. 5-4-4b. We note that the bending deformation of the column on the right (with an

extremely large bending stiffness EI) is negligible. The slopes at the two ends of the beam are

the same

RL2

B C (5.4.4)

2 EI

Thereforen, the total horizontal displacement is the sum of the contribution of the column on the

left

RL3 5 RL3

uleft B L (5.4.5)

3EI 6 EI

and that of the very stiff column on the right

RL3

uright C L (5.4.6)

2 EI

resulting in

77

4 RL3

uRD uleft uright (5.4.7)

3EI

To get the proper horizontal reaction at B, we equate the determined displacements

FL3 4 RL3

(5.4.8)

8EI 3EI

leading to

3

R F (5.4.9)

32

Now we have the horizontal reaction for the indeterminate frame in terms of the force F.

Because we know the reactions (or external forces), we determine the bending moment at the

top of the column (which is equal to the moment at the end of the beam) using statics

3

M R L FL (5.4.10)

32

1. Make the vertical force zero and apply a horizontal force of 3N at the roller support

(support B).

2. Click the setting button and increase E for the right column to at least 100 times the

default value. Note that the horizontal displacement of the roller has now been reduced to

3. Apply a vertical force of 32 N at mid-span of the beam. You will find that Eq. 5.4.9 is

satisfied and that the horizontal displacement of the roller support is zero.

What would happen if you increase the EI for both columns equally to an extremely large value?

78

In this case, the displacement of the roller caused by the horizontal force R (Fig. 5-4-4a) is:

RL3

u RD B L C L (5.4.11)

EI

To get the proper horizontal reaction at D, we equate this displacement with that caused by the

RL3 FL3

(5.4.12)

EI 8 EI

which leads to

1

R F (5.4.13)

8

Therefore, the bending moment is as shown in Fig. 5-4-2c. The deformed deflected shape is

shown in Fig. 5-4-5. Note that the columns do not deformdeflect. The Deflected

shapedeformation and the bending moment of the beam are, therefore, the same as those of a

beam of which ends are with both ends fixed as shown in Fig. 5-4-6.

Fig. 5-4-5 Two rigid columns Fig. 5-4-6 Beam of which ends are fixed

Example 5-4-1. Construct the bending moment diagram of the structure shown in Fig. 5-4-

79

Fig. 5-4-7 A symmetric frame with a rigid beam

Solution: Because the beam is rigid and does not deform, the top of each column does cannot

rotate ( = 0) as shown in (Fig. 5-4-7b). Therefore, the columns are deformed as if they are

cantilever beams withof length L with their free ends at the supports. Because the bending

stiffness (EI) and the lateral displacement (ux) of the two columns are the same, the shear force

in each column is also the same. Thus, wWe conclude that the shear force in each column is F/2

and the bending moment diagram is as shown in Fig. 5-4-7c. Note that the deflection of a

( F / 2) L3 FL3

ux (5.4.13)

3EI 6 EI

This is the lateral displacement of the beam shown in Fig. 5-4-7b. In GOYA-P, modify Youngs

modulus of the columns to 178 N/mm2 so that EI = 106 N.mm2 and make Youngs modulus of

the beam very large (at least 100 times the default value). Then, makeapply F = 6 N. The lateral

displacement of the beam indicated on the screen should be u x 6 1003 /(6 106 ) 1 mm.

Example 5-4-2. Construct Draw the bending moment diagram of the structure shown in Fig.

80

Fig. 5-4-8 An asymmetric unsymmetrical frame with a rigid beam

Solution: Because the beam is rigid, the columns may be treated as cantilever beams with their

fixed ends at the beam level. Let R1 and R2 denote the reactions of the supports as shown in Fig.

5-4-8b and note that the deformation (ux) of each column is the same. That leads us to:

R1 L3 R2 L3

ux (5.4.14)

3EI 3 (2 EI )

the right column is twice that in the left column because the bending stiffness of the right

column is twice that of the left column. If we substitute R1 F / 3 into Eq. (5.4.14), we get:

( F / 3) L3 FL3

ux (5.4.15)

3EI 9 EI

Example 5-4-3. Construct the bending moment diagram of the structure with distributed

81

Fig. 5-4-9 A frame with distributed load

Solution: We can solve this example replacing one of the pin supports by a roller support as we

did before. However, we note that the columns do not deform. That observation leads to a faster

solution. Because the ends of the beam do not rotate, the beam may be considered as a beam

Note that the vertical reaction at each support is wL/2 because of symmetry. Integrating dV/dx =

82

wL

V wx (5.4.16)

2

wL w

M M0 x x2 (5.4.17)

2 2

where M0 denotes the bending moment at x = 0 (the left end). We substitute this equation into

d 2 v / dx 2 M / EI and integrate it, noting that the inclination at x = 0 (the left end) is zero. We

obtain:

dv 1 wL 2 w 3

M0x x x (5.4.18)

dx EI 4 6

Because the deflected shape is symmetric about mid-span, the slope at x = L/2 (mid-span) must

wL2

M0 (5.4.19)

12

If the columns are much more flexible than the beam (contrary to Fig. 5-4-9), the bending

moments at the ends of the beam M0 become infinitesimalapproach zero and we obtain the

bending moment diagram as shown in Fig. 5-4-10e, which is equivalent to that of a simple beam.

If the stiffness of the beam is similar to those of the columns, the bending moment diagram is

In Figs. 5-4-10d, e, and f, you should note that the difference between the moment at the ends

and that of at mid-span is always wL2 / 8 . Thisat agrees with the bending moment at the

middlemid-span of a simple beam under a uniform load of w (see Section 3-2). Such an

83

agreement is also observed for the case of a concentrated load. The bending moment in an

equivalent simple-beam is called static moment. Figure 5-4-11a shows a frame subjected to a

uniform load of w and a horizontal load of FH. If you call the positive moment at mid-span M1

and the two negative moments at the ends of the beam M0 and M2, you will find

M 0 M 2 wL2 M0 M2 wL2

M1 or M1

2 8 2 8

because the moment distribution in Fig. 5-4-11a can be decomposed into those in Figs. 5-4-11b

and c. For a beam with a concentrated load at the middle (Fig. 5-4-12)

M 0 M 2 FL M0 M2 FL

M1 or M1

2 4 2 4

The left-hand term, for any loading distribution, is equal to the static moment or the moment at

mid-span of a simply supported beam for the same loading distribution. This result is useful to

remember because it can be used to check the reliability of solutions for statically indeterminate

beams.

84

Exercise 1: Take the last digit of your ID# i to determine the length of the beam below. Fill

out the table below using GOYA-P, while keeping Youngs modulus of the other members as the

default value (E = 100 N/mm2). Also, sketch the deflected shape of the frame for each case.

Exercise 2: Take the last digit of your ID# i to determine the length of the beam below. Fill

out the table below using GOYA-P but, while keeping Youngs modulus of the other members

equal toas the default value (E = 100 N/mm2). Sketch the deflected shape of the frame for each

case.

85

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