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COMMED Evaluation 2

RESEARCH DESIGNS 1,2,3 - Josephine M. Carnate, MD, MPH


SAMPLING METHODS - Danaida B. Marcelo, MSPH Bio
(Notes from Batch 2016 Transcriptions and Current PowerPoints)
Rationalized by: Angeli Parra Transcribed by: Jhonelle Prodigalidad

QUESTION RATIONALE

1. A study was conducted to determine


if early circumcision (during infancy) i. Cross sectional age at circumcision is a one point in time
ii. RCT organized 2 groups of sample babies: circumcision at
is related to the development of
years old
penile cancer in adulthood. Identify iii. Cohort comparison of the male adults who had developed
the research design used in the cancer (exposure status)
scenarios: iv. Cohort comparison of the male children who will develop
cancer (exposure status)
i. The researcher assembled a v. Case Control comparison of medical diagnosis (disease s
sample of male adults with a
medical diagnosis of penile CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
cancer and a sample of (PREVALENCE STUDY, PREVALENCE SURVEY)
those who did not have the General features:
condition and determined Exposure and disease status at one point in time
age at (with which came first, none is known)
circumcision Generates prevalence data
ii. The researcher assembled a Not appropriate for establishing causal associations
sample of male adults in or for investigations of disease etiology
Community X and collected
COHORT STUDY (FOLLOW-UP, INCIDENCE,
data regarding age at
LONGITUDINAL, FORMERLY PROSPECTIVE)
circumcision and the
General features:
presence/absence of a
Subjects are selected based on their exposure status
medical diagnosis of penile
Exposed
cancer Unexposed
iii. The researcher assembled a Comparison of incidence of disease among the
sample of male children who exposed and unexposed
were circumcised during Stronger evidence than case-control studies, though
infancy and a sample of RCTs remain the gold standard for cause-and-effect
children who were relationships
circumcised at 6-10 years old
and determined if they will CASE-CONTROL STUDY
develop penile cancer at age (CASE-REFERENT, CASE HISTORY, FORMERLY
21 RETROSPECTIVE)
iv. The researcher assembled a General features:
sample of babies and had Subjects are selected based on their disease status
them circumcised at birth; Cases
another sample of babies Controls
were circumcised at 6 years Comparison of the odds of exposure to a risk factor
old. The two groups were among the cases and controls
observed for the
development of penile cancer RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
v. The researcher assembled a A controlled experiment to assess the safety and
sample of male adults who efficacy of treatments for human diseases and
were circumcised during health problems in which, treatments are assigned
infancy and a sample of male at random
adults who were
circumcised during childhood
and determined if they had
developed penile cancer at
age 21

2. RCTs can be classified according to i. Crossover Design


participants exposure and response ii. Parallel Design
iii. Fixed Trial
to the intervention. Identify the
iv. Sequential Design
appropriate RCT design:
Parallel Study
i. RCT in which each of the There are two groups, set up and controlled at the same tim
participants is given Group A will receive the treatment, and Group B will receiv
all of the study interventions control
in successive periods Follow-up will occur after a certain period of time to determ
outcome of intervention
ii. RCT in which each group of WIDELY USED in RCTs
participants is exposed to
only one of the study Crossover Study
interventions After the certain period of time of follow up during the par
iii. RCT where the investigator the drugs used during treatment will be washed out (this
on the drugs half-life), then Group A will now receive the c
computes sample size by
while Group B will receive the treatment.
statistical methods Appropriate for chronic conditions, when the outcomes tak
iv. RCT in which the number of time to manifest
participants is not specified
by the investigators Sequential trials
beforehand Study with parallel design in which the number of participa
specified by the investigators beforehand
Instead, the investigators continue recruiting participants
benefit of one of the interventions is observed or until they
convinced that there are no important differences between
interventions
Limits of the number of participants can be set, depending
investigator
Applicable in radiology

Fixed trials
Investigators establish deductively the number of participa
sample size

