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UNIUBE UNIVERSIDADE DE UBERABA

FACULDADE DE ENGENHARIA CIVIL

Mecnica dos Solos II


Material auxiliar - 1 Bimestre
Prof.: Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
01/02/2015

Nome do aluno:
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Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Capitulo I - Distribuio das tenses no solo

1- O solo, ao receber carregamentos, ir se deformar, modificando o seu volume e


forma iniciais. Do que depender a magnitude destas deformaes?

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2- Qual a importncia o conhecimento das tenses atuantes em um macio de solo?

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3- Quais so os dois tipos de carregamentos que introduzem tenses em um macio de


solo?

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4- Sendo o solo um sistema particulado, constitudo de partculas de gros, gua e ar,


quais so as tenses atuantes neste sistema, provenientes de seu peso prprio? Qual a
simbologia de cada esforo?

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5- Identificado os esforos atuantes em uma camada de solo de acordo com a pergunta


anterior, explique o que cada esforo representa?

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6- O que o principio das tenses efetivas, desenvolvido por Terzaghi? Qual a formula
que representa este principio?

Formula:

7- O principio das tenses efetivas desenvolvido por Terzaghi, requer que o solo esteja
em determinado estado. Qual este estado?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 2


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

8- Por que se diz que a presso exercida sobre a gua existente em um macio de solo
neutra?

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9- Por que se diz que a presso efetiva a que governa os aspectos essenciais de um
macio de solo, principalmente com referncia a sua resistncia?

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10- O que Tenso Geosttica?

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11- Quais so os dois planos principais de tenso?

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12- O que tenso geosttica em um macio de solo?

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13- Como se calcula a presso neutra?

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14- Qual a diferena entre z e zw?

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15- Como se calcula a tenso vertical efetiva final em um perfil de solo com varias
camadas estratificadas?

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 3


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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16- Em que condio pode-se utilizar o peso especifico submerso sub no clculo da
tenso efetiva vertical v .

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17- Qual a importncia do clculo das Tenses Geostticas horizontais?

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18- Qual a formula para o clculo da Tenso Geosttica horizontal?

Formula:

19- O que significa o K0 na formula para o calculo da Tenso geosttica horizontal?

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20- Quais os valores de K0 para os diferentes tipos de solos?

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21- O que diz a lei de distribuio das tenses em um solo?

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22- Como se distribui a magnitude dos esforos nos macios de solo?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 4


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

23- Quais so as trs teorias para determinao do valor de acrscimo de tenses


provenientes do carregamento de um solo?

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24- O que diz a teoria da hiptese simples?

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25- Quais as teorias de distribuio das tenses segundo hiptese simples?

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26- Quais so os valores de 0, conforme o tipo de solo?

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27- Qual a principal restrio metodolgica existente nesta teoria?

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28- Em quais situaes aceita esta teoria simplificada de distribuio de tenses?

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29- Em que se basea a teoria da elasticidade para verificar a distribuio das cargas
sobre uma massa de solo?

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 5


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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30- Para que a teoria da elasticidade possa funcionar em uma massa de solo, quais
condicionante so colocadas?

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31- Alm da soluo de Boussinesq para uma carga concentrada, qual a outra soluo
disponvel para carga concentrada? Qual o nome desta soluo? No que ela difere da
soluo de Boussinesq?

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32- Para carregamentos sobre um solo, denominadas de extenso da formula de


Boussinesq, quais so as principais formulaes?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 6


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Capitulo II Hidrulica nos solos - Permeabilidade

1- Como a gua se encontra nos solos grossos?

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2- Como pode estar a gua nos solos grossos?

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3- Por que nos solos finos, a condio em que se encontra a gua no solo mais
complexa?

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4- O que acontece com as molculas de gua prximas as partculas de solo fino? Qual
o nome dado a estas molculas de gua?

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5- O que coeso verdadeira?

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6- Defina o que permeabilidade de um corpo.

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7- O que permeabilidade nos solos?

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8- Nas obras de engenharia, qual a razo de se preocupar com o fluxo de gua no


interior de um macio de solo?

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 7


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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9- O que acontece, quando a gua, se move no interior de um macio de solo?

