Você está na página 1de 3

Chapter2

inwhichEistheelasticmodulus,i.e., theYoung'smodulusofthebulkmaterial,and
t,w,and/arethethickness,widthandlengthofthecantileverbeams,respectively.
Thewidthandlengthofthecantileverbeamscanbedetermined quiteaccuratelyand
thevariationinthesevaluesforthesametypeofcantileversononewafer isvery
small.However,cantileversareoften verythinand,asstatedbefore,theremaybe
significant differences inthethicknessbetweencantileversononewafer. Sincein
equation2.2thethicknessiscubed,thismayleadtolargedeviationsfrom theactual
springconstantvalues.Todeterminethespringconstantwouldnowinvolve
measuringthethicknessoftheindividual cantilevers.Evenifthiswereasimpletask
thespringconstantmight stillbequestionablebecausetheapplicabilityofthe
calculatedvaluealsoreliesontheaccurateknowledgeoftheelasticmodulus.This
modulusvariesdueto(local)variationsinthestoichiometryofthesiliconnitrideand
thatofthegoldcoating,whichareunavoidable inmicrofabrication techniques.

Toavoidtheuseofa(toosimple)modelforthecantilever shape,SaderandWhite[9]
performed afinite elementanalysisofthestaticdeflection ofV-shapecantileversand
presented exactnumericalresultsfor thespringconstantfor avarietyofcantilever
dimensions.However,alsointhisapproachtheresultsdirectlydependonaccurate
valuesforthethicknessandelasticmodulusofthecantilever,whicharenoteasily
accessible.Thisrestrictstheapplicabilityofanymodelcalculationofthespring
constant.Inpractice,measurementofthespringconstantoftheindividual cantilever
isstillthebestoptiontogetquantitativelyreliableresultsfrom force measurements.

2.3.2 TheClevelandmethod
InthisworktheClevelandmethod[6]wasusedfor calibratingthecantilevers.Inthis
method,particlesofknownsizeanddensityareattachedtothefree endofthe
cantileverandthespringconstantkisdetermined from theresulting shift ofthe
cantilever'sresonancefrequency. Usingthismethod itisnotnecessarytoknowthe
massofthecantileveritself.
Theresonancefrequency v0 oftheunloadedcantilever isgivenby:

1 [k
VoV- (2-3)
2K \ m

Thecantilever ishereapproximated asaspringwithspringconstantkandan effective


massm.WhenamassMis addedtotheendofthecantileverthisbecomes:

28
ColloidalProbeAFM-Experimental Methodology

4P 2n\m +
M
(2.4)

Rearrangingthisequationgives:

M- (2.5)
(2nvf m
Thus,measuringtheresonancefrequencies ofthecantileverforvariousattached
massesandplottingMas afunction of (27tv)'2 shouldgivealinewithaslopeequalto
thespringconstant.Ifdesired,theeffective cantilevermassfollows from theintercept
ofthisplotfor 1/v2 = 0 .
Theresonancefrequency ofthecantilever canbeeasilydetermined makinguseofthe
NanoScope software. Firsttheresonancefrequency v0 oftheunloaded cantileveris
determined.After thisaparticleofknownmassisattachedtothecantilever,andthe
resonancefrequency isagainmeasured.Attachingtheendmassisdoneinmuchthe
samewayaswiththecolloidalprobes,onlythistimenoglueisused(inairthe
particlesstickduetocapillaryadhesion).Asendmassesweusedtungstenspheres
withdiametersintherange 10-30um(seefigure 2.4).Themassesofthespheres
werecalculated fromthesphereradiiandthedensityoftungsten(19.3103kg/m3).

Figure2.4: Scanningelectronmicrographof
thetungstenparticlesusedincalibratingthe
cantilevers.

29
Chapter2

Inprinciple,measuringtheresonancefrequencies oftheunloadedcantileverandthe
loadedcantileverforjust onevalueofMwould suffice tocalculatekfrom equations
2.3and2.4.However,inpracticemoremeasurements areneededtoreducethe effect
ofexperimental errors,inparticularthoserelatedtodeterminingtheprecisesizeofthe
tungstenparticles.Anexampleofaspringconstantcalibrationplotisgivenin figure
2.5.

1/(2TTV) 2 (10"1 S 2 )

Figure2.5: Typicalcantilevercalibrationplotfor astandard200fimwide-leggedDI


cantilever. Springconstant0.108N/m;correlationcoefficient0.98.

2.3.3 Estimationofthespringconstant
Forcantileversdiffering inthicknessbutotherwiseidentical,thespringconstantsare
proportionaltothecubeoftheirunloadedresonancefrequencies. Thisisexpressedin
thefollowing equation[6]:

k=2ieiW2E-*\v0i (2.6)

with p the(effective) densityofthecantilevermaterial,and v0 theresonance


frequency oftheunloaded cantilever. Theotherparametersweredefined below
equation2.2.

30