3. Clinical trials involving new drugs


are commonly classified into four i. Phase 3
phases. Identify the appropriate RCT ii. Phase 1
iii. Phase 3
phase for the following RCT iv. Phase 1
objectives: v. Phase 4

i. Clinical trial to evaluate


safety and efficacy of
a drug among thousands of
sick subjects
ii. Clinical trial to evaluate
adverse effects of the
drug after long term used
iii. Clinical trial to screen for
safety of the drug
iv. Clinical trial to evaluate
efficacy of drug versus a
standard drug
v. Clinical trial to evaluate
appropriate dose of a
drug conducted among
healthy subjects
4. Identify the descriptive study design i. Ecologic Comparison - measures among several group at on
being described in the cases time
ii. Case Series - to identify the beginning or presence of an ep
i. Case reports of a rare type of iii. Ecological Trend - an assessment of trends in one or more g
breast cancer among male time
subjects were gathered and iv. Case Report - documents unusual medical occurrences
analyzed for factors common
among the subjects Case Report
ii. Incidence rates of H7N9 most basic descriptive study
were determined across all careful, detailed report on the profile of a single patient
Asian countries documents unusual medical occurrences
iii. Mortality rates from represent the first clues in the identification of new diseas
motorcycle accidents were adverse effects of exposure
compared before and after Generate hypothesis
the implementation of the
Helmet Law Case Series
iv. An article was written about a collection of individual case reports which may occur within
short period of time
patient with a
rare angiosarcoma of the used as a means to identify the beginning or presence of an
liver Generate hypothesis
Ecologic Study
(Correlational study, Aggregate study)
The group as unit of analysis
Group: geographical, time, occupation, etc.
Comparison of disease frequencies among groups
Generate hypothesis

Types
Ecologic comparison
simple comparison of frequency
measures among several group at one point in time

Ecologic trend/ time series


an assessment of trends in one or more groups over time
5. Identify the research design that is
prone to the following bias: i. Case-Control Study
ii. Correlational Study
i. Follow-up bias iii. Cohort Study
ii. Recall bias
iii. Ecologic fallacy

Ecologic Study
(Correlational study, Aggregate study)
The group as unit of analysis
Group: geographical, time, occupation, etc.
Comparison of disease frequencies among groups
Generate hypothesis
6. A study was designed to determine
the pregnancy outcomes of women
living in Fukushima who were
pregnant at the time of the meltdown
in the Fukushima Nuclear
Powerplant. The comparison group
for the women living in Fukushima
should be from

A. Fukushima Prefecture
B. All except prefecture external to
Fukushima
C. Fukushima Hospital
D. Neighbors of the pregnant
women living in Fukushima
E. Prefecture external to
Fukushima

7. A retrospective cohort study was Relative Risk Interpretation:


conducted to determine the RR = 1 () association
association between maternal RR 1 (+) association
malnutrition and neural tube defects RR > 1 (+) causative association
in infants in Dasmarinas City. The RR < 1 (+) preventive association
magnitude of the measure of
association was reported as =3.0. There is an association between maternal malnutrition and
The appropriate conclusion: defects in infants since the measure of association = 3

A. The odds of maternal


malnutrition is higher among
infants with neural tube defects
compared to infants without
neural tube defects.
B. The odds of infant neural tube
defects is higher among mothers
who are malnourished compared
to mothers who are not
malnourished.
C. Incidence of malnutrition is
higher among infants with neural
tube defects compared to
infants without neural tube
defects.
D. Maternal malnutrition is
associated with neural tube
defects in infants.
E. Prevalence of neural tube
defects is higher in mothers who
are malnourished compared to
mothers who are not
malnourished.

8. An appropriate sampling method for Snowball Sampling


a qualitative study that aims to Inaccessible or hard to get target population (hidden popul
determine HIV prevention practices persons, commercial sex workers)
of drug abusers: Researcher will identify someone who meets the criteria fo
the study
A. Simple random sampling First respondent is then asked to recommend others whom
B. Snowball sampling know who also have the same criteria.
C. Systematic random Succeeding respondents will also be asked to refer possible
sampling respondents.
D. Stratified random sampling
E. Random allocation Simple random sampling (SRS)
Sampling frame is needed
Every unit in the population has equal chance of being sele
Random selection can be done by:
Balloting
Using a table of random numbers, or computers o

Systematic Random Sampling


Selection of every kth unit in the population

Stratified Random Sampling


The population is first divided into groups or strata
A Simple Random Sample is then selected from each stratu
Subgroups of interest are represented adequately
Requires information on population distribution, requires s
frame per stratum

Random allocation
Random assignment; goal is usually to give all participants a
chance of being assigned to each experimental condition (r
how representative the participants are)
Randomly assigning participants to treatment groups
A process that assigns research participants by chance, rath
choice, to treatment groups
The goal of random allocation is to produce comparable gro
terms of general participant characteristics