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10- Em quais reas da engenharia se aplica o estudo de permeabilidade de um solo?

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11- Quando h fluxo de gua no solo qual a natureza destas foras?

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12- Explique como o sentido de um fluxo de gua em um solo altera o valor de seu peso
especifico submerso.

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Sentido descendente:_____________________________________________________
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13- Quais so as trs formas em que a gua contida em um solo pode se apresentar?

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14- Explique o que gua adsorvida.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 8


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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15- Explique o que gua livre ou gravitacional?

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16- Em quais conceitos se apia o estudo da permeabilidade dos solos?

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17- Baseando-se na lei de conservao de energia Lei de Bernoulli qual a formula


utilizada para o calculo da energia total em um ponto no solo? Como denominada
cada componente desta formula?

Formula:

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18- Qual a condio bsica para que ocorra fluxo de gua em um solo?

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19- havendo fluxo de gua em um solo, em qual sentido dever percolar a gua?

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20- Como se define Energia livre da gua em determinado ponto?

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21- Como se define gradiente hidrulico de um solo i? Qual a sua formula?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 9


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Formula:

22- Como se define fora de percolao FP?

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23- Qual a formula da fora de percolao?

Formula:

24- Por que a Fora de Percolao pode ser extremamente perigosa em uma obra de
solo?

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25- Quais so os dois regimes de escoamento de fludos existentes?

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26- O que um regime de fluxo Laminar?

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27- O que um regime de fluxo Turbulento?

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28- Qual destes dois regimes de fluxo predomina nos solos?

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29- Quais as condies para que haja fluxo turbulento em um solo?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 10


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

30- O Eng. H. Darcy realizou em 1856, um experimento para se estudar as propriedades


de fluxo de gua atravs de uma camada de filtro de areia. Qual a formula para o calculo
da vazo, determinada a partir deste experimento?

Formula:

31- Na equao desenvolvida por H. Darcy, o que representa a letra k?

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32- O que proporciona um maior ou menor valor de k?

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33- Qual a dimenso de k e qual a sua unidade?

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34- A partir da equao anterior, como se consegue determinar a velocidade de


percolao da gua em um solo?

Formula:

35- Como denominada a velocidade da gua no solo, encontrada pela formula acima?

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36- Por que a velocidade de descarga no a velocidade real da gua no solo?

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37- Como se calcula a velocidade real da gua em um solo?

Formula:

38- O que representa o coeficiente de permeabilidade de um solo?

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 11


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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39- O coeficiente de permeabilidade fixo para determinado tipo de solo?

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40- Monte na linha abaixo a escala de grandeza em que varia o coeficiente de


permeabilidades dos vrios tipos de solo.

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41- Porque os solos saturados apresentam uma maior permeabilidade que os solos no
saturados?

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42- Quais so os trs mtodos para se determinar a permeabilidade de um solo?

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43- Qual a limitao na determinao da permeabilidade dos solos, atravs das


correlaes empricas?

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44- Qual a restrio tcnica que se apresenta na determinao da permeabilidade de um


solo em laboratrio?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 12


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

45- Qual a restrio tcnica que se apresenta na determinao da permeabilidade de um


solo em campo?

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46- Qual a equao de Hazen (1911) para determinao da permeabilidade em um


solo granular?

Formula:

47- Quais so as duas restries no uso da equao de Hazen, na determinao da


permeabilidade de um solo?

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48- Na formula de Hazen acima, qual a frao do solo utilizada para o calculo do
coeficiente de permeabilidade?

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49- Qual a equao obtida atravs do ensaio de adensamento, para a determinao da


permeabilidade de um solo?

Formula:

50- Em laboratrio, para a determinao da permeabilidade de um solo, temos dois tipos


de permemetros. Quais so eles e quando se utiliza de um ou outro modelo?

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51- Qual a equao para determinao de permeabilidade de um solo, utilizando-se de
permemetro de carga constante?

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 13


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Formula:

52- Qual a equao para a determinao da permeabilidade de um solo, utilizando-se do


permemetro de carga varivel?

Formula:

53- Os ensaios de campo, para a determinao da permeabilidade de um solo pode ser


feito de duas maneiras. Quais so elas?

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54- Qual equao para determinao da permeabilidade de um solo quando se utiliza


o teste de bombeamento?

Formula:

55- Qual a equao para determinao da permeabilidade de um solo quando se utiliza


o teste de infiltrao?

Formula:

56- O ensaio de permeabilidade em campo apresenta um resultado mais aproximado da


permeabilidade do solo em comparao com o resultado obtido em laboratrio. Por que
isto acontece?

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57- Quais so os fatores que interferem na permeabilidade de um solo?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 14


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

58- Nas propriedades do fludo, quais so as propriedades que interferem na


permeabilidade?

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59- Por que a temperatura de 20 C tomada por padro ao se determinar a


permeabilidade de um solo?

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60- Quais as caractersticas de um solo que interferem na permeabilidade?

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61- Nos solos permeveis, quais as faixas de variao do valor da permeabilidade, para
que ele seja considerado de alta, mdia e baixa permeabilidade?

Alta: __________________________________________________________________

Mdia: ________________________________________________________________

Baixa: ________________________________________________________________

62- Nos solos impermeveis, quais as faixas as variao do valor da permeabilidade,


para que ele seja considerado de muito baixa e baixssima permeabilidade?

Muito baixa: ____________________________________________________________

Baixssima: ____________________________________________________________

63- O que ruptura hidrulica de um solo?

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64- Quais os dois tipos de ruptura hidrulica de um solo?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 15


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

2 Tipo:________________________________________________________________
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65- Areia movedia uma situao de ruptura hidrulica de um solo. Quando ela
acontece?

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66- O que altura de carga crtica?

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67- Como se evita o aparecimento de areia movedia em obras que envolvem fluxo
de gua?

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68- O que piping?

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69- Quais as conseqncias de no se corrigir o fenmeno piping?

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70- Por que se deve controlar as foras de percolao?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 16


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

71- Quais so os dois procedimentos bsicos possveis de adoo, para controle da fora
de percolao?

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72- Em uma barragem, quais so os dispositivos para reduo da vazo de percolao?

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71- Em uma barragem, quais so os dispositivos de drenagem que podem ser adotados
para controle da fora de percolao?

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72- O que so filtros de proteo?

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73- Ao se construir um filtro de proteo, deve-se atentar a duas condies bsicas.


Quais so elas?

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74- Conhecendo-se a curva granulomtrica de um solo, Terzaghi estipulou os limites


granulomtricos do material do filtro, satisfazendo as exigncias acima. Quais so eles?

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 17


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

1: ____________________________________________________________________
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75- Como se define capilaridade?

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76- O nvel de capilaridade em um solo, depende basicamente de que?

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77- Observando-se a figura 2.12 da pgina 43, defina o que franja capilar?

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78- Observando-se a figura 2.12 da pgina 43, defina o que nvel de saturao?

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79- Observando-se a figura 2.12 da pgina 43, defina o que nvel capilar?

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80- Como se calcula a ascenso capilar?

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81- Como a capilaridade explica a retrao de um solo que est secando?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 18


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

82- Como a capilaridade pode atrapalhar a resistncia de uma base rodoviria?

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83- O que coeso aparente?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 19


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Capitulo I Distribuio das Tenses nos Solos

Simbologia dos esforos segundo NBR 13441


Smbolos Significado Unidades
u Poro presso, presso neutra KPa
Tenso total normal KPa
' Tenso efetiva normal KPa
h Tenso horizontal KPa
'h Tenso efetiva horizontal KPa
z Distncia equivalente a profundidade m
k0 Coeficiente de empuxo no repouso -
Tenso cisalhante KPa

Tenses Geostticas

1- Dado o perfil geotcnico abaixo, calcule:

a- As tenses devidas ao peso prprio do solo (v e v) e as presses


neutras;
b- Adotando o valor de k0 igual a 0,5 para todas as camadas, determine as
tenses horizontais efetivas e totais;
c- Faa um diagrama da variao das tenses calculadas de acordo com a
profundidade, conforme solicitado nos itens a e b anteriores.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 20


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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Resp.: Tenso total em: B = 30; C = 47; D = 69,5 e E = 95,75

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 21


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

2- Dado o perfil geotcnico do problema anterior, recalcule as tenses totais e


efetivas verticais, considerando que o nvel do lenol fretico esteja na cota de - 4,5
m. Fazer o respectivo diagrama de variao das tenses.