9. This sampling method would require Stratified Random Sampling


prior knowledge of group distribution The population is first divided into groups or strata
of the target population: A Simple Random Sample is then selected from each stratu
Subgroups of interest are represented adequately
A. Random allocation Requires information on population distribution, requires s
B. Systematic random sampling frame per stratum
C. Stratified random sampling
D. Simple random sampling
E. Snowball sampling

10. The following statement(s) is/are Definition of Blinding:


true of blinding: A method of reducing risk of ascertainment of observation
It may employ any of the following:
A. Ensures that baseline Intervention is not known to the participant;
characteristics of all study Intervention is not known to the participant and the doc
groups are equal at the Intervention is not known to the participant, the doctor
beginning of the experiment data analyst
B. Ensures that participants are
not aware of who is receiving
the experimental drug or
placebo
C. Implies that every patient in the
original patient pool, or group,
must have a chance
equal to every other patient of
being assigned to a particular
treatment group
D. Eliminates confounding and
selection bias

11. A case-control study was designed Odds Ratio Interpretation:


to determine the association OR = 1 () association
between high early-life sunlight OR 1 (+) association
exposure and prostatic cancer. The OR > 1 (+) causative association
magnitude of the measure of OR < 1 (+) preventive association
association was reported as =0.5.
The appropriate conclusion: There is an association between high early-life sunlight
exposure and prostatic cancer since the measure of associa
A. High early-life sunlight exposure The odds of high early-life sunlight exposure is 0.5x lower a
has a causative relation with with prostatic cancer compared to males without prostatic
prostatic cancer. because it is a preventive association.
B. The odds of prostatic cancer is
lower among males with high
early-life sunlight exposure
compared to males with low
early-life sunlight
exposure.
C. Prevalence of prostatic cancer is
lower in males who have high
early-life sunlight
exposure compared to males
with low earlylife sunlight
exposure.
D. Incidence of prostatic cancer is
lower among males with high
early-life sunlight exposure
compared to males with low
early-lie sunlight
exposure.
E. The odds of high early-life
sunlight exposure is lower
among males with prostatic
cancer compared to males
without prostatic cancer.

12. A sampling frame is not required in Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling:


this sampling Non-random selection
method: Sampling frame is not required
A. Snowball sampling Cant compute sampling error
B. Stratified random sampling Results cannot be generalized
C. Systematic random sampling
D. Simple random sampling
E. Random allocation

13. A prospective cohort study was Relative Risk Interpretation:


designed to determine the RR = 1 () association
association between maternal RR 1 (+) association
malnutrition and neural tube defects RR > 1 (+) causative association
in infants in Dasmarinas City. The RR < 1 (+) preventive association
magnitude of the measure of
association was reported as =3.0. There is an association between maternal malnutrition and
The appropriate conclusion: defects in infants since the measure of association = 3

A. Incidence of malnutrition is
higher among infants with neural
tube defects compared to infants
without neural tube defects.
B. Maternal malnutrition is
associated with neural
tube defects in infants.
C. The odds of infant neural tube
defects is higher among mothers
who are malnourished
compared to mothers who are
not malnourished.
D. The odds of maternal
malnutrition is higher among
infants with neural tube defects
compared to infants without
neural tube
defects.
E. Prevalence of neural tube
defects is higher in
mothers who are malnourished
compared to
mothers who are not
malnourished.

14. A study aims to determine the *SEE #1 RATIO


pregnancy outcomes of women who
were pregnant at the time of the
meltdown in the Fukushima Nuclear
Powerplant. The appropriate
research design to use:

A. Case-control
B. Randomized Controlled Trial
C. Case-control and Cohort Designs
D. Cohort
E. Cross-sectional

15. Methods to conceal allocation of Allocation concealment


treatment include: Coded, identical containers
On-site computer system
A. Training of observers, assessors Sequentially numbered, sealed, opaque envelop
and patients So that the person who delivers it to the respondent do
B. Use of coded identical to what particular group the package will be sent
containers
C. Use of randomization and
blinding
D. Use of valid and standardized
questionnaire

16. A retrospective cohort study was COHORT STUDY


designed to determine the General features:
association between maternal Subjects are selected based on their exposure status
malnutrition and neural tube defects Exposed
in infants in Dasmarinas City. The Unexposed
comparison groups should be: Comparison of incidence of disease among the exposed and
Stronger evidence than case-control studies, though
A. Infants born with neural tube RCTs remain the gold standard for cause-and-effect
defects and infants with relationships
congenital defects other than
neural tube defects
B. Women in Dasmarinas City
regardless of nutritional
status
C. Women who were
malnourished at the time of
pregnancy and women
who had normal nutritional
status at the time of
pregnancy
D. Infants in Dasmarinas City
regardless of disease status
E. Pregnant women who are
malnourished and
pregnant women who have
normal nutritional
status