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Resp.: Tenso total em: B = 30; C = 47; D = 69,5 e E = 95,75

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 22


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

3- Dado o perfil geotcnico abaixo, determine as tenses totais, neutra e efetiva em


cada nvel assinalado. Traar os respectivos diagramas.

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Res.: nat = 20,44; sat = 22,14; tenso total em B = 20,44; C = 64,72 e C = 109

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 23


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

4- Dado o perfil geotcnico abaixo, determine as tenses totais, neutra e efetivas


nos pontos A, B,C e D. Traar os respectivos diagramas.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 24


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Res.: Do solo 1: nat = 18,59; sat = 20,18; do solo 2 sat = 18,75; Tenses totais: B =
55,77; C = 136,49; D = 248,93

5- Fale o que voc entende pelo principio das tenses efetivas.

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6- Dos trs tensores total, neutra e efetiva - qual utilizado para a previso do
comportamento do solo para a grande maioria dos casos em Geotcnia? Porque?

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7- Qual o valor da poro-presso (presso neutra) no solo seco? Por que?

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8- Por que k0 definido em termos de tenso efetiva?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 25


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

9- Determine a distribuio de tenso total horizontal no perfil abaixo, at 10m de


profundidade.

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Resp.: Tenso total horizontal em: A = 0; B = 8,75; C = 23,0; D = 96,4 e C = 135,6.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 26


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

10- Dado o perfil geotcnico abaixo determine as tenses totais, neutra e efetiva a
2, 10, 12, 15 e 20 metros de profundidade. Determine tambm a tenso horizontal
efetiva e total a 12 metros de profundidade.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 27


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Resp.: Tenses totais verticais em: A = 0; B = 35; C = 179,8; D = 211,8; E = 259,8 e


em F = 359,8. Tenses horizontais a 12 m de profundidade: h = 167,08 e h =
67,08

11- O perfil de um solo constitudo por duas camadas de areia; uma fofa com
sat = 17 kN/m possui 3 m de espessura, e outra de areia compacta com sat = 19
kN/m com 4 m de espessura. Estando o nvel do lenol fretico a 1m da superfcie,
calcule as tenses verticais, neutras e efetivas nos pontos A, B, C e D. Considerar a
camada de areia fina acima do lenol fretico saturada por capilaridade.

A
-1 B N. A.

-2 Areia fina, fofa sat = 17 kN/m

-3 -----------------------------------------C -----------------------

-4

-5 Areia grossa compacta sat = 19 kN/m

-6

-7 ----------------------------------------D ------------------------

-8 _ Rocha impermevel

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Resp.: Tenses no ponto D: v = 127, u = 60 e v = 67 kPa

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 28


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

12- Dado o perfil do problema anterior, considerar o solo recoberto por uma
lamina de gua com 2 m de espessura, em funo da construo de um lago.
Recalcule as tenses em A, C e D.

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Resp.: Tenses no ponto D: v = 147; u = 90 e v = 57 kPa

13- Utilizando-se dos perfis do solo da questo 11 e 12, calcule a tenso efetiva em
D, utilizando-se o peso especifico submerso dos solos das camadas 1 e 2.

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Resp.: Resp.: o perfil A : v = 67 kPa ; do perfil B : v = 57 kPa

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 29


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

14- Determinar as tenses no solo devido ao seu peso prprio, dadas as condies
apresentadas na figura abaixo.

A NA = NT
0

AREIA FINA

s = 27 KN / m3; n = 0,4 B
-2

ARGILA SILTOSA
S = 26 KN / m 3 ; n = 0,5 C
-5

AREIA MDIA A FINA


S = 27 KN / m 3 ; n = 0,45
D
-8

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Resp. Tenses no ponto D: v = 152,38; u = 80 e v = 72,38 kPa

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 30


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

15- Calcular as tenses geostticas neutra, efetiva e total ao longo do perfil do solo
apresentado a seguir, considerando as duas posies do nvel de gua apresentado na
figura. O que ocorre com as tenses verticais efetivas devido ao rebaixamento do nvel
de gua da posio 1 para a posio 2?

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 31


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 32


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

16- Uma lagoa tem uma lmina de gua de 4,0 m acima de um fundo de argila. A
camada de argila tem uma espessura de 3,0 m e apia-se sobre uma areia mdia de 4,0
m, a qual, por sua vez, sobrejacente rocha impermevel. Considere as seguintes
etapas:

(a) inicialmente, antes do depsito de qualquer sedimento;


(b) aps um depsito de 2,0 m de areia fina siltosa;
(c) aps a drenagem da lagoa at sua base, mantendo-se a espessura de 2m do
sedimento lanado.

Considere tambm, as afirmativas a seguir.

I - Na etapa (a), no fundo da camada de areia, a tenso efetiva 65,4 kN/m.


II - Na etapa (b), no topo da camada de argila, a tenso efetiva 12,4 kN/m.
III - Na etapa (b), no fundo da camada de areia, a tenso efetiva 77,8 kN/m.
IV- Na etapa (c), no topo da camada de areia, a tenso efetiva 66,6 kN/m.

Desta forma, (so) correta(s) APENAS a(s) afirmativa(s)

(A) IV
(B) II e III
(C) III e IV
(D) I, II e III
(E) I, II e IV

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 33


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 34


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

17- Na investigao de um vale aluvial, as sondagens indicaram o perfil tpico do


terreno, conforme esquema abaixo, com NA a 4,0m e o substrato rochoso a 18,0m
de profundidade.

A ) Traar os diagramas de presses verticais totais, efetivas e neutras ao longo do


perfil do terreno.

B) Calcular a presso vertical efetiva na base do perfil abaixo, admitindo um


rebaixamento de 4,0m do lenol fretico. Neste caso, admitir as camadas de solo
situados acima do NA com um grau de saturao de 80%.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 35


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 36


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

18- Determinar as tenses no solo devido ao seu peso prprio dadas as condies
apresentadas na figura abaixo. Calcular a variao na tenso efetiva, para a
profundidade de 7m, caso o nvel de gua suba at a superfcie. Traar os diagramas das
tenses verticais, efetivas e neutras nas duas situaes.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 37


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Resp.: solo 1 nat = 16,15 K/m; sat = 18,58 KN/m; solo 2 sat = 19,06 Kn/m.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 38


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

19- Traar os diagramas de presses totais, presses efetivas e neutras para o terreno
indicado na figura abaixo:

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 39


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Acrscimos de tenses
1- Uma sapata de fundao retangular com dimenses de 2 x 3 m transmite uma
carga na superfcie do terreno de 200 KN/m. Calcular a tenso efetiva vertical
total a 4 m de profundidade, considerando-se o ngulo de espraiamento de 45 e
= 17,5 KN/m. O lenol fretico encontra-se a 7 m de profundidade.

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Resp.: vt = 80,91 KPa.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 40


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

2- Traar o diagrama de acrscimos de tenses no plano situado a 2m de


profundidade, at a distncia horizontal de 5m (fazer a cada metro), quando se
aplica na superfcie do terreno uma carga concentrada de 1.300 KN.

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Resp.: No eixo: = 15 KPa

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 41


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

3- Uma carga concentrada de 10.000 KN atua na superfcie de um terreno.


Utilizando-se da soluo de Boussinesq, determinar o acrscimo de tenses em um
ponto do terreno, distanciado horizontalmente de 3m do ponto de aplicao da
carga e a 4m de profundidade. Sabendo-se que a densidade do solo 18,5
KN/m, determine a tenso efetiva vertical total no ponto considerado.

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Resp.: vt = 174 KPa

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 42


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

4- Considere uma fundao circular com dimetro de 8 m, uniformemente


carregada com uma carga de 200 KPa sobre a superfcie de um terreno, cujo peso
especifico de 17,5 KN/m. Pede-se calcular a tenso efetiva vertical total que atua
no ponto a 5m de profundidade sob o centro da fundao.