17. A randomization schedule is Random Allocation


generated in this sampling method: Different types simple, block, stratified
Randomization Schedule
A. Random allocation Using random number tables from statistical books
B. Systematic random sampling Using computer software
C. Snowball sampling
D. Stratified random sampling
E. Simple random sampling

18. Suppose that a cross-sectional study Prevalence Ratio Interpretation:


was conducted to determine the PR = 1 () association
association between alcohol PR > 1 (+) association
consumption and neuropathy among PR < 1 (+) association
diabetic patients. The measure of
association was reported to be =3.0. There is an association between alcohol consumption and n
The appropriate conclusion: among diabetics, since the measure of association = 3.
Diabetic patients who consume alcohol are 3x more likely t
A. Prevalence of diabetes is neuropathy than the diabetic patient who do not consume
higher among patients who
consumed alcohol compared
to patients who did not
consume alcohol.
B. The odds of alcohol
consumption is higher among
patients with neuropathy
compared to patients without
neuropathy.
C. Incidence of neuropathy is
higher among patients who
consume alcohol compared
to patients who do not
consume alcohol.
D. Alcohol consumption causes
neuropathy among diabetic
patients.
E. Diabetic patients who
consume alcohol are more
likely to also have
neuropathy compared to
diabetic patients who do
not consume
alcohol.

19. This sampling method would result Systematic Random Sampling


to a biased sample if sampling units Still need a list/sampling frame that is numbered
are listed according to a pattern (i.e. Might run into periodicity problem. If the list happened to b
couple listing male, female pattern) by class (1, 2, 3, 4), you might end up picking all first years
in the sampling frame: Have to make sure the list is not so structured

A. Stratified random sampling


B. Random allocation
C. Snowball sampling
D. Simple random sampling
E. Systematic random sampling

20. This sampling method should be Stratified Random Sampling


used to ensure representativeness Increases chances that relevant traits will be represented in
of minority groups in the sample Allows for easy oversampling
population: Would have more representative sample because each stra
represented in the sample
A. Stratified random sampling Permits analyses of within-stratum patterns and separate r
B. Snowball sampling the results for each stratum
C. Simple random sampling Permits comparisons between strata
D. Systematic random sampling
E. Random allocation

21. A study aims to determine the CASE-CONTROL STUDY


association between maternal (CASE-REFERENT, CASE HISTORY, FORMERLY
malnutrition and a very rare RETROSPECTIVE)
pregnancy outcome: neural tube General features:
defects in infants. The appropriate Subjects are selected based on their disease status
research design to use: Cases
Controls
A. Cohort Comparison of the odds of exposure to a risk factor
B. Case-control among the cases and controls
C. Cross-sectional
D. Randomized Controlled Trial
E. Case-control and Cohort Designs

22. Randomized controlled trial: Randomized Controlled Trial


A controlled experiment to assess the safety and
A. Compares cost effectiveness efficacy of treatments for human diseases and
of treatments and tests using health problems in which, treatments are assigned
computer models at random
B. Evaluates the accuracy of a
diagnostic tests
C. Evaluates safety of
treatment using random
assignments
D. Provides a strong evidence
of association but not
causation of exposure and
diseases

23. The degree to which the conclusions Internal Validity


correctly describe what actually The degree to which the conclusions correctly describe wha
happened in the study: happened in the study
External Validity
A. Ecological fallacy The degree to which the conclusions can be generalized
B. Randomization Ecologic fallacy
C. External validity Inappropriate conclusion regarding relationships at the indi
D. Internal validity based on ecologic data

24. A case-control study was designed Among the cases, sunlight exposure was determined by dermatolog
to determine the association examination (physical examination).
between high early-life sunlight
exposure and prostatic cancer.
Among the cases, sunlight exposure
was determined by dermatologic
examination (physical examination).
The method of ascertainment of
sunlight exposure in controls should
be by:

A. Interview
B. Review of medical records
C. All of the choices
D. Dermatologic examination.
25. In an experimental study, Random allocation
researchers use this sampling Random assignment; goal is usually to give all participants a
method to determine who will be chance of being assigned to each experimental condition (r
given the experimental drug: how representative the participants are)
Randomly assigning participants to treatment groups
A. Simple random sampling A process that assigns research participants by chance, rath
B. Random allocation choice, to treatment groups
C. Stratified random sampling The goal of random allocation is to produce comparable gro
D. Systematic random sampling terms of general participant characteristics
E. Snowball sampling

26. This method of hypothesis Method of ANALOGY


generation says that if the The distribution of a disease is sufficiently similar to the dis
distribution of a Disease X is another disease
sufficiently similar to the distribution Cause of the diseases may be common
of another Disease Y that has been
better studied, then the cause of Method of CONCOMITANT VARIATION
Disease X may be the same as the A frequency or strength of a factor varies in proportion with
cause of Disease Y: frequency of a disease
Factor and disease are associated
A. Difference
B. Analogy Method of AGREEMENT
C. Concomitant variation A factor is common to different groups with high disease fr
D. Agreement Disease is caused by the factor that is common between th

Method of DIFFERENCE
Disease frequencies markedly differ between two groups
Disease is caused by the factor that differs between the 2 g
27. According to the hierarchy of
evidence of study designs, these
provide the highest evidence to
support evidence for cause and
effect relationship:

A. Randomized controlled trials


B. Case series
C. Expert opinion
D. Cohort studies

28. General features of randomized RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL


controlled trials include: General Features:
Direct control of the investigator in the assignment of subje
A. Outcome is compared in both comparison groups (manipulation of exposure) inclusion a
treatment and control group exclusion criteria for choosing the population is directly con
B. Manipulation of exposure by the the researcher
subjects Treatment
C. Exposure and intervention are Intervention
measured at one point in time Experimental
D. Blinding of subjects is the Study
hallmark of the Control
RCT Procedure and analysis follow the cohort study
Prospective
Analysis
Comparison of incidence of outcome (i.e. either improved o
improve after a specific treatment regimen) in the treatmen
control groups
Random allocation to the comparison groups is the hallma
experiment
STRONGEST EVIDENCE for testing hypotheses of causation
29. This sampling method requires Systematic Random Sampling
computation of sampling interval: Selection of every kth unit in the population
Sampling interval
A. Systematic random sampling
B. Stratified random sampling
C. Snowball sampling
D. Simple random sampling
E. Random allocation

30. This sampling method requires more Stratified Random Sampling


than one sampling frame: Increases chances that relevant traits will be represented in
Allows for easy oversampling
A. Simple random sampling Would have more representative sample because each stra
B. Stratified random sampling represented in the sample
C. Systematic random sampling Permits analyses of within-stratum patterns and separate r
D. Random allocation the results for each stratum
E. Snowball sampling Permits comparisons between strata

31. The following is true about relative Relative Risk Interpretation:


risk: RR = 1 () association
RR 1 (+) association
A. RR value less than 1 signifies RR > 1 (+) causative association
that there is preventive RR < 1 (+) preventive association
association between treatment
and outcome
B. RR is computed by subtracting
the treatment risk from control
risk
C. A value greater than 1 signifies
that the treatment is effective or
beneficial
D. RR is interpreted as the loss of
risk expressed as percent

32. This sampling method is not cost- Simple Random Sampling


effective for a nationwide survey on Disadvantages:
health-risking behaviours among Requires a list/sampling frame of the sampling units (which
adolescents: available at all times)
The researcher has to number the list
A. Stratified random sampling May result to larger sampling errors, less precise estimate
B. Snowball sampling Subgroups of interest may not be well represented
C. Random allocation May be costly if target population is widely geographically
D. Systematic random sampling Hard to do when the population is large
E. Simple random sampling

33. A retrospective cohort study was


conducted to determine the
association between maternal
malnutrition and neural tube defects
in infants in Dasmarinas City. The
appropriate measure of association
for this study:

A. Odds ratio
B. Relative risk
C. Relative odds
D. Cross-product ratio
E. Prevalence ratio

34. This sampling method is considered SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING


as a quasi-random sampling Disadvantages
method: Still need a list/sampling frame that is numbered.
Might run into periodicity problem. If the list happened to
A. Random allocation by class (1, 2, 3, 4) Have to make sure the list is not so stru
B. Systematic random sampling Pseudo-simple random sampling or quasi-random samplin
C. Simple random sampling only the selection of the first sample is randomly selected
D. Snowball sampling May not have representative sample if sampling frame is ar
E. Stratified random sampling according to a variable

FOR NUMBERS 35-39:

A researcher conducted a survey in Maunlad High School to determine prevalence of social media a
among 4th year students of this school. From the list of sections, the researcher randomly picked tw
sections, and then included all students from these sections as participants of the survey.