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Resp.:

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 43


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

5- Calcular os acrscimos de tenses efetivas verticais at 10m de profundidade


transmitido ao terreno por um tanque circular; em pontos no seu eixo e na sua
borda, de 2 em 2 metros, sabendo-se que o tanque possui um dimetro de 10m e
que a presso transmitida ao nvel do terreno igual a 900 Kpa.

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Resp.:

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 44


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

7- Um galpo comercial destinado a depsito de mercadoria apresenta um formato


retangular com 10m de largura por 28m de comprimento, e deve aplicar ao
terreno uma presso uniformemente distribuda de 900 KPa. Determinar os
acrscimos de tenso, segundo a vertical, pelos pontos A, B, C, D e E.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 45


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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Resp.;

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 46


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

8- Calcular os acrscimos de tenses nos pontos A, E e F, em uma profundidade de


3m, provocados pela construo de uma planta industrial, cujo formato
apresentado abaixo, sabendo-se que esta construo ir provocar uma sobrecarga
de 200 KN/m (200 KPa) no terreno.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 47


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 48


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

9- Uma sapata corrida de 2,0m de largura transmite uma carga de 250kN/m


superfcie de um depsito de areia com NA superfcie do terreno. O peso especfico
saturado da areia 20kN/m e o coeficiente de empuxo lateral (ko) igual a 0,40.
Determinar as presses efetivas, verticais e horizontais, em um ponto situado a 3m
abaixo do centro da sapata, antes e aps o acrscimo de carga fundao.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 49


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

10- Um aterro de 3,0m de altura ser construdo com a seo indicada na figura abaixo.
Sendo o peso especfico do solo compactado igual a 18,8 kN/m, pede-se determinar as
tenses verticais induzidas nos pontos A e B devido s cargas do aterro.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 50


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Capitulo II Hidrulica nos Solos

Simbologia dos esforos segundo NBR 13441


Smbolos Significado Unidades
K Coeficiente de permeabilidade m/s; cm/s
Q Vazo m/s; cm/s
Vol Volume m; cm
V Velocidade de descarga cm/s
i Gradiente hidrulico -
ic Gradiente hidrulico crtico -
j Fora de percolao KN/m

Problemas bsicos para fixao dos conceitos de L; A e i.


1- Mantendo-se constante o nvel de gua em Na1, determine a vazo de gua
atravs do tubo ilustrado na figura abaixo, sabendo-se que o tubo possui uma rea
transversal de 100 cm e que o solo possui um coeficiente de permeabilidade igual a
4 . 10-5 cm/s.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 51


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

2- Pretende-se construir uma barragem conforme demonstrado no desenho a


seguir. Pede-se estimar a vazo de gua que dever percolar pela camada de areia
em um perodo de 24 horas, sabendo-se que esta areia apresenta um coeficiente de
permeabilidade de 5 .10-2 cm/s e que o comprimento da seo da barragem de 80
metros. Considerar o solo do corpo da barragem impermevel. Pergunta-se ainda
se a construo desta barragem vivel diante do ponto de vista da perca de gua.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 52


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

3- Mantendo-se constante o nvel de gua Na1, determinar o volume de gua que


passa pelo sistema esquematizado na figura abaixo, durante um tempo de 15
minutos, sabendo que o coeficiente de permeabilidade do solo 2.10-3 cm/s, e que
as dimenses do corpo de prova so 25 x 25 cm.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 53


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

4- No permeametro abaixo, mantendo-se constante o nvel de gua Na1, determine


o coeficiente de permeabilidade do solo contido no corpo de prova, sabendo-se que
a rea do corpo de prova de 530 cm e que o volume medido em 18 segundos de
100 cm.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 54


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

5- Em um ensaio para determinao do coeficiente de permeabilidade de um solo


argiloso, utilizou-se o permeametro de carga varivel. Quando a carga h era 65
cm, acionou-se o cronometro. Trinta segundos aps, a carga h era 35 cm.
Sabendo-se que o comprimento do corpo de prova de 20 cm, sua rea de 77 cm e
que a rea da bureta de 1,2 cm, determine o coeficiente de permeabilidade deste
solo.