35. The researcher used this sampling Cluster Sampling


method to select the participants in The population is first divided into clusters (naturally occurr
the survey: of homogenous units, usually space-based (geographical pr
barangays, province) or organization-based (schools, classe
A. Simple random sampling A random sample of such clusters is selected
B. Systematic random sampling All units in the clusters are selected
C. Stratified random sampling
D. Multi-stage random sampling
E. Cluster sampling

36. The researcher used this as the Sampling frame


sampling frame: List of sampling units (list of names, or places)

A. List of all 4th Year Sections


in Maunlad High School
B. List of all 4th year students in
Maunlad High School
C. List of all high school
students in Maunlad High
School
D. List of all class sections in
Maunlad High School

37. The researchers target population: Target population


Group of interest
A. All 4th year class sections in
Maunlad High School
B. All high school students in
Maunlad High School
C. All class/sections in Maunlad
High School
D. All 4th year students in
Maunlad High School

38. The researchers sampling unit: Sampling unit


The unit of selection
A. High school student
B. 4th year high school student
C. Section of 4th year students
D. Section of students

39. The researchers elementary unit is: Elementary unit


Unit of measurement
A. High school student
B. Section of 4th year students
C. 4th year high school student
D. Section of students

FOR NUMBERS 40-43:

A researcher conducted an evaluation study to determine effectiveness of the Pantawid Kalusugan P


which helped poor households living in Metro Manila, Philippines. From each municipality of Manila,
researcher randomly selected and interviewed mothers regarding health conditions of their family. T
researcher was able to compare survey results among the different municipalities.

40. The researcher used this sampling Stratified Random Sampling


method to select the mothers as The population is first divided into groups or strata
participants in the survey: A Simple Random Sample is then selected from each stratu
Subgroups of interest are represented adequately
A. Multi-stage random sampling Requires information on population distribution, requires s
B. Cluster sampling frame per stratum
C. Simple random sampling
D. Systematic random sampling
E. Stratified random sampling

41. In this study, the sampling unit is Sampling unit


this: The unit of selection
A. Barangay
B. Household
C. Municipality
D. Mother
42. In this study, the sampling frame is Sampling frame
this: List of sampling units (list of names, or places)
A. List of households
B. List of mothers
C. List of barangays
D. List of municipality

43. In this study, the elementary unit is Elementary unit


this: Unit of measurement

A. Municipality
B. Household
C. Barangay
D. Mother

FOR NUMBERS 44-49:

A study was conducted to determine the relationship between brain cancer and electromagnetic rad
prolonged cellular phone. The results of the study are as follows:

Column 1 Column 2 TOTAL


Row 1 40 60 100
Row 2 10 90 100
TOTAL 50 150 200

44. Following standard construction of


2X2 contingency tables, what should
be the label for Column 1?

A. Without brain cancer


B. Without prolonged cellular phone
use
C. With prolonged cellular phone
use
D. With brain cancer

45. If the research was a case- control 50 people with the disease (cases)
study, what was the case-to-control 150 people without the disease (control)
ratio?
cases : control
A. 1 : 1 1:3
B. Cannot be determined
C. 1 : 4
D. 1 : 3
E. 1 : 2

46. If the research was a case-control Prevalence is under cross-sectional study


study, what was the prevalence of
brain cancer in the sample
population?

A. 4.00
B. 6.00
C. Cannot be determined
D. 0.67
E. 25.00

47. If the research was a cross-sectional


study, what is the magnitude of the
measure of association?

A. Cannot be determined
B. 25.00
C. 0.67 (40/100) / (10/100) = 0.4 / 0.1 = 4.00
D. 6.00
E. 4.00
48. If the research was a retrospective
cohort study, what is the magnitude
of the measure of association?

a. 4.00
b. 0.67
c. 6.00
d. 25.00 (40/100) / (10/100) = 0.4 / 0.1 = 4.00
e. Cannot be determined

49. What was the odds of exposure


among the controls? Control = without the disease
60 / 90 = 0.67
A. 25.00
B. Cannot be determined
C. 6.00
D. 0.67
E. 4.00

GOOD LUCK, 2018!


#TO3RDYEAR