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6- Utilizando-se das informaes do exercicio anterior, determine em quanto


tempo a carga hidrulica teria cado de 65 cm para 50 cm.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 55


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

7- Questo n 17 do Enade de 2008

Aps a construo de uma barragem, detectou-se a presena de uma camada


permevel de espessura uniforme igual a 20 m e que se estende ao longo de toda a
barragem, cuja seo transversal est ilustrada abaixo. Essa camada provoca por
infiltrao, perca de volume de gua armazenada.

Sabe-se que, sob condies de fluxo laminar, a velocidade de fluxo aparente da


gua atravs de um meio poroso pode ser calculada pela lei de Darcy, que
estabelece que esta velocidade igual ao produto do coeficiente de permeabilidade
do meio pelo gradiente hidrulico perda de carga hidrulica por unidade de
comprimento percorrido pelo fludo, ou seja / . A vazo de gua atravs do
meio o produto da velocidade de fluxo pela rea da seo atravessada pela gua
normal direo do fluxo.

Suponha que o coeficiente de permeabilidade da camada permevel seja igual a 10-


4
m/s, que ocorram percas de carga hidrulica somente no trecho percorrido pela
gua dentro desta camada e que a barragem e as demais camadas presentes sejam
impermeveis. Sob estas condies, a vazo (Q) por unidade de comprimento ao
longo da extenso da barragem, que perdida por infiltrao atravs da camada
permevel satisfaz seguinte condio.

(A) Q < 10-5 m/s/m


(B) 10-5 m/s/m < Q 10-4 m/s/m
(C) 10-4 m/s/m < Q 10-3 m/s/m
(D) 10-3 m/s/m < Q 10-2 m/s/m
(E) Q > 10 m-2 m/s/m

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 56


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Soluo:

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Resposta: Alternativa C.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 57


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

8-) Na figura abaixo apresenta-se a montagem de um permeamentro com duas


areias, a areia A disposta na posio horizontal possui: A = 100 cm e K = 4 x 10-
3
cm/seg. A areia B disposta na posio vertical possui: A = 400 cm e K = 2 x 10-3
cm/seg. Determinar a vazo do conjunto e a perca de carga em cada solo.
Obs.: Solo em srie Resolver as questes 8, 9 e 10 utilizando a proporcionalidade
entre os coeficientes de permeabilidade.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 58


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

9- A figura mostra camadas de solo colocadas em um tubo com uma seo


transversal quadrada com 100 mm de lado. Para se manter a diferena de carga
constante de 300 mm, necessrio adicionar gua no tubo da esquerda. Os
coeficientes de permeabilidade na direo do escoamento esto definidos na tabela
a seguir.

O suprimento de gua necessrio, em cm/h, aproximadamente :

(A) 288
(B) 292
(C) 296
(D) 290
(E) 294

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 59
Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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Determinar ainda a perca de carga proporcionada por cada solo, desenhando


abaixo o permeametro deste problema, mostrando a linha de perca de carga do
sistema.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 60


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

10-) Dado permeametro abaixo, necessita-se introduzir o solo C para reduzir o


gradiente hidrulica de sada no solo A para a metade do valor encontrado na
situao inicial. Qual deve ser o coeficiente de permeabilidade do solo C para
que se atinja o objetivo procurado?

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_Resp.: K = 1,40 .10-2 cm/s

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 61


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Comparativo de volume percolado para solos em srie e em paralelo

11-) As areias A e B com formas e dimenses definidas, foram ensaiadas em


um permeametro de seo quadrada de lado igual a 20 cm, em duas posies
distintas:
1 - Solo em srie:
2 - Solo em paralelo:
Dados os coeficientes de permeabilidade Ka = 4 . 10-4 m/s e Kb = 10-4 m/s,
determinar qual das duas montagens apresenta maior vazo.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 62
Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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Resp.: Sistema A: Q = 4,8 cm/s ; Sistema B: Q = 7,5 cm/s

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 63


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Coeficiente de permeabilidade equivalente - Keq

12-) A figura mostra camadas de solo colocadas em um tubo com uma seo
transversal quadrada com 100 mm de lado. Para se manter a diferena de carga
constante de 300 mm, necessrio adicionar gua no tubo da esquerda. Os
coeficientes de permeabilidade na direo do escoamento esto definidos na tabela
a seguir.
Qual deve ser o volume fornecido em uma hora para se manter a diferena de
carga constante de 300 mm. Determinar ainda aperca de carga proporcionada por
cada corpo de prova.
Obs.: Solo em srie Resolver as questes 12 e 13 utilizando a formula do
coeficiente de permeabilidade equivalente Keq.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 64


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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Resp.: Keq = 1,2.10-3cm/s ; Q = 0,08 cm/s.

Desenhar abaixo o sistema deste exerccio com as respectivas percas de carga.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 65


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

13-) Dado um perfil de solo, calcular o Keq considerando:

1- O fluxo de gua paralelo ao mesmo:

2 O fluxo de gua perpendicular ao mesmo:

Solo Altura da camada h (m) K (cm/s)


A 2 10-4
B 3 3,2x10-2
C 4 4,1 x 10-5
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Resp.: Keqp = 1,07 x 10-2 cm/s ; Keqv = 7,65 x 10-5 cm/s

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 66


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Variaes das tenses efetivas em funo do fluxo de gua

14-) Dado o permeametro da figura abaixo, determine as tenses efetivas nos


pontos A, B e C, sabendo-se que a densidade da areia saturada 19 KN/m.Calcule
as tenses no sistema passo a passo; ou seja, tenses verticais, presso neutra e
tenses efetiva. Verifique o resultado da tenso efetiva, utilizando a frmula
reduzida

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 67


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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_Resp.: A= B= C=

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 68


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

15-) Dado o permemetro abaixo, calcule a altura h necessria para que o


fenmeno de areia movedia ocorra no solo da figura abaixo, dado: sat = 18
KN/m.

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Resp.:

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 69


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

Exerccios com rede de Fluxo


16-) Na seo abaixo determinar:
a) a vazo diria por metro de barragem que percola atravs do terreno de
fundao, sabendo-se que o solo anisotrpico e o coeficiente de
permeabilidade 3,5x10-4 cm/seg.
b) A presso piezomtrica da gua nos pontos A e B.
c) A presso neutra por metro da barragem, sabendo-se que sua base tem
20 metros.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 70


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

17-) Determinar a subpresso total que a barragem abaixo apresenta, quando a


gua acumulada no reservatrio atinge a cota 15,4 m acima da cota de jusante,
considerando que a base da barragem tem 56 m de comprimento.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 71


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

18- Dada a barragem vertedouro apresentada na figura a seguir, cujo solo


anisotrpico, determinar:
a) A perda de gua por percolao diria (por metro linear de barragem)
b) O valor da presso piezomtrica da gua nos pontos A, B, C, e D.
c) O valor da subpresso nos pontos B, D e E.
d) O valor do gradiente hidrulico no ponto F, sabendo que o comprimento
do elemento igual a 2,2

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 72


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

19-) Dada a seo abaixo, em solo isotrpico, calcular:

A-) A quantidade de gua que percola por ms, atravs do macio


permevel.
B-) A presso neutra no ponto A.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 73


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

20-) A figura abaixo mostra uma rede de fluxo, soluo grfica do problema de
fluxo permanente 2D, ao redor de uma cortina impermevel em uma camada de
solo isotrpico e homogneo.
A-) Qual o valor da carga hidrulica total - htotal no ponto A situado na
profundidade 1,40 m abaixo do NR?
B-) Qual o valor da presso neutra no ponto A

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A-) 4,00 m. C-) 1,40 m E-) 5,76

B-) 0,36 m. D-) 3,76 m

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 74


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

21-) Determinar a vazo diaria que percola pelo solo abaixo do dique e a
subpresso atuante na base do dique conforme apresentado abaixo.

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6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 75


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha
Mecnica dos Solos II
Questionrio e Exerccios

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Confira seus resultados com o grfico abaixo.

6 Perodo de Engenharia Civil Pgina 76


Professor Eduardo Rodrigues da Cunha